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Sample records for adult rat kidneys

  1. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  2. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  3. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study.

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    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male rats (180-200 g) were divided into three groups that received either: G1, distilled water; G2, 250 mg kg(-1) pomegranate extract; and G3, 500 mg kg(-1) pomegranate extract via oral gavages daily for eight weeks. At the end of eight weeks, the rats were euthanized and their kidneys were removed and processed for morphometric analyses. In rats received pomegranate extract, the kidney weight, kidney weight/body weight ratio, cortex v/lume and glomerular volume were increased (p < 0.05), while, medulla volume and the number of glomeruli per kidney did not change. No pathological lesions were observed in the kidney. Therefore, pomegranate hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 (mg kg(-1)) increased the volume of some parts of the kidney; however, it did not cause any pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27226880

  4. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  5. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study

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    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male rats (180-200 g) were divided into three groups that received either: G1, distilled water; G2, 250 mg kg-1 pomegranate extract; and G3, 500 mg kg-1 pomegranate extract via oral gavages daily for eight weeks. At the end of eight weeks, the rats were euthanized and their kidneys were removed and processed for morphometric analyses. In rats received pomegranate extract, the kidney weight, kidney weight/body weight ratio, cortex v/lume and glomerular volume were increased (p pomegranate hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 (mg kg-1) increased the volume of some parts of the kidney; however, it did not cause any pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27226880

  6. The effects of pomegranate extract on normal adult rat kidney: A stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Basgen, John; Saremy, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used widely in the traditional medicine of various civilizations for more than 5000 years. The pomegranate tree has several parts; each part has useful medicinal effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of pomegranate extract could result in morphometric changes in the kidneys of rats. Eighteen male r...

  7. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

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    ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Vesicoureteral Reflux Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ... or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally ...

  8. Kidney Stones in Adults

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    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as orange juice or lemonade. Talk with your health care ... perform a physical exam and take a medical history. The health care provider may perform urine, blood, ...

  9. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keiichi Hishikawa; Osamu Takase; Masahiro Yoshikawa; Taro Tsujimura; Masaomi Nangaku; Tsuyoshi Takato

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatmentfor kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivationof kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidneytissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lowervertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephronsafter tubular damages is commonly observed after renalinjury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitorcell or system is reportedly presents suggesting thatadult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinicaltargets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclearif kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. Ingeneral, stemness is defined by several factors suchas self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency andcharacteristic gene expression profiles. The definiteuse of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidneyregeneration, and here we describe the recent broadfindings of kidney regeneration and the cells thatcontribute regeneration.

  10. Function of the isolated perfused kidney in young and adult spontaneously hypertensive and Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněčková, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2002), s. 315-321. ISSN 1420-4096 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA306/96/1289; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : rat * hypertension Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2002

  11. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  12. Renotropic stimulation in rat kidney cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circulating renotropic factor specific for renal cells has been described in rats. The addition of sera obtained from unilaterally nephrectomized (uni) rats 24h after operation compared to sham-operated (sham) rats augments 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of incubating kidney slices approximately 10% - 30%. Attempting to amplify the sensitivity of the assay for this renotropic agent, the authors replaced slices with primary rat kidney cultures. The assay system was based on one previously used for rabbits. The cultured cells were synchronized in their growth phase by a period of protein-free starvation. Compared to sera from sham rats, sera from uni rats showed significant stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, 35.5% +/- 9.3 (SEM), p < .0001, at 16 h; 63.3% +/- 10.0 (SEM), p < .001, at 24 h; and 19.5% +/- 6.5 (SEM), p < .01, at 48 h post operation. Accordingly, the maximal stimulation at 24 h was greater than that previously found using the kidney slice assay. Measurable renotropic activity occurred earlier and over a shorter duration than in rabbits. Stimulation was similar when a D-valine medium, relatively specific for renal epithelial cells, replaced DME medium

  13. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development

  14. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Carol F., E-mail: carol-webb@omrf.org [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ratliff, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle-ratliff@omrf.org [Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Powell, Rebecca, E-mail: rebeccapowell@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R., E-mail: celeste-wirsig@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Lakiza, Olga, E-mail: olga-lakiza@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Obara, Tomoko, E-mail: tomoko-obara@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  15. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

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    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. PMID:25858877

  16. The effect of high dietary fructose on the kidney of adult albino rats and the role of curcumin supplementation: A biochemical and histological study

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    Samraa H. Abdel-Kawi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin administration protected the kidney cells from fructose induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism of the kidney cells and its ability to act as a free radical scavenger.

  17. EFFECT OF MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDH (GTW) ON RAT TESTIS, HEART, LIVER AND KIDNEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULan-Fang; LEIHai-Peng

    1989-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were given GTW orally at 50 rag/kg or 20 mg / kg for 4 or 5 weeks. Control animals were given the vehicle only. ARer treatment, testis, heart, liver and kidney were removed and examined. The scminiferous tubules of the treated

  18. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

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    ... 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Page Content On this page: Why ... Why is nutrition important for someone with early chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Controlling blood glucose, also called blood sugar, ...

  19. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

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    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Page ... choices? Points to Remember Clinical Trials Why is nutrition important for someone with early chronic kidney disease ( ...

  20. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  1. Intrathoracic kidney in adult with an abnormal presentation.

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    Ahmed, A H; Khanam, A; Begum, S; Khaleque, A; Alam, M R

    2011-01-01

    Intra thoracic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly. Pathologically thoracic renal ectopia is due to eventration of the diaphragm. Usually symptoms appear in infancy and rarely in adult with respiratory problems and with organ involved. This only patient presented with left sided chest pain and abdominal discomfort at the age of 52 years having repeated previous similar attack in the department of Cardiology. Chest X ray and ultrasonography of whole abdomen was done along with other routine investigations, which reveals an ectopic and elevated left kidney. Five percent of the renal ectopia is intrathoracic kidney. It usually is symptomatic in infantile age but adult presentation is also found. PMID:21240181

  2. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  3. Evaluation Of Coenzyme Q10 Role In Reducing Kidney Damage In Rats Induced By Acetaminophen And GAMMA Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of coenzyme Q10 role in reducing kidney damage in rats induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and gamma radiation exposure was undertaken in the present study. Seven groups of adult male Wister albino rats were used in the present study. Renal function indicators (creatinine, blood urea and uric acid) levels were measured in the blood serum of rats. MDA, NO and LDH levels in kidney tissue were estimated. The antioxidants GSH and SOD were also examined. Histopathological changes and mast cells presence were investigated in kidney tissue. APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure revealed significant increases in MDA, NO and LDH levels. Also, significant decrease in GSH and SOD levels as compared with the control group was detected. Histological changes included tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration, presence of interstitial inflammatory cells and atrophied glomeruli were observed in kidney tissue. Mast cells expressions in kidney tissue were detected after one day of APAP treatment for 2 weeks. Exposure of rats to gamma radiation revealed unpronounced effect on kidney tissue. Administration of coenzyme Q10 post-treatment of rats with APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure for one week apparently attenuated the levels of renal function indicators; MDA, NO and LDH.Also, a significant amelioration in GSH and SOD was observed. An improvement was detected in kidney tissue and mast cells expression of rats after treatment with coenzyme Q10. In conclusion, coenzyme Q10 apparently protects rats from the dangerous effect of APAP and gamma radiation exposure.

  4. Dissection of the Adult Zebrafish Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Schrader, Lauran N.; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in the burgeoning field of adult stem cell biology seek to understand the signals that regulate the behavior and function of stem cells during normal homeostasis and disease states. The understanding of adult stem cells has broad reaching implications for the future of regenerative medicine1. For example, better knowledge about adult stem cell biology can facilitate the design of therapeutic strategies in which organs are triggered to heal themselves or even the creation o...

  5. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha; Sunanda Raina; Sajad Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly d...

  6. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

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    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  7. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

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    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  8. THE EFFECT OF A TARGETED KNOCKOUT MUTATION ON THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILE OF THE KIDNEY IN TSC2 MUTANT (EKER) RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common tumor of the adult kidney, accounting for up to 80% of malignant renal neoplasms. Hereditary RCC in the Eker rat, which bear a number of cellular, molecular and phenotypic similarities to human RCC, results from an inherited insertion...

  9. A model of chlorpyrifos distribution and its biochemical effects on the liver and kidneys of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, E M; Afroz, R; Chowdhury, Maz; Gan, S H; Karim, N; Islam, M N; Khalil, M I

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the main target sites of chlorpyrifos (CPF), its effect on biochemical indices, and the pathological changes observed in rat liver and kidney function using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Adult female Wistar rats (n = 12) were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one test group; n = 6 each). The test group received CPF via oral gavage for 21 days at 5 mg/kg daily. The distribution of CPF was determined in various organs (liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, ovary, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle), urine and stool samples using GCMS. Approximately 6.18% of CPF was distributed in the body tissues, and the highest CPF concentration (3.80%) was found in adipose tissue. CPF also accumulated in the liver (0.29%), brain (0.22%), kidney (0.10%), and ovary (0.03%). Approximately 83.60% of CPF was detected in the urine. CPF exposure resulted in a significant increase in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels, a significant reduction in total protein levels and an altered lipid profile. Oxidative stress due to CPF administration was also evidenced by a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde levels. The detrimental effects of CPF on kidney function consisted of a significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels. Liver and kidney histology confirmed the observed biochemical changes. In conclusion, CPF bioaccumulates over time and exerts toxic effects on animals. PMID:26519480

  10. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Nilgün; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Ünal, Deniz; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam has been used in dentistry as a filling material. The filler comprises mercury (Hg). It is considered one of the most important and widespread environmental pollutants, which poses a serious potential threat for the humans and animals. However, mercury deposition affects the nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and especially renal systems. In most animals' species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites of deposition of mercury and target organ for its toxicity. In this study, the effects of mercury intake on kidney in rats were searched. For the this purpose; we used 24 adult female Wistar albino rats (200 g in weight) obtained from Experimental Research and Application Center of Atatürk University with ethical approval. Besides, they were placed into a specially designed glass cage. Along this experiment for 45 days, subjects were exposed to (1 mg/m(3)/day) mercury vapor. However, no application was used for the control subjects. At the end of the experiment, kidney samples were obtained from all subjects and processed for routine light microscopic level and stereological aspect were assessed. Finally, according to our results, mercury affects the histological features of the kidney. That means, the severe effects of mercury has been shown using stereological approach, which is one of the ideal quantitative methods in the current literature. In this study, it was detected that chronic exposure to mercury vapor may lead to renal damage and diseases in an experimental rat model. PMID:26888214

  11. Effect of heat stress on histopathological alterations in kidneys of albino rats

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    Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (45±5°C. The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats under heat stress showed degenerated glomeruli began at 7th day of the study and widening of the capsular space. Atrophy of some glomeruli was also noticed. With prolong exposure to heat changes in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were prominent when compared with normal rats’ kidneys.

  12. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

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    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  13. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/kg intrapertonial every (84 hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3 mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

  14. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  15. Ultrastructural localization of type V collagen in rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies specific for the alpha 1 (V) chain and native collagen molecules containing the alpha 1 (V) chain have been used in electron immunohistochemical studies of rat kidney to determine the ultrastructural distribution of this class of collagen molecules. In addition, antibodies against type I collagen and whole basement membrane were used as markers for interstitial collagen and authentic basement membranes. Our results indicate that type V collagen is present in the renal interstitium ...

  16. Protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui; Peng; Pei-Yu; Liang; Shan-Ji; Ou; Xiong-Bing; Zu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rat model and its mechanisms.Methods:Forty healthy Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into five groups,with 8 rats in each group.Group A served as control group and were administered with sterile citrate buffer(i.p.)as placebo.Groups B.C,D and E rats were injected(i.p.)with streptozotocin to induce type I diabetes,Diabetic rats in Group B were intragastrically administered with sterile saline solution alone.Groups C,D and E rats were iutragastrically given pioglitazone hydrochloride suspension at doses of 10,20,30 mg/kg per day.respectively.After eight weeks of treatment,all rats were anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from the abdominal aortic ofr detection of hemoglobin A1c,serum creatinine(SCr)and blood ures nitrogen(BUN)levels.Rats were then sacrificed and the left kidney was excised for calculation of kidney hypertrophy index(KHI),observation of renal pathological changes using light microscope and electron microscope.Mean glomerular cross-sectional areas(MGA).mean glomerular volume(MGV).glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion ratio were ealculated.RT-PCR was employed for detection of podocalyxin(PCX)protein expression.Results:Results showed that levels of hemoglobin A1c,BUN.SCr in Groups B,C.D and E rats were significantly higher than those in Group A(P<0.05),while BUN aud SCr levels in rats of Groups C,D and E were significantly lower than those in Group B(P<0.05).KHI,MGA and MGV levels were significantly higher in Groups B.C,D and E rats than those in Group A(P<0.05);KHI and MGA levels in Group B rats were significantly higher than those in Groups C.D and E(P<0.05)and MGV in Groups D and E was significantly lower than that in Gtoups B and C(P<0.05).Histology study showed normal glomerulus structure,morphology,volume,endothelial cells and mesangial cells as well as clear

  17. Protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Peng; Pei-Yu Liang; Shan-Ji Ou; Xiong-Bing Zu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rat model and its mechanisms.Methods:Forty healthySpragueDawley rats were selected and randomly divided into five groups, with8 rats in each group.GroupA served as control group and were administered with sterile citrate buffer(i.p.) as placebo.GroupsB,C,D andE rats were injected(i.p.) with streptozotocin to induce typeⅠdiabetes.Diabetic rats inGroupB were intragastrically administered with sterile saline solution alone.GroupsC,D andE rats were intragastrically given pioglitazone hydrochloride suspension at doses of10,20,30 mg/kg per day, respectively.After eight weeks of treatment, all rats were anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from the abdominal aortic for detection of hemoglobinA1c, serum creatinine(SCr) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) levels.Rats were then sacrificed and the left kidney was excised for calculation of kidney hypertrophy index(KHI), observation of renal pathological changes using light microscope and electron microscope.Mean glomerular cross-sectional areas(MGA), mean glomerular volume (MGV), glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion ratio were calculated. RT-PCR was employed for detection of podocalyxin(PCX) protein expression.Results:Results showed that levels of hemoglobinA1c,BUN,SCr inGroupsB,C,D andE rats were significantly higher than those inGroupA(P<0.05), whileBUN andSCr levels in rats ofGroupsC,D andE were significantly lower than those inGroupB(P<0.05).KHI,MGA andMGV levels were significantly higher inGroupsB,C,D andE rats than those inGroupA(P<0.05);KHI andMGA levels inGroup B rats were significantly higher than those inGroupsC,D andE(P<0.05) andMGV inGroups D andE was significantly lower than that inGroupsB andC(P<0.05).Histology study showed normal glomerulus structure, morphology, volume, endothelial cells and mesangial cells as well as clear glomerular capillary inGroupA rats.Renal mesangial matrix proliferation and

  18. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  19. [Transaminase activity of the cortical layer of the kidney of rats of different ages and sex after administration of hydrocortisone and insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaeva, K A

    1971-01-01

    Response of cortical layer of rat kidney to separate and combined administration of hydrocortisone and insulin, as manifested by the activity of aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Asp-T) and alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Ala-T), varied in males and females of different age. Prolonged administration of insulin to normal preadolescent rats and to adult males and females did not affect the activity of Asp-T and Ala-T in the cortical layer of kidney. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to preadolescent male rats, there occurred no increase in the activity of Asp-T induced by administration of hydrocortisone alone. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to adult male rats, activity of Asp-T of the cortical layer of kidney remained at the same level at after administration of hydrocortisone alone. PMID:5317624

  20. Metabolism of cysteine and cysteinesulfinate in rat kidney tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies with rat hepatocytes, hypotaurine plus taurine production accounted for less than 5% of the total amount of cysteine (CYS) catabolized, whereas more than 90% of the metabolized cysteinesulfinate (CSA) was converted to taurine plus hypotaurine. Similar studies have been carried out with kidney tubules isolated from fed rats and incubated with 2 mM [1-14C]CYS or 25 mM [1-14C]CSA at 370C for up to 40 min. The production of 14CO2 from CSA (3.1 +/- 1.3 nmol/sup ./ min-1/sup ./ mg dry wt-1) was equivalent to the accumulation of N in NH4+ plus glutamate. Substantial oxidation of CYS was observed (16 +/- 11 nmol CO2 x min-1 x mg dry wt-1), but only 12% of the expected amount of N was recovered as NH4+ plus glutamate. Accumulation of hypotaurine plus taurine was equivalent to 20% of the observed rate of 14CO2 production from CSA but accounted for only 2% of the observed rate of 14CO2 production from CYS. Addition of unlabeled CSA to incubations with varying levels of CYS had no effect on production of 14CO2. Addition of 2 mM α-ketoglutarate to the incubation mixtures resulted in an increased in 14CO2 production from CSA to 290% of the control level but had no effect on CYS oxidation. In agreement with the authors findings for rat hepatocytes, these data suggest that most metabolism of CYS by the rat kidney tubule occurs by a CSA-independent pathway. However, in contrast to the metabolism of CSA almost entirely to taurine in the hepatocyte, kidney tubules appeared to metabolize CSA primarily by the transamination pathway

  1. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Pavkovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM. The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003 [2]. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265. The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The β-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb and complement component 6 (C6 were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]. Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6.

  2. Berberine Improves Kidney Injury Following Renal Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of berberine on the renal dysfunction and histological damage induced by renal ischaemia/reperfusion at an early stage. There were four groups (n = 7. In Ber+I/R group, rats received berberine (Ber; 15 mg kg-1 day-1 orally for 7 days before induction of ischemia. The I/R group received distilled water orally for 7 days. In sham and Ber+sham groups, that renal arteries were not occluded, distilled water and berberin (15 mg kg-1 day-1, respectively were administered orally for 7 days before surgery. Renal ischemia was induced by occlusion of both renal arteries for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and finally the left kidney was preserved for future histological examination. The renal ischaemic challenge resulted in major histological damages of the kidney which were associated with increased levels of creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN at the end of reperfusion period. In Ber+I/R group, the histological damage to the kidney was improved along with increased in plasma creatinine and BUN being smaller than those of the non-treated rats. Berberine exhibited an ameliorative effect against renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lesions.

  3. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  4. Effects of Samarium on Liver and Kidney of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drank de-ionized water served as control and also used for analysis with the background. The other three groups were cultured for five months by drinking de-ionized water with 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg·L-1 Sm (NO3)3, respectively. Compared with the rats in control, it is found that the organs of the treated rats are apparently pathologically changed, such as liver swell, lung intumescence, peritoneum conglutination and hardness. Especially, in the high Sm group, the pathological percentage in liver and lung is up to 30%. The pathological changes in liver and lung show that rare earth Sm does hazard biological effects to animals. With increasing Sm concentration, the weight rate of organ/body has a tendency of increasing; the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver and kidney decreases, but the maglonydiadehyde (MDA) concentration increases, indicating the abilities of anti-oxidation and the lipid per-oxidation inhibition degenerate, which leads to hard pathological changes in organs. Moreover, the relative weight rate of organ/body, the activity of SOD and the MDA concentration are remarkably lager in liver than in kidney and other organs, suggesting that the biological effect of Sm on liver is the greatest and Sm has a high affinity for liver.

  5. Mistletoe alkali inhibits peroxidation in rat liver and kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Ming Shi; Ping Feng; Dong-Qiao Jiang; Xue-Jiang Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of mistletoe alkali (MA).METHODS: The antioxidant effect of mistletoe alkali on the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was investigated. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): CCl4-treated group (1 mL/kg body weight), MA -treated group (90 mg/kg), CCl4+MA-treated group and normal control group. After 4 wk of treatment,the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product (LPO) was measured in serum and homogenates of liver and kidney. Also, the level of glutathione (GSH),and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidney were determined. Scavenging effects on hydroxyl free radicals produced in vitro by Fenton reaction were studied by ESR methods using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxidesource. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by competitive ELISA.RESULTS: In CCl4-treated group, the level of LPO in serum of liver and kidney was significantly increased compared to controls. The levels of GSH and enzyme activities of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly decreased in comparison with controls. In CCl4+MA-treated group, the changes in the levels of LPO in serum of liver and kidney were not statistically significant compared to controls. The levels of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly increased in comparison with controls. There was a significant difference in urinary excretion of 8-OHdG between the CCl4-treated and MA-treated groups.CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress may be a major mechanism for the toxicity of CCl4. MA has a protective www.wjgnet.comeffect against CCl4 toxicity by inhibiting the oxidative damage and stimulating GST activities. Thus, clinical application of MA should be considered in cases with carbon tetrachloride-induced injury.

  6. Permanent catheterization of the carotid artery induces kidney infection and inflammation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Uno Nicolas Kjærup; Nielsen, Sanne Gram; Hau, Jann;

    2010-01-01

    techniques using a heparin-coated catheter rather than an ordinary non-coated polyvinyl chloride catheter. In all groups, approximately 80% of the rats developed kidney infection and 10-30% of the rats were septicaemic. Clinical chemistry did not indicate severe kidney damage, but serum haptoglobin and body...

  7. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B – No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C – the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with

  8. Fluorosis Caused Cellular Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress of Rat Kidneys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; WANG Jin-cheng; XU Hui; DU Zhen-wu; ZHANG Gui-zhen; SELIM Hamid Abdu; LI Guang-sheng

    2013-01-01

    As the strongest electronegative element,fluorine can stimulate the production of superoxide radicals in cells.In view of the important roles of kidneys in bone metabolism,the authors analyzed the quantitative pathomorphological characteristics of renal damage and the potential cellular apoptosis and oxidative stress mechanisms in rats treated with excessive fluoride.Wistar rats were exposed to 50 mg F-(110.5 mg NaF)/L,100 mg F-(221.0 mg NaF)/Land 150 mg F (331.5 mg NaF)/L in drinking water for 70 and 140 d,respectively.Microscope with image analysis was used to quantitate pathomorphological changes in renal tissues of the rats.Reactive oxygen species(ROS),the cell cycle and apoptosis of renal cells were measured by flow cytometry and TUNEL technique(terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling),respectively.The ion concentrations in serum and renal functional parameters were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer.Quantitative analysis results demonstrate the expanded Bowman's space of glomerulus and obvious dilatation of renal tubule.TUNEL technique revealed that NBT/BCIP (nitro blue tetrazoliurn/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate,p-toluidine salt)-staining positive apoptotic cells selectively located in medullocortical junction areas.The data suggest that renal damage in chronic fluorostic rats is associated with the cellular apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  9. Influence of dietary NaCl intake on renin gene expression in the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, S; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; LeHir, M.; Schricker, Karin; Riegger, Günter A. J.; Kurtz, Armin

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary NaCl intake on renin gene expression in the kidneys and adrenal glands of adult rats. Rats were kept on low (0.02%, w/w), normal (0.6%) or high (4%) NaCl diets and plasma renin activity (PRA) and the relative abundance of renin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in renal and adrenal tissue were followed for 20 days. In animals on a normal-salt diet PRA and renal renin mRNA levels did not change with time. PRA values in animals on th...

  10. The membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases epidermal growth factor from the kidney membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    shows that the membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases immuno and receptor reactive EGF from the kidney membranes when incubated at 37 degrees C. Gel filtration shows that the EGF reactivity released from the membranes is similar to the EGF reactivity in rat urine......High levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in the urine and high levels of mRNA for the EGF-precursor have been demonstrated in the kidney. The EGF-precursor is a membrane bound peptide in the kidney, but little is known about the renal processing of the precursor. The present study....... The EGF releasing enzyme is inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor aprotinin and by low temperatures (4 degrees C). The pH optimum of the reaction is pH 7.5-8.0....

  11. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  12. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  13. [Activity of hydrogen sulfide production enzymes in kidneys of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nyk, A V; Pentiuk, O O

    2009-01-01

    An experimental research of activity and kinetic descriptions of enzymes participating in formation of hydrogen sulfide in the kidney of rats has been carried out. It was established that cystein, homocystein and thiosulphate are the basic substrates for hydrogen sulfide synthesis. The higest activity for hydrogen sulfide production belongs to thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cysteine aminotransferase, less activity is characteristic of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathio-nine gamma-lyase. The highest affinity to substrate is registered for thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It is discovered that the substrate inhibition is typical of all hydrogen sulfide formation enzymes, although this characteristic is the most expressed thiosulfat-dithiolsulfurtransferase. PMID:20387629

  14. Microinjection study on potassium transport of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wister rate were divided into the following four groups. (A) control group (B) high-potassium diet group (C) low-potassium diet group (D) nephron population reduction (N.P.R.) group. Microinjection of the artificial solutions containing both 86Rb and 3H-inulin were performed into the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as cortical peritubular capillaries in rats undergoing mannitol diuresis. Excretory patterns of these substances were analyzed in successive urine samples. 3H-inulin is entirely recovered in the urine of the experimental kidney following the injection into the proximal and distal tubules. 86Rb is an adequate tracer for potassium and is absorbed into the potassium pool from either proximal tubular injections or peritubular capillaries. 86Rb excreted with a time course similar to that of 3H-inulin is termed as 'direct recovery' and that excreted more slowly, 'delayed recovery'. The 86Rb recoveries which were obtained after proximal injections were independent of the injection site and averaged 9%. Secretion of 86Rb into the urine was stimulate during enhanced K secretion and decreased during reduced K secretion along the distal nephron. Distal tubular injections gave 100% direct recovery in control, high-K diet, and N.P.R. rats. It was apparent that the 86Rb recovery was significantly reduced, although not delayed, in animals deprived of dietary potassium for several weeks. At the collecting duct, the extensive net potassium reabsorption is observed in potassium depleted rats, whereas K absorption might be reduced or even secretion is seemingly taking place in potassium loading rats. In conclution, distal convolution and collecting duct play the major role in the regulation of urinary potassium excretion. (auth.)

  15. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, K.; Healy, D.P.; Fanestil, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of [3H]-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated

  17. Adult polycystic disease of kidneys: A potential cause of false-positive 67Ga images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old man with adult polycystic disease of the kidneys complicated by renal failure, hypertension, and bacteremia underwent bilateral nephrectomy because the enlarged kidneys compromised his gastrointestinal function and respiratory capacity. A scan using sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate demonstrated nonfunctioning kidneys, bilaterally. An unusual radioactivity pattern in the bowel in 67Ga scintigraphy was due to extreme renal enlargement and should be kept in mind to avoid misinterpretation. (orig.)

  18. Incidence, biomarkers, and outcome of acute kidney injury in critically ill adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nisula, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome encompassing kidney damage from mild injury to total loss of function that seriously disturbs the homeostasis of fluid and electrolyte balances. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Finland, and to test the ability of two new biomarkers to predict AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 90-day mortality in ICU patients. A prospe...

  19. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzierska K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Kędzierska,1 Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak,2 Krzysztof Sindrewicz,2 Joanna Bober,3 Leszek Domański,1 Mirosław Parafiniuk,4 Elżbieta Urasińska,5 Andrzej Ciechanowicz,6 Maciej Domański,1 Tomasz Smektała,2 Marek Masiuk,5 Wiesław Skrzypczak,6 Małgorzata Ożgo,6 Joanna Kabat-Koperska,1 Kazimierz Ciechanowski1 1Department of Nephrology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, 2Department of Dental Surgery, 3Department of Medical Chemistry, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, 5Department of Pathomorphology, Pomeranian Medical University, 6Department of Physiology, Cytobiology, and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Abstract: The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents' toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins' synthesis. Very slight differences

  20. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Immunogenicity of Belatacept in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jinshan; Townsend, Robert; You, Xiaoli; Shen, Yun; Zhan, Ping; Zhou, Zexun; Geng, Dong; Wu, Dianna; McGirr, Nadia; Soucek, Kathleen; Proszynski, Elizabeth; Pursley, Janice; MASSON, ERIC

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Belatacept is a first-in-class, selective co-stimulation blocker recently approved for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to report the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity of belatacept. Methods The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (CD86 receptor occupancy), and immunogenicity of belatacept were studied in de novo adult kidney transplant recipients in phase II and III clinical...

  2. Determinants of renal tissue hypoxia in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Evans, Roger G

    2014-11-15

    Renal tissue oxygen tension (PO2) and its determinants have not been quantified in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Therefore, we measured kidney tissue PO2 in the Lewis rat model of PKD (LPK) and in Lewis control rats. We also determined the relative contributions of altered renal oxygen delivery and consumption to renal tissue hypoxia in LPK rats. PO2 of the superficial cortex of 11- to 13-wk-old LPK rats, measured by Clark electrode with the rat under anesthesia, was higher within the cysts (32.8 ± 4.0 mmHg) than the superficial cortical parenchyma (18.3 ± 3.5 mmHg). PO2 in the superficial cortical parenchyma of Lewis rats was 2.5-fold greater (46.0 ± 3.1 mmHg) than in LPK rats. At each depth below the cortical surface, tissue PO2 in LPK rats was approximately half that in Lewis rats. Renal blood flow was 60% less in LPK than in Lewis rats, and arterial hemoglobin concentration was 57% less, so renal oxygen delivery was 78% less. Renal venous PO2 was 38% less in LPK than Lewis rats. Sodium reabsorption was 98% less in LPK than Lewis rats, but renal oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between the two groups. Thus, in this model of PKD, kidney tissue is severely hypoxic, at least partly because of deficient renal oxygen delivery. Nevertheless, the observation of similar renal oxygen consumption, despite markedly less sodium reabsorption, in the kidneys of LPK compared with Lewis rats, indicates the presence of inappropriately high oxygen consumption in the polycystic kidney. PMID:25209412

  3. Improvement of Kidney Apelin and Apelin Receptor in Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Akbar Mahmoody

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have investigated the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training (AT and Ferula gummosis supplement (FG on apelin and apelin receptor (APJ, nitric oxide (NO and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE of hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: In a experimental study, 50 adult male wistar rats were classified into five groups; 1- AT, 2- FG, 3- combination of aerobic training + Ferula Gummosa supplement (TFG, 4- nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 5- shame (control groups (SH. The rats in the 1 to 4 groups received L-NAME (10 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. Also, the 1 and 3 groups experienced the training of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 minutes, 5 times a week for 8 weeks, whereas, the 2 and 3 groups received Ferula gummosis supplement (90 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. However, rats in 5 groups received NaCl solution. Results: At protocols resulted in a significant increase in apelin and APJ as compared to control and L-NAME groups. The TFG protocols resulted in a markedly increase in apelin, APJ and significantly decrease of ACE levels as compared to L-NAME group. Chronically administration of L-NAME resulted increased, ACE, and reduced the levels of apelin, APJ and NO, as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results in this study show that physical regular activity with and without herbal treatment induce amplification in apelin/APJ system and down-regulation blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertension in the rat kidney tissue.

  4. Effects of aqueous crude leaf extract of senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of male sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tijani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever any plant and/or herb is ingested, the body system interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins such may contain, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign substance into useful components. This study was to evaluate the effects of oral consumption of aqueous leaf extract of Senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of Sprague Dawley rats as a marker of toxicity. Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 100-158 g were used (4-6 weeks old. They were divided into 2 groups. The rats in the treatment group A received 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae for thirty days (30d. Histological observation of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testes revealed no significant abnormal alterations. The rats in the control group B received equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS also for 30d and no histopathological abnormalities were seen in the frontal cortex, kidney, liver, and testes of the rats. Aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae has no deleterious effects on the histological profile of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testis of the rats.

  5. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  6. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. PMID:25539049

  7. Minocycline Attenuates Kidney Injury in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Bo-Yin; Zhao, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of minocycline on the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were evaluated in this study. The diabetes rats with DN were induced by STZ (55 mg/kg) injection. The experiment included 5 groups 1) normal, 2) normal plus minocycline for 16 weeks, 3) DN plus vehicle, 4) DN plus minocycline 16 weeks and 5) DN plus minocycline for 8 weeks. The pathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the apoptotic cells were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The mRNA expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the kidney tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The biochemical parameters of blood and urine were determined by biochemical analyzer. Treatment with minocycline reduced the urine volume, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) but not blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the DN rats. Furthermore, treatment with minocycline improved the pathological score of STZ-injured kidney and reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells in the kidney of DN rats. Moreover, minocycline mitigated the expression of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA, but increased Bcl-2 expression in the kidney of DN rats. These data indicated that minocycline improved the STZ-induced kidney damages, at least partially by protection form long-term hyperglycemia-induced kidney cell apoptosis. PMID:27476934

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin On Liver And Kidney Damages In Intensive Exercise Model of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikli, Semin; Gelen, Volkan; Sengul, Emin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Gur, Cihan; Agırbas, Ozturk; Cakmak, Fatih; Kara, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exercise induces inflammatory reactions together with high production of free radicals and subsequent liver and kidney tissues damage. This study was designed to investigate for effects of melatonin on liver and kidney tissues in the extensive exercise exposed rats and non-exercised rats. In this research, 24-male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. For exercise rat model, the rats were exposed to slow pace running with the velocity of 10 m/min for 5 minutes for five days just before the study. And for last ten days after adaptation period, the exercise was improved as 15 min with the speed of 20 m/min and intra-peritoneal melatonin injection has been performed to the melatonin treated groups with the dose of 10 mg/kg. Biochemical results revealed a decrease in the parameters of kidney and liver enzymes in exercise-group and an increase in the parameters of serum, liver and kidney enzymes in the group that melatonin-exercise-group. As for histological analysis, while it is observed that there are cellular degenerations in the liver and kidney tissues with exercise application, a decrease has been observed in these degenerations in the group that melatonin was applied. At the end of the research, it has been determined that exercise application causes some damages on liver and kidney, and these damages were ameliorated with melatonin treatment. PMID:26310355

  9. Functionally induced changes in water transport in the proximal tubule segment of rat kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nørgaard, Tove; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bastholm, Lone; Thatt, Lisbeth; Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hegedüs, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate freezing artifacts in the proximal tubule cells, two cryotechniques were applied to normal rat kidneys, ie, freeze substitution and special freeze drying. In addition, salt depletion and salt loading were applied to groups of rats to evaluate whether the segmental structure of the...

  10. Inhibition of Intrahepatic Bile Duct Dilation of the Polycystic Kidney Rat with a Novel Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Gefitinib

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Furubo, Shinichi; Kizawa, Kazuo; Sanzen, Takahiro; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Ozaki, Satoru; Isse, Kumiko; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2006-01-01

    The polycystic kidney (PCK) rat represents a liver and kidney cyst pathology corresponding to Caroli’s disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. We previously reported that an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib (Iressa), significantly inhibited the abnormal growth of biliary epithelial cells of PCK rats in vitro. This study investigated the effects of gefitinib on cyst pathogenesis of the PCK rat both in vitr...

  11. Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colas, canned iced teas and lemonade, nuts, and peanut butter are high in phosphorus. A renal dietitian can ... yogurt) Beans (baked, kidney, lima, pinto) Nuts and peanut butter Processed meats (hot dogs, canned meat) Cola Canned ...

  12. DIFFERENCE OF REJECTION IN SINGLE VERSUS COMBINED PANCREAS AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海泉; 姜洪池; 代文杰; 朱预; 肖毅

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the difference of rejection in single versus combined pancreas and kidney transplantation in rats. Methods. All ograft models including simultaneous pancreas and kidney(SPK)transplant and pancreas or kidney transplant alone were established in SD-Wistar rats, rejections of pancreas and kidney in different models were com pared morphologically and functionally. Results. Mean survival time (MST)of pancreas was significantly prolonged in SPK than in pancreas transplant alone(PTA)( 11.5 days vs. 9.2 days, P < 0.05). Incidence of interstitial pancreatic rejection at grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ was much obvious in PTA than in SPK(42.9% vs. 12.5% at grade Ⅱ and 28.6% vs 6.3% at grade Ⅲ , P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in MST between SPK and kidney transplant alone(KTA). Administration of cyclosporine A prolonged the MS T of pancreas and kidney, without altering the tendency stated above. Conclusions. In SPK, the function of pancreas is protected by kidney hence the severity of rejection is reduced, whereas the function of kidney is not protected by pancreas. It suggests that different organs differ in immunoaller gization and immunoregula tion, and immune response tend to attack organs with greater immunoactivity, those organs with minor one could be protected. Cyclosporine A is effective on prolonging the MST of pancreas and kidney.

  13. DIFFERENCE OF REJECTION IN SINGLE VERSUS COMBINED PANCREAS AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱预; 肖毅; 乔海泉; 姜洪池; 代文杰

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the difference of rejection in single versus combined pancreas and kidney transplantation in rats. Methods. Allograft models including simultaneous pancreas and kidney(SPK) transplant and pancreas or kidney transplant alone were established in SD-Wistar rats, rejections of pancreas and kidney in different models were com-pared morphologically and functionally. Results. Mean survival time (MST) of pancreas was significantly prolonged in SPK than in pancreas transplant alone (PTA) (11.5 days vs. 9.2 days, P <0.05). Incidence of interstitial pancreatic rejection at grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ was much obvious in PTA than in SPK (42.9% vs. 12.5% at grade Ⅱ and 28.6% vs 6.3% at grade Ⅲ , P<0.05). No significant difference was found in MST between SPK and kidney transplant alone(KTA). Administration of cyclesporine A prolonged the MST of pancreas and kidney, without altering the tendency stated above. Condusions. In SPK, the function of pancreas is protected by kidney hence the severity of rejection is reduced, whereas the function of kidney is not protected by pancreas. It suggests that different organs differ in immunoaller-gization and immunoregulation, and immune response tend to attack organs with greater immunoactivity, those organs with minor one could be protected. Cyclesporine A is effective on prolonging the MST of pancreas and kidney.

  14. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Agersø, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... use of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished...

  15. The Effect of Zofenopril on Pancreas, Kidney and Liver of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe ÇARLIOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is responsible for some important complications of diabetes mellitus. Zofenopril, which has an antioxidant effect, may decrease the oxidative stress of the diabetic microenvironment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zofenopril in the liver, pancreas and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=6, rats treated with zonenopril (50 mg/kg/day, orally four weeks; n=6, rats exposed to alloxane (120 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneal injection, n=6, rats administered alloxan+zofenopril (n=6 and rats administered insulin plus alloxan. RESULTS: After one month, we observed histological improvement in the kidneys but not in the pancreas and liver. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, zofenopril may be effective on the renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haller Hermann; Ganten Detlev; Barta Peter; Fiebeler Anette; Park Joon-Keun; Muller Dominik N; Dechend Ralf; Theuer Juergen; Dietz Rainer; Luft Friedrich C

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR) model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are ...

  17. Trimetazidine effect on burn-induced intestinal mucosal injury and kidney damage in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Bisgin, Atil; Erbay, Riza Hakan; Oguz, Oguzhan; Demir, Suleyman; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Trimetazidine (TMZ) has been used in cardiology practice for protection from ischemiareperfusion injury. But its effects on intestinal mucosa are not well known. Our aim was to investigate the protective effect of TMZ on intestinal mucosa and on damaged kidney due to thermal injury in rats. Material and methods: Total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study of intestinal mucosa damage and 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats in renal injury model. Back regions were shaved a...

  18. Taurine is protective against oxidative stress during cold ischemia in the rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİOĞLU, Rüveyda İrem; USTA, Burhanettin; Sert, Hüseyin; MUSLU, Bünyamin; GÖZDEMİR, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in rats have shown that taurine can prevent oxidative changes induced in renal tissue by ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine can prevent oxidative changes that occur in the renal tissue during a long period of cold ischemia. Materials and methods: Oxidative changes were evaluated histologically and biochemically in kidneys from a total of 40 rats, which were assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 10 rats each: control group (no taur...

  19. Enhanced Expressions of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters in the Kidneys of Diabetic Zucker Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai, Niloofar M.; Sharma, Mukut; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Petering, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes-mediated changes in mRNA expressions of kidney glucose transporters SGLT1 and 2 were investigated in Zucker rats. SGLTs expressions in pre-diabetic obese rats were similar to leans. SGLT1 and SGLT2 levels in diabetic obese rats was 1.6 (P < 0.03) and 4.8 (P < 0.002) folds higher than age-matched leans, respectively.

  20. Cholangiocytes with Mesenchymal Features Contribute to Progressive Hepatic Fibrosis of the Polycystic Kidney Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Ozaki, Satoru; Furubo, Shinichi; Kizawa, Kazuo; Sanzen, Takahiro; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic kidney (PCK) rat is an animal model of Caroli’s disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis, in which the mechanism of progressive hepatic fibrosis remains unknown. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis of the PCK rat from the viewpoint of the contribution of pathological cholangiocytes. In liver sections of the PCK rats, intrahepatic bile ducts were constituted by two different phenotypes: bile ducts lined by cuboidal-shaped and flat-shaped cholangiocytes....

  1. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  2. Adult Presentation of Ectopic Vas Deferens with Dysplastic Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifee, Yusuf; Modi, Pranjal

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male presented with voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. On evaluation, the patient was found to have midbulbar urethral stricture and right dysplastic pelvic kidney with right vesicoureteral reflux. A micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) shows opacification of the right vas deferens along the entire course till the testis. The patient underwent end-to-end urethroplasty. But soon the patient presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and epididymorchitis in the follow-up period. The patient was explored laparoscopically to remove dysplastic kidney and ectopic vas deferens. Laparoscopically, the testicular end of the left vas deferens entering the deep inguinal ring was clipped and cut. Also the dysplastic kidney and ureter were removed till the vesicoureteral junction. At 1 year of follow-up, the patient is voiding well with no episodes of UTI. PMID:27579401

  3. Effect of crocin on aged rat kidney through inhibition of oxidative stress and proinflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether crocin, a bioactive component of saffron, has a protective effect on kidney through reducing the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in aged rats. In this study the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) levels and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and renal tissue were evaluated by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The middle and aged rats were given intraperitoneal injections of crocin (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, animals were anesthetized with diethyl ether. The kidney samples were taken for biochemical analysis. The results revealed the aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and GSH content with increase in lipid peroxidation level in kidney of the aged rats (p < 0.001). The increased levels of serum renal functional parameter, oxidative parameters (p < 0.01) and also pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly reduced by crocin administration (p < 0.05). The aged rats exhibited a dysregulation of the oxidative stress, and inflammation in the kidneys, but crocin treatment significantly reduced the expression of the inflammatory genes. These results provide pivotal documentation that crocin has a renoprotective effects against the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney of old rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27279282

  4. Autopsy Report with Clinical and Pathophysiologic Discussion of Autosomal Dominant Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The average weight of a kidney is approximately 135 gm, measuring on average 10 × 6 × 4 cm. In hereditary conditions, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, the shape, size, and the weight can be significantly abnormal, causing progressive renal failure, often necessitating dialysis or renal transplant for survival. We report a case of adult polycystic kidney disease in a 50-year-old female without a family history, who died of complications of the disease which included accelerated hypertension, and renal and cardiac failure.

  5. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury. PMID:27194718

  6. Human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium rescues kidney function in rats with established chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne van Koppen

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major health care problem, affecting more than 35% of the elderly population worldwide. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. Beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been described, however it is unclear whether the MSCs themselves or their secretome is required. We hypothesized that MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM reduces progression of CKD and studied functional and structural effects in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX combined with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet in Lewis rats. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received either 50 µg CM or 50 µg non-CM (NCM twice daily intravenously for four consecutive days. Six weeks after treatment CM administration was functionally effective: glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance were significantly higher in CM vs. NCM-treatment. Systolic blood pressure was lower in CM compared to NCM. Proteinuria tended to be lower after CM. Tubular and glomerular damage were reduced and more glomerular endothelial cells were found after CM. DNA damage repair was increased after CM. MSC-CM derived exosomes, tested in the same experimental setting, showed no protective effect on the kidney. In a rat model of established CKD, we demonstrated that administration of MSC-CM has a long-lasting therapeutic rescue function shown by decreased progression of CKD and reduced hypertension and glomerular injury.

  7. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  8. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

  9. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  10. Fate of injected interleukin 1 in rats: Sequestration and degradation in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue distribution and route of clearance of human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL 1 alpha) injected intravenously in rats was studied. The plasma half-life was approximately 2.5 min, and this was increased after nephrectomy, the kidney being the major organ through which the IL 1 alpha was excreted. Two iodinated fragments of IL 1 alpha, of approximately 5 and 9 kDa, were excreted by the kidneys whereas only intact, 17-kDa IL 1 alpha was detected in plasma, suggesting that the protein was being degraded after uptake by the kidney. The results of in vivo experiments in which surface endopeptidase-24.11 was inhibited with phosphoramidon and in vitro experiments in which rat kidney homogenates were incubated with radiolabeled IL 1 alpha suggest that the cytokine was endocytosed and then hydrolysed by lysosomal proteinases

  11. The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. Farag Allah

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus were used in the present study. The rats were equally allocated to five groups, each of 10 rats. Rats of the first group were kept as control. Rats of the second & third groups were injected daily with the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. Rats of the fourth & fifth groups were injected daily with double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for four weeks and sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose, light microscope examination showed that Malpighian corpuscles and the kidney tubules revealed signs of degeneration. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks the histological changes were in progression. A few numbers of glomeruli were increasingly congested and shrunken into dense masses of unrecognized structural details. The luminal borders of the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules together with their microvilli were damaged. The electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of kidneys of rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks showed that the glomerular capillaries were disorganized and occasionally their lining endothelium showed degeneration. The podocytes showed deteriorated and rarefied cytoplasm; and their primary processes were fragmented. Also, the foot processes appeared occasionally broad. In some cells of proximal convoluted tubules the

  12. Discovery of sphingosine 1-O-methyltransferase in rat kidney and liver homogenates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh J SACKET; Dong-soon IM

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To characterize sphingosine methyltransferase in rat tissues.Methods:By using S-adenosyl-L-(methyl-3H) methionine,enzymatic activity was measured in the rat liver and kidney homogenates.Results:The optimum pH and reaction time for the enzyme assay were pH 7.8 and 1 h.ZnCl2 inhibited the activity,but not MgCl2,CaCl2,CoCl2,or NiCl2.In the kidney homogenate,enzymatic activity was detectable in the cytosol and all membrane fractions from the plasma membrane and other organelles; however,in the liver homogenate,enzymatic activity was detectable in all membrane fractions,but not in the cytosol.We also tested the enzymatic activity with structurally-modified sphingosine derivatives.Conclusion:We found sphingosine l-O-methyltransferase activity in the rat liver and kidney homogenates.

  13. Characterization of kidney sulfotransferases during lead-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templer, L.A.; Kong, J.; Ronis, M.J.J.; Ringer, D.P. [Univ. Arkansas Medical School, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-03-08

    Kidney sulfotransferases (ST) have been shown to be involved in the biotransformation of steroid and thyroid hormones as well as xenobiotics varying from carcinogenic heterocyclic amines to drugs such as acetaminophen. In order to examine the impact of lead-induced nephrotoxicity on kidney aryl, estrogen and DHEA STs during growth and development, time-impregnated female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed ad libitum to lead acetate (0.6%) in drinking water from gestational day 5 and continuing in male and female pups until they were sacrificed at day 85. Cytosols from male rat kidneys showed levels of estrogen ST activity (59% of females) that were significantly lowered (P{le}0.05) after lead exposure (6-20% of male). Aryl ST activity was relatively unchanged in male rats after rat kidney cytosol. Immunochemical analysis of cytosols from normal males and females with the antiserums to the three STs substantiated the presence of only the aryl and estrogen STs. Immunohistochemical techniques localized the aryl and estrogen STs primarily to the S3 section of the proximal tubules. These findings indicate that kidney STs may be differently modulated during lead exposure.

  14. Kidney transplantation in an adult patient with VACTERL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Sertac; Nantais, Jordan; Guler, Sanem; Lawen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth defects (VACTERL) association is a rare, non-random constellation of congenital abnormalities among which urinary tract anomalies can be included. In the presence of these anomalies, patients are suspected to have a higher rate of renal failure than average. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with VACTERL association and consequent end stage renal failure. A live-related kidney transplant was carried out successfully and the postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient had immediate graft function. Risk factors that may complicate kidney transplant surgery in this patient population as well as considerations relevant to peritransplant management are discussed. PMID:26106170

  15. Resistance to Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Therapy in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease Associated Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Garrido; Sandra Ribeiro; João Fernandes; Helena Vala; Petronila Rocha-Pereira; Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha; Luís Belo; Elísio Costa; Alice Santos-Silva; Flávio Reis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms explaining the persistence of anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapy in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated anemia with formation of anti-rHuEPO antibodies. The remnant kidney rat model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy was used to test a long-term (nine weeks) high dose of rHuEPO (200 UI/kg bw/week) treatment. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated as well as serum and tissue ...

  16. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  17. Mass spectrometric imaging of metabolites in kidney tissues from rats treated with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Mi Suk; Choi, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Sunhee; Lee, Yu-Jung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    In the kidney, metabolic processes are different among the cortex (COR), outer medulla (OM), and inner medulla (IM). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we examined the change of metabolites in the COR, OM, and IM of the rat kidney after furosemide treatment compared with vehicle-treated controls. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats to deliver 12 mg·day(-1)·rat(-1) of furosemide. Vehicle-treated (n = 14) and furosemide-treated (furosemide rats, n = 15) rats in metabolic cages received a fixed amount of rat chow (15 g·220 g body wt(-1)·day(-1) for each rat) with free access to water intake for 6 days. At day 6, higher urine output (32 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 1 ml/day) and lower urine osmolality (546 ± 44 vs. 1,677 ± 104 mosmol/kgH2O) were observed in furosemide rats. Extracts of COR, OM, and IM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, where multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several metabolites, including acetylcarnitine, betaine, carnitine, choline, and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), were significantly changed. The changes of metabolites were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS. Their spatial distribution and relative quantitation in the kidneys were analyzed by IMS. Carnitine compounds were increased in COR and IM, whereas carnitine and acetylcarnitine were decreased in OM. Choline compounds were increased in COR and OM but decreased in IM from furosemide rats. Betaine and GPC were decreased in OM and IM. Taken together, MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS successfully provide the spatial distribution and relative quantitation of metabolites in the kidney. PMID:26962105

  18. Reproductive issues for adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta; Perrone, Ronald; Bianchi, Diana W

    2008-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common disorder. However, the consequences of ADPKD on male and female reproductive health are not widely known. Several abnormalities are found in men with ADPKD, including necrospermia, immotile sperm, seminal vesicle cysts, and ejaculatory duct cysts. Female fertility is not affected. Affected women with ADPKD and normal renal function have a high rate of successful uncomplicated pregnancies. Pregnant women with ADPKD with compromised kidney function should be monitored carefully for the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Their fetuses should be examined sonographically for signs of uteroplacental insufficiency, such as intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. The diagnosis of ADPKD should always be considered when prenatal sonographic findings of hyperechogenic enlarged kidneys are found. In this setting, a family history and renal sonogram of both parents is indicated. Sequencing of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes is available and can be used for both prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We review in detail these topics to familiarize physicians taking care of patients with ADPKD with the reproductive issues that confront affected individuals. PMID:18215709

  19. Passive Heymann Nephritis in the Rat Produced by a Heterologous Antibody to a Heterologous Kidney Fraction 3 Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Barabas, A. Z.; Cornish, J.; Lannigan, R.

    1982-01-01

    Antibody to rabbit kidney Fraction 3 antigen was raised in guinea-pigs. In an indirect fluorescent antibody test the guinea-pig sera showed high levels of antibody to both rabbit and rat tubular nephritogenic antigen and a much lower level of antibody against their own kidney tubular antigen. I.v. injection of this guinea-pig anti-rabbit kidney Fraction 3 antibody into rats produced immune-complex glomerulonephritis, morphologically identical to passive Heymann nephritis.

  20. Oxidative stress contributes to orthopedic trauma-induced acute kidney injury in obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittwede, Peter N.; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S.

    2014-01-01

    After trauma, obese patients have an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We have demonstrated that obese Zucker (OZ) rats, but not lean Zucker (LZ) rats, develop AKI 24 h after orthopedic trauma. ROS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of AKI in models of critical illness. However, the contribution of ROS to trauma-induced AKI in the setting of obesity has not been determined. We hypothesized that AKI in OZ rats after trauma is mediated by increased oxidative stress. Male LZ and OZ rats were divided into control and trauma groups, with a subset receiving treatment after trauma with the antioxidant apocynin (50 mg/kg ip, 2 mM in drinking water). The day after trauma, glomerular filtration rate, plasma creatinine, urine kidney injury molecule-1, and albumin excretion as well as renal oxidant and antioxidant activity were measured. After trauma, compared with LZ rats, OZ rats exhibited a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate along with significant increases in plasma creatinine and urine kidney injury molecule-1 and albumin excretion. Additionally, oxidative stress was significantly increased in OZ rats, as evidenced by increased renal NADPH oxidase activity and urine lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and OZ rats also had suppressed renal superoxide dismutase activity. Apocynin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and AKI in OZ rats but had minimal effects in LZ rats. These results suggest that ROS play an important role in AKI in OZ rats after traumatic injury and that ROS may be a potential future therapeutic target in the obese after trauma. PMID:25428128

  1. Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not me...

  2. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Yeon Soon; Shin Ho Sik; Rim Hark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimate...

  3. N-acetylcysteine protects the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Pês, Tanise; Ourique, Giovana; Saccol, Etiane; Schiefelbein, Sun; Llesuy, Susana; Partata, Wania

    2014-10-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily ingestion dose causes oxidative stress in the rat kidney through the dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provides the cystein required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of NAC on the aspartame-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidney. The animals received aspartame by gavage for six weeks (40mg/kg). From the 5th week, NAC (1mmol/kg, via intraperitoneal) was injected for two weeks. Then, they were anaesthetized for blood sample and euthanized for the kidney collection. The blood was centrifuged at 1800g for 15min and the serum was separated for creatinine measurement. The tissue was homogenized in 1.15% KCl buffer and centrifuged at 700g for 10min at 4°C. The supernatant fraction obtained was used to the measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers. The creatinine levels were enhanced in the serum of aspartame-treated rats. NAC caused a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, carbonyl protein and hydrogen peroxide levels, which were increased in the kidney of aspartame-treated animals. Additionally, NAC caused an elevation in the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, total glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased in the kidney of aspartame-treated rats. In conclusion, NAC may be useful for the protection of the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26461335

  4. Influence of tonifying kidney recipe on advanced glycation endproducts and lipid peroxidation in ova riectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen Wang; Chang'an Zhao; Li Guo; En Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced estrogen levels may accelerate the formation of advanced glycation endproducts(AGE)in brain tissue,raise the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in vivo,and speed up deterioration of learning and memory.A tonifying kidney recipe is hypothesized to improve the ability of learning and memory in ovariectomized rats by downregulating AGE and lipid peroxidation products.OBJECTIVE:To simulate a postmenopausal state,bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)was performed in rats,and the effects of tonifying kidney recipe(TKR)on AGE and lipid peroxidation in the rat cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and blood serum levels was measured.In addition,the effects on learning and memory were evaluated,and the effect of AGE-specific inhibitor aminoguanidine(AG)was compared with TKR.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,in vivo,control experiment was performed at the scientific research center(Provincial Key Laboratory)in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shjiiazhuang,Hebei Province,China)from May 2005 to January 2007.MATERIALS:Forty healthy,adult,female,Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study.TKR was composed of prepared rehmannia rhizome,epimedium herb,desert-living cistanche,and Szechwan lovage rhizome,which were provided by Shijiazhuang Medical Materials Company(China).A TKR extraction was prepared for further use.AG was provided by Sigma (USA).Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups:sham,OVX,AG and TKR,with 10 rats in each group.METHODS:The rat ovaries were resected in the OVX,AG and TKR groups,whereas the same volume of fat was resected in the sham group.At four weeks after OVX,the AG group received 1% AG water solution by lavage;the TKR group was administrated by lavage once per day at a dose of 6.3 g (crude drug)/kg;OVX and sham groups received equal volumes of tap water.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Learning and memory behavior of rats was tested in a Y-electric maze 16 weeks after the OVX procedure

  5. The Effect of Regular Moderate Exercise on miRNA-192 Expression Changes in Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hajar Oghbaei; Naser Ahmadi Asl; Farzam Sheikhzadeh; Mohammad Reza Alipour; Amir Mahdi Khamaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the regular moderate exercise effect on the miR-192 expression changes in kidney of Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10, including Sedentary Control group, Healthy 60 days Exercise group, diabetic group and Diabetic 60 days Exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of 60 mg/kg Streptozotocin and after 48 hour blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were in...

  6. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl2-treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl2. These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  7. Early ultrastructural lesions in kidney cells after intravenous administration of 239 plutonium citrate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intravenous administration of (5 x 2.3 kBq and 5 x 9.25 kBq) plutonium citrate in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, their kidneys are withdrawn and prepared for observation under a transmission electron microscope. Seven days after the first injections, deep cellular alterations are observed in the proximal convoluted tubules. These alterations are mainly mitochondrial. The affected mitochondria are of swollen aspect and have their cristae partially or completely destroyed. Nevertheless within the same tubule we observe non altered cells directly in contact with deeply altered cells. In all the cases the lysosomes of the altered cells appear to be perfectly normal. The cell nuclei are mostly unaltered but a few cases of nuclear fragmentation exist. We also notice some architectural modifications in the brush border and in the betacytomembranes of the proximal convoluted tubule. Equally important mitochondrial alterations are also noticed in the different varieties of glomerular cells. We observe no other glomerular alterations. The major subcellular alterations in the proximal convoluted tubules and in the different varieties of glomerular cells deeply contrast with the distal convoluted tubules which are found to be totally unaltered. These mitochondrial alterations may be due to the α particle disintegration of plutonium which may either directly react with the mitochondria or, through the products of radiolysis of water react with the mitochondria respiration process. However the direct chemo-toxicity of plutonium cannot be neglected. (Authors). 21 refs., 1 fig

  8. Oenanthe javanica extract increases immunoreactivities of antioxidant enzymes in the rat kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jin Tae; Joon Ha Park; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae Chul Lee; Jong-Dai Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb originated from East Asia.Nowadays,the effects of Oenanthe javanica have been proven in various disease models.Studies regarding the antioxidant effect of Oenanthe javanica in the kidney are still unclear.Methods This study was therefore performed to investigate the effect of the Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the rat kidney using immunohistochemistry for antioxidant enzymes,copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1),manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2),catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups:(1) normal diet fed-group (normal-group),(2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control,(3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group).AA and OJE were supplied during 28 days.Results The side-effects were not observed in all the groups.Immunoreactivities of SOD1,SOD2,CAT and GPx were easily detected in the distal tubules of the kidney,and their immunoreactivities in the AA-and OJE-groups were increased to about 1.4-1.5 times and 2 times,respectively,compared with those in the normal-group.Conclusion OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 & 2,CAT and GPx immunoreactivities in the distal tubules of the rat kidney,and this finding suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE treatment may be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the kidney.

  9. High Resolution Ultrasonography for Assessment of Renal Cysts in the PCK Rat Model of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Kapoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The PCK rat model of polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of renal medullary cysts. Here, we evaluated the suitability of high resolution ultrasonography (HRU to assess the kidney and cyst volume in PCK rats, testing three different ultrasound image analysis methods, and correlating them with kidneys weights and histological examinations. Methods: After inducing anesthesia, PCK rats (n=18 were subjected to HRU to visualize the kidneys, to perform numeric and volumetric measurements of the kidney and any cysts observed, and to generate 3-dimensional images of the cysts within the kidney parenchyma. Results: HRU provided superior information in comparison to microscopic analysis of stained kidney sections. HRU-based kidney volumes correlated strongly with kidney weights (R2=0.809; PConclusion: HRU represents a useful diagnostic tool for kidney and cyst volume measurements in PCK rats. Sequential HRU examinations may be useful to study the effect of drugs on cyst growth without the need to euthanize experimental animals.

  10. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  11. Functional capacity and cryopreservation of fetal rat pancreas in streptozotocin-diabetes. [Effectiveness of transplantation of fetal pancreas for control of diabetes in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Clark, W.; Molnar, I.G.; Kemp, J.; Mazur, P.; Mullen, Y.S.

    1976-01-01

    The fetal rat pancreas has a marked capacity for growth and maturation in glucose responsivity after transplantation under the kidney capsules of adult rats. The optimal conditions for function of the organ are a 3-week period of growth in a normal rat before transfer to a diabetic animal. Under these conditions diabetes is completely reversed by one fetal pancreas, and glucose disappearance rate and plasma insulin response to glucose are normal. Shunting of the venous drainage into the liver from fetal pancreases placed beneath the kidney capsule results in a marked improvement in diabetes control, and this technique may prove useful in experimental or human applications. Cryopreservation of the fetal pancreas has been successfully accomplished and will serve as a useful adjuvant to this method of reversing experimental diabetes.

  12. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  13. Measurement of kidney stone formation in the rat model using micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Joseph U.; Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-03-01

    Kidney stones were induced in 5 rats by treating them with 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride through free drinking water for six weeks. The animals were anesthetized and imaged in vivo before the treatment at week 0, to obtain baseline data, then at weeks 2 and 6 to monitor the kidney stone formation. Micro-CT imaging was performed with x-ray tube voltage of 90 kV and a current of 40 mA. At week 2, kidney stone formation was observed. A micro-computed tomography methodology of estimating the volume and hydroxyapatite-equivalent mineral content of the kidney stone is presented. It determines the threshold CT number (390 HU) that separates the kidney stone from the tissue. The mean volume of the stones in the 10 kidneys significantly increased from 3.81+/-0.72 mm3 at week 2 to 23.96+/-9.12 mm3 at week 6 (pkidney stone formation to be carried out in vivo, with fewer experimental animals compared with other ex vivo methods, in which animals are sacrificed. It is precise, accurate, non-destructive, and could be used in pre-clinical research to study the formation of kidney stones in live small animals.

  14. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal (pineal proteins (BEP and melatonin (MEL against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water, MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p., and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days. There were significantly P<0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P<0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

  15. Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K. Patlolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted a great deal of attention due their unique physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties and to their applications in biotechnology and medicine. However, the reports on the potential toxicity of graphene oxide (GO in biological systems are very few. The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. The results showed that administration of GOs significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in the kidneys compared with control group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to control animals. Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that GO is nephrotoxic and its toxicity may be mediated through oxidative stress. In the present work, however, we only provided preliminary information on toxicity of GO in rats; further experimental verification and mechanistic elucidation are required before GO widely used for biomedical applications.

  16. Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Randolph, Jonathan; Kumari, S. Anitha; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted a great deal of attention due their unique physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties and to their applications in biotechnology and medicine. However, the reports on the potential toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) in biological systems are very few. The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. The results showed that administration of GOs significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in the kidneys compared with control group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to control animals. Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that GO is nephrotoxic and its toxicity may be mediated through oxidative stress. In the present work, however, we only provided preliminary information on toxicity of GO in rats; further experimental verification and mechanistic elucidation are required before GO widely used for biomedical applications. PMID:27043588

  17. The effect of the leptin and its receptor expression in CRF rat by the Reinforcing Kidney and Exhausting Toxin Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Junsheng; Zhuang Wen Qing; Du Ya jing; Luo Bing

    2004-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the adjusting malnutrition mechanism by the Reinforcing Kidney and Exhausting Toxic Mixture(REM) on the chronic renal failure (CRF) rat. Methods :60 wistar rats weved ivided into 3 groups randomly :the normal controc group(group Ⅰ ), CRF group(group Ⅱ ), and CRF rat perfusing with REM group(group Ⅲ ). Taking their fat, kidney tissue for detecting the protein expression of the leptin, leptin receptor (Ob- R) by the means of immunohistochemistry. Result :Comparing with control group, the leptin protein express intensely in CRF rat; In kidney tissue, the ob -R express weakly. After perfusing the REM, comparing with CRF group the renal ob - R express strongly than CRF group. Conclusion: Maybe the REM could do a little better with the malnutrition of CRF rats by adjustting the activity of ob - R in kidney.

  18. [Metabolic therapy of nephrolithiasis in two different rat models of kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trashkov, A P; Vasiliev, A G; Kovalenko, A L; Tagirov, N S

    2015-01-01

    108 albino male rats were used in two experimental rat models reproducing urolithiasis for the assessment of metabolic drug medicine Remaxol nephroprotective effect upon the development of this disease. "Ethyleneglycol" model consisted of adding 1% ethylene glycol solution in drinking water for 37 days and "fructose-induced" one--of adding 10% fructose solution in drinking water for the same period. Therapy included a 10-day course of daily i.v. injections of Remaxol (14 ml/kg). Both experimental models were successful in producing urolithiasis with considerable disturbances in the structure and functioning of kidneys up to revealing microconcrement formation. The "ethyleneglycol" model proved to cause maximum changes while the "Fructose-induced" model--only moderate ones. Metabolic correction of these changes was successful in nephroprotection effectively normalizing kidney functions and the total protein concentration, eliminating hyperglycemia and reducing creatinine and urea blood plasma concentration in both rat experimental models. PMID:26036006

  19. Matrix Gla Protein is Involved in Crystal Formation in Kidney of Hyperoxaluric Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP is a molecular determinant regulating vascular calcification of the extracellular matrix. However, it is still unclear how MGP may be invovled in crystal formation in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the hyperoxaluric group and control group. Hyperoxaluric rats were administrated by 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG for up to 8 weeks. Renal MGP expression was detected by the standard avidin-biotin complex (ABC method. Renal crystal deposition was observed by a polarizing microscope. Total RNA and protein from the rat kidney tissue were extracted. The levels of MGP mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Hyperoxaluria was induced successfully in rats. The MGP was polarly distributed, on the apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells, and was found in the ascending thick limbs of Henle's loop (cTAL and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT in hyperoxaluric rats, its expression however, was present in the medullary collecting duct (MCD in stone-forming rats. Crystals with multilaminated structure formed in the injurious renal tubules with lack of MGP expression.MGP mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by the crystals' stimulations. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the MGP was involved in crystals formation by the continuous expression, distributing it polarly in the renal tubular cells and binding directly to the crystals.

  20. A novel mutation causing nephronophthisis in the Lewis polycystic kidney rat localises to a conserved RCC1 domain in Nek8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCooke John K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephronophthisis (NPHP as a cause of cystic kidney disease is the most common genetic cause of progressive renal failure in children and young adults. NPHP is characterized by abnormal and/or loss of function of proteins associated with primary cilia. Previously, we characterized an autosomal recessive phenotype of cystic kidney disease in the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat. Results In this study, quantitative trait locus analysis was used to define a ~1.6Mbp region on rat chromosome 10q25 harbouring the lpk mutation. Targeted genome capture and next-generation sequencing of this region identified a non-synonymous mutation R650C in the NIMA (never in mitosis gene a- related kinase 8 ( Nek8 gene. This is a novel Nek8 mutation that occurs within the regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1-like region of the protein. Specifically, the R650C substitution is located within a G[QRC]LG repeat motif of the predicted seven bladed beta-propeller structure of the RCC1 domain. The rat Nek8 gene is located in a region syntenic to portions of human chromosome 17 and mouse 11. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed abnormally long cilia on LPK kidney epithelial cells, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry for Nek8 protein revealed altered cilia localisation. Conclusions When assessed relative to other Nek8 NPHP mutations, our results indicate the whole propeller structure of the RCC1 domain is important, as the different mutations cause comparable phenotypes. This study establishes the LPK rat as a novel model system for NPHP and further consolidates the link between cystic kidney disease and cilia proteins.

  1. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury

  2. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates burn-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Huang, Sha; Chen, Yongbin; Ma, Kui

    2013-09-01

    Excessive systemic inflammation following burns could lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress immune cell responses and have beneficial effects in various inflammatory-related immune disorders. However, autologous MSCs are not vital enough for the treatment because of the severely burned patients' deleterious condition. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) could be a suitable substitute cell candidate but no data are available on the therapeutic effectiveness of UC-MSCs transplantation for burn injury and its consequences. In this study, UC-MSCs or ulinastatin was administered intravenously in the rats with burn trauma, and the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs on the survival of severe burn-induced AKI rats and functional protection of kidney were analyzed. Results showed that UC-MSCs promoted the survival and prevented commitment to apoptosis of resident kidney cells and reduced organ microscopic damage in kidneys after thermal trauma. Thus, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered UC-MSCs protected the host from death caused by kidney injury subsequent to severe burn, identifying UC-MSCs transplantation may be an attractive candidate for cell-based treatments for burns and induced organ damage. PMID:24043673

  3. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong, E-mail: xiegh@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury.

  4. Renal primordia activate kidney regenerative events in a rat model of progressive renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Imberti

    Full Text Available New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration.

  5. Carbon tetrachloride-induced kidney damage and protective effect of Amaranthus lividus L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Can, Ayse; Karatug, Ayse; Pala-Kara, Zeliha; Okyar, Alper; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of water extract of Amaranthus lividus L. (A. lividus) (Amaranthaceae) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in kidneys of rats. For this purpose, male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) daily for 9 days and a single dose of CCl4 was applied intraperitoneally (50% in olive oil; 1.5 mL/kg b.w.) on the 10th day. All rats were killed 24 h after CCl4 administration, and kidneys were excised and used for determination of histopathological and biochemical parameters. CCl4 administration caused a remarkable increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione levels and glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity when compared to the control group. Pretreatment with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly prevented the elevation in LPO level and MPO activity as well as protected the decrease in CAT activity but did not alter other biochemical parameters. The protective effect of A. lividus was further evident through the decreased histological alterations in kidneys. In conclusion, this study has indicated that A. lividus possesses protective and antioxidant effects against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney damage. PMID:25415872

  6. Belatacept prophylaxis against organ rejection in adult kidney-transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, Arnaud; Marion, Olivier; Milongo, David; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim

    2016-02-01

    End-stage renal disease is a major health problem worldwide, with kidney transplantation being the treatment of choice. Calcineurin inhibitors are still the cornerstone of immunosuppressive therapy. However, they have well-known nephrotoxic affects and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In contrast, belatacept is a biological immunosuppressive agent that inhibits the T-cell co-stimulation. It is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency for use in adult kidney-transplant recipients to prevent acute rejection. Developmental studies show that belatacept is as efficient as calcineurin inhibitors at preventing acute rejection. In addition, kidney function is better and cardiovascular risk factors are reduced in patients given belatacept. Herein, the authors review the published evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of belatacept and discuss its potential specific indications. PMID:26691282

  7. Polycystic kidney disease gene in the Lewis polycystic kidney rat is mapped to chromosome 10q21–q26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yengkopiong JP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jada Pasquale YengkopiongDr John Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bor, Republic of South SudanBackground: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is a life-threatening disorder that affects the kidneys of millions of people across the world. The disease is normally inherited, but it can also be acquired, and leads to development of many cysts in the renal nephrons. In this study, the aim was to characterize PKD in the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK rat, the newest model for human PKD.Methods: Mating experiments were performed between male LPK rats with PKD and female Brown Norway and Wistar Kyoto rats without PKD to raise second filial (F2 and backcross 1 (BC1 progeny, respectively. Rats that developed PKD were identified. Histological examination of the kidneys and liver was performed. Liver tissue samples were collected from each rat and used to extract DNA. The extracted DNA was amplified, and mapping and linkage analyses were performed to identify the quantitative trait locus that controlled the disease phenotypes.Results: It was established that the disease was controlled by a recessive mutation in a single gene (F2: PKD = 42, non-PKD = 110, χ2 = 0.53; BC1: PKD = 67, non-PKD = 72, χ2 = 0.18, P > 0.05 and that the disease was inherited as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. The rats with PKD developed larger fluid-filled cystic kidneys, higher systolic blood pressure, and anemia. However, there were no extrarenal cysts and no pup deaths. Mapping studies and linkage analyses associated the disease phenotypes in both the F2 and BC1 rats to chromosome 10q21–q26, giving a maximum LOD score of 7.9 (P = 0.00001 between peak markers D10Rat180 and D10Rat26.Conclusion: The quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10q21–q26 does not contain the Pkhd-1 gene, and it is different from quantitative trait loci that control ARPKD in other murine models. The candidate genes located in the

  8. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Kwekel

    Full Text Available Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  9. Effects of Short Term Exposure of Atrazine on the Liver and Kidney of Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Jestadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effects of short term (15 days exposure of low dose (300 μg kg−1 of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine on antioxidant status and markers of liver and kidney damage in normal (nondiabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I as normal control, Group II as atrazine treated, Group III as diabetic control, and Group IV as atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration resulted in increased MDA concentration as well as increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. However, GSH level was decreased in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration led to significant increase in liver damage biomarkers such as AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney damage biomarkers such as creatinine and urea in both normal and diabetic rats, but this increase was more pronounced in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that short term exposure of atrazine at a dose of 300 μg kg−1 could potentially induce oxidative damage in liver and kidney of both normal and diabetic rats.

  10. Constitutive renal Rel/nuclear factor-κB expression in Lewis polycystic kidney disease rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Michelle H T; Schwensen, Kristina G; Liuwantara, David; Huso, David L; Watnick, Terry; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the temporal expression and pattern of Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-κB proteins in renal tissue in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). METHODS: The renal expression of Rel/NF-κB proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis in Lewis polycystic kidney rats (LPK, a genetic ortholog of human nephronopthsis-9) from postnatal weeks 3 to 20. At each timepoint, renal disease progression and the mRNA expression of NF-κB-dependent genes (TNFα and CCL2) were determined. NF-κB was also histologically assessed in human PKD tissue. RESULTS: Progressive kidney enlargement in LPK rats was accompanied by increased renal cell proliferation and interstitial monocyte accumulation (peaking at weeks 3 and 10 respectively), and progressive interstitial fibrosis (with α smooth muscle actin and Sirius Red deposition significantly increased compared to Lewis kidneys from weeks 3 to 6 onwards). Rel/NF-κB proteins (phosphorylated-p105, p65, p50, c-Rel and RelB) were expressed in cystic epithelial cells (CECs) of LPK kidneys as early as postnatal week 3 and sustained until late-stage disease at week 20. From weeks 10 to 20, nuclear p65, p50, RelB and cytoplasmic IκBα protein levels, and TNFα and CCL2 expression, were upregulated in LPK compared to Lewis kidneys. NF-κB proteins were consistently expressed in CECs of human PKD. The DNA damage marker γ-H2AX was also identified in the CECs of LPK and human polycystic kidneys. CONCLUSION: Several NF-κB proteins are consistently expressed in CECs in human and experimental PKD. These data suggest that the upregulation of both the canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-κB signaling may be a constitutive and early pathological feature of cystic renal diseases. PMID:27458563

  11. Effects of 15 Gy 137Cs γ-rays radiation of rat kidneys on bone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work was to observe the effects of γ-rays radiation of rat kidneys on rat bone metabolism. Ten male SD rats aged 6 months were irradiated at their kidneys with 15 Gy 137Cs γ-rays (0.91 Gy/min) and were raised for 3 months after the radiation. On collecting 24h urine of rats they were sacrificed for serum, kidney, spine, femur and tibia exams. Results show that the γ-ray irradiation could induce the pathological injuries of renal glomeruli, tubules and mesenchyme. Comparing to the control group, significant changes were found in the irradiated group in terms of their blood urea, nitrogen creatinine, urinal β-2 microglobulin, serum Ca and P, urine Ca and P, activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, 1,25 (OH)2 D3, serum PTH, urine PYD/creatinine, bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebras, mineral mass of No.4 lumbar vertebra, BMD, dehydrated weight and ash weight of right femur. Marked changes were also found in bone trabecula volume, average bone trabecula thick and the ratio of nodes/points, and rate of mineralization deposition. It was concluded that renal dysfunction and metabolic bone disease might occur with the character of accelerated bone turnover and decreased bone mass

  12. Rutin ameliorates kidney interstitial fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Ding; Zhu, Qiu-Hua; Li, Min; Chen, Hua; Guo, Ying; Fan, Li-Pei; Yue, Liang-Sheng; Li, Liu-Yang; Zhao, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Rutin reportedly conveys many beneficial effects, including renoprotection; however, it has not yet been demonstrated to have a renoprotective effect against obstructive nephropathy. The present study is the first to show a protective effect of rutin against obstructive renal injury induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each, including vehicle- or rutin-treated sham operated groups, and vehicle- or rutin-treated UUO groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of rutin (100mg/kg) for 2weeks. All rats were euthanized on postoperative day 14. Histological findings showed that rutin administration significantly reduced renal interstitial injury and suppressed interstitial collagen deposits in UUO rats. Moreover, rutin decreased macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory cytokine expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65. Furthermore, rutin inhibited extracellular matrix accumulation by reducing expression of type I/III collagen and fibronectin. Rutin also prevented the epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes of renal tubular cells by decreasing α-smooth muscle actin expression and retaining E-cadherin expression. These effects of rutin were in parallel with the reductions in Smad3 activity and pivotal to the fibrogenic potential of TGF-β1. Taken together, the renoprotective effects of rutin in obstructive nephropathy were likely due to anti-inflammatory effects and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27035719

  13. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  14. Periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease among Aboriginal adults; an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Lisa; Skilton, Michael; Maple-Brown, Louise; Kapellas, Kostas; Askie, Lisa; Hughes, Jaqui; Arrow, Peter; Cherian, Sajiv; Fernandes, David; Pawar, Basant; Brown, Alex; Boffa, John; Hoy, Wendy; Harris, David; Mueller, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Aboriginal Australian adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and determine if intensive periodontal intervention improves cardiovascular health, progression of renal disease and periodontal health over a 24-month follow-up. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled trial. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits, with the delayed intervention group receiving periodontal trea...

  15. The Impact of N-acetyl Cysteine on Paraoxon-induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The administration of NAC as antioxidant, ameliorates POX-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney by scavenging the free radicals and GSH synthesis, but does not provide the complete protection.

  16. Development of a physiologically-based computational kidney model to describe the renal excretion of hydrophilic agents in rats

    OpenAIRE

    ChristophNiederalt; PhilippLengsfeld; KarinaClaaßen; RolfBurghaus; MatthiasBräutigam; HubertusPietsch

    2013-01-01

    A physiologically-based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water re-absorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow. The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without admin...

  17. Development of a Physiologically Based Computational Kidney Model to Describe the Renal Excretion of Hydrophilic Agents in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niederalt, Christoph; Wendl, Thomas; Kuepfer, Lars; Claassen, Karina; Loosen, Roland; Willmann, Stefan; Lippert, Joerg; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus; Winkler, Julia; Burghaus, Rolf; Bräutigam, Matthias; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lengsfeld, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    A physiologically based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water reabsorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow. The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administr...

  18. The epidermal growth factor precursor in the rat kidney seems to be processed by an aprotinin sensitive proteinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Raaberg, Lasse

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is synthesized as a membrane bound precursor in the rat kidney. The precursor seems to be processed by an aprotinin sensitive proteinase. Intravenous infusion of aprotinin reduces the urinary excretion of EGF by 85% and increases the amount of renal EGF. Kidney...

  19. Polycystic Kidney Rat Is a Novel Animal Model of Caroli’s Disease Associated with Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzen, Takahiro; Harada, Kenichi; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Kawamura, Yasuhito; Ishibashi, Masahiko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2001-01-01

    Caroli’s disease (congenital intrahepatic biliary dilatation) associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Recently, the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat, a spontaneous mutant derived from a colony of Crj:CD rats with polycystic lesions in the liver and an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, was reported. In the present study, the pathology of the hepatobiliary system and the biliary cell-kinetics were evaluated in fetuses (day 18 to 21 of g...

  20. Characterization with 3H-haloperidol of the dopamine receptor in the rat kidney particulate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine receptor of rat kidney particulate preparation was identified and characterized by the use of 3H-haloperidol binding. Binding of 3H-haloperidol to the kidney particulate preparation was slow and saturable. The dissociation constants (K sub(D)) were 0.41 nM and 5.88 nM, respectively, according to the model of two classes of independent binding sites. Maximal binding of high affinity site was obtained with 166 fmole/mg protein which was about 40% of the total receptor density. A wide variety of neuroleptics at specifically low concentrations in nanomolar range inhibited the 3H-haloperidol binding. There was an excellent correlation between the affinity of numerous neuroleptics for the kidney particulate preparation and that for the brain striatum. (author)

  1. TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

  2. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  3. [INTERACTION OF BETA-BLOCKER PROPRANOLOL WITH RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM INHIBITORS IN RAT KIDNEY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, O B; Buchneva, N V; Landar, L N

    2016-01-01

    Propranolol injection (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) in anesthetized rats increases diuresis 1.60 times (p ACE inhibitor enalapril (1 mg/kg, orally, 7 days) increases the sensitivity of rat kidney to drug, increasing its diuretic effect 2.33 times, natriuresis 2.49 times, and urine potassium excretion 1.80 times (p inhibitor aliskiren (4 mg/kg, orally, 7 days) is accompanied by 2.30-fold increase in the diuretic effect of propranolol, 2.56-fold increase in natriuresis, and 2.27-fold increase in urine potassium excretion (p < 0.05). It is concluded that the renal tissue RAS is involved in the mechanism of propranolol action in the kidney, acting as modulator preventing excessive loss of water and electrolytes with urine. PMID:27455575

  4. Expression of ATP sensitive K+ channel subunit Kir6.1 in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zhou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels in kidney are considered to play roles in regulating membrane potential during the change in intracellular ATP concentration. They are composed of channel subunits (Kir6.1, Kir6.2, which are members of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel family, and sulphonylurea receptors (SUR1, SUR2A and SUR2B, which belong to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. In the present study, we have investigated the expression and localization of Kir6.1 in rat kidney with Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization histochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Western blot analysis showed that Kir6.1 was expressed in the mitochondria and microsome fractions of rat kidney and very weakly in the membrane fractions. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Kir6.1 was widely distributed in renal tubular epithelial cells, glomerular mesangial cells, and smooth muscles of blood vessels. In immunoelectron microscopy, Kir6.1 is mainly localized in the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and very weakly in cell membranes. Thus, Kir6.1 is contained in the kidney and may be a candidate of mitochondrial KATP channels.

  5. Resistance to Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Therapy in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease Associated Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms explaining the persistence of anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO therapy in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD-associated anemia with formation of anti-rHuEPO antibodies. The remnant kidney rat model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy was used to test a long-term (nine weeks high dose of rHuEPO (200 UI/kg bw/week treatment. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated as well as serum and tissue (kidney, liver and/or duodenum protein and/or gene expression of mediators of erythropoiesis, iron metabolism and tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and fibrosis. Long-term treatment with a high rHuEPO dose is associated with development of resistance to therapy as a result of antibodies formation. In this condition, serum EPO levels are not deficient and iron availability is recovered by increased duodenal absorption. However, erythropoiesis is not stimulated, and the resistance to endogenous EPO effect and to rHuEPO therapy results from the development of a hypoxic, inflammatory and fibrotic milieu in the kidney tissue. This study provides new insights that could be important to ameliorate the current therapeutic strategies used to treat patients with CKD-associated anemia, in particular those that become resistant to rHuEPO therapy.

  6. Indigofera oblongifolia mitigates lead-acetate-induced kidney damage and apoptosis in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Zrieq, Rafat; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to appraise the protective effect of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PbAc was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, either alone or together with the methanol extract of I. oblongifolia (100 mg/kg). Kidney lead (Pb) concentration; oxidative stress markers including lipid peroxidation, nitrite/nitrate, and glutathione (GSH); and antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase were all determined. The PbAc injection elicited a marked elevation in Pb concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitrite/nitrate, with a concomitant depletion in GSH content compared with the control and a remarkable decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, Pb accumulation, and histological changes in the kidneys were successfully prevented by the pre-administration of I. oblongifolia extract. In addition, the elevated expression of proapoptotic protein, Bax, in the kidneys of the PbAc-injected rats was reduced as a result of I. oblongifolia pre-administration, while the hitherto reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was elevated. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that I. oblongifolia successfully minimizes the deleterious effects in kidney function and histological coherence associated with nephrotoxicity by strengthening the antioxidant defense system, suppressing oxidative stress, and mitigating apoptosis. PMID:27330278

  7. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Danijela; Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  8. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Pathological Evaluation of Phenobarbital and Atorvastatin Co-Administration on Kidney of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Najafzadeh; Hassan Morovvati; Babak Mohammadian; Mohammad Razijalali; S.Mahsa Poormoosavi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Atorvastatin is a lipid-lowering drug used to treat hyperlipidemia. Phenobarbital is the inductor of cytochrome enzymes. This study examined the interfering effect of simultaneous consumption of these drugs on the biochemical and pathological changes in rat’s kidney.Materials and Methods: Drugs were administered to 4 groups of Wistar rats (8 per group) for 15 days as follows: normal saline, atorvastatin, atorvastatin phenobarbital and phenobarbital alone. After anesthesia, blood w...

  10. Electrically excitable normal rat kidney fibroblasts: A new model system for cell-semiconductor hybrids.

    OpenAIRE

    Parak, W. J.; Domke, J; George, M.; Kardinal, A; Radmacher, M; Gaub, H E; Roos, A.D.; Theuvenet, A P; Wiegand, G.; Sackmann, E.; Behrends, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    In testing various designs of cell-semiconductor hybrids, the choice of a suitable type of electrically excitable cell is crucial. Here normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts are presented as a cell line, easily maintained in culture, that may substitute for heart or nerve cells in many experiments. Like heart muscle cells, NRK fibroblasts form electrically coupled confluent cell layers, in which propagating action potentials are spontaneously generated. These, however, are not associated with m...

  11. Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Jonathan Randolph; S. Anitha Kumari; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted a great deal of attention due their unique physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties and to their applications in biotechnology and medicine. However, the reports on the potential toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) in biological systems are very few. The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. The results showed that admi...

  12. Marked cerebral atrophy is correlated with kidney dysfunction in nondisabled adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between kidney dysfunction, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), and brain morphology has attracted increasing attention, but the association between kidney dysfunction and cerebral atrophy has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between kidney function and a substantial degree of cerebral atrophy. A total of 610 consecutive Japanese adults without neurological disorders who had undergone health screening tests of the brain were studied prospectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Using a computer-assisted processing system, the percentage of cerebrum atrophy (%Cerebrum atrophy) was calculated as an index of cerebral atrophy. Atrophy was defined as >2 s.d.s below the mean %Cerebrum atrophy. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan. Kidney function variables included the GFR value and the prevalence of subjects with GFR -1 per 1.73 m2. Cerebral atrophy was found in 25 (4.1%) cases. Univariate analysis showed that age, male sex, hypertension, each kidney function variable, white matter hyperintensities and lacunae were associated with cerebral atrophy. On logistic regression analysis, GFR (odds ratio (OR), 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.98) and GFR -1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.82-19.27) were significantly associated with cerebral atrophy. On sub-analysis, GFR -1 per 1.73 m2 was significantly associated with cortical atrophy (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.15-9.11). Decreased GFR was significantly associated with cerebral atrophy, indicating that treatment of CKD may control age-related degenerative processes of the brain. (author)

  13. Kidney and lung injury in irradiated rats protected from acute death by partial-body shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-six CD-1 male rats were exposed to gamma-ray doses (0-25 Gy) in increments of 5 Gy. One femur, the surgically exteriorized GI tract, and the oral cavity were shielded during irradiation to protect against acute mortality from injury to the hematopoietic system, small intestine, and oral cavity. In addition, the thoraxes of half of the animals from each dose group were shielded. At approximately monthly intervals from 2 to 10 months after irradiation the hematocrit, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and 51Cr-EDTA clearance were measured. During the study 20 thorax-shielded and 19 thorax-irradiated animals died. All rats whose thoraxes received 25 Gy irradiation and three out of seven rats whose thoraxes received 20 Gy died 1 to 3 months postirradiation with massive pleural fluid accumulation. Shielding the thoraxes prevented this mode of death at these doses. Kidney injury was judged to be the primary cause of death of all thorax-shielded animals and 15- and 20-Gy thorax-irradiated animals. Animals with kidney damage had elevated PUN and reduced 51Cr-EDTA clearance and hematocrits. The relative merits of each of these end points in assessing radiation-induced kidney injury after total-body exposure are discussed

  14. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenosi, Thomas J; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E; Nevison, Stephanie E; Kerr, Michael A; Urquhart, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  15. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenate on Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousofvand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, histopathological effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenate in drinkable water were studied on a quantity of organs of rat. Methods: Rats were divided into two groups, group I; served as control group, were main-tained on deionized drinkable water for 2 months, and group II; the study group were given 60 g/ml of sodium arsenate in deionized drinkable water for 2 months. Blood and urine samples from two groups of animals were collected under anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia (a-chloralose, 100 mg/kg, I.P. Their kidney, liver, aorta, and heart were dissected out and cleaned of surrounding connective tissue. The organs were kept in formaldehyde (10% for histopathologic examination. Serum and urine samples from two groups were collected and analyzed for arsenic level. Total quantity of arsenic in serum and urine of animal was measured through graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS. Results:Examination with light microscopy did not show any visible structural changes in the aorta, myocardium, and liver of chronic arsenic treated animals.However, a significant effect was observed in the kidneys of chronic arsenic treated rats showing distinct changes in proxi-mal tubular cells. There was high concentration of arsenic in serum and urine of arsenic ex-posed animals (group II significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion:Swollen tubular cells in histopathologic study of kidney may suggest toxic effects of arsenic in the body.

  16. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  17. Degenerative and age-related changes in the x-irradiated kidney of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of rat kidney to a single dose of radiation (4000 rad) produced degenerative changes and accumulation of fluorescent granules after a latent period of approximately 8 weeks. The appearance of these fluorescent granules corresponded to the development of structural damage to the kidney. Radiation produced relatively minor changes in the lipid content of the kidney. The level of cholesteryl esters was increased, arachidonic acid content was decreased, and there was a progressive increase in fluorescent substances related to aging, as detected by thin layer chromatography, in chloroform-methanol extracts of the irradiated kidney. However, there was no apparent loss of vitamin E or ubiquinone and no increase in TBA values or diene conjugation as might be expected as effects of lipid oxidation. These changes were evident by the second month following irradiation and corresponded to the development of the morphological changes. The presence of lipofuscin substances, reduced arachidonic acid, and an increase in cholesteryl esters indicated an acceleration of aging in the radiation-exposed kidney. The relationship of lipid oxidation to the acceleration of aging and the production of acute renal lesions was not apparent

  18. Superoxide dismutase derivative prevents oxidative damage in liver and kidney of rats induced by exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radák, Z; Asano, K; Inoue, M; Kizaki, T; Oh-Ishi, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Ohno, H

    1996-01-01

    To prevent oxidative tissue damage induced by strenuous exercise in the liver and kidney superoxide dismutase derivative (SM-SOD), which circulated bound to albumin with a half-life of 6 h, was injected intraperitoneally into rats. Exhausting treadmill running caused a significant increase in the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in addition to concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in hepatic tissue immediately after running. There was a definite increase in the immunoreactive content of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) 1 day after the running. Meanwhile, the TBARS concentration in the kidney was markedly elevated 3 days after running. The activities of GPX, and catalase in the kidney increased significantly immediately and on days 1 and 3 following the test. The immunoreactive content of Mn-SOD also increased 1 day after running. The exercise induced no significant changes in immunoreactive Cu, Zn-SOD content in either tissue. The administration of SM-SOD provided effective protection against lipid peroxidation, and significantly attenuated the alterations in XO and all the anti-oxidant enzymes, measured. In summary, the present data would suggest that exhausting exercise may induce XO-derived oxidative damage in the liver, while the increase in lipid peroxidation in the kidney might be the result of washout-dependent accumulation of peroxidised metabolites. We found that the administration of SM-SOD provided excellent protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. PMID:8820884

  19. Corticoadrenal activity in rat regulates betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression with opposite effects in liver and kidney

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Osvaldo Fridman; Analía V Morales; Laura E Bortoni; Paula C Turk-Noceto; Elio A Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Betaine-homocysteine -methyltransferase (BHMT) is an enzyme that converts homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine using betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine also acts as osmolyte in kidney medulla, protecting cells from high extracellular osmolarity. Hepatic BHMT expression is regulated by salt intake. Hormones, particularly corticosteroids, also regulate BHMT expression in rat liver. We investigated to know whether the corticoadrenal activity plays a role in kidney BHMT expression. BHMT activity in rat kidneys is several orders of magnitude lower than in rat livers and only restricted to the renal cortex. This study confirms that corticosteroids stimulate BHMT activity in the liver and, for the first time in an animal model, also up-regulate the BHMT gene expression. Besides, unlike the liver, corticosteroids in rat kidney down-regulate BHMT expression and activity. Given that the classical effect of adrenocortical activity on the kidney is associated with sodium and water re-absorption by the distal tubule leading to volume expansion, by promoting lesser use of betaine as a methyl donor, corticosteroids would preserve betaine for its other role as osmoprotectant against changes in the extracellular osmotic conditions. We conclude that corticosteroids are, at least in part, responsible for the inhibition of BHMT expression and activity in rat kidneys.

  20. In vivo screening of proteins likely to bind uranium in exposed rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a naturally abundant element which has been used in several industries. Internal exposure could occur via three main pathways that are ingestion, inhalation and wounds. It has been recently shown that chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water induces an important uranium accumulation in kidney with a perturbation of iron metabolism in this organ. Whereas uranium speciation is a key parameter to elucidate the chemical reactivity and the mobility of an element, it remains poorly documented in most of environmental and biological media. A few examples of uranium complexation with biomolecules have been published recently but most of them are in vitro studies whereas in vivo experiments remain poorly investigated. In order to better understand possible competition of uranium towards metals involved in the metal-protein binding, i.e. iron, copper, calcium, a study on uranium speciation was investigated by doing an in vivo screening of target proteins likely to bind it in kidneys of exposed rats. Rats were chronically exposed via contaminated drinking water at 40 mgL-1 and killed 9 months after the beginning of exposure. Kidneys were dissected out and protein extract was prepared. Then, separation of renal proteins by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis (IEF) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by LA-ICPMS analysis were performed. IEF-LA-ICP MS showed that uranium could specifically bind few proteins in kidney whereas 2-DE-LA-ICP MS could indicate that uranium is not covalently bound to proteins in this organ. The results suggested that even at moderate concentrations of exposure, uranium can be observed chelated with some renal proteins that is very encouraging to understand the entry, storage and elimination of this element in kidneys. (orig.)

  1. Increased Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in the Obstructed Kidney of Rats with Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Seong Kwon; Joo, Soo Yeon; Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Lee, JongUn; Kim, Soo Wan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the obstructed kidney of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally obstructed by ligation of the left proximal ureter for 7 days. Control rats were treated in the same way except that no ligature was made. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR were determined in the kidney by semi...

  2. Protective effects of amifostine on ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Arducoglu Merter; Burhan Mayir; Okan Erdogan; Taner Colak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Amifostine is a drug which can eliminate free oxygen radicals that appear in the body after radiation or chemotherapeutic agent exposure. It is used to decrease the renal toxicity of cisplatin. The aim of this study was to determine the role of amifostine in warm ischemia kidney model for prevention of ischemia/reperfusion injury and also to find out the mechanism for prevention from ischemia/reperfusion injury if such an effect does exist. Materials and Methods: Adult female ...

  3. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  4. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  5. Biliary Infection May Exacerbate Biliary Cystogenesis Through the Induction of VEGF in Cholangiocytes of the Polycystic Kidney (PCK) Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xiang Shan; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Yoneda, Norihide; Lin, Zhen Hua; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-01-01

    Cholangitis arising from biliary infection dominates the prognosis in Caroli's disease. To clarify the influences of bacterial infection on the biliary cystogenesis, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed using the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat as an animal model of Caroli's disease. Cholangitis became a frequent histological finding in aged PCK rats, and neovascularization around the bile ducts also increased in aged PCK rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of vascular endo...

  6. Long-term cadmium exposure induces anemia in rats through hypoinduction of erythropoietin in the kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Sato, Masao [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Konno, Nobuhiro [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima, Masaaki [Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal, is distributed widely in the general environment of today. The characteristic clinical manifestations of chronic Cd intoxication include renal proximal tubular dysfunction, general osteomalacia with severe pains, and anemia. We have recently reported that the serum level of erythropoietin (EPO) remained low despite the severe anemia in patients with Itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd intoxication. In order to prove that the anemia observed in chronic Cd intoxication arises from low production of EPO in the kidneys following the renal injury, we administered Cd to rats for a long period and performed the analysis of EPO mRNA inducibility in the kidneys. The rats administered Cd for 6 and 9 months showed anemia with low levels of plasma EPO as well as biochemical and histological renal tubular damage, and also hypoinduction of EPO mRNA in the kidneys. The results indicate that chronic Cd intoxication causes anemia by disturbing the EPO-production capacity of renal cells. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of Eisenia foetida Extract against Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Golzar, Tahereh; Derakhshanfar, Amin

    2016-09-01

    Kidney injury is a deleterious side effect accompanied by therapeutic uses of cisplatin as an antineoplastic agent. However, no therapeutic option is available against this complication. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of a glycoprotein extract obtained from Eisenia foetida against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were treated with cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.) and Eisenia foetida extract (300 and 500 mg/kg, i.p. and/or oral). Serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly elevated in cisplatin-treated rats. A significant amount of lipid peroxidation was detected in drug-treated animals. Furthermore, kidney histopathological findings revealed acute tubular necrosis and hyaline cast formation caused by cisplatin. Eisenia foetida extract administration (300 and 500 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced serum BUN and creatinine and lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue. Moreover, cisplatin-induced histopathological lesions were alleviated by Eisenia foetida extract. This investigation concluded that Eisenia foetida extract ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This protection might be mediated by preventing cisplatin-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26864051

  8. Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against bromobenzene-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadde Ramakrishna; Sriram Gopi; Oruganti H.Setty

    2012-01-01

    Phyllanthus fraternus (PF) (Euphorbiaceae) is used in ancient Indian traditional phytomedicine to treat various human diseases including hepatic and renal disorders.The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PF aqueous extract against bromobenzene-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat kidney,compared with vitamin E used as positive control.Male Wistar rats divided into six (A-F) groups and the experimental animals were administered bromobenzene with or without prior administration of PF extract or vitamin E.Animals were sacrificed and the kidneys obtained for studying mitochondrial function and histopathology.Administration of bromobenzene caused significant changes,including decrease in the mitochondrial respiration and P/O ratios,an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation,and a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase,superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase,and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria with significant histopathological changes in the kidney.However,prior administration of the PF extract showed significant protection against bromobenzene induced renal damage by reversing all above parameters.Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by bromobenzene was protected much better with the PF extract than with vitamin E.These results suggested that the Phyllanthus fraternus extract is an efficient armament against nephrotoxicity induced by bromobenzene.

  9. Aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root induce redox imbalance in male rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Salau, A K; Yakubu, M T; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A; Okogun, J I

    2010-08-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root on redox homeostasis in male rat liver and kidney was investigated. Rats were grouped into four: A, B, C and D, where A (the control) received orally 1 mL of distilled water; B, C and D (test groups) received orally 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 28 days. Extract administration significantly reduced (p .05) in the serum acid phosphatase activity. There was also significant decrease (p < .05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver and kidney. Liver and kidney levels of GSH, vitamins C and E were also significantly reduced (p < .05). Serum malonidialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide increased significantly (p < .05) in all the extract-treated groups. The available data from this study revealed that aqueous extract of S. longepedunculata root exerted its toxicity in the animals by depleting the antioxidant systems. This may consequently expose the cells and cellular macromolecules to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species generated either from the metabolism of the extract or other in vivo means. PMID:20144964

  10. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  11. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-Fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-Ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolo...

  12. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Critical Illness: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Trietley, Gregory S.; Handler, Steven M.; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in older adults has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to delineate the determinants of risk for AKI in older compared to younger adults. Study Design Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in July 2000–September 2008. Setting & Participants We identified all adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (n=45,655) in a large tertiary care university hospital system. We excluded patients receiving dialysis or kidney transplant prior to hospital admission, and patients with baseline creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl, liver transplantation, indeterminate AKI status, or unknown age, leaving 39,938 patients. Predictor We collected data on multiple susceptibilities and exposures including age, sex, race, body mass, comorbid conditions, severity of illness, baseline kidney function, sepsis, and shock. Outcomes We defined AKI according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We examined susceptibilities and exposures across age strata for impact on development of AKI. Measurements We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of AKI across age groups. Results 25,230 patients (63.2%) were aged 55 years or older. Overall 25,120 patients (62.9%) developed AKI (69.2% aged 55 years or older). Examples of risk factors for AKI in the oldest age category (75 years or older) were drugs (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories), history of hypertension (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.25) and sepsis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.68–2.67). Fewer variables remained predictive of AKI as age increased and the model for older patients was less predictive (p<0.001). For the age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75 years or older, the AUCs were 0.744 (95% CI, 0.735–0.752), 0.714 (95% CI, 0.702–0.726), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.693–0.718), and 0.673 (95% CI, 0.661–0.685), respectively. Limitations Analysis may not apply to non-ICU patients

  13. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug

  14. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Katiane, E-mail: katianeroversi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Benvegnú, Dalila M., E-mail: dalilabenvegnu@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Roversi, Karine, E-mail: karineroversi-@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Trevizol, Fabíola, E-mail: fatrevizol@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Vey, Luciana T., E-mail: luciana.taschetto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Elias, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.elias@uffs.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Fracasso, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.fra@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  15. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in an adult ICU population

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Garzotto, Francesco; Perazella, Mark A.; Lentini, Paolo; Corradi, Valentina; Piccinni, Pasquale; Ronco, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a useful marker for acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly when the timing of renal insult is known. However, its performance in an adult critical care setting has not been well described. We performed this study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of plasma NGAL for early detection of AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We enrolled 307 consecutive adult patients admitted ...

  16. Effect of GLP-1 on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the kidney of type 1 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-jin LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats, and explore the protective effects and mechanisms of exenatide on the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into control group (group A, n=7 and diabetic model group (n=23. Type 1 diabetic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. It was successful in 19 rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group (group B, n=10 and diabetic with treatment of exenatide group (group C, n=9. Rats in group C were injected subcutaneously with exenatide in dose of 5μg/kg twice daily. Rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline by subcutaneous injection. All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks. The mRNA expression of renal p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein expression of CTGF was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The levels of blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea nitrogen, the albumin excretion rate, kidney index, the mRNA expressions of renal NOX4 and p22phox, and the protein expression of renal CTGF were significantly increased in group B compared with that in group A (P0.05. Conclusion Exenatide can decrease the expressions of renal NOX4, p22phox and CTGF, decline the index of urinary protein, and alleviate the kidney hypertrophy in type 1 diabetic rats, implying that exenatide exerted a protective effect on the kidney.

  17. Proteomic analysis of glycated proteins from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougale, Ashok D; Bhat, Shweta P; Bhujbal, Swapnil V; Zambare, Mandar R; Puntambekar, Shraddha; Somani, Rahul S; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Giri, Ashok P; Kulkarni, Mahesh J

    2012-01-01

    Glycation of proteins leading to formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been considered as one of the important causes of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, in this study, glycated proteins were detected by anti-AGE antibodies from kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat showing nephropathic symptoms, by using two dimensional electrophoresis and western blot analysis. These glycated proteins were identified and characterized by using combination of peptide mass finger printing and tandem mass spectrometric approaches. Glycated proteins identified included proteins from metabolic pathways, oxidative stress, cell signaling, and transport. Several of the proteins modified by glycation were involved in glucose metabolism. The extent of glycation was higher in diabetes compared to control, in the glycated proteins that were common to both control and diabetic kidney. Two dimensional electrophoresis proteins profiling of glycated proteins suggest that four of the glycated proteins were significantly up regulated in diabetes. PMID:21516357

  18. [Effect of cadmium chloride on polyphosphoinositides content in the rat liver and kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Borikov, A Iu

    2003-01-01

    The influence of cadmium chloride on the content of some fractions of polyphosphoinositides in the liver and kidneys of rats has been investigated in the work. We have reported that a single administration of sublethal dose of cadmium chloride leads to the long-term elevation of the content of diacylglycerol, which is responsible for the activation of protein kinase C. The increase of triphosphoinositides fraction content may be connected with activation of phosphoinositid-3-kinase and with accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-diphosphate and phosphatidilinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate, which are known as activators of some protein kinase C isoforms and also play an important role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The lipids fractions content changes were similar in the liver and kidneys, but had different time of response. PMID:14681986

  19. Direct nephrotoxicity of Russell's viper venom demonstrated in the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, P J; Pukrittayakamee, S; Ledingham, J G; Warrell, D A

    1989-03-01

    Envenoming by Russell's Viper (Vipera russelli) is an important cause of acute renal failure. The mechanism of renal damage is unresolved. It is difficult to obtain evidence of a direct nephrotoxic action because of the coincidental disturbance to the systemic circulation. We studied the action of Russell's Viper venom on the function of the isolated perfused rat kidney. Direct nephrotoxic action was indicated by a dose dependent decrease in inulin clearance and an increase in fractional excretion of sodium seen at venom concentrations down to 50 ng/ml, a concentration likely to be achieved in the human circulation after envenoming. The isolated perfused kidney was also used to assess the efficiency of antivenom and for a comparison with snake venoms from the Thai cobra (Naja kauothia) and the Nigerian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis ocellatus). PMID:2929855

  20. Belatacept for prevention of acute rejection in adult patients who have had a kidney transplant: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowski D; Vincenti F

    2012-01-01

    David Wojciechowski, Flavio VincentiKidney Transplant Service, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: In June 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved belatacept for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients. This review discusses the use of belatacept for the prevention of acute rejection as part of a maintenance immunosuppression regimen. Belatacept is a selective costimulation blocker designed to provide effective immunosuppressio...

  1. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J; Ming, Guo-Li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function. PMID:26161071

  2. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1, the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, somatic hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  3. The Prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes Following Exposure to Radio Frequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model in Rat Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency wave (RFW generated by base transceiver station (BTS has been reported to make deleterious effects on liver and kidney, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency wave (RFW-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on this organs by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity including: glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: control, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage, test (exposed to 900MHz RFW and the treated group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW. At the end of the experiment all animals were sacrificed and their liver and kidney were removed and were used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. Results: The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p<0.05. In the treated group vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared to the test group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in liver and kidney, and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  4. Puerarin protects rat kidney from lead-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chan-Min, E-mail: lcm9009@126.com [School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, No.101, Shanghai Road, Tangshan New Area, Xuzhou City 221116, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China); Ma, Jie-Qiong [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Yun-Zhi [School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, No.101, Shanghai Road, Tangshan New Area, Xuzhou City 221116, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2012-02-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead (Pb) induced injury in kidney have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats exposed to Pb. Wistar rats were exposed to lead acetate in the drinking water (500 mg Pb/l) with or without puerarin co-administration (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg PU/kg intragastrically once daily) for 75 days. Our data showed that puerarin significantly prevented Pb-induced nephrotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of kidney damage (serum urea, uric acid and creatinine) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, Pb-induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing of lipid peroxidation level and depleting of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney, were suppressed by treatment with puerarin. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that Pb-induced apoptosis in rat kidney was significantly inhibited by puerarin. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of puerarin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were markedly inhibited by the treatment of puerarin in the kidney of Pb-treated rats. Puerarin increased phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated eNOS and NO levels in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events including inhibition of mitochondria cytochrome c release and restoration of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in kidney of Pb-treated rats. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of Pb-induced apoptosis by puerarin is due at least in part to its antioxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Highlights: ► Puerarin prevented lead-induced nephrototoxicity. ► Puerarin reduced lead-induced increase in ROS and TBARS production

  5. Sodium arsenate induce changes in fatty acids profiles and oxidative damage in kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Mekni, Manel; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    Six groups of rats (n = 10 per group) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/l of sodium arsenate for 45 and 90 days. Kidneys from treated groups exposed to arsenic showed higher levels of trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids as trans C181n-9, trans C18:1n-11, and trans C18:2n-6 isomers. However, a significant decrease in eicosenoic (C20:1n-9) and arachidonic (C20:4n-6) acids were observed in treated rats. Moreover, the "Δ5 desaturase index" and the saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio were increased. There was a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde at 10 mg/l of treatment and in the amount of conjugated dienes after 90 days (p < 0.05). Significant kidney damage was observed at 10 mg/l by increase of plasma marker enzymes. Histological studies on the ultrastructure changes of kidney supported the toxic effect of arsenate exposure. Arsenate intoxication activates significantly the superoxide dismutase at 10 mg/l for 90 days, whereas the catalase activity was markedly inhibited in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly increased at 45 days and dramatically declined after 90 days at 10 mg/l (p < 0.05). A significant increase in the level of glutathione was marked for the groups treated for 45 and 90 days at 1 mg/l followed by a significant decrease for rats exposed to 10 mg/l for 90 days. An increase in the level of protein carbonyl was observed in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenate on fatty acid (FA) metabolism which concerns the synthesis pathway of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and leads to an increase in the trans FAs isomers. Therefore, FA-induced arsenate kidney damage could contribute to trigger kidney cancer. PMID:24920263

  6. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  7. Protective Effects of Prunus armeniaca L (Apricot on Low Dose Radiation-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KURUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate radiation-induced kidney damage and the protective effect of apricot against it using histological parameters. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups each containing 10 Sprague Dawley rats as follows: Regc: Rats on a regular diet (control diet for 28 weeks; control group. Regx: Rats on a regular diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Aprc: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks; control for no XRE. Aprx: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Reg+Aprc: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, followed by an apricot diet for the following 20 weeks; control. Reg + Aprx: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week, followed by an apricot diet for 20 weeks. RESULTS: The kidneys of the control groups showed normal kidney histology, whereas Regx group showed major histopathological changes, such as glomerular collapse, hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. The Aprx and Reg+Aprx groups showed smaller amounts of degeneration. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we suggest that agents with antioxidant properties such as apricot may have a positive effect in the treatment of renal diseases.

  8. Defining the molecular character of the developing and adult kidney podocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Brunskill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The podocyte is a remarkable cell type, which encases the capillaries of the kidney glomerulus. Although mesodermal in origin it sends out axonal like projections that wrap around the capillaries. These extend yet finer projections, the foot processes, which interdigitate, leaving between them the slit diaphragms, through which the glomerular filtrate must pass. The podocytes are a subject of keen interest because of their key roles in kidney development and disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report we identified and characterized a novel transgenic mouse line, MafB-GFP, which specifically marked the kidney podocytes from a very early stage of development. These mice were then used to facilitate the fluorescent activated cell sorting based purification of podocytes from embryos at E13.5 and E15.5, as well as adults. Microarrays were then used to globally define the gene expression states of podocytes at these different developmental stages. A remarkable picture emerged, identifying the multiple sets of genes that establish the neuronal, muscle, and phagocytic properties of podocytes. The complete combinatorial code of transcription factors that create the podocyte was characterized, and the global lists of growth factors and receptors they express were defined. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The complete molecular character of the in vivo podocyte is established for the first time. The active molecular functions and biological processes further define their unique combination of features. The results provide a resource atlas of gene expression patterns of developing and adult podocytes that will help to guide further research of these incredible cells.

  9. Expression cloning of a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter from rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, S S; Yan, N; Udenfriend, S

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of long-chain and aromatic neutral amino acids into cells is known to be catalyzed by the Na(+)-independent system L transporter, which is ubiquitous in animal cells and tissues. We have used a Xenopus oocyte expression system to clone the cDNA of a system L transporter from a rat kidney cDNA library. The 2.3-kilobase cDNA codes for a protein of 683 amino acids. The transporter has four putative membrane-spanning domains and bears no sequence or structural homology to any known animal ...

  10. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2004-01-01

    subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. The microscopic slides from the kidneys were silver methenamine-PAS stained. In the segments of the proximal convoluted tubules of the nephrons, presence of nuclear pyknosis, places of denuded basement membranes and presence of exfoliated tubular cells were counted...... tubule versus the subsequent loops. The distribution of the structural lesions is in accordance with the previously reported presence of a tubulo-capillary counter-current flow in the proximal convoluted tubule and, when related to the highly variable oxygen tension in the normal renal cortex of the rat...

  11. Independent effects of aldosterone and potassium on induction of potassium adaptation in rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, B.; Pan, L.; Deetjen, H; Guckian, V; Giebisch, G

    1987-01-01

    We examined the independent effects of a high potassium diet and increased aldosterone levels on the development of renal potassium adaptation. This condition is defined by the increased ability of the kidneys to excrete an acute infusion of potassium. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) and received aldosterone at basal levels (0.5 microgram/100 g X d) or at high levels (2.0 micrograms/100 g X d) for 10 d. In each experimental group, animals received either a control diet or a high potassium di...

  12. Purification and characterization of angiotensin II AT2 receptors from neonatal rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuffo, G M; Heemskerk, F M; Saavedra, J M

    1993-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) AT2 receptors were purified 40,000-fold to a nearly homogeneous state after solubilization from neonatal rat kidney membranes with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propane-sulfonic acid. Comparable IC50 values for the soluble extract (0.32 nM) and membranes (0.31 nM) were obtained by competition curves with 125I-labeled CGP42112, a selective AT2 ligand. Binding to AT2 receptors in the soluble extract was not sensitive to dithiothreitol. AT2 receptors ...

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance in monitoring of nitric oxide production after kidney transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛; 陈希; 王晓峰; 黄晓波; 曲星珂; 叶海云; 张小东; 侯树坤; 朱积川

    2004-01-01

    Background Much research has been focused on ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) to the transplanted organs. As a free radical, nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in IRI. In this study, the production of NO and its functions during IRI were monitored in rat models after allotransplantation of kidney grafts.Methods Of 75 male LEW rats, 30 served as donors, and the remaining 45 rats were divided into three groups (15 rats in each group): controls (group 1), kidney allotransplantation followed by bilateral nephrectomy during reperfusion (group 2), 2 hours before operation, donors and recipients were treated with NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, at a dose of 30 mg/kg (group 3). Bilateral nephrectomies were performed while kidney grafts were reperfused. The kidney grafts were hypothemically stored for 24 hours. The production of NO before and after reperfusion was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The creatinine level, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the protein carbonyl content in tissue samples were recorded on the first and the fifth day after operation. The data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. Differences were considered to be statistically significant when a P value was less than 0.05.Results After reperfusion for 15 minutes, the production of NO increased remarkably and kept increasing till 120 minutes, after which the level returned to normal. In group 3, which was pretreated with L-NAME, creatinine levels were higher than those in group 2 at the 24th hour (4.10±0.50 mg/dl vs. 3.77±0.42 mg/dl, P<0.05) and the 120th hour (3.19±0.79 mg/dl vs. 2.22±0.53 mg/dl, P<0.05). GFR levels in group 3 were lower than those in group 2 at the 24th hour (0.50±0.12 ml/min vs. 0.71±0.19 ml/min, P<0.05) and the 120th hour (0.59±0.38 ml/min vs. 1.27±0.23 ml/min, P<0.01). The content of protein carbonyl in tissue samples of group 3 was lower than that in group 2 at the 24th hour (29.01±7.02 nmol

  14. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstin Stemmer; Diego Perez-Tilve; Gayathri Ananthakrishnan; Anja Bort; Seeley, Randy J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Pfluger, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens) or partially r...

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  16. Kidney-specific inactivation of the Pkd1 gene induces rapid cyst formation in developing kidneys and a slow onset of disease in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantinga-van Leeuwen, Irma S; Leonhard, Wouter N; van der Wal, Annemieke; Breuning, Martijn H; de Heer, Emile; Peters, Dorien J M

    2007-12-15

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, caused by mutations in the PKD1 gene, is characterized by progressive deterioration of kidney function due to the formation of thousands of cysts leading to kidney failure in mid-life or later. How cysts develop and grow is currently unknown, although extensive research revealed a plethora of cellular changes in cyst lining cells. We have constructed a tamoxifen-inducible, kidney epithelium-specific Pkd1-deletion mouse model. Upon administration of tamoxifen to these mice, a genomic fragment containing exons 2-11 of the Pkd1-gene is specifically deleted in the kidneys and cysts are formed. Interestingly, the timing of Pkd1-deletion has strong effects on the phenotype. At 1 month upon gene disruption, adult mice develop only a very mild cystic phenotype showing some small cysts and dilated tubules. Young mice, however, show massive cyst formation. In these mice, at the moment of gene disruption, cell proliferation takes place to elongate the nephron. Our data indicate that Pkd1 gene deficiency does not initiate sufficient autonomous cell proliferation leading to cyst formation and that additional stimuli are required. Furthermore, we show that one germ-line mutation of Pkd1 is already associated with increased proliferation. PMID:17932118

  17. A high affinity kidney targeting by chitobionic acid-conjugated polysorbitol gene transporter alleviates unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kim, Sanghwa; Firdous, Jannatul; Lee, Ah-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Seo, Min Kyeong; Park, Tae-Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-01

    Aside from kidney transplantation - a procedure which is exceedingly dependent on donor-match and availability leading to excessive costs - there are currently no permanent treatments available which reverse kidney injury and failure. However, kidney-specific targeted gene therapy has outstanding potential to treat kidney-related dysfunction. Herein we report a novel kidney-specific targeted gene delivery system developed through the conjugation of chitobionic acid (CBA) to a polysorbitol gene transporter (PSGT) synthesized from sorbitol diacrylate and low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) carrying hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene to alleviate unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. CBA-PSGT performed exceptionally well for targeted delivery of HGF to kidney tissues compared to its non-targeted counterparts (P type I and II), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and the expressions of ICAM-1, TIMP-1 and α-SMA which play a critical role in obstructive kidney functions. Therefore, CBA-PSGT should be further investigated because of its potential to alleviate UUO and kidney-related diseases using high affinity kidney targeting. PMID:27318934

  18. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel;

    2014-01-01

    did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)‐diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) 1H‐MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin...... administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization......Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with...

  19. Heme oxygenase activity and some indices of antioxidant protection in rat liver and kidney in glycerol model of rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Filimonenko, V P

    2003-01-01

    Activity of heme oxygenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, the content of reduced glutathione and total heme in the liver and kidneys, and serum absorption spectrum in the Soret band were studied in rats with glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Glycerol increased the content of heme-containing metabolites in the serum and the total heme content in the liver and kidneys, and decreased the content of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in the examined organs. Superoxide dismutase activity increased in the liver and decreased in the kidneys. Heme oxygenase activity increased in the liver and kidneys 2 and 6 h postinjection, respectively. The effects of heme delivered to the liver and kidneys from the vascular bed on the antioxidant defense and heme oxygenase activity were studied. PMID:12717508

  20. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Hermann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are found on circulating leukocytes. Leukocyte infiltration in the vascular wall accompanies PAI-1, MCP-1, iNOS and Tissue Factor expression. Furthermore we show evidence that Ang II causes the upregulation of NF-kB in our model. Methods We started PDTC-treatment on four weeks old dTGR (200 mg/kg sc and age-matched SD rats.. Blood-pressure- and albuminuria- measurements were monitored during the treatement period (four weeks. The seven weeks old animals were killed, hearts and kidneys were isolated and used for immunohistochemical-and electromobility shift assay analsis. Results Chronic treatment with the antioxidant PDTC decreased blood pressure (162 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.02. Cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced (4.90 ± 0.1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.1 mg/g, p Conclusion Our data show that inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC markedly reduces inflammation, iNOS expression in the dTGR most likely leading to decreased cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation. Thus, NF-κB activation plays an important role in ANG II-induced end-organ damage.

  1. Integrative microRNA-gene expression network analysis in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rat kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuchao; Qin, Baolong; Hu, Henglong; Zhang, Jiaqiao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence a variety of biological functions by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Aberrant miRNA expression has been associated with many human diseases. Urolithiasis is a common disease, and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is an important risk factor for calcium urolithiasis. However, miRNA expression patterns and their biological functions in urolithiasis remain unknown. Methods and Results. A multi-step approach combining microarray miRNA and mRNA expression profile and bioinformatics analysis was adopted to analyze dysregulated miRNAs and genes in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rat kidneys, using normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as controls. We identified 2418 mRNAs and 19 miRNAs as significantly differentially expressed, over 700 gene ontology (GO) terms and 83 KEGG pathways that were significantly enriched in GHS rats. In addition, we constructed an miRNA-gene network that suggested that rno-miR-674-5p, rno-miR-672-5p, rno-miR-138-5p and rno-miR-21-3p may play important roles in the regulatory network. Furthermore, signal-net analysis suggested that NF-kappa B likely plays a crucial role in hypercalciuria urolithiasis. Conclusions. This study presents a global view of mRNA and miRNA expression in GHS rat kidneys, and suggests that miRNAs may be important in the regulation of hypercalciuria. The data provide valuable insights for future research, which should aim at validating the role of the genes featured here in the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria. PMID:27069814

  2. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Kepecs, David M.; Gilbert, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD. PMID:26741142

  3. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  4. Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Explore the Role of Kidney Transporters in Renal Reabsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in the male and female rat to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both the male and female rat indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contributes to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  5. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  6. Alpha -tocopherol supplementation on chromium toxicity : a study on rat liver and kidney cell membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Membrane damage is one of the important consequence of chromium, an environmental toxicant, to produce cytotoxicity. α-tocopherol, a membrane protectant can be used to reduce the chromium-induced membrane damage. In the present study, the impact of chromium in presence and absence of α-tocopherol was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80 - 100g body weight). Significant increase in membrane cholesterol level as well as significant decrease in membrane phospholipid level in chromium exposed ( 0.8 mg /100g body weight/d, i.p., for 4 weeks) animals suggest structural alteration of both liver and kidney plasma memebrane. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of plasma membrane were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment. However, α-tocopherol (30 mg / 100g diet) supplementation can restrict the changes in these membrane-bound enzyme activities. Thus, the usefulness of dietary supplementation of α-tocopherol to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage is suggested.

  7. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25982389

  8. Biochemical effects of gadolinium chloride in rats liver and kidney studied by 1H NMR metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Peiqiu; WEI Lai; Wu Huifeng; LI Weisheng; WU Yijie; LI Xiaojing; NI Jiazuan; PEI Fengkui

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical effects of gadolinium chloride were studied using high-resolution IH nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spec-troscopy to investigate the biochemical composition of tissue (liver and kidney) aqueous extracts obtained from control and gadolinium chlo-ride (GdCl3) (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) treated rats. Tissue samples were collected at 48, 96 and 168 h p.d. after exposure to GdCl3, and extracted using methanol/chloroform solvent system. 1H NMR spectra of tissue extracts were analyzed by pat-tern recognition using principal components analysis. The liver damages caused by GdCl3 were characterized by increased succinate and de-creased glycogen level and elevated lactate, alanine and betaine concentration in liver. Furthermore, the increase of creatine and lactate, and decrease of glutamate, alanine, phosphocholine, glycophosphocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositoi and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)levels in kidney illustrated kidney disturbance induced by GdCl3.

  9. Effects of Thalassophryne nattereri fish venom in isolated perfused rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facó, P E G; Havt, A; Barbosa, P S F; Nobre, A C L; Bezerra, G P; Menezes, D B; Fonteles, M C; Lopes-Ferreira, M; Monteiro, H S A

    2003-10-01

    Thalassophryne nattereri, popularly known as Niquim, is a venomous fish responsible for many accidents in fishermen in the Northeast of Brazil. The effects of T. nattereri venom on renal physiology has not been tested. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats of 240-280 g weight were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6g% of previously dialyzed bovine serum albumin. The effects of Niquim venom were studied on the perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), percent of sodium tubular transport (%TNa(+)), percent of potassium tubular transport (%TK(+)) and percent of chloride tubular transport (%TCl(-)). The venom of T. nattereri (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 microg/ml) was always added to the system 30 minutes after the beginning of each experiment (n=6). All experiments were preceded by 30 minutes internal control period and an external control group, where kidneys were perfused with only Krebs-Henseleit solution. All three doses tested promoted increases in PP and RVR. The first two doses also increased GFR and UF. The higher dose promoted decreases in GFR, UF, %TNa(+), %TK(+), %TCl(-). In the treated groups we observed hyalin casts inside all tubules and proteinaceous material in the urinary space. We conclude that the effects resulted from niquim venom agents that promoted a direct effect in kidney cells causing the release of vasoactive factors. PMID:14529732

  10. Cellular mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance in the copper-loaded rat. III. Ultrastructural changes and copper localization in the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentealba, I C; Haywood, S.; Foster, J.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of copper and related changes have been studied in copper-loaded rat kidneys at the ultrastructural level by X-ray electron probe microanalysis, in order to clarify the pathogenesis of copper-induced damage and subsequent recovery in this organ. Male rats fed a high copper diet (1500 ppm) for 16 weeks were killed at intervals; their kidneys were removed and portions of kidney cortex fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopy: other samples were...

  11. Telmisartan Ameliorates Fibrocystic Liver Disease in an Orthologous Rat Model of Human Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Daisuke; Kugita, Masanori; Sasaki, Mai; Horie, Shigeo; Nakanishi, Koichi; Abe, Takaaki; Aukema, Harold M.; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Nagao, Shizuko

    2013-01-01

    Human autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) produces kidneys which are massively enlarged due to multiple cysts, hypertension, and congenital hepatic fibrosis characterized by dilated bile ducts and portal hypertension. The PCK rat is an orthologous model of human ARPKD with numerous fluid-filled cysts caused by stimulated cellular proliferation in the renal tubules and hepatic bile duct epithelia, with interstitial fibrosis developed in the liver. We previously reported that a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ full agonist ameliorated kidney and liver disease in PCK rats. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) used widely as an antihypertensive drug and shows partial PPAR-γ agonist activity. It also has nephroprotective activity in diabetes and renal injury and prevents the effects of drug-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, we determined whether telmisartan ameliorates progression of polycystic kidney and fibrocystic liver disease in PCK rats. Five male and 5 female PCK and normal control (+/+) rats were orally administered 3 mg/kg telmisartan or vehicle every day from 4 to 20 weeks of age. Treatment with telmisartan decreased blood pressure in both PCK and +/+ rats. Blood levels of aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and urea nitrogen were unaffected by telmisartan treatment. There was no effect on kidney disease progression, but liver weight relative to body weight, liver cystic area, hepatic fibrosis index, expression levels of Ki67 and TGF-β, and the number of Ki67- and TGF-β-positive interstitial cells in the liver were significantly decreased in telmisartan-treated PCK rats. Therefore, telmisartan ameliorates congenital hepatic fibrosis in ARPKD, possibly through the inhibition of signaling cascades responsible for cellular proliferation and interstitial fibrosis in PCK rats. The present results support the potential therapeutic use of ARBs for the

  12. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  13. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  14. Image quality dependence on thickness of sliced rat kidney taken by a simplest DEI construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excised rat kidney slices were investigated using a simplified diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) configuration with only two crystals: the first one working as monochromator and the second one working as analyzer in the Bragg geometry that was developed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Many fine anatomic structures of the sliced rat kidneys with thickness of 2mm and 120μm can be distinguished clearly in the DEI images that were obtained at the shoulder of a rocking curve. The authors would like to emphasize that the thick and thin slices DEI provides very different images; in the thick sample only the structure with the big density gradient or that near the surface where X-ray comes out can be distinguished, while in the thin ones some fine structures, which can not be distinguished at the thick sample under the same condition, can be seen very clearly. The reason related with the counteraction of δ(x,y,z) gradient in the integral process along the X-ray path inside the thick sample is discussed

  15. Osteopontin knockdown in the kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to reduction in renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hidenori; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Nozawa, Masahiro; Umekawa, Tohru; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; De Velasco, Marco A; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Khan, Saeed R

    2014-06-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) expression is increased in kidneys of rats with ethylene glycol (EG) induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of OPN knockdown by in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA on deposition of CaOx crystals in the kidneys. Hyperoxaluria was induced in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by administering 1.5% EG in drinking water for 2 weeks. Four groups of six rats each were studied: Group A, untreated animals (tap water); Group B, administering 1.5% EG; Group C, 1.5% EG with in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA; Group D, 1.5% EG with in vivo transfection of negative control siRNA. OPN siRNA transfections were performed on day 1 and 8 by renal sub-capsular injection. Rats were killed at day 15 and kidneys were removed. Extent of crystal deposition was determined by measuring renal calcium concentrations and counting renal crystal deposits. OPN siRNA transfection resulted in significant reduction in expression of OPN mRNA as well as protein in group C compared to group B. Reduction in OPN expression was associated with significant decrease in crystal deposition in group C compared to group B. Specific suppression of OPN mRNA expression in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to a decrease in OPN production and simultaneously inhibits renal crystal deposition. PMID:24619192

  16. Proteomic analysis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD dipalmitate-induced toxicity in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Stefanie; Oberemm, Axel; Buhrke, Thorsten; Merschenz, Julia; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its fatty acid esters are formed during thermal treatment of fat-containing foodstuff in the presence of salt. Toxicological studies indicate a carcinogenic potential of 3-MCPD, pointing to the kidney as the main target organ. It is assumed that the toxicological property of 3-MCPD esters is constituted by the release of 3-MCPD during digestion. In a repeated-dose 28-day oral toxicity study using Wistar rats, animals were treated with equimolar doses of either 3-MCPD (10 mg/kg body weight) or 3-MCPD dipalmitate (53 mg/kg body weight). A lower dose of 3-MCPD dipalmitate (13.3 mg/kg body weight) was also applied. No histopathologically visible toxicity was observed in the study. To address molecular mechanisms leading to toxicity of 3-MCPD and its esters, kidney samples were analyzed by a comparative, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry proteomic approach. After either 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD dipalmitate treatment, alterations in proteins related to various metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism, were detected. These findings confirm and complement previous data on the inhibition of glucose metabolism by 3-MCPD. Altogether, broad overlap of 3-MCPD- and 3-MCPD dipalmitate-induced proteomic changes was observed. Further analyses revealed that the observed induction of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (Gstp1) occurred at the transcriptional level and was not related to nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 activation. Overall, the results indicate common mechanisms of toxicity for 3-MCPD and its dipalmitate ester. Furthermore, data suggest Gstp1 as a sensitive marker for early 3-MCPD-induced effects in rat kidney. PMID:26253146

  17. Comment on: A model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by kidney weight in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, as one of the most applicable and potent anticancer medication, is used in the treatment of a various pediatric and adult malignancies. However, it gives side-effects such as renal toxicity which is dose-dependent, and thus limited its usage. Treatment with cisplatin induces the inflammatory mechanisms, which leads to a reduction in the antioxidant levels, leading to a failure of the antioxidant protection against free-radical damage generated by antitumor drugs. The oxidative stress, induced by cisplatin in the kidney was partially inhibited by antioxidant therapy using selenium, glutathione, flavonoids, and superoxide dismutase.

  18. Design and methods of the NiCK study: neurocognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging analysis of children and young adults with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Erum A.; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Ruebner, Rebecca L.; Detre, John A.; Liu, Hua-shan; Davatzikos, Christos; Erus, Guray; Doshi, Jimit J.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Moodalbail, Divya G; Gur, Ruben C.; Port, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is strongly linked to neurocognitive deficits in adults and children, but the pathophysiologic processes leading to these deficits remain poorly understood. The NiCK study (Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease) seeks to address critical gaps in our understanding of the biological basis for neurologic abnormalities in chronic kidney disease. In this report, we describe the ob...

  19. CD47 Blockade Reduces Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Improves Outcomes in a Rat Kidney Transplant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiing; Manning, Pamela T.; Jia, Jianluo; Gaut, Joseph P.; Xiao, Zhen-yu; Capoccia, Ben J.; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Hiebsch, Ronald R.; Upadhya, Gundumi; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Frazier, William A.; Chapman, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) significantly contributes to delayed graft function and inflammation leading to graft loss. IRI is exacerbated by the thrombospondin-1/CD47 system through inhibition of nitric oxide signaling. We postulate that CD47 blockade and prevention of nitric oxide inhibition reduces IRI in organ transplantation. Methods We used a syngeneic rat renal transplantation model of IRI with bilaterally nephrectomized recipients to evaluate the effect of a CD47 monoclonal antibody (CD47mAb) on IRI. Donor kidneys were flushed with CD47mAb OX101 or an isotype-matched control immunoglobulin and stored at 4°C in UW solution for 6 hours prior to transplantation. Results CD47mAb perfusion of donor kidneys resulted in marked improvement in post-transplant survival, lower levels of serum creatinine, BUN, phosphorus and magnesium and less histologic evidence of injury. In contrast, control groups did not survive more than 5 days, had increased biochemical indicators of renal injury and exhibited severe pathological injury with tubular atrophy and necrosis. Recipients of CD47mAb-treated kidneys showed decreased levels of plasma biomarkers of renal injury including cystatin C, osteopontin, TIMP1, β2-microglobulin, VEGF-A and clusterin compared to the control group. Furthermore, laser Doppler assessment showed higher renal blood flow in the CD47mAb-treated kidneys. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence for the use of CD47 antibody-mediated blockade to reduce IRI and improve organ preservation for renal transplantation. PMID:24983310

  20. Interlobular arteries from two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats exhibit impaired vasodilator response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporková, Alexandra; Reddy, N. Rami; Falck, John R.; Imig, John D.; Kopkan, Libor; Sadowski, Janusz; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Background Small renal arteries have a significant role in regulation of renal hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP). To study potential changes in regulation of vascular function in hypertension, we examined renal vasodilatory responses of small arteries from nonclipped kidneys of the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertensive rats to native epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are believed to be involved in regulation of renal vascular function and BP. Two newly synthesized EET analogs were also examined. Methods Renal interlobular arteries isolated from the nonclipped kidneys on day 28 after clipping were preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE), pressurized, and the effects of a 14,15-EET analog, native 14,15-EET, and 11,12-ether-EET-8ZE, an analog of 11,12-EET, on the vascular diameter were determined and compared to the responses of arteries from the kidneys of sham-operated rats. Results In the arteries from non-clipped kidneys isolated in the maintenance phase of Goldblatt hypertension the maximal vasodilatory response to 14,15-EET analog was 30.1 ± 2.8% versus 49.8 ± 7.2% in sham-operated rats; the respective values for 11,12-ther-EET-8ZE were 31.4± 6.4% versus 80.4±6%, and for native EETs they were 41.7 ± 6.6 % versus 62.8 ± 4.4 % (P ≤ 0.05 for each difference). Conclusions We propose that reduced vasodilatory action and decreased intrarenal bioavailability of EETs combined with intrarenal ANG II levels that are inappropriately high for hypertensive rats underlie functional derangements of the nonclipped kidneys of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats. These derangements could play an important role in pathophysiology of sustained BP elevation observed in this animal model of human renovascular hypertension. PMID:27140711

  1. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Shanmugam; K Mallikarjuna; K Sathyavelu Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): normal control (NC), alcohol treatment (At), d...

  2. Phosphate-activated glutaminase activity is enhanced in brain, intestine and kidneys of rats following portacaval anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Gomez, M.; Jover, M.; Diaz-Gomez, D.; Teran, L C; Rodrigo, R.; Camacho, I.; Echevarria, M; Felipo, V.; Bautista, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether portacaval anastomosis (PCA) in rats affects the protein expression and/or activity of glutaminase in kidneys, intestines and in three brain areas of cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum and to explain the neurological alterations found in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were grouped into sham-operation control (n=8) or portacaval shunt (n=8). Twenty-eight days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed. The duoden...

  3. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadnejad, Hossein; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Yuzbashian, Emad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03-2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD. PMID:27104561

  4. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin aα null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Reddy, Ramesh N; Price, S Russ;

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα) were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to...... deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development......, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout...

  5. Inhibition of Sodium-GlucoseCotransporter 2 with Dapagliflozin in Han: SPRD Rats with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dapagliflozin (DAPA is a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 which induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis. The therapeutic effect of DAPA in progressing stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD has not been studied. Methods: We examined the effect of DAPA in the Han: SPRD rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle (VEH was administered orally via gavage to 5 week old male Han: SPRD (Cy/+ or control (+/+ rats (n = 8-9 per group for 5 weeks. Blood and urine were collected at baseline and after 2.5 and 5 weeks of treatment to assess renal function and albuminuria. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed and kidneys were excised for histological analysis. Results: After 5 weeks of treatment, DAPA-treated Cy/+ and +/+ rats exhibited significantly higher glucosuria, water intake and urine output than VEH-treated rats. DAPA-treated Cy/+ rats also exhibited significantly higher clearances for creatinine and BUN and less albuminuria than VEH-treated Cy/+ rats. DAPA treatment for 5 weeks resulted in a significant increase of the kidney weight in Cy/+ rats but no change in cyst growth. The degree of tubular epithelial cell proliferation, macrophage infiltration and interstitial fibrosis was also similar in DAPA-and VEH-treated Cy/+ rats. Conclusion: The induction of glucosuria with the SGLT2-specific inhibitor DAPA was associated with improved renal function and decreased albuminuria, but had no effect on cyst growth in Cy/+ rats. Overall the beneficial effects of DAPA in this PKD model were weaker than the previously described effects of the combined SGLT1/2 inhibitor phlorizin.

  6. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  7. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  8. NR1I2 polymorphisms are related to tacrolimus dose-adjusted exposure and BK viremia in adult kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Lee, Katie J; Bergmann, Troels K; Johnson, David W; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Rockett, Rebecca J; Staatz, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    exposure, and clinical outcomes in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Exposures to tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and total and free prednisolone were estimated at month 1 posttransplant using validated multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies. RESULTS: In the 158 subjects studied...

  9. Urinary epidermal growth factor is excreted from the rat isolated perfused kidney in the absence of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Hilchey, S D; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    Large amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in urine and the majority of this urinary EGF appears to be of renal origin. EGF is synthesized in the kidneys as a membrane-bound 160 kDa precursor, in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in the early part of the distal convoluted tub....... This is further evidence suggesting an intrarenal source of urinary EGF and suggests that the EGF precursor in the rat kidney is processed by enzyme(s) of renal origin.......Large amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in urine and the majority of this urinary EGF appears to be of renal origin. EGF is synthesized in the kidneys as a membrane-bound 160 kDa precursor, in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in the early part of the distal convoluted....... Administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduced urinary EGF excretion from the rat isolated perfused kidney by approximately 50%. In conclusion, the rat isolated perfused kidney excreted significant amounts of urinary EGF without having access to plasma, and EGF excretion was reduced by aprotinin...

  10. Effects of Brown Seaweed (Sargassum polycystum Extracts on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas of Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Motshakeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The edible seaweed Sargassum polycystum (SP is traditionally used against several human diseases. This investigation evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of SP ethanolic and aqueous extracts on the pancreatic, hepatic, and renal morphology of type 2 diabetic rats (T2DM. T2DM was induced by feeding rats on high calorie diet followed by a low dose streptozotocin. Changes in the diabetic rat organs in SP treated groups with different doses of extracts were compared with normal rats, diabetic control rats, and metformin treated rats. After 22 days of treatment, the pathological lesions of the livers and kidneys in the diabetic rats were quantitatively and qualitatively alleviated (P<0.05 by both the SP extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight and by metformin. All the treated diabetic groups revealed marked improvement in the histopathology of the pancreas compared with the control diabetic group. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of SP and metformin revealed pancreas protective or restorative effects. The seaweed extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight reduced the liver and kidney damages in the diabetic rats and may exert tissue repair or restoration of the pancreatic islets in experimentally induced diabetes to produce the beneficial homeostatic effects.

  11. Restorative Effects of Zinc and Selenium on Cadmium-induced Kidney Oxidative Damage in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the kidney is influenced by zinc and selenium. Methods Five groups of rats were maintained: (A) Cd (CdCl2,400 μg@kg-1 day-1 intraperitoneal injection); (B) Cd+Zn (ZnC12, 20mg kg-1.day-1 hypodermic injection); (C) Cd+Se (Na2SeO3, 350 μg.kg-1.day-1 via a stomach tube); (D) Cd+Zn+Se; (E)treated with physiological saline as a sham-handled control. The rats were given treatmenl for a period of 4 weeks. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GH-Px), catalase (CAT), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidney tissue were measured to assess the oxidative stress. Urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was used as an indicator of tubular cell damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Results In group C and D, activities of SOD (110.5 ± 5.2, 126.8 ± 7.0; P < 0.05) and GSH-Px (85.7 ± 4.9,94.6 ± 7.3; P < 0.05) were higher than those in group A(84.7 ± 3.3; 56.9 ± 3.8); and in group B, only the activity of GSH-Px (80.0 + 4.3, P < 0.01) increased in comparison with that in group A (56.9 ± 3.8). Significant increase of MDA (P < 0.05) was seen in group B (31.1 ± 4.7) and C (35.0 + 4.1) when compared with control values (17.2 ± 1.8). No difference was found in the level of MDA between group D (18.9 ± 2.6) and control. The activity of LDH in urine of control group (0.06 ± 0.02) was lower than that of group A (0.46 ± 0.19, P<0.05), B (0.10± 0.05, P<0.05) and C (0.14 ± 0.07, P<0.05), and there was no significant change between control (0.06 + 0.02) and group D (0.08 ± 0.02). Conclusion Zinc or selenium could partially alleviate the oxidative stress induced by cadmium in kidney, but administration cadmium in combination with zinc and selenium efficiently protects kidney from cadmiuminduced oxidative damage.

  12. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  13. Modulation of arachidonic Acid metabolism in the rat kidney by sulforaphane: implications for regulation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbry, Fawzy; Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Balkowiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of sulforaphane (SF), the main active isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables, on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the kidney and its effect on arterial blood pressure, using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as models. Methods. Rats were treated for 8 weeks with either drinking water alone (control) or SF (20 or 40 mg/kg) added to drinking water. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at 7-day intervals throughout the study. At the end of treatment rats were euthanized, and kidneys were harvested to prepare microsomes and measure enzymes involved in regulation of vasoactive metabolites: CYP4A, the key enzyme in the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for the degradation of the vasodilator metabolites such as epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Effect of SF on kidney expression of CYP4A was investigated by immunoblotting. Results. We found that treatment with SF leads to significant reductions in both, the expression and activity of renal CYP4A isozymes, as well as the activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Consistent with these data, we have found that treatment with SF resisted the progressive rise in MAP in the developing SHR in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. This is the first demonstration that SF modulates the metabolism of AA by both P450 enzymes and sEH in SHR rats. This may represent a novel mechanism by which SF protects SHR rats against the progressive rise in blood pressure. PMID:24734194

  14. Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion of MAG-3 in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) has recently been introduced as a new radiopharmaceutical for dynamic renal scintigraphy. To elucidate the mechanism of renal excretion, micropuncture experiments were performed in rat kidneys for direct measurements of glomerular filtration and tubular secretory capacity. Fluid of Bowman space was collected from superficial glomeruli and analyzed for its contents of [99mTc]MAG-3, [125I]hippurate and [3H]inulin during constant infusion of these compounds. The ratio of activity of ultrafiltrate to that of arterial plasma was 0.23 for MAG-3, 0.68 for hippurate and 1.04 for inulin which demonstrates that the filtrated amount of MAG-3 is only 23% of that of inulin, presumably because of higher plasma protein binding which was also measured in vitro and found to be 80 +/- 1.5% for MAG-3 and 32 +/- 2% for [125I]hippurate. Proximal and distal tubules were also micropunctured and their tubular fluid as well as the final urine analyzed for the activity of hippurate and MAG-3. The tubular fluid to plasma ratio values along the nephron and in the final urine were all lower for MAG-3 than for hippurate, indicating a lower secretory capacity. From measurements of whole renal clearance, GFR and plasma protein binding the filtered amount of MAG-3 was 0.26 and of hippurate 0.87 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.001) and the secreted amount 2.01 and 2.38 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.05), respectively. We conclude that MAG-3 is predominantly excreted by tubular secretion and that the lower renal clearance of MAG-3 as compared with that of hippurate is a result both of a substantially decreased glomerular filtration and of a lower tubular secretion

  15. A novel Hessian based algorithm for rat kidney glomerulus detection in 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wu, Teresa; Bennett, Kevin M.

    2015-03-01

    The glomeruli of the kidney perform the key role of blood filtration and the number of glomeruli in a kidney is correlated with susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and chronic cardiovascular disease. This motivates the development of new technology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the number of glomeruli and nephrons in vivo. However, there is currently a lack of computationally efficient techniques to perform fast, reliable and accurate counts of glomeruli in MR images due to the issues inherent in MRI, such as acquisition noise, partial volume effects (the mixture of several tissue signals in a voxel) and bias field (spatial intensity inhomogeneity). Such challenges are particularly severe because the glomeruli are very small, (in our case, a MRI image is ~16 million voxels, each glomerulus is in the size of 8~20 voxels), and the number of glomeruli is very large. To address this, we have developed an efficient Hessian based Difference of Gaussians (HDoG) detector to identify the glomeruli on 3D rat MR images. The image is first smoothed via DoG followed by the Hessian process to pre-segment and delineate the boundary of the glomerulus candidates. This then provides a basis to extract regional features used in an unsupervised clustering algorithm, completing segmentation by removing the false identifications occurred in the pre-segmentation. The experimental results show that Hessian based DoG has the potential to automatically detect glomeruli,from MRI in 3D, enabling new measurements of renal microstructure and pathology in preclinical and clinical studies.

  16. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maintenance of extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc). We assessed Na+ and Cl- fractional excretion (FENa+ and FECl-, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FENa+, FECl-, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FENa+, FECl-, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  17. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

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    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  18. Hyperglycemic Stress Impairs the Stemness Capacity of Kidney Stem Cells in Rats.

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    Guang Yang

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes is significantly higher than that of patients without diabetes, and may be associated with the poor stemness capacity of kidney stem cells (KSCs and limited recovery of injured renal tubules. To investigate the effects of hyperglycemic stress on KSC stemness, KSCs were isolated from the rat renal papilla and analyzed for their self-renewal and differentiation abilities. Our results showed that isolated KSCs expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers N-cadherin, Nestin, CD133, CD29, CD90, and CD73. Moreover, KSCs co-cultured with hypoxia-injured renal tubular epithelial cell (RTECs induced the expression of the mature epithelial cell marker CK18, suggesting that the KSCs could differentiate into RTECs in vitro. However, KSC proliferation, differentiation ability and tolerance to hypoxia were decreased in high-glucose cultures. Taken together, these results suggest the high-glucose microenvironment can damage the reparative ability of KSCs. It may result in a decreased of recovery capability of renal tubules from injury.

  19. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  20. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

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    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  1. Distinct injury markers for the early detection and prognosis of incident acute kidney injury in critically ill adults with preserved kidney function

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, Edward D.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Eden, Svetlana; Wickersham, Nancy; Cripps, Ben; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel biomarkers to detect incident acute kidney injury (AKI) in the critically ill is hindered by heterogeneity of injury and the potentially confounding effects of prevalent AKI. Here we examined the ability of urine NGAL (NGAL), L-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP), and Cystatin C to predict AKI development, death, and dialysis in a nested case-control study of 380 critically ill adults with an eGFR over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. One-hundred thirty AKI cases were identified follo...

  2. Phosphate-activated glutaminase activity is enhanced in brain, intestine and kidneys of rats following portacaval anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Jover, María; Díaz-Gómez, Daniel; de Terán, Laura Collantes; Rodrigo, Regina; Camacho, Inés; Echevarría, Miriam; Felipo, Vicente; Bautista, Juan D

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether portacaval anastomosis (PCA) in rats affects the protein expression and/or activity of glutaminase in kidneys, intestines and in three brain areas of cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum and to explain the neurological alterations found in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were grouped into sham-operation control (n = 8) or portacaval shunt (n = 8). Twenty-eight days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed. The duodenum, kidney and brain were removed, homogenised and mitochondria were isolated. Ammonia was measured in brain and blood. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) activity was determined by measuring ammonia production following incubation for one hour at 37 °C with O-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and specific activity expressed in units per gram of protein (µkat/g of protein). Protein expression was measured by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Duodenal and kidney PAG activities together with protein content were significantly higher in PCA group than in control or sham-operated rats (duodenum PAG activity was 976.95±268.87 µkat/g of protein in PCA rats vs 429.19±126.92 µkat/g of protein in sham-operated rats; kidneys PAG activity was 1259.18 ± 228.79 µkat/g protein in PCA rats vs 669.67± 400.8 µkat/g of protein in controls, P < 0.05; duodenal protein content: 173% in PCA vs sham-operated rats; in kidneys the content of protein was 152% in PCA vs sham-operated rats). PAG activity and protein expression in PCA rats were higher in cortex and basal ganglia than those in sham-operated rats (cortex: 6646.6 ± 1870.4 µkat/g of protein vs 3573.8 ± 2037.4 µkat/g of protein in control rats, P < 0.01; basal ganglia, PAG activity was 3657.3 ± 1469.6 μkat/g of protein in PCA rats vs 2271.2 ± 384 μkat/g of protein in sham operated rats, P < 0.05; In the cerebellum, the PAG activity was 2471.6 ± 701.4 μkat/g of protein vs 1452.9 ± 567.8

  3. Phosphate-activated glutaminase activity is enhanced in brain, intestine and kidneys of rats following portacaval anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Romero-Gómez; María Jover; Daníel Diaz-Gómez; Laura Collantes de Terán; Regina Rodrigo; Inés Camacho; Miriam Echevarría; Vicente Felipo; Juan D Bautista

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether portacaval anastomosis (PCA)in rats affects the protein expression and/or activity of glutaminase in kidneys, intestines and in three brain areas of cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum and to explain the neurological alterations found in hepatic encephalopathy (HE).METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats weighing 250-350g were grouped into sham-operation control (n=8) or portacaval shunt (n = 8). Twenty-eight days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed. The duodenum,kidney and brain were removed, homogenised and mitochondria were isolated. Ammonia was measured in brain and blood. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG)activity was determined by measuring ammonia production following incubation for one hour at 37℃ with O-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and specific activity expressed in units per gram of protein (μkat/g of protein). Protein expression was measured by immunoblotting.RESULTS: Duodenal and kidney PAG activities together with protein content were significantly higher in PCA group than in control or sham-operated rats (duodenum PAG activity was 976.95±268.87 μkat/g of protein in PCA rats vs 429.19±126.92. μkat/g of protein in shamoperated rats; kidneys PAG activity was 1259.18±228.79μkat/g protein in PCA rats vs 669.67±400.8 μkat/g of protein in controls, P<0.05; duodenal protein content:173% in PCA vs sham-operated rats; in kidneys the content of protein was 152% in PCA vs sham-operated rats).PAG activity and protein expression in PCA rats were higher in cortex and basal ganglia than those in shamoperated rats (cortex: 6646.6 ± 1870.4 μkat/g of protein vs 3573.8±2037.4 μkat/g of protein in control rats,P<0.01; basal ganglia, PAG activity was 3657.3±1469.6μkat/g of protein in PCA rats vs 2271.2 ± 384 μkat/g of protein in sham operated rats, P<0.05; In the cerebellum, the PAG activity was 2471.6±701.4 μkat/g of protein vs 1452.9± 567.8 μkat/g of protein in the PCA and sham rats, respectively, P< 0.05; content

  4. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  5. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

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    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  6. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

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    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  7. Histological Study of Toxic Effects of Cisplatin Single Dose Injection on Rat Kidney

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    Mashhadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cisplatin, as an antineoplastic drug widely used for treatment of solid tumors, induces renal toxicity by free radical formation. Objectives The aim of the present study was to identify the histological changes of renal parenchyma after a single dose injection of cisplatin in rat, as an experimental model. Patients and Methods Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats, weighting about 210 ± 30 g, were randomly divided into experimental (10 and control (10 groups. The experimental group received a single dose injection of cisplatin intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg. One week after the injection, rats of both groups received deep anesthesia and were scarified. The tissue samples were removed and the prepared sections were stained by H&E and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS methods. The slides were used for both histopathological and morphometric studies. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS. Results Statistical analysis by Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference in the height of epithelium between the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT of the experimental and control groups (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the urinary space diameter between the experimental and control groups. Focal tubular necrosis and vacuolar and eosinophilic degenerations were more prominent in the experimental group. Conclusions It seems that cisplatin can induce many quantitative and qualitative changes in proximal and distal convoluted tubules of nephron in rats.

  8. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of a lead exposure biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbe, F; Boujelbene, M; Makni-Ayadi, F; Guermazi, F; Kammoun, A; Murat, J; Croute, F; Soleilhavoup, J P; El-Feki, A

    2001-12-01

    Several cytotoxic chemical pollutants inducing peroxidative damages are liable to induce kidney failure. Among these pollutants we find heavy metals such as: lead, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and mercury. Lead is one of the most dangerous metals because it is widely spread in the environment, and because it may be a source of several nervous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide evidence concerning the effect of this metal on the renal function and to try to determine a storage corner in the organism which serves as an indicator of a lead intoxication. Lead acetate was administered by oral route in the drinking water to adult rats aged three months at the rate of 0.3% (P1) and 0.6% (P2). Reference rats received distilled water to drink under the same conditions. The treatment continued for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The creatinemia, uremia, glycemia and creatinuria are determined by colorimetric techniques. Lead concentration in blood as well as the lead content of the tail are determined by atomic absorption after nitroperchloric mineralization at the liquid stage. The results showed an increase of creatinemia on the 30th day of the experiment for both sexes in (P1 and P2). The same happened for ureamia. The increase of these two parameters would indicate a renal deficiency which is confirmed by a decrease of creatinuria and urinary pH observed mainly on and after the 45th day of the experiment. An increase of the renal relative weight was noticed in P1 and P2 on the 30th day of the treatment. The determination of the concentration of lead in the blood shows that this factor increases among treated subjects in a constant way, independently of the dose and the duration of the treatment. Nevertheless, the rate increase of lead in the tail seems to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, lead administered by oral route causes a renal deficiency to the rat without distinction between males and females. In addition, the tail seems to be a reliable exposure biomarker

  9. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Kasper; Ostergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-12-01

    Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) (1)H-MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization and metabolic fluxes during conditions of poor glycemic control. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control in combination with suboptimal insulin administration accelerates metabolic alterations by increasing both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism resulting in increased utilization of energy substrates. The results demonstrate the importance of tight glycemic control in insulinopenic diabetes, and that insulin, when administered insufficiently, adds an additional burden on top of poor glycemic control. PMID:25501426

  10. The effect of 6% Hydroxyethyl starch vs. Ringer's lactate on acute kidney injury after renal ischemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lucia Fernandes de Azevedo; Paulo Sergio Santana Santos; Gildàsio Silveira de Oliveira Jr; Gabriel Pinheiro Módolo; Maria Aparecida Custódio Domingues; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Luiz Antonio Vane; Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare fluid replacement therapy with Hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES) versus Ringer's lactate (RL) in a rodent model of non-septic renal ischemia. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized to receive HES 2 ml.kg-1.hr-1or RL 5 ml. kg-1.hr-1 that underwent 30 minutes of renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Twelve hours after kidney ischemia, the kidneys were evaluated for histological changes. Serum NGAL levels were obtained at different times of the experimental protocol. RE...

  11. Lectinhystochemical investigation of rat lung and kidney embryogenesis in conditions of damaging factors absence and under paracetamol and nimesulide influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kcharchenko S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 467 rat embryos in the age from 13 to 22 day of the intrauterine life without visible damaging factors and under the influence of a therapeutic, subtoxic, toxic dose of paracetamol and nimesulide were investigated. Glycopolymers have been identified by three lectins, conjugated with peroxidase of horse-radish. It is established, that in cells and extracellular matrix of developing rat lungs and definitive kidney of control group contain peanut, soya and ricina glycopolymers. In process of control group rat lungs and definitive kidney embryogenesis there is constant lectin-receptor system redistribution. Paracetamol and nimesulide ingestion to pregnant rats leads to the redistribution of glycopolymers quantity and histotopogra-phy – receptors of soya, peanut and ricina lectins, changed in comparison with norm. Therapeutic and toxic dose of paraceta-mol and a toxic dose of nimesulide most strongly change histotopography and the quantity of lectins soya, peanut and ricina receptors in lungs. In definitive kidneys the therapeutic dose of paracetamol and a toxic dose of nimesulide has similar influ-ence.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells from rats with chronic kidney disease exhibit premature senescence and loss of regenerative potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mara Klinkhammer

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation has the potential for organ repair. Nevertheless, some factors might lessen the regenerative potential of MSCs, e.g. donor age or systemic disease. It is thus important to carefully assess the patient's suitability for autologous MSC transplantation. Here we investigated the effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD on MSC function. We isolated bone marrow MSCs from remnant kidney rats (RK with CKD (CKD-RK-MSC and found signs of premature senescence: spontaneous adipogenesis, reduced proliferation capacity, active senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, accumulation of actin and a modulated secretion profile. The functionality of CKD-RK-MSCs in vivo was tested in rats with acute anti-Thy1.1-nephritis, where healthy MSCs have been shown to be beneficial. Rats received healthy MSCs, CKD-RK-MSC or medium by injection into the left renal artery. Kidneys receiving healthy MSCs exhibited accelerated healing of glomerular lesions, whereas CKD-RK-MSC or medium exerted no benefit. The negative influence of advanced CKD/uremia on MSCs was confirmed in a second model of CKD, adenine nephropathy (AD. MSCs from rats with adenine nephropathy (CKD-AD-MSC also exhibited cellular modifications and functional deficits in vivo. We conclude that CKD leads to a sustained loss of in vitro and in vivo functionality in MSCs, possibly due to premature cellular senescence. Considering autologous MSC therapy in human renal disease, studies identifying uremia-associated mechanisms that account for altered MSC function are urgently needed.

  13. The Comparative Research of Kidneys of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792 and Rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout 1769 in Morphometric and Histologic Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Deniz Koc (Yon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792 and Wistar Albino Rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout 1769 are chosen vertebrates living in different media. It is seen that fish and rat kidneys differ in morphologic and histologic structures. Fish kidney consists of two different parts as head and body, whereas rat kidney has a more complicated and developed structure. After the examination of the sections taken from the kidney tissues, it is realized that the fish cortex and medulla shows difference with that of mammals in structure. Also, fish do not have a stable nefron system as in mammals and have different nefron structures in terms of structure and function. From the data obtained, it is observed that the fish kidney lacks the Henle part-which is a characteristic of developed vertebrates-it has more concentrated hematophoitic tissues and it has a different nefron structure.

  14. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

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    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  15. Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in adults: a systematic review and economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Snowsill, Tristan; Haasova, Marcela; Coelho, Helen; Crathorne, Louise; Cooper, Chris; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Peters, Jaime; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Huxley, Nicola; Moore, Jason; Allwood, Matt; Lowe, Jenny; Hyde, Chris; Hoyle, Martin; Bond, Mary; Anderson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation. METHODS Clinical effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via Wiley Online Library) and Web of Science (via ISI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Health Technology Assessment (The Cochrane Library via Wiley Online Library) and Health Management Information Consortium (via Ovid). Cost-effectiveness searches were conducted until 18 November 2014 using a costs or economic literature search filter in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (via Wiley Online Library), Web of Science (via ISI

  16. Barriers to kidney transplantation among adult Sudanese patients on maintenance hemodialysis in dialysis units in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham H Abdelwahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation remains the preferred modality of treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. In Sudan, kidney transplantation accounted for 28% of the total provided renal replacement therapies. A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in hemodialysis (HD units in Khartoum State during the period from September 2010 to January 2011. It aimed to determine the main reasons for the currently low renal transplantation rate. Data were obtained by direct interviewing using a specifically pre-coded and pre-tested questionnaire following a pilot study. A total of 462 adult HD patients were randomly selected from the various HD units in Khartoum State; these patients accounted for 16.9% of the total HD population in Khartoum State. The mean age of the study patients was 48.5 ± 23.6 years and 312 (67.5% were males. Upon interviewing, only 316 patients (68.4% said that they had been counseled for kidney transplantation. One hundred and twenty-two patients (26.4% were on the active transplant list; of these, 50% preferred to have their kidney transplantation performed abroad, mostly due to the availability of commercial transplantation and/or a presumed better outcome. The low renal transplantation rate was due to financial constraints in 112 patients (24.2%, lack of medical fitness in 97 patients (21% and absence of a suitable kidney donor in 92 patients (20%, while 56 patients (12% were still having misperceptions regarding transplantation and preferred to continue on dialysis. To improve the kidney transplantation rate in Khartoum State, the Sudan program for organ transplantation is expected to take more initiatives to promote and improve the outcome of kidney transplants inside the country and, accordingly, regain the patients′ confidence on the health system.

  17. Providers' assessment of transition readiness among adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchak, Jordan Gilleland; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Amaral, Sandra; Mee, Laura; Blount, Ronald L

    2015-12-01

    The Readiness for Transition Questionnaire- provider version (RTQ-Provider) was developed to evaluate adolescent patients' transition readiness and healthcare behaviors from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The RTQ-Provider is a parallel version of the RTQ-Teen and RTQ-Parent completed by patients and parents. This study seeks to evaluate the psychometric properties of the RTQ-Provider and its utility as a clinical transition planning tool. Participants consisted of 49 kidney transplant recipients between the ages of 15 and 21. The RTQ-Provider was completed by the pediatric nephrologist and psychologist from the multidisciplinary healthcare team and compared to RTQ data from teens and parents. The RTQ-Provider demonstrated good-to-excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability. Construct validity was supported through significant predictive relationships between providers' perceptions of transition readiness and older patient age, increased patient healthcare responsibility, and decreased parent involvement in health care. By providing parallel teen, parent, and provider forms, the RTQ has the potential to foster open communication between patients, families, and healthcare team members regarding transition readiness. The study provides initial support for the RTQ-Provider as a clinical tool to assess providers' perceptions of transition readiness; however, future longitudinal research is needed to evaluate predictive validity following patients' transfer to adult care. PMID:26508553

  18. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

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    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  19. The effect of heart-and kidney-benefiting Chinese herbal medicines on the function of adrenergic receptors in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analogue dementia model of rats was produced by electrolytic lesion of brain. α-adrenergic receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RRBA). It was found that Bmax of α1 receptors was decreased obviously in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats and was raised obviously by Heart-and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as by Hydergin. The electrolytic lesion did not change the activity of MAO-B in model rat brains. Neither Heart-and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herb Medicines nor Hydergin showed marked effect on brain MAO-B activity of the model rats

  20. Ontogenetic variation in rat liver, lung and kidney monooxygenase induction by low doses of benzo(A)pyrene and cigarette-smoke condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Cantfort, J.; Gielen, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    The specific lung-AHH induction, which we previously observed after the inhalation of cigarette smoke, is not due to the route followed by the inhaled smoke, for the same phenomenon occurs after i.p. injection of either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) or benzo(a)pyrene in low doses. In this respect lung AHH behaves completely differently from the liver and kidney enzyme, in which organs, basal AHH activity (which is low in the foetus) increases rapidly after birth to reach the adult level 2 months later, and is only inducible by CSC and low doses of BP in unweaned rats. In the lung, the basal AHH activity (low in the foetus) increases abruptly at birth, peaks in 5-day-old rats and then decreases slightly. Contrary to enzyme activity in other tissues, lung AHH cannot be induced in unweaned young animals. The enzyme subsequently becomes sensitive to inducing agents and is highly inducible in 90-day-old rats. Similar behaviour occurs in 2 other enzymes linked to cytochrome P1450: ethoxycoumarin deethylase and ethoxyresorufin deethylase. The results could be related to the particular susceptibility of the lung to develop cancer after the inhalation of cigarette smoke.

  1. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PPAR-γ Agonist-Treated Kidneys in an Orthologous Rat Model of Human Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Daisuke; Kugita, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Aukema, Harold M.; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Morita, Miwa; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Calvet, James P.; Wallace, Darren P.; Toyohara, Takafumi; Abe, Takaaki; Nagao, Shizuko

    2012-01-01

    Kidneys are enlarged by aberrant proliferation of tubule epithelial cells leading to the formation of numerous cysts, nephron loss, and interstitial fibrosis in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Pioglitazone (PIO), a PPAR-γ agonist, decreased cell proliferation, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation, and ameliorated PKD progression in PCK rats (Am. J. Physiol.-Renal, 2011). To explore genetic mechanisms involved, changes in global gene expression were analyzed. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of 30655 genes, 13 of the top 20 downregulated gene ontology biological process gene sets and six of the top 20 curated gene set canonical pathways identified to be downregulated by PIOtreatment were related to cell cycle and proliferation, including EGF, PDGF and JNK pathways. Their relevant pathways were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes database. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 is a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism found in the top 5 genes downregulated by PIO treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the gene product of this enzyme was highly expressed in PCK kidneys and decreased by PIO. These data show that PIO alters the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22666229

  2. Toxicological Features of Catha edulis (Khat) on Livers and Kidneys of Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Subchronic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsamad Alsalahi; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Mohammed Al-Mamary; Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin; Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Alabsi, Aied M.; Abdrabuh Shwter; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100–120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (n = 12). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas...

  3. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  4. Sepsis due to pyonephrosis: an adult with pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Francesco; Vitturi, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with sepsis. She was evaluated with bedside ultrasound with a diagnosis of pyonephrosis, and subsequently underwent a TC scan that showed a pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplicated renal system. PUJO associated with duplex kidney, while relatively frequent in children, is a rare condition in adults, and may lead to severe complications as in this case. PMID:26261472

  5. Elevated Serum Leptin, Adiponectin and Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Asian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Ciwei Lim; Boon Wee Teo; Shyong Tai, E.; Su Chi Lim; Choong Meng Chan; Sunil Sethi; Tien Y Wong; Charumathi Sabanayagam

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex an...

  6. Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein Livin in renal cell carcinoma and non-tumorous adult kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, N; Crnković-Mertens, I; Vetter, C; Macher-Göppinger, S; Bedke, J; Gröne, E F; Zentgraf, H.; Pritsch, M; Hoppe-Seyler, K; Buse, S; Haferkamp, A; Autschbach, F; M. Hohenfellner; Hoppe-Seyler, F

    2007-01-01

    The antiapoptotic Livin/ML-IAP gene has recently gained much attention as a potential new target for cancer therapy. Reports indicating that livin is expressed almost exclusively in tumours, but not in the corresponding normal tissue, suggested that the targeted inhibition of livin may present a novel tumour-specific therapeutic strategy. Here, we compared the expression of livin in renal cell carcinoma and in non-tumorous adult kidney tissue by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PC...

  7. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Hegazy

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium (CrVI is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf against potassium dichromate (PDC-induced acute kidney injury (AKI in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin. Adult male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o. or (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.; the doses that are usually used in the experiment studies, for 14 days followed by a single dose of PDC (15 mg/kg, s.c.. PDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and total protein levels. This was accompanied with decreased renal glutathione content, and increased renal malondialdehyde, IL-18, IL-4, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB, IGF-1, and the phosphorylated form of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 levels. Moreover, normal expression IFN-γ mRNA and enhanced expression of TNF-α mRNA was demonstrated in renal tissues. Histopathological investigations provoked deleterious changes in the renal tissues. Tubular epithelial hyperplasia and apoptosis were demonstrated immunohistochemically by positive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Bax, and Caspase-3 expression, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with Lf in both doses significantly corrected all previously mentioned PDC-induced changes with no significant difference between both doses. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, tubular hyperplasia and apoptosis in PDC-induced AKI. It suggested a role of IL-18 through stimulation of IL-4-induced inflammatory pathway, and IGF-1 through

  8. RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Apoptosis Contributes to Renal Tubular Cell Progressive Loss and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Cui, Hongwang; Xia, Yunfeng; Gan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is caused by the progressive loss of renal tubular cells and the consequent replacement of the extracellular matrix. The progressive depletion of renal tubular cells results from apoptosis and necroptosis; however, the relative significance of each of these cell death mechanisms at different stages during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We sought to explore the mechanisms of renal tubular cell death during the early and intermediate stages of chronic renal damage of subtotal nephrectomied (SNx) rats. The results of tissue histological assays indicated that the numbers of necrotic dying cells and apoptotic cells were significantly higher in kidney tissues derived from a rat model of CKD. In addition, there was a significant increase in necroptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues from SNx rats compared with control rats, and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) could inhibit necroptosis and reduce the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells. More importantly, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of necroptosis compared with apoptosis by TEM in vivo and in vitro and a significant increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive tubular epithelial cells that did not express caspase-3 compared with those expressing cleaved caspase-3 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with Nec-1 and zVAD strongly reduced necroptosis- and apoptosis-mediated renal tubular cell death and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and tubular damage scores of SNx rats. These results suggest that necroptotic cell death plays a more significant role than apoptosis in mediating the loss of renal tubular cells in SNx rats and that effectively blocking both necroptosis and apoptosis improves renal function and tubular damage at early and intermediate stages of CKD. PMID:27281190

  9. The presence of alpha 2u-globulin is necessary for d-limonene promotion of male rat kidney tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D R; Swenberg, J A

    1991-07-01

    In a 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay, d-limonene (dL) induced kidney tumors in male F344 rats, but not in female F344 rats or either sex of mice, d-Limonene-1,2-oxide, a metabolite of dL, has been shown to bind reversibly the male rat-specific urinary protein, alpha2u-globulin (alpha 2u-G), lysosomal degradation than alpha 2u-G alone. This reduced degradation of alpha 2u-G-chemical complex leads to an accumulation of this protein in the proximal convoluted tubules of the male rat kidney and to the morphological changes characteristic for alpha 2u-globulin nephropathy. The only male rat strain known to be resistant to this renal disease is the alpha 2u-G deficient NCI-Black-Reiter (NBR) rat. The objectives of this study were to determine whether or not dL causes sustained increases in cell proliferation and has promoting activity for renal adenomas in male rats and if the male rat-specific urinary protein, alpha 2u-G, is required. In a 32-week initiation-promotion assay, male F344 and NBR rats were treated with either 0 or 500 ppm N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Experimental groups of 31 to 38 rats then received 0 or 150 mg d-limonene/kg/day in corn oil for 30 weeks by p.o. gavage 5 days/week. Cell proliferation in the proximal tubules was assessed via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-filled osmotic mini-pumps and immunohistochemistry after 7 weeks (2 weeks EHEN + 5 weeks dL) and at the end of the study (2 weeks EHEN + 30 weeks dL). Preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions were quantified in perfusion-fixed kidneys. A 5-fold increase in the labeling index of P2-cells was found after 5 weeks and 30 weeks of promotion in all dL-treated F344 rats, whereas no difference between treatment groups was detected in NBR rats. No increase in tumors or preneoplastic lesions was detected in dL-treated NBR rats, whereas a 10-fold increase in renal adenomas and atypical hyperplasias was found in the EHEN-dL-treated F344 rats compared with F344 rats

  10. Mechanism of tubular uptake on human growth hormone in perfused rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of tubular uptake of labeled human growth hormone ([125I]hGH), a low molecular weight protein (approximate 21,5000 daltons), was studied in isolated perfused rat kidneys. Fractional reabsorption (FR) of [125I]hGH was decreased from 94 to 77% over a period of 80 min as perfusate oncotic pressure was lowered by reducing the albumin concentration from 7.5 to 2.5 g/100ml, whereas greater reductions in fractional sodium (delta 35%) and fluid reabsorption (delta 42%) occurred, indicating that tubular [125I]hGH uptake is likely a specific process not directly dependent upon net fluid and sodium reabsorption. Absolute absorption rates of [125I]hGH filtered loads were inhibited by cytochalasin B, a microfilament disrupter when kidneys were perfused with either albumin concentration. Cytochalasin B inhibited [125I]hGH absorption in both a dose-and time-related manner. The low dose of cytochalasin B (2.5 micrograms/ml) decreased [125I]hGH absorption without significantly altering sodium, fluid or glucose reabsorption. With high doses (5 and 10 micrograms/ml), cytochalasin B affected tubular absorption of [125I]hGH to an extent much greater than sodium, fluid and glucose reabsorption. Inhibition of cytochalasin B on FR[125I]hGH was poorly correlated with the concurrent inhibition of FRNa and FRH2O. Accordingly, tubular reabsorption of [125I]hGH is not directly linked to that of sodium, fluid and glucose. The present studies are consistent with the hypothesis that renal absorption of low molecular-weight proteins is via an endocytotic process involving microfilaments

  11. Uranium induces apoptosis and is genotoxic to normal rat kidney (NRK-52(E)) proximal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Milgram, S.; Simon, A.; Avoscan, L.; Gouget, B. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, UMR 9956, Lab Pierre Sue, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal used in the nuclear industry and for military applications. U compounds are toxic. Their toxicity is mediated either by their radioactivity or their chemical properties. Mammalian kidneys and bones are the main organs affected by U toxicity. Although the most characteristic response to U exposure is renal dysfunction, little information is available on the mechanisms of its toxicity at the molecular level. This report studied the genotoxicity of U. Apoptosis induction in normal rat kidney (NRK-52(E)) proximal cells was investigated as a function of exposure time or concentrations (0-800 {mu}M). In parallel, DNA damage was evaluated by several methods. In order to distinguish between the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis, caspases-8, -9, -10 assays were conducted and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Three methods were selected for their complementarities in the detection of genetic lesions. The comet assay was used for the detection of primary lesions of DNA. {gamma}-H2AX immunostaining was achieved to detect DNA double-strand breaks. The micronucleus assay was used to detect chromosomic breaks or losses. DNA damage and apoptosis were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that U is genotoxic from 300 {mu}M and induces caspase dependent apoptosis cell death from 200 {mu}M mainly through the intrinsic pathway in NRK-52(E) cells. These results suggest that the DNA damage caused by U is reversible at low concentration (200-400 {mu}M) but becomes irreversible and leads to cell death for higher concentrations (500-800 {mu}M). (authors)

  12. Two highly homologous members of the ClC chloride channel family in both rat and human kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Kieferle, S; Fong, P; Bens, M.; Vandewalle, A; Jentsch, T J

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned two closely related putative Cl- channels from both rat kidney (designated rClC-K1 and rClC-K2) and human kidney (hClC-Ka and hClC-Kb) by sequence homology to the ClC family of voltage-gated Cl- channels. While rClC-K1 is nearly identical to ClC-K1, a channel recently isolated by a similar strategy, rClC-K2 is 80% identical to rClC-K1 and is encoded by a different gene. hClC-Ka and hClC-Kb show approximately 90% identity, while being approximately 80% identical to the rat prote...

  13. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cochlospermum Planchonii Rhizome on Some Kidney and Liver Functional Indicies of Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiu, MO; M.A. Akanji; M T Yakubu

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as ‘markers’. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A–F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A–E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control gro...

  14. Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Decreases Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Wang; Jian Huang; Yi Li; Ruiming Chang; Haidong Wu; Jiali Lin; Zitong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has shown various physiological effects including anti-inflammatory activity in several diseases, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CO on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported as of yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of exogenous CO on sepsis-induced AKI and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in rats. Male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to ind...

  15. Inhibition of Sodium-GlucoseCotransporter 2 with dapagliflozin in Han: SPRD rats with polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Kapoor, Sarika; Edenhofer, Ilka; Segerer, Stephan; Riwanto, Meliana; Kipar, Anja; Yang, Ming; Mei, Changlin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Dapagliflozin (DAPA) is a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) which induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis. The therapeutic effect of DAPA in progressing stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has not been studied. METHODS We examined the effect of DAPA in the Han: SPRD rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (VEH) was administered orally via gavage to 5 week old male Han: SPRD (Cy/+) or control (+/+) rats (n = 8-9 per group) for 5...

  16. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-01-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administ...

  17. Trichosporon loubieri Infection in a Patient with Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Padhye, Arvind A.; Verghese, Susan; Ravichandran, P.; Balamurugan, G.; Hall, Leslie; Padmaja, P.; Fernandez, Maria C.

    2003-01-01

    A 45-year-old man from Nepal with a 13-year history of polycystic kidney disease was diagnosed as suffering from chronic renal failure with end-stage renal disease. After receiving empirical antituberculosis treatment, he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. A left nephrectomy was performed, and after 4 months, he received a kidney transplant. The left kidney was grossly enlarged, with multiple cystic spaces filled with blackish material. Histologic examination of the excised left kid...

  18. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  19. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mona A.; Abd EL Samad, Abeer A

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fats are important components contributing in bone health and that bone mineral density is inversely related to sodium intake. Salt loading is also known to impose negative effects on renal function. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 on bone changes imposed by salt loading, highlighting the role of kidney as a potential mechanism involved in this effect. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: cont...

  20. Effects of Saponin from Solanum anguivi Lam. Fruit on Heart and Kidney Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Malondialdehyde in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    O.O. Elekofehinti; I.G. Adanlawo; Fakoya, A; J.A. Saliu; S.A. Sodehinde

    2012-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are generated via normal metabolic processes or as the products of exogenous insults. They are capable of damaging essential biomolecules and accelerating cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the effect saponin from Solanum anguivi (SAS) fruits on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) in the homogenates of the hearts and kidney was evaluated. Thirty six male Wister rats of average weight1...

  1. The membrane composition of coated pits, microvilli, endosomes, and lysosomes is distinctive in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of a number of membrane proteins on plasmalemmal microdomains (microvilli, coated pits) and in endosomes and lysosomes of the proximal tubule epithelial cell was determined in normal rat kidneys by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Two major brush border proteins, 130 and 94 kD, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were detected on the membranes of the microvilli but were not found on membranes of coated pits. Gp330, the Heymann nephritis antigen, and clathrin we...

  2. Calcium-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition is augmented in the kidney of Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo J; Esteves, Telma C.; Seiça, Raquel; Moreno, António J. M.; Santos, Maria S.

    2004-01-01

    Renal disease associated with diabetes mellitus is a major problem among diabetic patients. The role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of diabetes has received a large amount of attention in the last years, but many aspects of this subject are still poorly understood. In the present study, we studied the susceptibility of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) on kidney mitochondria from the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, an animal model featuring physiological and pathological alteration...

  3. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  4. Rosuvastatin ameliorates inflammation, renal fat accumulation, and kidney injury in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing human C-reactive protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Mancini, M.; Pravenec, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2015), s. 295-301. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rosuvastatin * kidney damage * CRP * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  5. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stemmer

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens or partially resistant (DIOres to DIO to investigate the impact of body adiposity versus dietary nutrient overload in the development of renal preneoplasia and activation of tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Our data clearly show a correlation between body adiposity, the severity of nephropathy, and the total number and incidence of preneoplastic renal lesions. However, similar plasma triglyceride, plasma free fatty acid and renal triglyceride levels were found in chow-fed, DIOres and DIOsens rats, suggesting that lipotoxicity is not a critical contributor to the renal pathology. Obesity-related nephropathy was further associated with regenerative cell proliferation, monocyte infiltration and higher renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-6 receptor and leptin receptor. Accordingly, we observed increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR phosphorylation in tubules with preneoplastic phenotypes. In summary, our results demonstrate that high body adiposity induces an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment in rat kidneys that promotes the development of preneoplastic lesions, potentially via activation of the STAT3 and mTOR signaling pathways.

  6. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  7. Protective Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Morakinyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a well known toxicant and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress by the formation of free radicals. The present study investigates the in vivo effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA on CCl4-induced hepatic and renal toxicities. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each and treated for 10 consecutive days. Group 1 was given olive oil only. Group 2 received CCl4 intra-peritoneally (i.p. at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg as a 30% olive oil solution. Group 3 was given ALA only at a dose 25 mg/kg. Group 4 was given both CCl4 and ALA, respectively. At the end of experiment, the antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of antioxidant enzymes; reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation via thiobarbituric reactive substance. The liver and kidney functions tests were also performed in addition to their histopathological evaluation. Results obtained showed significant adverse changes in the levels of all measured parameters in CCl4 treated rats. However, treatment with ALA attenuated the adverse changes in the CCl4-induced rats. Our findings suggest that ALA protects the liver and kidney against CCl4-induced damage through its significant effects on the antioxidant activities.

  8. Pathological and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in the remnant kidney rat model of chronic kidney disease associated anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra; Garrido, Patrícia; Fernandes, João; Vala, Helena; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Reis, Flávio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be corrected by treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO); however, some patients become hyporesponsive. The molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to study hyporesponsiveness to rHuEPO therapy using the remnant kidney rat model of anemia associated with CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. At starting, male Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups, for a 3-week protocol: Sham, CRF (vehicle) and two rHuEPO (200 k/kg body weight [BW]/week) treated groups; at the end of protocol, the rHuEPO treated rats were subdivided in responders (CRF200) and non-responders (CRF200NR), according to their hematologic response; blood, cellular and tissue studies were performed. The CRF200 group achieved correction of anemia, while the CRF200NR group developed anemia, after an initial response (1st week) to rHuEPO therapy. CRF and CRF200NR groups presented a trend to higher serum CRP levels; CRF200NR showed also high levels of renal inflammatory markers, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, nuclear factor kappa B, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1); no changes were found in iron metabolism. Our data suggest that the development of anemia/rHuEPO hyporesponsiveness is associated with a higher systemic and renal inflammatory condition, favoring hypoxia and triggering an increase in renal expression of HIF-1α, TGF-β1 and CTGF that will further aggravate renal fibrosis, which will enhance the inflammatory response, creating a cycle that promotes disease progression. New therapeutic strategies to reduce inflammation in CKD patients could improve the response to rHuEPO therapy and reduce hyporesponsiveness. PMID:27039028

  9. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  10. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  11. Impact of Isotretinoin on The Liver and Kidney of Irradiated Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isotretinoin and/or gamma radiation on the pregnant rats and their fetuses as judged by the maternal biochemical, histochemical and histopathological lesions induced in their fetuses. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is related to both retinoic acid and retinol (vitamin A) and found in small natural quantities in liver. It is medically indicated for treatment of severe cytic acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin at a dose level of 30 mg/kg was daily administered orally to pregnant albino rats from the 5th to 10th day of gestation. Mothers were subjected to 1 Gy of gamma radiation (0.5 Gy each time) on the 6th and 9th days of gestation then investigations were carried out on 20th day of gestation. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant increase in maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), glucose, alanine and aspartate transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine (Cr) . In addition to decreased levels of serum protein, gamma, beta, alpha 2, alpha 1 and albumin with concomitance increase in pre-albumin were observed. The histopathological results of the liver tissue showed different distortions, which varied from necrotic cells, such as loss of architecture of hepatic lobules, rupture of the walls of blood vessels, dilated and congested blood vessels and vacuolated cytoplasm of the liver cells. On the other hand, the kidney tissue showed thickness of Bowman's capsule with hyaline material, atrophic glomerular tufts, fragmentlysis convoluted and completely degeneration of renal tubules. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed diminutions in each of the polysaccharides and DNA contents. It could be concluded that isotretinoin intake and/or radiation exposure could exert deleterious effect, therefore, radiation occupational workers, especially females, have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake

  12. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in adult Syrian hamster tissues and during kidney development.

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Slattery, A. F.; Elwell, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Tissues from adult Syrian hamsters were studied with immunoperoxidase techniques using polyclonal antibodies to glutathione-S-transferase (rat liver and human placental enzymes) and human erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Most tissues immunostained similarly with these antibodies. Most notable was the cytoplasmic staining of mesenchyme tissues, especially smooth muscle, by all three antibodies. Epithelial cells stained distinctively, but usually less intensely than mesenchyme. Epithelial ce...

  14. Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a cause for intestinal malabsorption associated with bacterial overgrowth in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, J G; Boldt, D H; Meyers, J; Weber, F L

    1983-03-01

    Plant lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins interact with membrane receptors on cellular surfaces but their antinutritional effects are poorly defined. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of phytohemagglutinin, a lectin derived from raw red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), on small intestinal absorptive function and morphology, and on the intestinal microflora. Phytohemagglutinin was isolated in purified form by thyroglobulin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Red kidney bean and phytohemagglutinin (6% and 0.5%, respectively, of dietary protein) were fed in a purified casein diet to weanling rats for up to 21 days. Weight loss, associated with malabsorption of lipid, nitrogen, and vitamin B12, developed in comparison with animals pair-fed isonitrogenous casein diets. Antinutritional effects of red kidney bean were reversible on reinstitution of a purified casein diet. An increase in bacterial colonization of the jejunum and ileum occurred in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutin-fed animals. When antibiotics were included in the diet, malabsorption of [3H]triolein and 57Co-vitamin B12 in red kidney bean-fed animals was partially reversed and, in germ-free animals, purified phytohemagglutinin had no demonstrable antinutritional effect. Mucosal disaccharidase activity was reduced in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutinin-fed animals, but intestinal mucosal morphology was unchanged. Dietary administration of phytohemagglutinin, alone or as a component of red kidney bean, caused intestinal dysfunction, which was associated with, and dependent upon, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Adherence of enteric bacteria to the mucosal surface was enhanced by phytohemagglutinin which may have facilitated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:6822324

  15. Development of a physiologically-based computational kidney model to describe the renal excretion of hydrophilic agents in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eNiederalt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A physiologically-based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water re-absorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow.The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administration of any contrast media or drugs. These data included the sodium and urea concentration gradient along the cortico-medullary axis, water reabsorption, urine flow and sodium as well as urea urine concentrations for a normal hydration state. The model was evaluated by predicting the effects of mannitol and contrast media administration and comparing to experimental data on cortico-medullary concentration gradients, urine flow, urine viscosity, hydrostatic tubular pressures and single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Finally the model was used to analyze and compare typical examples of ionic and non-ionic monomeric as well as non-ionic dimeric contrast media with respect to their osmolality and viscosity. With the computational kidney model, urine flow depended mainly on osmolality, while osmolality and viscosity were important determinants for tubular hydrostatic pressure and kidney exposure. The low diuretic effect of dimeric contrast media in combination with their high intrinsic viscosity resulted in a high viscosity within the tubular fluid. In comparison to monomeric contrast media, this led to a higher increase in tubular pressure, to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow and to an increase in kidney exposure.The presented kidney model can be implemented into whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models and extended in order to simulate the renal excretion of lipophilic drugs which may also undergo active secretion

  16. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  17. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  18. Downregulation of organic anion transporters in rat kidney under ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute [corrected] renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshitome, K; Morisaki, T; Hamada, A; Nonoguchi, H; Kohda, Y; Tomita, K; Inui, K; Saito, H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of rat kidney on the expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) was examined. The level of serum indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin and substrate of OATs in renal tubules, shows a marked increase with the progression of ARF. However, this increase was significantly attenuated by ingestion of cobalt. The level of mRNA and protein of both rOAT1 and rOAT3 were markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney. The uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and estrone sulfate (ES) by renal slices of ischemic rats was significantly reduced compared to control rats. Renal slices taken from ischemic rats treated with cobalt displayed significantly elevated levels of ES uptake. Cobalt intake did not affect PAH uptake, indicating the functional restoration of rOAT3 but not rOAT1. The expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney, suggesting that the inward Na(+) gradient in renal tubular cells had collapsed, thereby reducing the outward gradient of alpha-ketoglutarate, a driving force of both rOATs. The decreased expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was significantly restored by cobalt treatment. Our results suggest that the downregulation of renal rOAT1 and rOAT3 could be responsible for the increase in serum IS level of ischemic rats. Cobalt treatment has a significant protective effect on ischemia-induced ARF, being accompanied by the restoration of rOAT3 and/or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase function. PMID:17245393

  19. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  20. In vivo tracking of magnetically labeled mesenchmal stem cells injected via renal arteries in kidney failure rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo depiction and tracking for magnetically labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells (MSCs) in a renal failure rat model injected intravascularly using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Methods: Rat MSCs were isolated, purified, expanded and then incubated with home synthesized Fe2O3-PLL. Prussian blue stain was employed for identifying intracellular irons. An acute renal failure in rat was induced by intramuscular injection of glycerol and MSCs were injected into renal arteries of 11 recipients (labeled cells in six, unlabeled cells in five). MR images of kidneys were obtained respectively before injection of MSCs, and immediately, 1, 3, 5, and 8 clays after transplantation. MR imaging findings were analyzed, which were correlated with histological findings. Results: Rat MSCs were successfully labeled, and labeling efficiency was almost 100%. Prussian blue staining of Fe2O3-PLL labeled cells revealed the presence of iron-containing vesicles or endosomes in the cytoplasm. In the renal failure model of rats, the labeled MSCs were demonstrated as signal intensity loss in renal cortex on T2*-weighted MR images. The signal intensity decrease was visualized up to days 8 after transplantation. Histological analyses showed that most Prussian blue staining-positive cells were well correlated with the area where a signal intensity loss was observed in MRI. Signal intensity decrease was not detected after transplantation of unlabeled cells. Conclusion: The rat MSCs can be effectively labeled with Fe2O3-PLL. 1.5-T MR imaging seems to be a good technique to monitor the magnetically labeled MSCs in vivo in renal failure rat model intravascularly administered, which may have much more potential values for studying the engraftment of stem cells in kidneys. (authors)

  1. Microsurgical training curriculum for learning kidney and liver transplantation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzen, Jens Peter; Palmes, Daniel; Langer, Martin; Spiegel, Hans Ullrich

    2005-01-01

    During the education of the next generation of scientists in experimental research, careful instruction in surgical techniques is of major importance. This applies in particular to complicated microsurgical models, which require a structured teaching concept with clearly laid-down working steps and adequate didactic resources. Transplantations in rats are undoubtedly among the most difficult models in experimental surgery. Because completely sutured orthotopic liver transplantation and kidney transplantation have been practiced for many years in our Surgical Research Unit, techniques must be transmitted to future generations. A microsurgical training program has been set up with the aim of being efficient, transparent, and motivating. Simply learning-by-doing in the sense of "laissez-faire" is ineffective and costly. Our training program is based on "three-phase didactics," in which the learning targets are presented in sequence and are clearly defined. This report is intended to give a brief overview of the principal transplantation models and to serve as a guide for teaching these models. PMID:16281279

  2. Effect of blood oxygenation on light penetration depth in rat kidney: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the influence of blood O2 partial pressure on laser light penetration in rat kidney was made in situ. Light emitted from semiconductor laser diodes at near infra-red wavelegths was applied. Changes in O2 partial pressure were induced by allowing the animals to breath gas mixtures of different O2 fractions. The results suggest that O2 partial pressures can influence the extent of light penetration in tissues. Average optical depth of penetration in the wavelength range 775-805 nm has increased by 0.53 mm (28%) when the inspired O2 fraction was 55% compared with normally oxygenated ones. This is attributed to the fact that fully oxygenated blood is more transparent to light in the wavelength range 600 nm to 800 nm than deoxygenated blood in the same wavelength range. The results found in this preliminary work, could be valuable in the phototherapy of either deeply situated tumours or those found in pigmented tissues. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 table

  3. In situ phosphorylation of proteins in MCTs microdissected from rat kidney: Effect of AVP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, S.; Gapstur, S.M.; Yusufi, N.K.; Dousa, T.P. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation is considered a key step in the cellular action of vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water permeability in collecting tubules. However, the proteins serving as a substrate(s) for phosphorylation in undisrupted cells have not yet been identified. In the present study, the authors developed a method for investigation of in situ phosphorylation of microdissected segments of medullary collecting tubules (MCT) from rat kidney. Incubation of microdissected MCT segments with low concentrations of saponin, semipermeabilization, increased permeability of the membrane for ATP but did not allow leakage of macromolecules such as lactate dehydrogenase. This treatment also did not cause major disruption of cell structure, or impairment of AVP-sensitive adenylate cyclase. Incubation of semipermeabilized MCT with {gamma}-({sup 32}P)ATP resulted in corporation of {sup 32}P{sub i} into two major protein bands detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent autoradiography. Similar incubation of tubules disrupted by hyposmotic solutions and a stronger detergent Triton X-100 resulted in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into multiple protein bands. These findings demonstrate a novel method for identification of endogenous protein substrate(s) for cAMP-dependent protein kinase and other protein kinases and phosphatases that are probably involved in post-cAMP steps in the cellular action of AVP in the intact cells of collecting tubules.

  4. In situ phosphorylation of proteins in MCTs microdissected from rat kidney: Effect of AVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein phosphorylation is considered a key step in the cellular action of vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water permeability in collecting tubules. However, the proteins serving as a substrate(s) for phosphorylation in undisrupted cells have not yet been identified. In the present study, the authors developed a method for investigation of in situ phosphorylation of microdissected segments of medullary collecting tubules (MCT) from rat kidney. Incubation of microdissected MCT segments with low concentrations of saponin, semipermeabilization, increased permeability of the membrane for ATP but did not allow leakage of macromolecules such as lactate dehydrogenase. This treatment also did not cause major disruption of cell structure, or impairment of AVP-sensitive adenylate cyclase. Incubation of semipermeabilized MCT with γ-[32P]ATP resulted in corporation of 32Pi into two major protein bands detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent autoradiography. Similar incubation of tubules disrupted by hyposmotic solutions and a stronger detergent Triton X-100 resulted in 32Pi incorporation into multiple protein bands. These findings demonstrate a novel method for identification of endogenous protein substrate(s) for cAMP-dependent protein kinase and other protein kinases and phosphatases that are probably involved in post-cAMP steps in the cellular action of AVP in the intact cells of collecting tubules

  5. Effect of Luteolin on 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in Rat Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD enzymes control the glucocorticoid (GC signaling, which is essential in regulating homeostasis. Our previous study revealed that Eclipta prostrata (EP affected the activity and expression of 11β-HSD enzymes which might improve the efficacy and reduce the adverse drug effects of glucocorticoid in patients undergoing combinational therapy. However, it is still unclear which composition of EP plays a major role and how it works. In this paper, we chose Luteolin which is one of the main ingredients of EP and evaluated its effect and metabolism in combination with prednisone. The effects of different concentrations of Luteolin extract on prednisone/prednisolone metabolism indicated the enzyme activity of 11β-HSD, so the production rate (pmol/min per mg protein of metabolites was used to indicate enzyme activity. Furthermore, we explored the influence of Luteolin on gene and protein expressions of 11β-HSD I/II in rat liver and kidney tissue. Our results showed that oral administration of Luteolin significantly increased the gene and protein expressions of hepatic 11β-HSD I and renal 11β-HSD II, which may improve the efficacy and reduce the adverse drug effect of glucocorticoid in clinical application. A potential clinical value of Luteolin would also be indicated in combination therapy with prednisone for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.

  6. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pan; Shen, Zhizhou; Liu, Jia; Huang, Yaqian; Chen, Siyao; Yu, Wen; Wang, Suxia; Ren, Yali; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. METHODS. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP), serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. RESULTS. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and (•)OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. CONCLUSIONS. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress. PMID:26823949

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. Methods. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP, serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. Results. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and •OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. Conclusions. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress.

  9. Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration. PMID:24338618

  10. Rat Urinary Osteopontin and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Improve Certainty of Detecting Drug-Induced Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan A; Holder, Daniel J; Ennulat, Daniela; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Sauer, John-Michael; Yang, Yi; McDuffie, Eric; Sonee, Manisha; Gu, Yi-Zhong; Troth, Sean P; Lynch, Karen; Hamlin, Diane; Peters, David G; Brees, Dominique; Walker, Elizabeth G

    2016-06-01

    Traditional kidney biomarkers are insensitive indicators of acute kidney injury, with meaningful changes occurring late in the course of injury. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the diagnostic potential of urinary osteopontin (OPN) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) in rats using data from a recent regulatory qualification submission of translational DIKI biomarkers and to compare performance of NGAL and OPN to five previously qualified DIKI urinary biomarkers. Data were compiled from 15 studies of 11 different pharmaceuticals contributed by Critical Path Institute's Predictive Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC) Nephrotoxicity Working Group (NWG). Rats were given doses known to cause DIKI or other target organ toxicity, and urinary levels of the candidate biomarkers were assessed relative to kidney histopathology and serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).OPN and NGAL outperformed sCr and BUN in identifying DIKI manifested as renal tubular epithelial degeneration or necrosis. In addition, urinary OPN and NGAL, when used with sCr and BUN, increased the ability to detect renal tubular epithelial degeneration or necrosis. NGAL and OPN had comparable or improved performance relative to Kim-1, clusterin, albumin, total protein, and beta-2 microglobulin. Given these data, both urinary OPN and NGAL are appropriate for use with current methods for assessing nephrotoxicity to identify and monitor DIKI in regulatory toxicology studies in rats. These data also support exploratory use of urinary OPN and NGAL in safety monitoring strategies of early clinical trials to aid in the assurance of patient safety. PMID:27026710

  11. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  12. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  13. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  14. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  15. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  16. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetinger M.R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control, but enhanced it in liver (31.2 ± 15.0%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05. The concentrations of aluminum in the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminum concentrations increased significantly in the liver (527 ± 3.9%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and kidney (283 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 but did not change in the brain of aluminum-exposed mice. One of the most important and striking observations was the increase in hepatic aluminum concentration in the mice treated only with 1 g% sodium citrate (34 mM (217 ± 1.5%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control. These results show that aluminum interferes with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of this element was in the order: liver > kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  17. Screening and identification of the differentially expressed proteins in neonatal rat kidney after partial unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Xue, Yansheng; Yang, Yi; Niu, Zhibin; Wang, Changlin; Hou, Ying; Chen, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Renal fibrosis, considered to be a common consequence of progressive renal disease, involves glomerulosclerosis and/or tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Currently, research is focused on investigating potential mechanisms to prevent or reverse the damage caused by fibrosis. Under the influence of cytokines, chemokines and other signaling molecules, the cellular interactions that regulate the development of interstitial fibrosis are complex. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as an important pathway leading to the generation of matrix‑producing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in diseased kidneys. The proteomics study compared the protein profiles between the time points of podocyte EMT and tubular cell EMT in a partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) model in rats. Proteins isolated from the PUUO group and corresponding sham rat kidney tissues were subjected to 2‑D gel electrophoresis and were then identified by mass spectrometry. In total, 43 proteins with differential expression were identified, which were reported to be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and actin, glucose metabolism, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Electron transfer flavoprotein, β polypeptide was detected by immunoblot analysis and its mRNA levels were determined in renal tissues. The results demonstrate protein alterations that reflect the pathology of the obstructed kidneys, and thus may aid in understanding the pathogenesis of obstructive nephropathy. PMID:27222353

  18. Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization transfer measurements of metabolic reaction rates in the rat heart and kidney in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    31P NMR is a unique tool to study bioenergetics in living cells. The application of magnetization transfer techniques to the measurement of steady-state enzyme reaction rates provides a new approach to understanding the regulation of high energy phosphate metabolism. This dissertation is concerned with the measurement of the rates of ATP synthesis in the rat kidney and of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction in the rat heart in situ. The theoretical considerations of applying magnetization transfer techniques to intact organs are discussed with emphasis on the problems associated with multiple exchange reactions and compartmentation of reactants. Experimental measurements of the ATP synthesis rate were compared to whole kidney oxygen consumption and Na+ reabsorption rates to derive ATP/O values. The problems associated with ATP synthesis rate measurements in kidney, e.g. the heterogeneity of the inorganic phosphate resonance, are discussed and experiments to overcome these problems proposed. In heart, the forward rate through creatine kinase was measured to be larger than the reverse rate. To account for the difference in forward and reverse rates a model is proposed based on the compartmentation of a small pool of ATP

  19. Inhibition of the accumulation, in rat kidney allografts, of specific--but not nonspecific--cytotoxic cells by cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats receiving kidney allografts were divided into two groups--one was treated daily with an immunosuppressive dose of cyclosporine and the other group was left untreated. Five days after transplantation the cells infiltrating the grafts were extracted by enzymic treatment and tested in vitro for specific and nonspecific cytotoxicity in a 6-hr 51Cr release assay. Approximately 5 X 10(7) and 7 X 10(7) mononuclear cells per kidney were obtained, respectively, from healthy grafts excised from cyclosporine-treated hosts and from grafts undergoing unmodified rejection. Despite these similarities in yield the cells harvested from the grafts of the two groups showed very different cytolytic activity. Cells from both sources displayed comparable levels of nonspecific cytotoxicity, but only those obtained from grafts undergoing rejection were able to mediate specific target cell lysis. The relevance of these observations to the understanding of the mechanism of kidney allograft rejection in the rat and of the mode of action of cyclosporine are briefly discussed

  20. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  1. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure can accelerate the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. If ... surgical removal can lead to loss of kidney function. As of April 26, 2012, adults with TSC ...

  3. MicroRNA-21 and Risk of Severe Acute Kidney Injury and Poor Outcomes after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Juan DU; Cao, Xiaoqing; Zou, Liang; Chen, Yi; Guo, Jin; Chen, Zujun; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study evaluated the potential use of miR-21 as a risk marker for postoperative AKI progression and other poor outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 120 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: 40 non-AKI controls, 39 patients with progressive AKI, and 41 with non-progressive AKI. Urine and plasma levels of miR-21 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR ...

  4. Global histone modifications in Fumonisin B1 exposure in rat kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Duygu; Ozden, Sibel

    2015-10-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Although the effects of FB1 on sphingolipid metabolism are clear, little is known about early molecular changes associated with FB1 carcinogenicity. It has been shown that FB1 disrupts DNA methylation and chromatin modifications in HepG2 cells. We investigated dose- and time-dependent effects of FB1 in global histone modifications such as histone H3 lysine 9 di-, trimethylation (H3K9me2/me3), histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), histone H4 lysine 20 trimethylation (H4K20me3), histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) and the enzymes involved in these mechanisms in rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E). The increased levels of global H3K9me2/me3 were observed in FB1 treated cells, while the global levels of H4K20me3 and H3K9ac were decreased. FB1 caused some changes on the activities of H3K9 histone methyltransferase (HMT) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) at high concentrations in NRK-52E cells. Further, the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, were investigated in NRK-52E cells. TSA was found to cause an increase on H3K9ac levels as expected. In this study we suggest that FB1 may disrupt epigenetic events by altering global histone modifications, introducing a novel aspect on the potential mechanism of FB1 carcinogenesis. PMID:26208285

  5. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  7. Nitric Oxide Resistance Reduces Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation in Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma L Geenen

    Full Text Available Autologous arteriovenous (AV fistulas are the first choice for vascular access but have a high risk of non-maturation due to insufficient vessel adaptation, a process dependent on nitric oxide (NO-signaling. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with oxidative stress that can disturb NO-signaling. Here, we evaluated the influence of CKD on AV fistula maturation and NO-signaling.CKD was established in rats by a 5/6th nephrectomy and after 6 weeks, an AV fistula was created between the carotid artery and jugular vein, which was followed up at 3 weeks with ultrasound and flow assessments. Vessel wall histology was assessed afterwards and vasoreactivity of carotid arteries was studied in a wire myograph. The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC activator BAY 60-2770 was administered daily to CKD animals for 3 weeks to enhance fistula maturation.CKD animals showed lower flow rates, smaller fistula diameters and increased oxidative stress levels in the vessel wall. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was comparable but vasorelaxation after sodium nitroprusside was diminished in CKD vessels, indicating NO resistance of the NO-receptor sGC. This was confirmed by stimulation with BAY 60-2770 resulting in increased vasorelaxation in CKD vessels. Oral administration of BAY 60-2770 to CKD animals induced larger fistula diameters, however; flow was not significantly different from vehicle-treated CKD animals.CKD induces oxidative stress resulting in NO resistance that can hamper AV fistula maturation. sGC activators like BAY 60-2770 could offer therapeutic potential to increase AV fistula maturation.

  8. cAMP-binding proteins in medullary tubules from rat kidney: effect of ADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known of the regulatory steps in the cellular action of vasopressin (AVP) on the renal epithelium, subsequent to the cAMP generation. We studied cAMP-binding proteins in the medullary collecting tubule (MCT) and the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (MTAL) microdissected from the rat kidney by use of photoaffinity labeling. Microdissected tubules were homogenized and photoaffinity labeled by incubation with 1 microM 32P-labeled 8-azido-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (N3-8-[32P]-cAMP); the incorporated 32P was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Both in MCT and MTAL preparations, the analyses showed incorporation of N3-8-[32P]cAMP into two bands (Mr = 49,000 and Mr = 55,000) that comigrated with standards of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunits RI and RII. In MCT, most of the 32P (80%) was incorporated into RI, whereas in MTAL the 32P incorporated into RI and RII was equivalent. When freshly dissected MCT segments were incubated with 10(-12)-10(-6) M AVP, the subsequent photoaffinity labeling of RI with N3-8-[32P]cAMP was markedly diminished in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls. Our results suggest that cAMP binds in MCT and MTAL to regulatory subunits RI and RII of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, in MCT the dominant type of cAMP-dependent protein kinase appears to be type I. The outlined procedure is suitable to indirectly measure the occupancy of RI by endogenous cAMP generated in MCT cells in response to physiological levels (10(-12) M) of AVP

  9. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation

  10. Subcellular localization of neptunium-237 in lung and kidney after intratracheal administration in the rat: An ultrastructural and microanalytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic intratacheal administration of 237Np to rats was performed during 6 weeks. The total dose administered was 45.8 kBq. Two methods, electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis, were used to determined the intracellular sites of localization of 237Np. Clusters of dense granules were observed in nuclei of pneumocytes and proximal tubular cells of the kidneys. These clusters have been shown to contain neptunium associated with phosphorus, sulfur and calcium. Alternations of nuclei and ultrastructural cytoplasmic lesions were observed. The absorbed doses in lungs and kidneys were very low. These results suggest that the chemical toxicity of 237Np is more important than its radiological toxicity. 30 refs., 2 figs

  11. Biochemical behavior of Tc-99-DMS and Tc-99m-DMS complexes in the rat kidney at subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular localization of both Tc-99-DMS and Tc-99m-DMS in the rat kidney and renal cortex tissue under in vivo and in vitro conditions was studied. The results obtained show that both complexes penetrate into the kidney cells where they bind mostly to cytoplasmatic proteins, and to mitochondria and to a lesser extent to microsomes and nuclei. The following percents of bound radioactivity to cytosol were determined (based on the total radioactivity of the tissue homogenates): with Tc-99m-DMS 30,92% (mean value of five experiments); with Tc-99-DMS 57,45% (mean value of nine experiments), while Tc-99-DMS was bound 48,25% (mean value of six experimental results) to cytosols obtained from the isolated cortex tissue

  12. Optical cryoimaging of rat kidney and the effective role of chromosome 13 in salt-induced hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, F.; Yang, C.; Kurth, T.; Cowley, A. W.; Ranji, M.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work is to assess oxidative stress levels in salt-sensitive hypertension animal model using 3D optical cryoimager to image mitochondrial redox ratio. We studied Dahl salt-induced (SS) rats, and compared the results with a consomic SS rat strain (SSBN13). The SSBN13 strain was developed by the introgression of chromosome from the Brown Norway (BN) rat into the salt-sensitive (SS) genetic background and exhibits significant protection from salt induced hypertension1 . These two groups were fed on a high salt diet of 8.0% NaCl for one week. Mitochondrial redox ratio (NADH/FAD=NADH RR), was used as a quantitative marker of the oxidative stress in kidney tissue. Maximum intensity projected images and their corresponding histograms in each group were acquired from each kidney group. The result showed a 49% decrease in mitochondrial redox ratio of SS compared to SSBN13 translated to an increase in the level of oxidative stress of the tissue. Therefore, the results quantify oxidative stress levels and its effect on mitochondrial redox in salt sensitive hypertension.

  13. Proteomic identification of vanin-1 as a marker of kidney damage in a rat model of type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, Tim; Borgia, Beatrice; Révész, Csaba; Godó, Mária; Forsblom, Carol; Hamar, Peter; Holthöfer, Harry; Neri, Dario; Roesli, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    At present, the urinary albumin excretion rate is the best noninvasive predictor for diabetic nephropathy (DN) but major limitations are associated with this marker. Here, we used in vivo perfusion technology to establish disease progression markers in an animal model of DN. Rats were perfused with a reactive ester derivative of biotin at various times after streptozotocin treatment. Following homogenization of kidney tissue and affinity purification of biotinylated proteins, a label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of tryptic digests identified and relatively quantified 396 proteins. Of these proteins, 24 and 11 were found to be more than 10-fold up- or downregulated, respectively, compared with the same procedure in vehicle-treated rats. Changes in the expression of selected differentially regulated proteins were validated by immunofluorescence detection in kidney tissue from control and diabetic rats. Immunoblot analysis of pooled human urine found that concentrations of vanin-1, an ectoenzyme pantetheinase, distinguished diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria from those with normal albuminuria. Uromodulin was elevated in the urine pools of the diabetic patients, regardless of the degree of albuminuria, compared with healthy controls. Thus, in vivo biotinylation facilitates the detection of disease-specific changes in the abundance of potential biomarker proteins for disease monitoring and/or pharmacodelivery applications. PMID:21544065

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  15. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Xue Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Early acute kidney injury (AKI is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9; these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  16. Role of propolis (bee glue) in improving histopathological changes of the kidney of rat treated with aluminum chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Ayman El-meghawry; Hussein Osman, Hosam Eldin; Daghestani, Maha Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to aluminum from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment, and it can be potentially toxic. This study is aimed to elucidate the protective effects of propolis against aluminum chloride (AlCl3 )-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in kidney tissues of rats. Sixty Wistar Albino male rats (average weight 250-300 g) were divided into three equal groups. The first served as a negative control. The second received AlCl₃ (34 mg/kg bw, 1/ 25 LD 50). The third were administered AlCl₃ (34 mg/kg bw, 1/ 25 LD 50) plus propolis (50 mg/kg bw). Doses were given once daily via a gavage for 8 weeks every day. The results showed that shrunken glomeruli, intraglomerular congestion, loss of apical microvilli, degeneration of mitochondria and widened rough endoplasmic reticulum were also observed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubules of these animals. Treatment with propolis ameliorated the harmful effects of AlCl₃ ; this was also proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the renal tissues. There were also significant variations in the expressed of ki-67 and p53 proteins. It can be concluded that propolis may be promising as a natural therapeutic agent in AlCl₃ -induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress in rat kidneys. PMID:23172825

  17. Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney and adrenal gland of rats following repeated exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassina Khaldoun Oularbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT is a type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in pest management. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of LCT on the kidneys and adrenal glands of rats after subacute exposure. Twenty-eight 6-week-old male albino Rattus norvegicus rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, which received distilled water. The experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20.4, 30.6 and 61.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of LCT, administered orally over 28 days. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 14 and 28 days. Histopathological studies were carried out in the kidneys and adrenal glands at the end of the experiment. Lambda-cyhalothrin, as a pyrethroid insecticide, induced significant increases (P≤0.05 in plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid and glucose concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities after 14 and 28 days. In the rat plasma samples after 28 days, residual concentrations of LCT 1R, cis,

  18. 14C-labeled pulegone and metabolites binding to alpha2u-globulin in kidneys of male F-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ling-Jen Chen; Lebetkin, Edward H; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Parkinson, Horace D; Borghoff, Susan J; Burka, Leo T

    2007-09-01

    Pulegone is a major constituent of pennyroyal oil and a minor component of peppermint oil. Pulegone is biotransformed to menthofuran and menthones (diastereomeric menthone and isomenthone) in pennyroyal and peppermint as well as in rodents. Pulegone and menthofuran are hepatotoxic to rodents, and menthones are less toxic. The metabolism and disposition of pulegone and menthofuran were previously studied in rodents, and higher concentrations of pulegone- and menthofuran-derived radioactivity were observed in male than female rat kidney. One explanation is the association of pulegone and metabolites with a male rat-specific protein, alpha2u-globulin. To test this hypothesis, male and female rats were dosed orally with 14C-labeled pulegone (80 mg/kg, 120 microCi/kg) or menthofuran (60 mg/kg, 120 microCi/kg) or menthones (80 mg/kg, 120 microCi/kg) in corn oil, and the kidney cytosol was prepared 24 h after dosing. An equilibrium dialysis experiment showed that in all three studies the radioactivity was associated with kidney cytosol proteins of male but not female rats. The chemicals present in the male rat kidney cytosol after dialysis were extracted with dichloromethane and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All parent compounds were detected, and the metabolites characterized included piperitone from pulegone or menthones treatment, menthones and possibly 8-hydroxymenthones from pulegone treatment, and mintlactones (diastereomeric mintlactone and isomintlactone) and 7a-hydroxymintlactone from menthofuran treatment. Analysis of the male rat kidney cytosol by a gel filtration column demonstrated that the retention was due to reversible binding of these chemicals with the male rat-specific protein alpha2u-globulin. However, binding of pulegone and/or metabolites to alpha2u-globulin did not produce accumulation of this protein in the kidney. PMID:17687727

  19. Localized Cystic Disease of the Kidney: A Rare Cause of Hypertension in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Solak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized cystic disease of kidney (LCDK is a rare, non-familial, non-progressive renal disorder that is not associated with cysts or disorders in other organs. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. While this condition is morphologically identical to the autosomal dominant form of polycystic kidney disease, it is not inherited and is not associated with significant deterioration of renal function. We present a case of a 16-year-old male patient who suffered from hypertension for over two years. On imaging we found several, variable-sized cysts in the upper half of the right kidney. The left kidney and lower segment of the right kidney were normal. Selective renal vein catheterization and sampling showed markedly elevated renin level in the right upper segmental vein (92 pg/ml, normal value: 11-33 pg/ml. The patient underwent a right upper heminephrectomy and histopathology was suggestive of LCDK. After surgery, the patient′s blood pressure returned to normal levels without any need of antihypertensive medication and he is under follow-up on outpatient basis for the past two years.

  20. Comparative Histopathological Evaluation of Permethrin, Pirimiphos Methyl and Bendiocarb Toxicities in Testes, Liver and kidney of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf L. Nessiem; Nahed S. bassily and Salwa A. Metwally

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of insecticides in agriculture and in public health calls for greater attention for studying their possible toxic effect (s on man and animals. Acute toxic effects have been relatively well known whereas chronic effects require further studies. The aim of the present work was, therefore, to study the histopathological changes in testes, liver and kidney of rats due to 30 days feeding on diet containing permethrin, pirimiphos methyl and bendiocarb. The dose used for each insecticide represented a concentration that equals ten times the acceptable human daily intake. These doses are far below the LD50, but represent possible exposure doses. Forty male Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Animals of each group were fed either by normal diet, or diet mixed with permethrin (21.739 ppm, pirimiphos methyl (4.350 ppm or bendiocarb (2ppm for 30 days. Histological sections of testes, liver and kidneys were examined and histopathological changes and quantitative estimates were recorded. Incidence of spermatogenic suppression, Leydig cell atrophy and vacuolation of Sertoli cells were most prominent in testicular sections from primiphos methyl treated animal testis than in animals of the other groups. Peremethrin feeding resulted in the least deteriorative changes. In sections of liver, dilatation and congestion of blood sinusoids was most evident in the group treated with primiphos methyl and to less extent in those treated with bendiocarb. Swollen hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and incidence of apoptosis were also recorded. In kidney sections, vacuolar degeneration, tubular and capsular dilatation, and glomerular congestion were observed especially in primiphos methyl treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained changes were of different severity as a response of exposure to permethrin, pirimiphos methyl or bendiocarb at the same equivelant of human acceptable daily intake.

  1. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ciwei Lim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults.We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.1.Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population.

  2. Determination of Chemical Compositions on Adult Kidney Stones—A Spectroscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.

    2008-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.

  3. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

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    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  4. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  5. Formation and subsequent removal of 06-methylguanine from deoxyribonucleic acid in rat liver and kidney after small doses of dimethylnitrosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H] dimethylnitrosamine was used to measure the design of alkylation of DNA after doses as low as 1 μg/kg body wt. It was found that even though most of the 06-methylguanine was removed very rapidly from liver DNA after these low doses, this product was still readily detectable in the DNA 24h after administration of the carcinogen. In addition, a cell-free extract capable of removing 06-methylguanine from DNA has been prepared from rat liver and kidney, and some properties of this system are described. The significance of these results in the possible induction of tumours by low exposures to dimethylnitrosamine is discussed. (author)

  6. Assessment of Myo‌inositol and Crocin Effects on RAGE and TGF? Gene Expression in the Kidney of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sadat Heidary; F BAHMANI; Z. Bathaei; Gh. Moshtaghi Kashanian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the micro vascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia results in the formation of glycated proteins and activation of pathways leading to diabetic nephropathy. Increasing RAGE and TGF? production in the kidney tissue is a major pathway involved in diabetic complications. In this survey, the effect of myoinositol and Crocin on RAGE and TGF? expression in the kidney of diabetic rats was studied. Materials & Meth...

  7. Long Term Study of Protective Mechanisms of Human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Induced Kidney injury in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhusseini, Fatma M; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy A.A; Anber, Nahla; Elghannam, Doaa; Sobh, Mohamed-Ahmed; ALSAYED, AZIZA; El-dusoky, Sara; SHEASHAA, HUSSEIN; Abdel-Ghaffar, Hassan; Sobh, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Long-term evaluation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the probable renal protective activities of stem cells are lacking up until now. We evaluated the early and long-term role of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this, we determined the kidney tissue level of oxidative stress markers in conjugation with a renal histopathological scoring system o...

  8. Epoetin beta pegol prevents endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by flow-mediated dilation in chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Hirata, Michinori; Endo, Koichi

    2015-11-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a poor prognosis due to cardiovascular disease. Anemia and endothelial dysfunction are important risk factors for cardiovascular events in CKD patients, and treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) has been reported to improve the quality of life in CKD patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect of anemia correcting dose of epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator; C.E.R.A.) on endothelial function in 5/6 nephrectomized rats (Nx rats). C.E.R.A. was subcutaneously administered once a fortnight, 5 times in total, from 1 week after nephrectomy. Twenty-four hours after last administration, endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the femoral arteries of anesthetized Nx rats by ultrasound system. Femoral arteries were harvested for western blot analysis. C.E.R.A. significantly increased FMD of Nx rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by nitroglycerin injection was not influenced by C.E.R.A treatment. Nox4 expression and nitrotyrosine accumulation were significantly decreased, and phosphorylation of eNOS was significantly enhanced in the femoral arteries of C.E.R.A.-treated rats. C.E.R.A. normalized hemoglobin levels but did not affect body weight, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, urinary protein excretion and plasma creatinine. These results indicate that C.E.R.A. prevented endothelial dysfunction in Nx rats, possibly through reduction of local oxidative stress and enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation in the arteries. This study provides the first evidence that C.E.R.A. prevented endothelial dysfunction in CKD model rats under conditions of amelioration of anemia. PMID:26432688

  9. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  10. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  11. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO3−) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO3− caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO3− and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO3− in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5 mg BrO3−/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2u-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2u-globulin nephropathy. - Highlights: • Bromate induced nephrotoxicity in both male and female rats by similar mechanisms. • Apoptosis was seen in both male and female rats at the lowest doses tested. • Bromate-induced apoptosis correlated to 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine formation. • Bromate increased the level of 3-bromotyrosine

  12. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolisetty, Narendrababu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Bull, Richard J. [MoBull Consulting, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Costyn, Leah J. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Delker, Don A. [School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States); Guo, Zhongxian [Water Quality Office, Public Utilities Board, 608576 (Singapore); Cotruvo, Joseph A. [Joseph Cotruvo and Associates, LLC, Washington, DC 20016 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Cummings, Brian S., E-mail: bsc@rx.uga.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup −}) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO{sub 3}{sup −} caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO{sub 3}{sup −} and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO{sub 3}{sup −} in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5 mg BrO{sub 3}{sup −}/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2{sub u}-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2{sub u}-globulin nephropathy. - Highlights: • Bromate induced nephrotoxicity in both male and female rats by similar mechanisms. • Apoptosis was seen in both male and female rats at the lowest doses tested. • Bromate-induced apoptosis correlated to 8-oxo

  13. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  14. Ameliorating effects of goby fish protein hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jemil, Ines; Daoued, Ines; Hamden, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem; Boualga, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef; Karra-Châabouni, Maha

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of undigested goby fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle proteins (UGP) and their hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed rats. HFFD induced hyperglycemia, manifested by a significant increase in the levels of glucose and glycogen as well as α-amylase activity when compared to normal rats. The administration of GPHs to HFFD-fed rats significantly decreased α-amylase activity and the contents of blood glucose and hepatic glycogen. By contrast, the UGP increased the glucose metabolic disorders in HFFD-fed rats. Furthermore, HFFD-fed rats showed oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) levels and increased concentration of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the daily gavage of UGP and GPHs improved the redox status in liver and kidney of HFFD-rats by ameliorating or reversing the above-mentioned changes. Moreover, GPHs exhibited a renal protective role by reversing the HFFD-induced decease of uric acid and increase of creatinine levels in serum and preventing some HFFD-induced changes in kidney architecture. The results demonstrate that GPHs contain bioactive peptides that possess significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, and ameliorate renal damage in rats fed hypercaloric diet. PMID:26327248

  15. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  16. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  17. Effect of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine on oxidative stress of liver and kidney in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Estefanía; Muñoz-Sáez, Emma; Antonio, María Teresa; Pineda, Javier; Herrera, Amparo; Miguel, Begoña G; Arahuetes, Rosa María

    2013-03-01

    β-N-methylamino-(L)-alanine (L)-BMAA) is a neurotoxic amino acid, found in the majority of cyanbacterial genera tested. Evidence for implication of (L)-BMAA in neurodegenerative disorders, like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), relies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification from symbiotic cyanobacteria. The involvement of (L)-BMAA in oxidative stress was demonstrated in several studies in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of (L)-BMAA on the oxidative stress responses of liver and kidney in rats treated by intraperitoneal administration with this amino acid. Oxidative stress was demonstrated by the quantification of lipid peroxidation, the measurement of both catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as the quantification of glutathione (GSH) levels and the total antioxidant capacity. It was observed that (L)-BMAA caused a significant increase in the degree of lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in both organs. A significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was obtained only in liver, whereas glutathione levels were also increased in both organs. The total antioxidant capacity decreased in liver and increased in kidney. These results suggest that the oxidative stress was higher in liver than in kidney, and might be crucial for (L)-BMAA toxicological action. PMID:23328118

  18. Mechanism of the preventive effect of breviscapus on pathogenesis of acute kidney injury in rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei YANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect and its related mechanism of Erigeron breviscapus on pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI in rats with sepsis. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control group, sepsis model group (CLP group, and breviscapine treatment group (treatment group, n=12 each. The sepsis model was reproduced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after operation. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr were assayed with enzymatic assays, endothelin 1 (ET-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS with ELISA, renal malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities with xanthine oxide method, and the degree of renal tissue injury by micros copic examination after HE staining. Results Compared with the control group, the levels of Scr, BUN, ET-1, iNOS, MDA and iNOS in CLP groups significantly increased, while the SOD activities significantly decreased (P<0.05. Compared with the CLP group, the levels of Scr, BUN, ET-1, iNOS, MDA and iNOS were lower markedly in treatment group, while the SOD activity elevated markedly (P<0.05. Conclusions Breviscapine may reduce AKI in rats with sepsis, and the effect may be related to the improvement of renal microcirculation, reduction of antioxidant enzyme activity, and decrease in oxidation products. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.01

  19. Heshouwu decoction, a Chinese herb for tonifying kidney, ameliorates hypothalamic-pituitary- testicular axis secretion in aging rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siyun Niu; Suru Kou; Xiaochun Zhou; Liang Ding

    2012-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the anti-aging effect of Heshouwu in pill form. In this study, a subacute aging rat model was established by continuous intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and treated with Heshouwu decoction (a Chinese herb for tonifying the kidney, com-prising Heshouwu pill, Herba Epimedii, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, and Poria). Heshouwu pill treated rats were the positive control group. Radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot assay showed hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamic substance P, and serum gonadotropin levels to be significantly increased in the model rats; the concentrations of hypothalamic β-endorphin, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone were significantly decreased. 17β- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in testicular tissue was also decreased. Intragastric administration of Heshouwu decoction at high (9.6 g/mL/100 g), medium (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and low (2.4 g/mL/100 g) doses, Heshouwu decoction pretreatment at a medium dose (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and Heshouwu pill (2.06 g/mL/100 g) significantly reversed these changes. Heshouwu decoction pretreatment and high-dose Heshouwu decoction had the greatest anti-aging effects. These experimental findings indicate that Heshouwu decoction can improve hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis secretion in a subacute aging rat model, and prevent and delay gonadal axis aging, with an effect superior to that of Heshouwu pill.

  20. Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with adult celiac disease and kidney stones: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, and pesticides. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary PAH and adult digestive conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported health conditions, and urinary PAH. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 5560 American adults aged 20-80 and included in the statistical analysis, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was significantly associated with celiac disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.26, P = 0.009). In addition, urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.78, P = 0.038), 3-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70, P = 0.015), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.03, P = 0.017), 1-hydroxypyrene (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.77, P = 0.023), and 2-hydroxynapthalene (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.58, P = 0.054) were significantly associated with kidney stones, although not necessarily failing kidney. There were no statistically significant associations observed in the relationship of urinary PAH and liver problems, although higher levels of PAHs were observed. Urinary PAHs are associated with adult digestive conditions, although the causality cannot be established. From the research perspective, longitudinal monitoring from observational studies and experimental research understanding mechanism would be suggested. Regulation of minimizing PAHs exposure might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies. PMID:26728287

  1. Adenovirus-Mediated Over-Expression of Nrf2 Within Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs Protected Rats Against Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh-Vardin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recent developments in the field of cell therapy have led to a renewed interest in treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI. However, the early death of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in stressful microenvironment of a recipient tissue is a major problem with this kind of treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether overexpression of a cytoprotective factor, nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2, in MSCs could protect rats against AKI. Methods: The Nrf2 was overexpressed in MSCs by recombinant adenoviruses, and the MSCs were implanted to rats suffering from cisplatin-induced AKI. Results: The obtained results showed that transplantation with the engineered MSCs ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI. Morphologic features of the investigated kidneys showed that transplantation with the MSCs in which Nrf2 had been overexpressed significantly improved the complications of AKI. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the engineered MSCs might be a good candidate to be further evaluated in clinical trials. However, detailed studies must be performed to investigate the possible carcinogenic effect of Nrf2 overexpression.

  2. Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Decreases Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO has shown various physiological effects including anti-inflammatory activity in several diseases, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CO on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI has not been reported as of yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of exogenous CO on sepsis-induced AKI and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats. Male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP to induce sepsis and AKI. Exogenous CO delivered from CO-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2 was used intraperitoneally as intervention after CLP surgery. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on sepsis-induced AKI were assessed by measuring serum creatinine (Scr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN, kidney histology scores, apoptotic cell scores, oxidative stress, levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. CORM-2 treatment protected against the sepsis-induced AKI as evidenced by reducing serum Scr/BUN levels, apoptotic cells scores, increasing survival rates, and decreasing renal histology scores. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels and oxidative stress. Moreover, CORM-2 treatment significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome protein expressions. Our study provided evidence that CORM-2 treatment protected against sepsis-induced AKI and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and suggested that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for treating sepsis-induced AKI.

  3. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. PMID:26616141

  4. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  5. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Ortiz, María C.; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P.

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  6. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Albertoni Borghese

    Full Text Available Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  7. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Kidney Disease Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > Living With Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure | Share External Link Disclaimer Living With Kidney Disease ...

  8. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  9. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  10. Social support of adults and elderly with chronic kidney disease on dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Simone Márcia; Braido, Natalia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the instrumental and emotional social support of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was sized for convenience and included 103 participants under treatment in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit. Data were collected through individual interviews, using the Social Support Scale. Results: the mean scores of the emotional and instrumental social support were 3.92 (± 0.78) and 3.81 (± 0.69) respectively, an indication of good support received. The most frequent sources of instrumental and emotional social support mentioned by participants were partners, spouse, companion or boyfriend and friends. Conclusion: patients with chronic kidney disease have high social support, both instrumental and emotional, and the main support comes from the family. PMID:27508920

  11. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS TREATMENT ON KIDNEY FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED WITH L-NAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypertension, the disease known as the silent killer, is a common problem facing peoples today with million new cases being diagnosed each year. Although a great amount of money is spent annually for the treatment and detection of this disease and its complications, current conventional treatment have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements and herbs.In this study, the changes in some selected biochemical blood variables, which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension and kidney function, were compared between a group of normotensive male albino rats and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, this study investigated the effects of daily administration of some antioxidants nutrients for two weeks namely carnitine, coenzyme Q10 , garlic oil and their mixture on the same variables in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Fifty mg of coenzyme Q10 and 50 mg of carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks in two groups of hypertensive rats while 200 mg/kg b.wt was given to another group of hypertensive rats by oral intubation. A combination of all the above mentioned nutrients was given to the fourth group. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as a recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn and kidney tissues were taken at the terminal of treatments.The obtained results revealed that induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.05) increase of thiobarbeturic acid reactive substances (TBARs), malondialdehyde (MAD), parathormone (PTH), renin, blood urea, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium and potassium while glutathione (GSH), calcium and

  12. Action of different doses of 131I on thyroid gland, its tissue distribution and elimination in adult male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male Wistar rats were administered 4, 37, 74 or 185 MBq/kg 131I i.p. Activities were measured in the thyroid gland or region, blood plasma (total and protein bound), salivary glands, cerebral cortex, skin, liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle after 1-30 (36) days. Beginning 8 days after radiothyroidectomy the remaining or possibly regenerated thyroid function was tested with a test dose of 185 kBq/kg i.p. After administration of 4 MBq/kg 131I the thyroid gland showed a regeneration within 30 days, but not after treatment with higher doses. The time course of tissue distribution of activity is dose dependent: after 4 MBq/kg 131I increasing activities after the 3rd-8th day are observed in skin, brain, salivary glands, intestine, spleen, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. After 37 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, brain, liver and intestine increasing activities between the 8th and 30th day have been observed. After 185 MBq/kg 131I only in skin, spleen and intestine increasing activities after the 15th day were measured. Thyroid gland activity 24 hs after administration of 185 kBq/kg 131I showed during the experimental period of 50 days considerable variation with a factor of 4 for thyroid gland, 8 for protein-bound and about 10 for total plasma 131I activity. (author)

  13. The effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress on lipolysis in white adipose tissue in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yu-Ling; Li, Cong; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Guo-yu XU; Hu, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-fan; Zhou, Qiu-gen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Lipolysis in fat tissue plays an important role in the development of metabolic disturbances, a characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could alleviate lipolysis in white adipose tissue in a rat model of CKD. Methods: A rat model of CKD was established by a method of reduced renal mass (RRM). Lipolysis was measured as the release of glycerol in ex vivo fat pads and cult...

  14. Effects of combined treatment of rats with cadmium and ionizing radiation on nucleic acids in the kidneys, liver and haemopoietic organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Cd (1 mg/rat CdCl2 i.p.) and/or gamma radiation (6 Gy) on RNA and DNA content and/or concentration in the intact kidney and hypertrophic kidney (on the 44th hour after unilateral nephrectomy - UN) and in other slowly and quickly proliferating organs was studied. The period between administration of Cd and ionizing irradiation (Ir) in the group with combined treatment was 30 min, between treatment (administration of Cd, Ir and combination of both treatments - Cd + Ir) and UN it was 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. The total extent of damage caused by the treatments in the investigated organs was following: intact kidney < liver < hypertrophic kidney and bone marrow < spleen < thymus. In the intact and hypertrophic kidney and liver, the administration of Cd caused more extensive changes in comparison with gamma irradiation and the effects of combination of the treatments were similar to those of Cd alone. In the bone marrow, spleen and thymus, more profound changes were observed after Ir in comparison with Cd administration, and the effects of combined treatment were similar to the effects of Ir alone. The changes in the hypertrophic kidney after administration of Cd and/or Ir were more extensive than in the intact kidney, which suggests latent injury induction in the rat kidney by these noxa. The higher effectiveness of the treatments in the hypertrophic kidney than in the intact one was manifested mostly by the decrease in the RNA and DNA content, which was mainly due to inhibition of growth induced by UN and not by a real decrease in DNA and RNA contents caused by loss of damaged cells. (author)

  15. Histological changes in kidney and liver of rats due to gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl.

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    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Development of novel metallodrugs with enhanced anti-proliferative potential and reduced toxicity has become the prime focus of the evolving medicinal chemistry. In this regards, gold (III complexes with various ligands are being extensively investigated. In the current study renal and hepatic toxicity of a newly developed gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl was assessed by histopathological evaluation of liver and kidney specimens of rats exposed to the compound. METHODS: Male rats (n = 42 weighing 200-250 gram were injected single, varying doses of gold (III compound [(dichlorido(ethylenediamineaurate((III]chloride [Au(enCl(2]Cl in the acute toxicity component of the study. In the sub-acute toxicity part, a dose of 32.2 mg/kg (equivalent to 1/10 of LD50 was administered intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days before sacrificing the animals. After autopsy, the renal and hepatic tissues were preserved in buffered formalin. Processing of the samples was followed by histopathological evaluation. The results were compared with the normal controls (n = 11. RESULTS: A dose of 32.2 mg/kg (1/10 of LD(50 revealed no renal tubular necrosis. The predominant histopathological finding was mild pyelitis, a prominence of eosinophils and mild congestion. The hepatic lesions comprised varying extents of ballooning degeneration with accompanying congestion and focal portal inflammation. CONCLUSION: Gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl causes minimal histological changes in kidney and liver of rats, reflecting its relative safety as compared to other clinically established antineoplastic drugs.

  16. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of 99mTc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r 2 = 0.772, p 177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well as to maximise anti-tumour efficacy. (orig.)

  17. Belatacept for prevention of acute rejection in adult patients who have had a kidney transplant: an update

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    Wojciechowski D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David Wojciechowski, Flavio VincentiKidney Transplant Service, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: In June 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved belatacept for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients. This review discusses the use of belatacept for the prevention of acute rejection as part of a maintenance immunosuppression regimen. Belatacept is a selective costimulation blocker designed to provide effective immunosuppression while avoiding the toxicities associated with calcineurin inhibitors. Phase III trial data have demonstrated that belatacept is noninferior to cyclosporine in 1-year patient and allograft survival. Three-year data demonstrate an ongoing improvement in mean measured glomerular filtration rate in belatacept-treated versus cyclosporine-treated patients. However, the rate of acute rejection was higher in belatacept-treated patients compared with cyclosporine. Specifically, there was a higher incidence of Banff type II rejections in patients treated with belatacept. Despite the higher Banff grade, rejections on belatacept were not associated with other factors associated with poor outcomes, such as the development of donor-specific antibodies or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate. One safety issue that must be considered when using belatacept is the potential for increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. There were more cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in belatacept-treated patients, especially in recipients seronegative for Epstein–Barr virus or patients treated with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Therefore, belatacept can be recommended for use in Epstein–Barr virus antibody-positive recipients.Keywords: belatacept, kidney transplant, acute rejection

  18. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

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    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  19. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  20. Patient and provider determinants of nephrology referral in older adults with severe chronic kidney disease: a survey of provider decision making

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare Ann M; Mold James W; Fox Chester; Stankus Nicole; Hemmerich Joshua; Smith Sandy G; Campbell Kellie H; Chin Marshall H; Dale William

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) disproportionately affects older adults, they are less likely to be referred to a nephrologist. Factors that influence the referral decisions of primary care providers (PCPs) specifically for older CKD patients have been incompletely described. Patient factors such as dementia, functional disability, and co-morbidity may complicate the decision to refer an older adult. This study evaluated the role of patient and PCP factors in the ref...

  1. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  2. Effects of dietary phosphate on adynamic bone disease in rats with chronic kidney disease--role of sclerostin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Ferrari, Guaraciaba O; Neves, Katia R; Cavallari, Raquel T; Dominguez, Wagner V; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Graciolli, Fabiana G; Oliveira, Elizabeth C; Liu, Shiguang; Sabbagh, Yves; Jorgetti, Vanda; Schiavi, Susan; Moysés, Rosa M A

    2013-01-01

    High phosphate intake is known to aggravate renal osteodystrophy along various pathogenetic pathways. Recent studies have raised the possibility that dysregulation of the osteocyte Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related bone disease. We investigated the role of dietary phosphate and its possible interaction with this pathway in an experimental model of adynamic bone disease (ABD) in association with CKD and hypoparathyroidism. Partial nephrectomy (Nx) and total parathyroidectomy (PTx) were performed in male Wistar rats. Control rats with normal kidney and parathyroid function underwent sham operations. Rats were divided into three groups and underwent pair-feeding for 8 weeks with diets containing either 0.6% or 1.2% phosphate: sham 0.6%, Nx+PTx 0.6%, and Nx+PTx 1.2%. In the two Nx+PTx groups, serum creatinine increased and blood ionized calcium decreased compared with sham control group. They also presented hyperphosphatemia and reduced serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. Fractional urinary excretion of phosphate increased in Nx+PTx 1.2% rats despite lower PTH and FGF23 levels than in sham group. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rates. The Nx+PTx 1.2% group had lower bone volume (BV/TV), higher osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and higher SOST and Dickkopf-1 gene expression than the Nx+PTx 0.6% group. Nx+PTx 0.6% rat had very low serum sclerostin levels, and Nx+PTx 1.2% had intermediate sclerostin levels compared with sham group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between BV/TV and serum sclerostin. These results suggest that high dietary phosphate intake decreases bone volume in an experimental model of CKD-ABD, possibly via changes in SOST expression through a PTH-independent mechanism. These findings could have relevance for the clinical setting of CKD-ABD in patients who low turnover bone disease might be attenuated

  3. Effects of dietary phosphate on adynamic bone disease in rats with chronic kidney disease--role of sclerostin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Ferreira

    Full Text Available High phosphate intake is known to aggravate renal osteodystrophy along various pathogenetic pathways. Recent studies have raised the possibility that dysregulation of the osteocyte Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD-related bone disease. We investigated the role of dietary phosphate and its possible interaction with this pathway in an experimental model of adynamic bone disease (ABD in association with CKD and hypoparathyroidism. Partial nephrectomy (Nx and total parathyroidectomy (PTx were performed in male Wistar rats. Control rats with normal kidney and parathyroid function underwent sham operations. Rats were divided into three groups and underwent pair-feeding for 8 weeks with diets containing either 0.6% or 1.2% phosphate: sham 0.6%, Nx+PTx 0.6%, and Nx+PTx 1.2%. In the two Nx+PTx groups, serum creatinine increased and blood ionized calcium decreased compared with sham control group. They also presented hyperphosphatemia and reduced serum parathyroid hormone (PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 levels. Fractional urinary excretion of phosphate increased in Nx+PTx 1.2% rats despite lower PTH and FGF23 levels than in sham group. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a decrease in bone formation rates. The Nx+PTx 1.2% group had lower bone volume (BV/TV, higher osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and higher SOST and Dickkopf-1 gene expression than the Nx+PTx 0.6% group. Nx+PTx 0.6% rat had very low serum sclerostin levels, and Nx+PTx 1.2% had intermediate sclerostin levels compared with sham group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between BV/TV and serum sclerostin. These results suggest that high dietary phosphate intake decreases bone volume in an experimental model of CKD-ABD, possibly via changes in SOST expression through a PTH-independent mechanism. These findings could have relevance for the clinical setting of CKD-ABD in patients who low turnover bone disease might

  4. Vesicoureteral Reflux, a Scarred kidney, and Minimal Proteinuria: An Unusual Cause of Adult Secondary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Apurv Khanna; Shaifali Sandal

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 65 million individuals in the United States. In adult patients, primary aldosteronism and renovascular causes are described as most prevalent. Vesicoureteral reflux as a cause of hypertension, while commonly described in pediatric populations, is less prevalent in the adult population especially in the absence of proteinuria. We present the case of a 31-year-old female presenting with early onset hypertension. Workup for renovascular hypertension was unrevealing. Sh...

  5. Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Freidig, A.P.; Jonker, D.; Thissen, U.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mumtaz, M.M.; Groten, J.P.; Stierum, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected based on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were

  6. Effects of Qiangji Jianli Yin on the hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels in rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of qiangji jianli yin on hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, Cortisol levels in rat models with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Methods: Rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome were prepared with intramuscular injuection of hydroeortisone and divided into 5 groups: (1) no further treatment, n=13 (2) treated with high dosage d qiangji jiandi yin, n=12 (3) treated with medium dosage of qiangji jianli yin, n=12 (4) treated with low dosage of qiangji jianli yin n=12, (5) treated with yougui wan, n=12. Ten rats injuected with intramuscular distilled water only served as controls. The animals were sacrificied 14 days later and the hypothalamus CRH contents as well as plasma AOM and cortisol levels were measured with RIA. The thymus gland weight index and the adrenal gland index were calculated. Results: (1) The hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels were significantly lower (P<0.01) in the rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome without any treatment thas those in controls rats; the thymus and adrenal gland weight index were significantly decreased too (P <0.01). The CRH conteats and ACTH, cortisol levels in all the three group of rat model treated with different dosage of qiangji jianli yin were significantly higher than those in the models without any treatment (P<0.05-0.01). Conclusion: In rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) led to decreased secretion of related hormones. The HPAA function might be partially restored with administation of qiangji jianli yin. (authors)

  7. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  8. RNA-Seq analysis of glycosylation related gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney inner medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The UT-A1 urea transporter is crucial to the kidney’s ability to generate concentrated urine. Native UT-A1 from kidney inner medulla (IM is a heavily glycosylated protein with two glycosylation forms of 97 and 117 kDa. In diabetes, UT-A1 protein abundance, particularly the 117 kD isoform, is significantly increased corresponding to an increased urea permeability in perfused IM collecting ducts, which plays an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria. However, how the glycan carbohydrate structure change and the glycan related enzymes regulate kidney urea transport activity, particularly under diabetic condition, is largely unknown. In this study, using sugar-specific binding lectins, we found that the carbohydrate structure of UT-A1 is changed with increased amounts of sialic acid, fucose, and increased glycan branching under diabetic conditions. These changes were accompanied by altered UT-A1 association with the galectin proteins, α-galactoside glycan binding proteins. To explore the molecular basis of the alterations of glycan structures, the highly sensitive next generation sequencing (NGS technology, Illumina RNA-seq, was employed to analyze genes involved in the process of UT-A1 glycosylation using streptozotocin (STZ - induced diabetic rat kidney. Differential gene expression analysis combining quantitative PCR revealed that expression of a number of important glycosylation related genes were changed under diabetic conditions. These genes include the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat4a, the sialylation enzymes St3gal1 and St3gal4 and glycan binding protein galectin-3, -5, -8 and -9. In contrast, although highly expressed in kidney IM, the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat1, Mgat2, and fucosyltransferase Fut8, did not show any changes. Conclusions: In diabetes, not only is UT-A1 protein abundance increased but the protein’s glycan structure is also significantly changed. UT-A1 protein becomes highly sialylated

  9. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva; Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e Martins; Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal; Talvany Luiz Barros; Ingrid Lara do Nascimento Ferreira de Carvalho; Hugo Aparecido Carvalho Filho; Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU) treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW), motor behavior (MB), and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g) were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU), trained + TU (T + TU), sedentary + vehicle (S + V), trained + vehicle (T + V). The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 ...

  10. Effect of erythropoietin hormone supplementation on renal functions and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in rat kidneys with experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa El Din Hassan; Shaat, Eman A.; Maha M. Deif; El Azhary, Nesrine M; Eman M. Omar

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic factor with multiple protective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of EPO administration on renal functions and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) in diabetic rat kidneys. The current study was carried out on 40 male albino rats divided into four groups (n = 10 in each). Group I served as normal control, group II was the diabetic control, group III rats received EPO on the same day of diagnosis of diabet...

  11. The preventive effect of vitamin C on the cellular and functional integrity of kidney cells in rats following repeated exposure to paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo; Edna Ogechi Nwachuku; Pascal Chuka Ene; Chukwubuike Udoka Okeke

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridylium herbicide that is applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the cellular integrity of kidney function in rats following repeated exposure to PQ. Ninety-six male rats, grouped twelve rats per subgroup (A, Avit.c, B, Bvit.c, C, Cvit.c, D and Dvi...

  12. Protective effects of amifostine on ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Arducoglu Merter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Amifostine could decrease the degree and severity of necrosis after reperfusion. Amifostine could not prevent membrane lipid peroxidation caused by superoxide anion radicals in kidney but they could protect tissues from the harmful effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing the level of reduced GSH which is a well-known oxygen radical eliminator.

  13. Azilsartan Improves Glycemic Status and Reduces Kidney Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Neckář, Jan; Haines, J.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 8 (2014), s. 1087-1095. ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : azilsartan medoxomil * blood pressure * hypertension * inflammation * kidney injury * oxidative stress * type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  14. Orally Active Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Analog Attenuates Kidney Injury in Hypertensive Dahl Salt–Sensitive Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Neckář, Jan; Manthati, V.; Errabelli, R.; Pavlov, T. S.; Staruschenko, A.; Falck, J. R.; Imig, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2013), s. 905-913. ISSN 0194-911X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : kidney * hypertension * oxidative stress * inflammation * arachidonate epoxygenase Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 7.632, year: 2013

  15. Alterations of NO synthase isoforms in brain and kidney of rats with genetic and salt hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojná, Silvie; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2010), s. 997-1009. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : brainstem * diencephalon * kidney Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  16. Nitric Oxide Resistance Reduces Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation in Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geenen, Irma L; Kolk, Felix F; Molin, Daniel G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous arteriovenous (AV) fistulas are the first choice for vascular access but have a high risk of non-maturation due to insufficient vessel adaptation, a process dependent on nitric oxide (NO)-signaling. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with oxidative stress that can...

  17. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 3H-WB 4101, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  18. Effects of Saponin from Solanum anguivi Lam. Fruit on Heart and Kidney Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Malondialdehyde in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Elekofehinti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are generated via normal metabolic processes or as the products of exogenous insults. They are capable of damaging essential biomolecules and accelerating cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the effect saponin from Solanum anguivi (SAS fruits on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO in the homogenates of the hearts and kidney was evaluated. Thirty six male Wister rats of average weight125±12 g were divided into six groups of six animals each. Five treated groups received a daily dose of saponin at 20 40 60 80 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, while distilled water was administered to the control group for 3 weeks. Solanum anguivi saponin significantly increased (p<0.05 both catalase and SOD activities in the heart, There was also corresponding increase in activities of both enzymes in the kidney but was not significant. MDA concentration was reduced significantly (p<0.05 in both tissues. SAS exhibit both antioxidant and antiperoxidative properties. Saponin from Solanum anguivi could therefore be employed as sources of natural antioxidant boosters and for the treatment of some oxidative stress disorders in which free radicals are implicated.

  19. Protective Effects of Carvacrol against Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Stress in Rat's Brain, Liver, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz; Borji, Abasalt

    2016-01-01

    Restraint stress may be associated with elevated free radicals, and thus, chronic exposure to oxidative stress may cause tissue damage. Several studies have reported that carvacrol (CAR) has a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CAR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver, and kidney. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 6 h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CAR daily for 21 days. To evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the brain, liver, and kidney. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the nonstressed animals (P < 0.001). CAR ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control group (P < 0.001). This study indicates that CAR can prevent restraint stress induced oxidative damage. PMID:26904286

  20. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, and globulin between all the studied groups that were exposed to heavy-metals-polluted water, when compared with the control group. In addition, there were significant differences (p metals-polluted water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks. PMID:27461423

  1. Prevalence of diminished kidney function in a representative sample of middle and older age adults in the Irish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Gemma M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD using available estimating equations with the Republic of Ireland is unknown. Methods A randomly selected population based cross-sectional study of 1,098 adults aged 45 years and older was conducted using data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR was calculated from a single IDMS aligned serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations, and albumin to creatinine ratio was based on a single random urine sample. Results The sample clinical characteristics and demography was similar to middle and older age adults in the general Irish population, though with an underrepresentation of subjects >75 years and of males. All results are based on subjects with available blood and urine samples. Applying weighting to obtain survey based population estimates, using Irish population census data, the estimated weighted prevalence of CKD-EPI eGFR2 was 11.6%, (95% confidence interval; 9.0, 14.2%, 12.0% ( 9.0, 14.2% of men and 11.2% (7.3, 15.2% of women. Unweighted prevalence estimates were similar at 11.8% (9.9, 13.8%. Albuminuria increased with lower CKD-EPI eGFR category. 10.1% of all subjects had albuminuria and an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 giving an overall weighted estimated prevalence of National Kidney Foundation (NKF defined CKD 21.3% (18.0, 24.6%, with the unadjusted estimate of 21.9% (19.5, 24.4%. MDRD related estimates for eGFR 2, and NFK defined CKD were higher than CKD-EPI and differences were greater in younger and female subjects. Conclusions CKD is highly prevalent in middle and older aged adults within the Republic of Ireland. In this population, there is poor agreement between CKD-EPI and MDRD equations especially at higher GFRs. CKD is associated with lower educational status and poor self rated health.

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  3. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  4. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid metabolic alterations in l-NAME hypertensive rats by sinapic acid-Role of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Raja, Boobalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sinapic acid, a bioactive phenolic acid on high blood pressure associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Sinapic acid was administered to rats orally at a dosage of 40mg/kg everyday for a period of 4 weeks. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, organ weights (liver and kidney), lipid peroxidation products in tissues (liver and kidney), activities of hepatic marker enzymes and the levels of renal function markers in serum of l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment also significantly increased the level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of l-NAME rats. Tissue damage was assessed by histopathological examination. Alterations in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, level of plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids were corrected by sinapic acid treatment in l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in plasma and liver, whereas the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was significantly increased in the plasma of hypertensive rats. Docking result showed the interaction between sinapic acid and HMG-CoA reductase. Sinapic acid has shown best ligand binding energy of -5.5kcal/M. Moreover, in chick embryo model, sinapic acid improved vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane. These results of the present study concludes that sinapic acid acts as a protective agent against hypertension associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations. PMID:26945821

  5. The Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edgar R.; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Henoch-Ryugo, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Turban, Sharon; Bennett, Michael R.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid–binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m2, median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (−7.2%; 95% CI −20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (−16% [−29.1 to −0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and

  6. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biomarkers of kidney injury in adults with diabetes: results of the GO-FISH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edgar R; Juraschek, Stephen P; Anderson, Cheryl A; Guallar, Eliseo; Henoch-Ryugo, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Turban, Sharon; Bennett, Michael R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid-binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m(2), median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (-7.2%; 95% CI -20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (-16% [-29.1 to -0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early

  7. Similar Trends in Serum VEGF-D Levels and Kidney Angiomyolipoma Responses with Longer Duration Sirolimus Treatment in Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Izabela A.; Lee, Nancy; Kumar, Vidhya; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Franz, David Neal; Ashwal, Stephen; Sagalowsky, Arthur; DiMario, Francis J.; Cutler, Drew; Krueger, Darcy; Camposano, Susana; Paolini, Jan; Dabora, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Context We have previously shown that serum VEGF-D is elevated at baseline, correlates with kidney angiomyolipoma size at baseline and 12 months, and decreases with sirolimus treatment in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). To further investigate the utility of serum VEGF-D for longer term monitoring of TSC kidney disease, we present VEGF-D level results with 24 month follow-up. Objective To compare 24 month VEGF-D levels in two subgroups of sirolimus treated patients (OFF SIROLIMUS...

  8. Effect of Pimpinellatirupatiensison Oxidative Enzymes in STZ-induced Diabetic Rat Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    RajeswaraReddy, Saddala; Lavany, Thopireddy; Narasimhulu, Ganapathi; SathyaveluReddy, Kesireddy

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Pimpinellatirupatiensis(Pt) by assaying the activities of selective mitochondrial enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the activities of oxidative enzymes Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly (p < 0.01) increased ...

  9. Immunogenicity of retransplanted rat kidney allografts. Effect of inducing chimerism in the first recipient and quantitative studies on immunosuppression of the second recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously shown that long surviving, enhanced (AS X AUG)F1 rat kidneys residing in a primary AS recipient are not acutely rejected if transferred into a second AS recipient. The reduced immunogenicity of the retransplanted graft was attributed to a depletion of incompatible passenger cells. It is shown here that if the primary AS recipient is made chimeric by x irradiation and injection of (AS X AUG)F1 bone marrow cells, transfer of the long surviving, enhanced graft into a second AS recipient provokes acute graft rejection comparable to that observed when normal (AS X AUG)F1 kidneys are transplanted into untreated AS recipients. Transplantation of passenger cell-depleted AUG kidneys into AS recipients leads to graft rejection, with a median survival time of 22 d. Treatment of these recipients with as little as 1.5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide for 14 d induces prolonged graft survival. By contrast, five times as much cyclophosphamide treatment is required to induce prolonged survival of normal AUG kidneys (i.e., containing incompatible passenger cells) transplanted to AS recipients. These results confirm that the major alloimmunogenic stimulus of rat kidney grafts is provided by the incompatible passenger cells

  10. 3H-radioactivity measurement in the rat kidney after single injection of folic acid and continuous infusion of 3H-Thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single i.v. injection of folic acid. Immediately afterwards, continuous intravenous infusion of 3H-Thymidine has been started. The animals have been sacrified after 0.5 up to 10.0 days for determination of the vital weight of the kidneys, of the wet weight of kidney sections (thickness 20 μ) after removal of the paraffine coat, and of the radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney in the 20 μ kidney section after residue-free incineration of tissue. The radioactivity per total kidney and the percentage of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the whole kidney in relation to the infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity have been calculated. The various data have been compared with results obtained by autoradiographic investigations on the same model under fully identical conditions. Excellent agreement has been found between the autoradiographically obtained curves of the 3H-Thymidine labelling indices in the epithelium and in the mesenchyma of the kidney on the one hand and the curves of the 3H-Radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney on the other. The method of sample preparation applied largely excludes unwanted 'radioactive contamination', so that the 3H-Thymidine radioactivity measurements in agreement with the autoradiographic data can be assumed to show an incorporation of 3H-Thymidine into newly developed DNA. The percentages of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the kidney in relation to the quantity of infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity are almost constant during folic acid induced proliferation. The strong decline in radioactivity per dry weight unit between 3.0 and 3.5 days coincides with the occurrence of blackened, desquamated tubulus epithelia in the tubular lumen which became necrotic, and with the simultaneous occurrence of radioactively labelled, monocytic cells in the blood. These phenomena are related to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

  11. Protective effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae injection on N(G)-nitro-D-arginine induced nitric oxide deficient and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhenqiang; Xin, Yanfei; Liu, Yan; Han, Bin; Zhang, Lijiang; Chen, Ying; Chen, Yunxiang; Gu, Liqiang; Gao, Haiyan; Xuan, Yaoxian

    2012-07-01

    N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (d-NNA) could convert into N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (l-NNA) in vivo, and kidney is the major target organ. In the chiral inversion process, a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated and NOS activity was inhibited, which may cause renal damage. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), a traditional Chinese drug, was used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the kidney damage caused by D-NNA administration for 12 weeks and to evaluate the effects of treatment with SM on D-NNA-induced kidney damage. The rats, induced with D-NNA for period of 12 weeks, showed significant elevation of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine (Crea) and MDA levels, and significant decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities, as compared with control group. In addition, the kidney of rats induced with D-NNA only showed remarkable histopathology, including severe mononuclear cell infiltration, mild tubular dilatation and congestion, and moderate interstitial desmoplasia. After 4 weeks SM treatment, the activity of SOD, GSH-Px and iNOS and the production of NO were significantly higher (Pkidney. SM probably ameliorates D-NNA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats according to scavenging free radical and upregulating NOS activity. PMID:21112748

  12. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  13. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load. PMID:22670477

  14. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON KIDNEY AND LIVER RESPONSES IN SEDENTARY AND EXERCISED RATS

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    Wellington Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of high-dose of short-term creatine supplementation (5g.kg-1.day-1 to 1 week and long-term creatine supplementation (1g.kg-1. day-1 to 4-8 weeks on kidney and liver structure and function of sedentary and exercised Wistar rats (Exercise sessions consisted of swimming at 80% of maximal work load supported during 5 days per week with daily sessions of 60 minutes throughout the duration of the supplementation. Seventy- two animals (245 ± 5g were divided into four groups (n = 18: control diet Sedentary (SED, Creatine diet Sedentary (CRE, control diet Exercised (EXE, and Creatine diet Exercised (EXECRE. Histological and blood biochemical studies were performed after one, four, and eight weeks of creatine supplementation and exercise (n = 6. No differences were found when comparing SED, EXE and EXECRE groups for kidney and liver structure and function at one, four and eight weeks. However, the CRE group showed higher levels of creatinine (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 mg.dl-1; p < 0.05, and urea (37 ± 3 vs. 19 ± 1 mg.dl-1; p < 0.05 when compared with all others groups at four and eight weeks. At eight weeks, the CRE group presented increased levels of ALT (41 ± 7 vs. 23 ± 7 U.L-1; p < 0.05, AST (89 ± 6 vs. 62 ± 5 U.L-1; p < 0.05, GGT (8.0 ± 0.9 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 U.L-1; p < 0.05, and AP (125 ± 10 vs. 69 ± 9 U.L-1; p < 0.05 also when compared with all others groups. Moreover, the CRE group demonstrated some structural alterations indicating renal and hepatic damage at four and eight weeks, respectively. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation (up to 4-8 weeks may adversely affect kidney and liver structure and function of sedentary but not of exercised rats

  15. Perturbation in kidney lipid metabolic profiles in diabetic rats with reference to alcoholic oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Shanmugam; Ramakrishna, C. H.; K Mallikarjuna; Reddy, K. Sathyavelu

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a major threat to global public health, and the number of diabetic patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications and alcoholic diseases. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of alcohol on lipid metabolic profiles in kidney tissue under streptozotocin induced diabetic condition. No study has been reported so far on the effect of alcohol on diabetic condition and also with ref...

  16. The effects of undernutrition on connectivity in the cerebellar cortex of adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, F; Warren, M. A.; Gumusburun, E

    1994-01-01

    The effects of a 30 d period of undernutrition, followed in some animals by nutritional rehabilitation, on neuronal connectivity in adult rat cerebellum were investigated using the disector method. There was no significant difference between well fed (719 +/- 74, mean +/- S.E.) and undernourished (709 +/- 53) synapse-to-neuron ratios in 134-d-old rat cerebellar cortex, nor was there a significant difference in synapse-to-neuron ratios between control animals (941 +/- 71) and previously undern...

  17. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  18. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Oboma, Yibala .I; Asuqwo E.E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26) adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6) and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal ...

  19. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  20. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol. PMID:23454116

  1. Assessment of Plasma and NGAL for the Early Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery in Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI); Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD); Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL); Serum Creatinine (SCr); Urine Creatinine (UCr); Urine Albumin (UAlb)

  2. Effect of anisodamine on the microcirculation of the hydronephrotic kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, A P; Parekh, N; Steinhausen, M

    1990-08-01

    Anisodamine, an atropine analog, is widely used in China for treatment of acute circulatory shock but mechanisms of its action are not fully known. We investigated the effect of anisodamine on different renal vessels in the hydronephrotic kidney. Anisodamine was added to the tissue bath containing the kidney to produce increasing concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-3) M. Anisodamine dilated the arcuate artery, interlobular artery and afferent arteriole in a dose dependent manner. The maximal dilation of 15 to 25% in these preglomerular vessels was attained at a concentration of about 10(-5) M. In contrast, the efferent arteriole constricted by about 55% in response to anisodamine. The glomerular blood flow increased by 15 and 40% at anisodamine concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-5) M respectively. The renal vascular effect of anisodamine could be abolished by the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol. Our data indicate that anisodamine is a potent vasodilator of preglomerular renal vessels and that its effect is mediated by activation of the dopaminergic system. The action of anisodamine through a dopaminergic mechanism, as found in the hydronephrotic kidney, may also be involved in its antishock properties. PMID:2394549

  3. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  4. Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Betz, Laura J; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2007-04-01

    Renal histopathology in the most recent 2-year carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin, in Fischer 344 rats, was re-evaluated in an attempt to determine a mode of action underlying a small increase in renal tubule tumors reported in the males (). The re-evaluation confirmed the reported increase in renal tumors in mid- and high-dose males, including a single carcinoma in a high-dose male, as well as an exacerbation of spontaneous, chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) in male rats only. The re-evaluation also showed that there were no cellular alterations in the kidney indicative of chemical toxicity at 6 months, 15 months, or 2 years. The evidence linked the occurrence of the predominant basophilic adenomas and foci of atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH) with the exacerbation of CPN to advanced grades of severity, supporting a mode of action involving quercetin interaction with CPN. This mode of action represents a secondary mechanism for renal tumor development, with no relevance for extrapolation to humans. In addition, the single carcinoma present in the high-dose males, along with 4 other lesions ranging from ATH to adenoma in male and female groups, were considered to have a unique phenotype associated previously with neoplasms of spontaneous and familial origin. PMID:17156907

  5. The anti-inflammatory action of fermented soybean products in kidney of high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jehun; Kwon, Sun-Hwa; Park, Kun-Young; Yu, Byung Pal; Kim, Nam Deuk; Jung, Jee H; Chung, Hae Young

    2011-03-01

    Soybean has many compounds with a variety of biological properties that potentially benefit human health; among them, isoflavones have inhibitory effects on lipid oxidation in adipose tissue. In this study, we examined two Korean traditional fermented soybean products--doenjang (DNJ) and cheonggukjang (CGJ)--for their ability to suppress redox-sensitive nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in the kidney of rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 weeks old, were fed soybean, DNJ, or CGJ (1 g/kg/day) with a 20% fat diet for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored. NF-κB-related activities of genes for inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), were determined. The soybean products exhibited antioxidative action by maintaining redox regulation, suppressing NF-κB activation, and modulating the expression of genes for NF-κB-induced inflammatory proteins such as COX-2, iNOS, and VCAM-1. Based on these results, we conclude that Korean traditional soybean fermented products, especially CGJ, suppress the generation of reactive species, NF-κB activity, and NF-κB-related inflammatory genes. PMID:21332402

  6. Ultrasound-targeted stromal cell-derived factor-1-loaded microbubble destruction promotes mesenchymal stem cell homing to kidneys in diabetic nephropathy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shengzheng Wu,1 Lu Li,1 Gong Wang,1 Weiwei Shen,2 Yali Xu,1 Zheng Liu,1 Zhongxiong Zhuo,1 Hongmei Xia,1 Yunhua Gao,1 Kaibin Tan1 1Department of Ultrasound, 2Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy has been considered a promising strategy to cure diabetic nephropathy (DN. However, insufficient MSCs can settle in injured kidneys, which constitute one of the major barriers to the effective implementation of MSC therapy. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 plays a vital role in MSC migration and involves activation, mobilization, homing, and retention, which are presumably related to the poor homing in DN therapy. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction has become one of the most promising strategies for the targeted delivery of drugs and genes. To improve MSC homing to DN kidneys, we present a strategy to increase SDF-1 via ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction. In this study, we developed SDF-1-loaded microbubbles (MBSDF-1 via covalent conjugation. The characterization and bioactivity of MBSDF-1 were assessed in vitro. Target release in the targeted kidneys was triggered with diagnostic ultrasound in combination with MBSDF-1. The related bioeffects were also elucidated. Early DN was induced in rats with streptozotocin. Green fluorescent protein-labeled MSCs were transplanted intravenously following the target release of SDF-1 in the kidneys of normal and DN rats. The homing efficacy was assessed by detecting the implanted exogenous MSCs at 24 hours. The in vitro results showed an impressive SDF-1 loading efficacy of 79% and a loading content of 15.8 µg/mL. MBSDF-1 remained bioactive as a chemoattractant. In the in vivo study, SDF-1 was successfully released in the targeted kidneys. The homing efficacy of MSCs to DN kidneys after the target release of SDF-1 was remarkably ameliorated at 24 hours compared with

  7. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  8. Berberine ameliorates chronic kidney injury caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease through the suppression of NFκB signaling pathway in rats.

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    Xin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired renal function in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARD may be the result of crosstalk between atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis and amplified oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Berberine (BBR regulates cholesterol metabolism and exerts antioxidant effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that BBR treatment may ameliorate ARD-induced kidney injury through its cholesterol-lowering effect and also suppression of the pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and NFκB activation. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to unilateral renal artery stenosis with silver-irritant coil, and then fed with 12-week hypercholesterolemic diet. Rats with renal artery stenosis were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 each - ARD, or ARD+BBR - according to diet alone or in combination with BBR. Similarly, age-matched rats underwent sham operation and were also fed with hypercholesterolemic diet alone or in combination with BBR as two corresponding controls. Single-kidney hemodynamic metrics were measured in vivo with Doppler ultrasound to determine renal artery flow. The metrics reflecting hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, renal structure and function, inflammation and NFκB activation were measured, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control rats, ARD rats had a significant increase in urinary albumin, plasma cholesterol, LDL and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity. When exposed to 12-week BBR, ARD rats had significantly lower levels in blood pressure, LDL, urinary albumin, and TBARS. In addition, there were significantly lower expression levels of iNOS and TGF-β in the ARD+BBR group than in the ARD group, with attenuated NFκB-DNA binding activity and down-regulated protein levels of subunits p65 and p50 as well as IKKβ. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BBR can improve hypercholesterolemia and redox status in the kidney, eventually ameliorating

  9. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-07-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats. PMID:26673969

  10. Na+,K+-ATPase is modulated by angiotensin II in diabetic rat kidney – another reason for diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Andrea; Rosta, Klara; Wagner, Laszlo; Prokai, Agnes; Degrell, Peter; Ruzicska, Eva; Vegh, Edit; Toth, Miklos; Ronai, Katalin; Rusai, Krisztina; Somogyi, Aniko; Tulassay, Tivadar; Szabo, Attila J; Ver, Agota

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) plays a central role in the enhanced sodium reabsorption in early type 1 diabetes in man and in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. This study investigates the effect of untreated STZ-diabetes leading to diabetic nephropathy in combination with ANGII treatment, on the abundance and localization of the renal Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA), a major contributor of renal sodium handling. After 7 weeks of STZ-diabetes (i.v. 65 mg kg−1) a subgroup of control (C) and diabetic (D7) Wistar rats were treated with ANGII (s.c. minipump 33 μg kg−1 h−1 for 24 h; CA and D7A). We measured renal function and mRNA expression, protein level, Serin23 phosphorylation, subcellular distribution, and enzyme activity of NKA α-1 subunit in the kidney cortex. Diabetes increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels (C versus D7), as did ANGII (C versus CA, D7 versus D7A). Both diabetes (C versus D7) and ANGII increased NKA α-1 protein level and enzyme activity (C versus CA, D7 versus D7A). Furthermore, the combination led to an additive increase (D7 versus D7A, CA versus D7A). NKA α-1 Ser23 phosphorylation was higher both in D7 and ANGII-treated rats in the non-cytoskeletal fraction, while no signal was detected in the cytoskeletal fraction. Control kidneys showed NKA α-1 immunopositivity on the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells, while both D7 and ANGII broadened NKA immunopositivity towards the cytoplasm. Our study demonstrates that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the mRNA expression, protein level, Ser23 phosphorylation and enzyme activity of renal NKA, which is further elevated by ANGII. Despite an increase in total NKA quantity in diabetic nephropathy, the redistribution to the cystosol suggests the Na+ pump is no longer functional. ANGII also caused translocation from the basolateral membrane, thus in diabetic states where ANGII level is acutely elevated, the loss of NKA will be exacerbated. This provides another mechanism by which ANGII

  11. Na+,K+-ATPase is modulated by angiotensin II in diabetic rat kidney--another reason for diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Andrea; Rosta, Klara; Wagner, Laszlo; Prokai, Agnes; Degrell, Peter; Ruzicska, Eva; Vegh, Edit; Toth, Miklos; Ronai, Katalin; Rusai, Krisztina; Somogyi, Aniko; Tulassay, Tivadar; Szabo, Attila J; Ver, Agota

    2008-11-15

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) plays a central role in the enhanced sodium reabsorption in early type 1 diabetes in man and in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. This study investigates the effect of untreated STZ-diabetes leading to diabetic nephropathy in combination with ANGII treatment, on the abundance and localization of the renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA), a major contributor of renal sodium handling. After 7 weeks of STZ-diabetes (i.v. 65 mg kg(-1)) a subgroup of control (C) and diabetic (D7) Wistar rats were treated with ANGII (s.c. minipump 33 microg kg(-1) h(-1) for 24 h; CA and D7A). We measured renal function and mRNA expression, protein level, Serin23 phosphorylation, subcellular distribution, and enzyme activity of NKA alpha-1 subunit in the kidney cortex. Diabetes increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels (C versus D7), as did ANGII (C versus CA, D7 versus D7A). Both diabetes (C versus D7) and ANGII increased NKA alpha-1 protein level and enzyme activity (C versus CA, D7 versus D7A). Furthermore, the combination led to an additive increase (D7 versus D7A, CA versus D7A). NKA alpha-1 Ser23 phosphorylation was higher both in D7 and ANGII-treated rats in the non-cytoskeletal fraction, while no signal was detected in the cytoskeletal fraction. Control kidneys showed NKA alpha-1 immunopositivity on the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells, while both D7 and ANGII broadened NKA immunopositivity towards the cytoplasm. Our study demonstrates that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the mRNA expression, protein level, Ser23 phosphorylation and enzyme activity of renal NKA, which is further elevated by ANGII. Despite an increase in total NKA quantity in diabetic nephropathy, the redistribution to the cystosol suggests the Na(+) pump is no longer functional. ANGII also caused translocation from the basolateral membrane, thus in diabetic states where ANGII level is acutely elevated, the loss of NKA will be exacerbated. This provides another

  12. P2X(7) receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or to N-acetylcysteine supplementation [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adelson M; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Fernandes, Maria Jose S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Curi, Marcus V; Ferreira, Alice T; Araujo, Sergio R R; Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Nogueira, Guilherme B; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that N-acetylcysteine supplementation or aerobic training reduced oxidative stress and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. The P2X(7 receptor is up-regulated in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. This up-regulation is related to oxidative stress and induces tissue apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the role of P2X(7) receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.v.) and the training was done on a treadmill; N-acetylcysteine was given in the drinking water (600 mg/L). By confocal microscopy, as compared to control, the kidneys of diabetic rats showed increased P2 × 7 receptor expression and a higher activation in response to 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine5'-triphosphate (specific agonist) and adenosine triphosphate (nonspecific agonist) (all prats treated with N-acetylcysteine, exercise or both. We also observed measured proteinuria and albuminuria (early marker of diabetic nephropathy) in DM groups. Lipoperoxidation was strongly correlated with P2X(7) receptor expression, which was also correlated to NO•, thus associating this receptor to oxidative stress and kidney lesion. We suggest that P2X(7) receptor inhibition associated with the maintenance of redox homeostasis could be useful as coadjuvant treatment to delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24940871

  13. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  15. Effect of zinc and calcium ions on the rat kidney membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hansel Gómez; Mae Chappé; Pedroa Valiente; Tirso Pons; Marí­a de Los Angeles Chávez; Jean-Louis Charli; Isel Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an ectopeptidase with many roles, and a target of therapies for different pathologies. Zinc and calcium produce mixed inhibition of porcine DPP-IV activity. To investigate whether these results may be generalized to mammalian DPP-IV orthologues, we purified the intact membrane-bound form from rat kidney. Rat DPP-IV hydrolysed Gly-Pro--nitroanilide with an average Vmax of 0.86±0.01 mol min–1mL–1 and KM of 76±6 M. The enzyme was inhibited by the DPP-IV family inhibitor L-threo-Ile-thiazolidide (Ki=64.0±0.53 nM), competitively inhibited by bacitracin (Ki=0.16±0.01 mM) and bestatin (Ki=0.23±0.02 mM), and irreversibly inhibited by TLCK (IC50 value of 1.20±0.11 mM). The enzyme was also inhibited by divalent ions like Zn2+ and Ca2+, for which a mixed inhibition mechanism was observed (Ki values of the competitive component: 0.15±0.01 mM and 50.0±1.05 mM, respectively). According to bioinformatic tools, Ca2+ ions preferentially bound to the -propeller domain of the rat and human enzymes, while Zn2+ ions to the - hydrolase domain; the binding sites were essentially the same that were previously reported for the porcine DPP-IV. These data suggest that the cationic susceptibility of mammalian DPP-IV orthologues involves conserved mechanisms.

  16. Downregulation of AQP2 and AQP2 mRNA expression in kidney medulla of rats with bile duct ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Jin-Gang Liu; Ji-Long Han

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Obstructive jaundice is a common disease. Acute renal injury, secondary to obstructive jaundice, is one of the main causes of postoperative multiple system failure. This investigation evaluated renal function and renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression changes in obstructive jaundice. METHODS:Forty male Wistar rats were equally randomized into two groups. Twenty in the obstructive jaundice group were subjected to common bile duct ligation, and then were subdivided into 7- and 14-day obstruction groups, and the other 20 sham-operated rats were also subdivided into 7- and 14-day groups. At the end of each experiment, rats were sacriifced, venous blood was collected from the inferior vena cava, and serum creatinine and urine nitrogen concentrations were measured. At the same time, the medulla of the right kidney was separated and AQP2 expression was assessed. The RT-PCR technique was used to detect AQP2 mRNA expression. RESULTS:Ligation of the common bile duct caused signiifcant rises in serum bilirubin, creatinine clearance and urine nitrogen. AQP2 expression in the medulla decreased mere signiifcantly (38.35±2.08) in the 7-day ligation group than in the sham-operated group (41.06± 1.04), as did that in the 14-day ligation group, even more than (31.89±1.57). The expression of AQP2 mRNA also decreased more signiifcantly in the 14-day group (0.5429± 0.1107) than in the 7-day group (0.6071±0.1328).CONCLUSION:AQP2 expression is inhibited in obstructive jaundice, and so is its gene expression.

  17. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  18. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  19. Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Chao, Agnes; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents increases neurogenesis, enhances cognition, and promotes recovery from injury. However, little is known about the effects of EE on glia (astrocytes and microglia). Given their importance in neural repair, we predicted that EE would modulate glial phenotype and/or function within the hippocampus. Adult male rats were housed either 12 h/day in an enric...

  20. Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Chun; Rukstalis, J. Michael; Nishimura, Wataru; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Habener, Joel F.; Arun SHARMA; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The adult pancreas has considerable capacity to regenerate in response to injury. We hypothesized that after partial pancreatectomy (Px) in adult rats, pancreatic-duct cells serve as a source of regeneration by undergoing a reproducible dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. We support this hypothesis by the detection of an early loss of the ductal differentiation marker Hnf6 in the mature ducts, followed by the transient appearance of areas composed of proliferating ductules, called foci o...

  1. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  2. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  3. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  4. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  5. Review on Effect of Solanumnigrum L. on Histopathology of Kidneys of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadgu Teklehaimanot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanumnigrum is commonly called black night shade that belongs to Solanaceae (potato family. It is a fairly common herb or short-lived perennial shrub, found in many wooded areas, as well as disturbed habitats. Various experimental based scientific studies were conducted in order to investigate the efficacy and safety of S. nigrum extract. The scientific investigation from many research findings shows that this plant has various bioactive ingredients such as alkaloids, solanins, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroidal glycoalkaloids, steroidal genin and vitamins. These constituents are responsible for diverse activities including: anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cytoprotective effects. In addition, these bioactive constituents in the S. nigrum have free radical scavenging capacity and anti-lipid peroxidation activities by stabilization of plasma membranes as well as repair of liver and kidney tissue damage. Moreover, the result of this review showed that S. nigrum whole plant extract and SNFEt have the capacity to reverse kidney damages to near normal levels if pathological change occurs. The S. nigrum whole plant extract and SNFEt were found to be safe for kidney parameters up to 5ml/kg doses. But this extract would have been toxic above 5ml/kg which is considered to be elevated dose. So that safe dosage needs to be identified for children and pregnant women because the children have less body resistance and the pregnant women may susceptible to abort since it may induce uterine contraction. Therefore, further studies required to isolate the active ingredients from the extract of S. nigrum for proper drug development to treat the above mentioned health problems by conducting further clinical trials.

  6. Antioxidant Protection against Pathological Mycotoxins Alterations on Proximal Tubules in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA was one of the mycotoxins and received attention worldwide because of the hazard it posed to human and animal health, where the kidney was the primary target organ for OTA toxicity. In the other hand, dates served as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food.Methods: The study was performed in the department of biology in King Abdulaziz University. Animals were gavage administrated and divided into four groups: first group received (sodium bicarbonate, second group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W. /day, third group received (1mg Ajwa/kg B.W. / day and fourth group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W./day+ 1mg Ajwa /kg B.W. / day. Serum (creatinine - urea levels were measured in each group at the time of tissue collection , some biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for light microscopy processing stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H& E., Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS and Masson´s Trichrome (M.T..Other biopsies were immediately collected into electron microscopy processing. Results: After 28 days, a significant decrease in body weight, kidney weight and relative weight was detected in OTA treated group. Also, Serum (creatinine - urea level were elevated .The normal cyto-architecture of proximal tubules were lost exhibiting damaged bruch border, degenerated, binucleated and karyomegalic cells. The most destructed ultra-structure was the mitochondria which severely swollen with disintegrated membranes. In Ajwa Date extract-group the proximal tubules were normal, whereas in Ajwa date extract + OTA -group the severity of the lesions was significantly reduced. Conclusion: The present results indicated that, Ajwa date have protective effects and ameliorated the lesions of Ochratoxin nepherotoxicity which might lead to kidney failure.

  7. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  8. The pathogenicitv of melamine on fetal kidney in SD rats%三聚氰胺对SD胎鼠肾脏致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡仕彬; 吴玉; 冯洋; 刘智涛; 苏萍; 王继红; 杜永洪

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究三聚氰胺在SD大鼠胚胎发育过程中对胎鼠肾的致病性.方法:将加只SD孕鼠随机分为4个三聚氰胺组和1个对照组,用浓度分别为360、480、600、720mg/(kg·d)三聚氰胺悬液连续灌胃,对照组灌胃2ml蒸馏水.生产后采用ELISA法检测新生鼠血液和肾脏中三聚氰胺含量,常规HE染色观察新生鼠肾组织的病理变化.结果:各组新生鼠血液中均可检测到三聚氰胺;600、720 mg/(kg·d)组新生鼠肾三聚氰胺浓度显著高于对照组.病理组织学检查发现600 mg/(kg·d)组肾小球细胞数量增多,体积增大,髓旁毛细血管扩张充血.720mg/(kg·d)组肾小管和肾盂扩张,未见结石和明显黄色沉淀物.结论:三聚氰胺通过胎盘屏障进入胎鼠体内,沉积在肾脏,对胎鼠肾生长发育具有损伤作用,损伤主要集中在肾小管和肾间质.%Objective:To study the pathogenicity of Melamine in the embryonic kidney development of SD rat. Methods:40 pregnant SD rats were randomized into 4 Melamine groups and the normal control group with 8 rats per group. The rats of the 4 Melamine groups were fed the Melamine with the dosage range of 360,480,600, and 720 mg/( kg·d ), respectively. The rats of the normal control group were given 2 ml of distilled water by oral gavage per day. The concentration of Melamine was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the blood and kidneys of the newborn rats. HE staining was used to examine the histopathological change of newborn rat kidneys. Results:Melamine was found in the blood of newborn rats per group. The concentration of melamine in 600, 720 mg/( kg· d ) dose groups were significantly higher than that of the normal control group(P<0.05 ). Pathological examination showed that hyperplasia of glomerulus in the 600 mg/( kg· d ) dose group, and size enlarged, The blood capillary in the renal medulla expanded with RBCs. Kidney tubular and pelvis expanded significantly. The urinary calculus

  9. Belatacept for prevention of acute rejection in adult patients who have had a kidney transplant: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, David; Vincenti, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved belatacept for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients. This review discusses the use of belatacept for the prevention of acute rejection as part of a maintenance immunosuppression regimen. Belatacept is a selective costimulation blocker designed to provide effective immunosuppression while avoiding the toxicities associated with calcineurin inhibitors. Phase III trial data have demonstrated that belatacept is noninferior to cyclosporine in 1-year patient and allograft survival. Three-year data demonstrate an ongoing improvement in mean measured glomerular filtration rate in belatacept-treated versus cyclosporine-treated patients. However, the rate of acute rejection was higher in belatacept-treated patients compared with cyclosporine. Specifically, there was a higher incidence of Banff type II rejections in patients treated with belatacept. Despite the higher Banff grade, rejections on belatacept were not associated with other factors associated with poor outcomes, such as the development of donor-specific antibodies or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate. One safety issue that must be considered when using belatacept is the potential for increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. There were more cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in belatacept-treated patients, especially in recipients seronegative for Epstein–Barr virus or patients treated with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Therefore, belatacept can be recommended for use in Epstein–Barr virus antibody-positive recipients. PMID:23152668

  10. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  11. Roles of myofibroblasts and notch and hedgehog signaling pathways in the formation of intrahepatic bile duct lesions in polycystic kidney rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubo, Shinichi; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney (PCK) rats, an animal model of Caroli's disease, show a dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBD) called "ductal plate malformation." Mesenchymal cells and the Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways in portal tracts are reportedly involved in the normal development of IHBD, although there have been no studies on the roles of these signaling pathways in PCK rats. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of the molecules related to these signaling pathways in portal tracts. All molecules related to these signaling pathways expressed in portal tracts in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (control) were also expressed in PCK rats. Mesenchymal cells (myofibroblasts) were frequently found in the connective tissue of portal tracts of 20 embryonic-day-old (E20D), 1-day-old (1D), and 1-week-old (1W) SD and PCK rats and were abundant in PCK rats. Interestingly, myofibroblasts almost disappeared at in both strains of 3W rats. Jagged1 was expressed in mesenchymal cells in portal tracts and was abundant in PCK rats. Double immunostaining showed that Jagged1-positive cells were myofibroblasts. Notch2 and HES1 were expressed in cholangiocytes of the bile ducts of both rats. Sonic Hedgehog was similarly expressed in the bile ducts of both rats. A well-balanced and time-sequential expression of the Notch and Hedgehog family in portal tracts might be essential for the normal development of IHBD in E20D to 1W SD rats, and an imbalanced interaction of these molecules, particularly increased Jagged1 expression in periductal and periportal myofibroblasts and Notch2 expressed in cholangiocytes, may be involved in the formation of bile duct lesions in PCK rats. PMID:23331119

  12. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes". PMID:26031038

  13. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  14. Primary care physicians’ perceived barriers and facilitators to conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: design of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Campbell, David; Thomas, Chandra; Quinn, Robert; Fruetel, Karen; King-Shier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Guideline committees have identified the need for research to inform the provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a high burden of comorbidity or functional impairment. We will use both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to provide a comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators to care for these patients in primary care. Objectives Our objectives are to (1) interview primary care physicians to determine t...

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Citrus macroptera Fruit and Its in vivo Effects on the Liver, Kidney and Pancreas in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant potential of Citrus macroptera fruit was compared between its pulp (CMPU and peel (CMPE. The biochemical effects of an ethanol extract of CMPU were investigated on major organs, including the liver, kidney and pancreas. Male wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly divided into four groups, including Group I (control, Group II (250 mg kg–1, Group III (500 mg kg–1 and Group IV (1000 mg kg–1 and they were administered the extract for 28 days. The CMPE contained higher amounts of total polyphenols (620.91±7.75 mg, flavonoids (508.33±5.49 mg, tannins (585.99±4.46 mg and protein (4.00±0.14 g compared to the pulp (291.06±10.14, 145.02±0.36, 526.08±3.32 mg/100 g and 2.89±0.32 g/100 g, respectively. Similarly, CMPE also exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP values than CMPU. However, the ascorbic acid content was higher in CMPU (120.83±0.0019 mg/100 g than CMPE. In vivo studies confirmed that CMPU possessed a significant lipid lowering activity that occurred in a dose dependent manner and that it caused beneficial changes in several other biochemical parameters. Additionally, a significant diminution of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues was observed. It was concluded that C. macroptera possesses high antioxidant potential and is relatively safe. Its protective effects against various chronic diseases that are associated with oxidative stress should be further investigated.

  16. Doxorubicin-loaded phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated nanoliposomes: in vitro characterization and their accumulation in liver, kidneys, and lungs in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandamoy Rudra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anandamoy Rudra, R Manasa Deepa, Miltu Kumar Ghosh, Subhajit Ghosh, Biswajit MukherjeeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (Calcutta, IndiaIntroduction: Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE-conjugated nanoliposomes were developed, characterized, and investigated for their accumulation in liver, kidneys, and lungs in rats.Methods: Drug-excipient interaction was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, zeta potential and size distribution using a Zetasizer and particle size analyzer, and in vitro drug release by dialysis membrane. In vivo accumulation of liposomes in tissues was also studied.Results: No chemical reaction was observed between drug and excipients. EDX study confirmed PE-conjugation in liposomes. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX-L and PE-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX-PEL were of smooth surface and homogenously distributed in nanosize range (32–37 nm with a negative surface charge. Loading efficiencies were 49.25% ± 1.05% and 52.98% ± 3.22% respectively, for DOX-L and DOX-PEL. In vitro drug release study showed 69.91% ± 1.05% and 77.07% ± 1.02% doxorubicin released, from DOX-L and DOX-PEL, respectively, in nine hours. Fluorescence microscopic study showed that liposomes were well distributed in liver, lungs, and kidneys.Conclusion: Data suggests that PE-conjugated nanoliposomes released the drug in a sustained manner and were capable of distributing them in various organs. This may be used for cell/ tissue targeting, attaching specific antibodies to PE.Keywords: doxorubicin, phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated nanoliposomes, tissue accumulation

  17. Effect of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic (thioctic) acid on heart and kidney microvasculature in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Tomassoni, Daniele; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells represent an important vascular site of signaling and development of damage during ischemia, inflammation and other pathological conditions. Excessive reactive oxygen species production causes pathological activation of endothelium including exposure of cell to adhesion molecules. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) are members of the immunoglobulin super-family which are present on the surface of endothelial cells. These molecules represent important markers of endothelial inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate, with immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, the effect of treatment with (+/-)-alpha lipoic (thioctic) acid and its enantiomers on heart and kidney endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Arterial hypertension is accompanied by an increased oxidative stress status in the heart characterized by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nucleic acid oxidation increase. The higher oxidative stress also modifies adhesion molecules expression. In the heart VCAM-1, which was higher than ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, was increased in SHR. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression was significantly greater in the renal endothelium of SHR. (+/-)-Alpha lipoic acid and (+)-alpha lipoic acid treatment significantly decreased TBARS levels, the nucleic acid oxidation and prevented adhesion molecules expression in cardiac and renal vascular endothelium. These data suggest that endothelial molecules may be used for studying the mechanisms of vascular injury on target organs of hypertension. The effects observed after treatment with (+)-alpha lipoic acid could open new perspectives for countering heart and kidney microvascular injury which represent a common feature in hypertensive end-organs damage. PMID:26207883

  18. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K.; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465

  19. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  20. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  1. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  2. Effect of standardized extract ofCosinium fenestratum stem bark on liver and kidney function parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu; Adolph William Ndyeabura; Chiam Nyet Chiang; Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of standardized dichloromethane(DCM) extract ofCosinium fenestratum(C. fenestratum) stem bark on liver and kidney function parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Standardization of the extract was performed through high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) using berberine(BE) as marker compound.The standardizedC. fenestratum stem bark extract(SCFE) was administered orally at a dose of100 mg/kg toSTZ-induced diabetic rats for15 d.Results:The quantity ofBE in the extract was2.09% w/w.Blood glucose levels, blood urea nitrogen(BUN), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and creatinine were significantly(P<0.05) elevated inSTZ-induced diabetic rats as compared to normal control groups.Treatment of diabetic rats with the extract significantly(P<0.05) reduced,ALP, creatinine, andBUN levels as compared to the diabetic control group.The total white blood cells(WBC) count was reduced in diabetic rats.Treatment of diabetic rats withSCFE significantly(P<0.05) increased the totalWBC count as compared to the values of diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The observations of the present study show that extract of C. fenestratum stem bark has hepato-renal protective effect inSTZ-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are increased by dietary resistant starch and correlate with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and kidney function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; Derscheid, Rachel; Fuller, Kelly N Z; Valentine, Rudy J; Leow, Shu En; Reed, Leah; Wisecup, Emily; Schalinske, Kevin L; Rowling, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) type 2 prevented proteinuria and promoted vitamin D balance in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Here, our primary objective was to identify potential mechanisms that could explain our earlier observations. We hypothesized that RS could promote adiponectin secretion and regulate the renin-angiotensin system activity in the kidney. Lean Zucker rats (n = 5) were fed control diet; Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 5/group) were fed either an AIN-93G control diet (DC) or AIN-93G diet containing either 10% RS or 20% RS (HRS) for 6 weeks. Resistant starch had no impact on blood glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A1c percentage, yet circulating adiponectin was 77% higher in HRS-fed rats, compared to DC rats. Adiponectin concentrations strongly correlated with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.815; P rats. Moreover, we observed a 14-fold increase in messenger RNA expression of nephrin, which is required for functioning of the renal filtration barrier, in HRS rats. The HRS, but not 10% RS diet, increased circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and attenuated urinary loss of vitamin D metabolites in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Taken together, we provide evidence that vitamin D balance in the presence of hyperglycemia is strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels and reduced renal renin-angiotensin system signaling. PMID:27001276

  4. Toxicological Features of Catha edulis (Khat) on Livers and Kidneys of Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Subchronic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalahi, Abdulsamad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al-Mamary, Mohammed; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Alabsi, Aied M; Shwter, Abdrabuh; Alshawsh, Mohammed A

    2012-01-01

    Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100-120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (n = 12). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas test groups received 500 mg/kg (low dose (LD)), 1000 mg/kg (medium dose (MD)), or 2000 mg/kg (high dose (HD)) of crude extract of Catha edulis orally for 4 weeks. Then, physical, biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters were analyzed. Results in Khat-fed rats showed hepatic enlargement, abnormal findings in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of male and female SD-rats and serum albumin (A) and serum creatinine (Cr) of female as compared to controls. In addition, histopathological abnormalities confirmed hepatic and renal toxicities of Khat that were related to heavy Khat consumption. In summary, Khat could be associated with hepatic hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity in male and female SD-rats and nephrotoxicity only in female SD-rats. PMID:23259000

  5. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan; Frokjaer, Sven; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    suggests that this might be disadvantageous when studying PEPT2-mediated transport phenomena. These findings demonstrate for the first time EGF-mediated regulation of PEPT2 expression in a kidney cell line. The relevance for kidney regulation of peptide transport activity in physiological and......The renal peptide transporter PEPT2 plays an important role in absorption of di- and tripetides in the proximal tubule; however, knowledge of regulation of PEPT2 by growth factors and hormones is limited. In the present study, we examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on PEPT2...... transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined by...

  6. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  7. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  8. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  9. Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuybulu, Ayça Esra; Öktem, Faruk; Çiriş, İbrahim Metin; Sutcu, Recep; Örmeci, Ahmet Rıfat; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Uz, Efkan

    2016-05-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time. Methods The study was conducted in three groups of rats which were pre-natal, post-natal. and sham exposed groups. Oxidative stress markers and histological evaluation of kidney tissues were studied. Results Renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant (TOS) levels of pre-natal group were high and total antioxidant (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were low. Spot urine NAG/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in pre- and post-natal groups (p Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011). Conclusion Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney. PMID:26905323

  10. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    OpenAIRE

    Linjing Zhao; Hongbing Wu; Mingfeng Qiu; Wei Sun; Runmin Wei; Xiaojiao Zheng; Yiting Yang; Xue Xin; Haimiao Zou; Tianlu Chen; Jiajian Liu; Lina Lu; Jing Su; Chungwah Ma; Aihua Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrome...

  11. Validation of a UHPLC-FLD analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin a in rat plasma, liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Corcuera, L.A. (Laura Ana); Ibañez-Vea, M. (María); Vettorazzi, A; Gonzalez-Peñas, E. (Elena); Lopez-de-Cerain, A. (Adela)

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous quantification of AFB1 and OTA in rat plasma, liver and kidney by UHPLC-FLD has been successfully validated according to the following criteria: selectivity, stability, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, robustness and limits of quantification and detection. The extraction method, calibration curves and chromatographic conditions are common for the three matrices. Plasma and homogenized tissue samples (100 μL) were extracted...

  12. Role of intramitochondrial nitric oxide in rat heart and kidney during hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano; Ramírez, Joel; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important reactive molecule in many organisms. A mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase has been described; however, the role of NO in this organelle is not yet fully clear. We tested the effect of intramitochondrial NO on various functions from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive genetic control, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. While the stimulation of intramitochondrial NOS increased calcium- and phosphate-induced permeability transition pore opening, its inhibition partially prevented it, without affecting membrane potential. Matrix free calcium and the pH decreased with NOS inhibition. Basal [NO] was lower in SHR than in WKY. Our data suggest that intramitochondrial NO plays an important role in mitochondrial regulation during hypertension. PMID:16120294

  13. Effect of spent turmeric on kidney glycoconjugates in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gurusiddaiah Suresh; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

    2014-01-01

    Background Curcumin known to have number of medicinal use and masked the fiber containing ukonan like active polysaccharide in turmeric and its pharmacological effect will be addressed on diabetic nephropathy particularly the glycoconjugates of extracellular components viz., glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans - heparan sulfate (HS). Methods Male Wistar rats were maintained on AIN-76 diet containing 10% spent turmeric and were grouped into control and STZ induced diabetes SFC/TFC and SFD/TFD...

  14. Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Background In India, Curcumin (CMN) is popularly known as "Haldi", and has been well studied due to its economic importance. Traditional Indian medicine claims the use of its powder against biliary disorders, anorexia, coryza, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorder, rheumatism and sinusitis. This study was designed to examine the possible beneficial effect of CMN in preventing the acute renal failure and related oxidative stress caused by chronic administration of cyclosporine (CsA) in rats...

  15. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and t...

  16. Polyphenolic fraction of Algerian propolis protects rat kidney against acute oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin

    OpenAIRE

    Boutabet, K.; Kebsa, W.; Alyane, M.; Lahouel, M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of propolis extract on renal oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin throughout an analytical and pharmacological study of the eastern Algerian propolis using thin layer chromatography, ultra-violet-high-performance liquid chromatography) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pharmacological study was carried out in vivo on Wistar rat pre-treated with propolis extract 100 mg/kg/day for seven days. Doxorubicin at 10 mg/kg of body weight was administered intrave...

  17. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiated rats suffering from pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exposure to a single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, serum and liver enzymes, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative liver weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after oral administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6- phosphatase. Non-significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma irradiation and/or kelthane treatment

  18. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  19. Cochlear function in young and adult Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Groh, Daniel; Mazelová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 186, - (2003), s. 75-84. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/01/1063; GA MZd NK6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Fischer 344 rat Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2003

  20. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  1. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S; O'Neill, F H; Ashafa, A O T

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:27579048

  2. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  3. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  4. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  5. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole; Larsson, Erik; Persson, A Erik G

    2007-01-01

    adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  6. Identification of urinary microRNA biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Qu, Zhe; Zhu, Cong; Lin, Zhi; Huo, Yan; Wang, Xue; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently recognized as promising non-invasive biomarkers for detecting the organ injuries. To further understand the sensibility and reliability of miRNA measurements in urine sample for predicting drug-induced early nephrotoxicity, a global urinary miRNA expression analysis was performed in the rodent models with gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Wistar rats were daily administrated with gentamicin (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg) for up to 10 days by intraperitoneal injection, and the miRNA profiling of animal urine samples were subsequently analyzed using TaqMan(®) Array Rodent miRNA Cards. The results showed that four miRNAs (mmu-miR-138-5p, mmu-miR-1971, mmu-miR-218-1-3p, and rno-miR-489) were continuously increased in urine samples since day 4 after administration with gentamicin, which was not reflected by the standard markers such as serum creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN). Furthermore, other nine urinary miRNAs were increased in both 60 and 120 mg/kg groups on day 8. Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated that the performance of these miRNAs with time- or dose-dependent increases were comparable to standard biomarkers (i.e. serum Cr and BUN), suggesting that the urinary miRNA panel can be used as potential biomarkers for the detection of gentamicin-induced AKI in rats. Moreover, the computer prediction analysis showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs were potentially targeted to many genes, which were mainly associated with the regulation of metabolic process and signaling. These data will improve the understanding and prediction of toxicology processes induced by nephrotoxicants. PMID:27074385

  7. Biological responses to perfluorododecanoic acid exposure in rat kidneys as determined by integrated proteomic and metabonomic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA is a perfluorinated carboxylic chemical (PFC that has broad applications and distribution in the environment. While many studies have focused on hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity of PFCAs, few have investigated renal toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used comparative proteomic and metabonomic technologies to provide a global perspective on renal response to PFDoA. Male rats were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of PFDoA for 110 days. After 2-D DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, 79 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the PFDoA treated rats (0.2 and 0.5 mg-dosed groups were successfully identified. These proteins were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, electron transport, and stress response. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic analysis showed an increase in pyruvate, lactate, acetate, choline, and a variety of amino acids in the highest dose group. Furthermore, the profiles of free amino acids in the PFDoA treated groups were investigated quantitatively by high-coverage quantitative iTRAQ-LC MS/MS, which showed levels of sarcosine, asparagine, histidine, 1-methylhistidine, Ile, Leu, Val, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Cys, and Met increased markedly in the 0.5 mg dosed group, while homocitrulline, α-aminoadipic acid, β-alanine, and cystathionine decreased. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations provide evidence that disorders in glucose and amino acid metabolism may contribute to PFDoA nephrotoxicity. Additionally, α(2u globulin may play an important role in protecting the kidneys from PFDoA toxicity.

  8. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG)

  9. Toxicological Evaluation of Oral Administration of Phoenix dactylifera L. Fruit Extract on the Histology of the Liver and Kidney of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Nosereme Agbon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various parts of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm are used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as fever, abdominal troubles, etc., in different parts of the world. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera (AFPD revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and carbohydrates. This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of AFPD on the histology of the liver and kidney in Wistar rats. Thirty-nine Wistar rats were divided into two groups-control (three rats and treatment (thirty-six rats. The animals in experimental group were further categorised for two phase study (eighteen rats divided into three groups; six rats/group for each phase. In the first phase, the three groups (A, B and C were administered AFPD (10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg, oral, respectively. In the second phase, the three groups (D, E and F were administered AFPD (1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg, oral, respectively. In both phases, after 24 h of AFPD administration, three rats of the six in each group were sacrificed and the other three sacrificed after 21 days. Histopathological examinations of liver and kidney sections of the experimental animals were compared with the control. No mortality or signs of toxicity was observed in the experimental animals upon administration of AFPD, even at doses as high as 5000 mg/kg, which was confirmed by mild pathological changes with remarkable recovery after 21 days. This result demonstrates that the LD50 of AFPD is greater than 5000 mg/kg and is relatively safe.

  10. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  11. Impact of e-cigarette refill liquid exposure on rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golli, Narges El; Jrad-Lamine, Aicha; Neffati, Hajira; Dkhili, Houssem; Rahali, Dalila; Dallagi, Yosra; El May, Michele V; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2016-06-01

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette), the alternative to classic cigarettes are becoming extremely popular but their safety is not still established. Recent studies have showed cytotoxic effects of the electronic cigarette and its recharge e-liquid, in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate e-cigarette liquid nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 32 rats were treated for 28 days as follows: Control group was injected intraperitoneally with NaCl 9 g/l; e-cigarette 0% treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid without nicotine diluted in NaCl 9 g/l, e-cigarette treated group, received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid containing 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l and nicotine-treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l. In nicotine group, creatinine level was increased, whereas urea and acid uric levels were decreased. In e-liquid-exposed groups, levels of uric acid and mainly urea were lower. Interestingly, after e-liquid exposure, oxidative stress status showed increased total protein and sulfhydril content, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased. However, the levels of lipid peroxides were not increased after e-liquid exposure. Histological studies identified excess of cells with reduced and dark nuclei exclusively located in the renal collecting ducts. Thus, e-liquid seems to alter anti-oxidant defense and to promote minor changes in renal function parameters. This preliminary study raises some flags about possible nephrotoxicity of e-cigarette liquids in rats. As some features observed in rats may not be observed in human smokers, additional studies are needed to further qualify conclusions that might be applicable to actual users of e-cigarettes. PMID:26925498

  12. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on mitomycin C-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in rat kidney and heart tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjiba-Touati, K; Ayed-Boussema, I; Guedri, Y; Achour, A; Bacha, H; Abid-Essefi, S

    2016-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is an antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the prolonged use of the drug may result in a serious heart and kidney injuries. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has recently been shown to exert an important cytoprotective effect in experimental brain injury and ischemic acute renal failure. The aim of the present work is to investigate the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of rhEPO against MMC-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that MMC induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. rhEPO administration in any treatment conditions decreased oxidative damage induced by MMC. It reduced malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels. rhEPO ameliorated reduced glutathione plus oxidized glutathione modulation and the increased catalase activity after MMC treatment. Furthermore, rhEPO restored DNA damage caused by MMC. We concluded that rhEPO administration especially in pretreatment condition protected rats against MMC-induced heart and renal oxidative stress and genotoxicity. PMID:25733728

  13. Amelioration of Lead-induced Toxicity in Blood, Liver and Kidney Tissues of Male Wistar Rats by Fermented Ofada Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eferhire Aganbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of ‘ofada’ rice koji (ORK, fermented ofada rice and ascorbic acid (AA against lead (Pb-induced toxicity in the blood, liver and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats was investigated. The animals were divided into four treatment groups (A – D, n = 5. Groups B, C and D were intoxified by intra-peritoneal injection of 75 mg lead acetate/kg body weight. Groups C and D only had their feed mixed with ORK and AA, respectively. The results showed no significant difference in % packed cell volume (PCV and Pb concentrations. Feeding with ORK and AA significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activities (36.50 ± 3.54 and 34.02 ± 0.05 UL-1 respectively compared to Pb-only treated group (85.50 ± 3.25 UL-1. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP for organs increased significantly following intake of feeds mixed with ORK and AA; increases in FRAP was higher for ORK-treated group possibly due to increased total flavonoids concentration following fermentation. Furthermore, Pb-induced high plasma creatinine levels decreased upon treatment with feeds mixed with ORK and ascorbic acid. These findings strongly indicated that feed supplementation with ORK by 45% may be more effective at ameliorating the effects of Pb-induced toxicity in tissues compared to supplementation with AA by 2%.

  14. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food coloran