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Sample records for adult rat dentate

  1. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  2. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  3. Dentate Gyrus-Specific Knockdown of Adult Neurogenesis Impairs Spatial and Object Recognition Memory in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Clark, Robert E.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clemenson, Gregory D., Jr.; Consiglio, Antonella; Lie, D. Chichung; Squire, Larry R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    New granule cells are born throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Given the fundamental role of the hippocampus in processes underlying certain forms of learning and memory, it has been speculated that newborn granule cells contribute to cognition. However, previous strategies aiming to causally link newborn neurons…

  4. Anatomical integration of newly generated dentate granule neurons following traumatic brain injury in adult rats and its association to cognitive recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; McGinn, Melissa J; Zhou, Zhengwen; Harvey, H Ben; Bullock, M Ross; Colello, Raymond J

    2007-03-01

    The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI), the consequences of which are manifested as learning and memory deficits. Following injury, substantive spontaneous cognitive recovery occurs, suggesting that innate repair mechanisms exist in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism contributing to this is largely unknown. The existence of neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and their proliferative response following injury led us to speculate that neurogenesis may contribute to cognitive recovery following TBI. To test this, we first examined the time course of cognitive recovery following lateral fluid percussion injury in rats. Cognitive deficits were tested at 11-15, 26-30 or 56-60 days post-injury using Morris Water Maze. At 11-15 and 26-30 days post-injury, animals displayed significant cognitive deficits, which were no longer apparent at 56-60 days post-TBI, suggesting an innate cognitive recovery at 56-60 days. We next examined the proliferative response, maturational fate and integration of newly generated cells in the DG following injury. Specifically, rats received BrdU at 2-5 days post-injury followed by Fluorogold (FG) injection into the CA3 region at 56 days post-TBI. We found the majority of BrdU+ cells which survived for 10 weeks became dentate granule neurons, as assessed by NeuN and calbindin labeling, approximately 30% being labeled with FG, demonstrating their integration into the hippocampus. Additionally, some BrdU+ cells were synaptophysin-positive, suggesting they received synaptic input. Collectively, our data demonstrate the extensive anatomical integration of new born dentate granule neurons at the time when innate cognitive recovery is observed. PMID:17198703

  5. Effects of exercise on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and ability of learning and memory after hippocampus lesion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHEN; Shan GONG; Li-Dong SHAN; Wei-Ping XU; Yue-Jin ZHANG; Shi-Yu GUO; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Qi-Zhang YIN; Xing-Hong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of exercise on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned adult rats. Methods Hippocampus lesion was produced by intrahippocampal microinjection of kainic acid (KA). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label dividing cells. Y maze test was used to evaluate the ability of learning and memory. Exercise was conducted in the form of forced running in a motor-driven running wheel. The speed of wheel revolution was regulated at 3 kinds of intensity: lightly running, moderately running, or heavily running. Results Hippocampus lesion could increase the number of BrdU-labeled DG cells, moderately running after lesion could further enhance the number of BrdU-labeled cells and decrease the error number (EN) in Y maze test,while neither lightly running, nor heavily running had such effects. There was a negative correlation between the number of DG BrdU-labeled cells and the EN in the Y maze test after running. Conclusion Moderate exercise could enhance the DG neurogenesis and ameliorate the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned rats.

  6. Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus

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    Taruna eIkrar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell layer (GCL is conducive for pattern separation. A sparse coding scheme is thought to facilitate the distribution of similar entorhinal inputs across the GCL to decorrelate overlapping representations and minimize interference. Here we used fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging combined with laser photostimulation and electrical stimulation to examine how selectively increasing adult DG neurogenesis influences local circuit activity and excitability. We show that DG of mice with more adult-born neurons exhibits decreased strength of neuronal activation and more restricted excitation spread in GCL while maintaining effective output to CA3c. Conversely, blockade of adult hippocampal neurogenesis changed excitability of the DG in the opposite direction. Analysis of GABAergic inhibition onto mature dentate granule neurons in the DG of mice with more adult-born neurons shows a modest readjustment of perisomatic inhibitory synaptic gain without changes in overall inhibitory tone, presynaptic properties or GABAergic innervation pattern. Retroviral labeling of connectivity in mice with more adult-born neurons showed increased number of excitatory synaptic contacts of adult-born neurons onto hilar interneurons. Together, these studies demonstrate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies excitability of mature dentate granule neurons and that this non-cell autonomous effect may be mediated by local circuit mechanisms such as excitatory drive onto hilar interneurons. Modulation of DG excitability by adult-born dentate granule neurons may enhance sparse coding in the GCL to influence pattern

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  8. Involvement of over-expressed BMP4 in pentylenetetrazol kindling-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is one of a few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. Proliferation of neural precursors in the granule cell layer of the DG has been identified in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling epilepsy model, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism. We previously reported that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins-4 (BMP4) mRNA in the hippocampus was developmentally regulated and mainly localized in the DG of the adult. To explore the role of BMP4 in epileptic activity, we detected BMP4 expression in the DG during PTZ kindling process and explore its correlation with cell proliferation combined with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique. We found that dynamic changes in BMP4 level and BrdU labeled cells dependent on the kindling stage of PTZ induced seizure-prone state. The number of BMP4 mRNA-positive cells and BrdU labeled cells reached the top level 1 day after PTZ kindled, then declined to base level 2 months later. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between increased BMP4 mRNA expression and increased number of BrdU labeled cells. After effectively blocked expression of BMP4 with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ASODN), the BrdU labeled cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone(DG-SGZ) and hilus were significantly decreased 16d after First PTZ injection and 1, 3, 7, 14d after kindled respectively. These findings suggest that increased proliferation in the DG of the hippocampus resulted from kindling epilepsy elicited by PTZ maybe be modulated by BMP4 over-expression

  9. TIME COURSE AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEURONAL DEGENERATION IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF RAT AFTER ADRENALECTOMY - A SILVER IMPREGNATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, D; POSTEMA, F; KORF, J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Sloviter et al. reported that adrenalectomy (ADX) of young adult rats after 3 months led to a selective loss of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that this loss could be prevented by low doses of corticosterone. In the present study, the ADX-induced neuronal degeneration was in

  10. Ramipril mitigates radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublethal doses of whole brain irradiation (WBI) are commonly administered therapeutically and frequently result in late delayed radiation injuries, manifesting as severe and irreversible cognitive impairment. Neural progenitors within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus are among the most radiosensitive cell types in the adult brain and are known to participate in hippocampal plasticity and normal cognitive function. These progenitors and the specialized SZG microenvironment required for neuronal differentiation are the source of neurogenic potential in the adult dentate gyrus, and provide a continuous supply of immature neurons which may then migrate into the adjacent granule cell layer to become mature granule cell neurons. The extreme radiosensitivity of these progenitors and the SGZ microenvironment suggests the hippocampus as a prime target for radiation-induced cognitive impairment. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has previously been implicated as a potent modulator of neurogenesis within the SGZ and selective RAS inhibitors have been implicated as mitigators of radiation brain injury. Here we investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation injury in this context. Adult male Fisher 344 rats received WBI at doses of 10 Gy and 15 Gy. Ramipril was administered beginning 24 hours post-WBI and maintained continuously for 12 weeks. Ramipril produced small but significant reductions in the deleterious effects of radiation on progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the rat dentate gyrus following 10 Gy-WBI, but was not effective following 15 Gy-WBI. Ramipril also reduced the basal rate of neurogenesis within the SGZ in unirradiated control rats. Our results indicate that chronic ACE inhibition with ramipril, initiated 24 hours post-irradiation, may reduce apoptosis among SGZ progenitors and/or inflammatory disruption of neurogenic signaling within SGZ microenvironment, and

  11. Early postischemic 45Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of 45Ca and 3H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of 45Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the 45Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with 3H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of 45Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of 3H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that 45Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca2+ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane

  12. Analyzing dendritic growth in a population of immature neurons in the adult dentate gyrus using laminar quantification of disjointed dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiraRosenzweig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, new granule neurons are continuously produced throughout adult life. A prerequisite for the successful synaptic integration of these neurons is the sprouting and extension of dendrites into the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Thus, studies aimed at investigating the developmental stages of adult neurogenesis often use dendritic growth as an important indicator of neuronal health and maturity. Based on the known topography of the dentate gyrus, characterized by distinct laminar arrangement of granule neurons and their extensions, we have developed a new method for analysis of dendritic growth in immature adult-born granule neurons. The method is comprised of laminar quantification of cell bodies, primary, secondary and tertiary dendrites separately and independently from each other. In contrast to most existing methods, laminar quantification of dendrites does not require the use of exogenous markers and does not involve arbitrary selection of individual neurons. The new method relies on immonuhistochemical detection of endogenous markers such as doublecortin to perform a comprehensive analysis of a sub-population of immature neurons. Disjointed, “orphan” dendrites that often appear in the thin histological sections are taken into account. Using several experimental groups of rats and mice, we demonstrate here the suitable techniques for quantifying neurons and dendrites, and explain how the ratios between the quantified values can be used in a comparative analysis to indicate variations in dendritic growth and complexity.

  13. Glutamate receptor antagonists and growth factors modulate dentate granule cell neurogenesis in organotypic, rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Blaabjerg, Morten; Montero, Maria;

    2005-01-01

    Generation of dentate granule cells and its modulation by glutamate receptor antagonists, growth factors and pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity was investigated in rat hippocampal slice cultures derived from 1-week-old rats and grown for 2 weeks. Focussing on the dentate granule cell layer...

  14. Reduced hippocampal dentate cell proliferation and impaired spatial memory performance in aged epileptic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa F Cavarsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased adult neurogenesis is observed after training in hippocampal-dependent tasks and also after acutely induced status epilepticus (SE although the specific roles of these cells are still a matter of debate. In this study, we investigated hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation and the spatial learning performance in young or aged chronically epileptic rats. Status was induced by pilocarpine in 3 or 20-month old rats. Either two or twenty months later, rats were treated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and subsequently underwent to 8-day schedule of water maze tests. As expected, learning curves were faster in young than in aged animals (P<0.001. Chronically epileptic animals exhibited impaired learning curves compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, the duration of epilepsy (2 or 20 months did not correlate with the memory impairment of aged epileptic animals. The number of BrdU-positive cells was greater in young epileptic subjects than in age-matched controls. In contrast, cell proliferation was not increased in aged epileptic animals, irrespective of the time of SE induction. Finally, dentate cell proliferation was not related to performance in the water maze. Based on the present results we conclude that even though aging and epilepsy lead to impairments in spatial learning, their effects are not additive.

  15. Brief Novelty Exposure Facilitates Dentate Gyrus LTP in Aged Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; Dieguez, Dario; Barea-Rodriguez, Edwin J.

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decreased capacity for dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell depolarization as well as reduced perforant path activation. Although it is well established that the maintenance of DG long-term potentiation (LTP) over days is impaired in aged, as compared to young animals, the threshold for inducing this LTP has never been investigated in aged, awake animals. In addition, although exposure to novelty prior to θ-burst stimulation (TBS) increases both the induction and longevi...

  16. JAGGED1 IS NECESSARY FOR POSTNATAL AND ADULT NEUROGENESIS IN THE DENTATE GYRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lavado, Alfonso; Oliver, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the maintenance of neural stem cells is crucial for the study of neurogenesis. In the brain, granule cell neurogenesis occurs during development and adulthood, and the generation of new neurons in the adult subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus contributes to learning. Notch signaling plays an important role during postnatal and adult subgranular zone neurogenesis, and it has been suggested as a potential candidate to couple cell proliferation with st...

  17. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  18. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

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    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  19. Inverse relationship between adult hippocampal cell proliferation and synaptic rewiring in the dentate gyrus.

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    Butz, Markus; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Grafen, Keren; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2008-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a key feature of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Neurogenesis is accompanied by synaptogenesis as new cells become integrated into the circuitry of the hippocampus. However, little is known to what extent the embedding of new neurons rewires the pre-existing network. Here we investigate synaptic rewiring in the DG of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) under different rates of adult cell proliferation caused by different rearing conditions as well as juvenile methamphetamine treatment. Surprisingly, we found that an increased cell proliferation reduced the amount of synaptic rewiring. To help explain this unexpected finding, we developed a novel model of dentate network formation incorporating neurogenesis and activity-dependent synapse formation and remodelling. In the model, we show that homeostasis of neuronal activity can account for the inverse relationship between cell proliferation and synaptic rewiring. PMID:18481284

  20. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF AGED RATS IS ALTERED AFTER CHRONIC NIMODIPINE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    deJong, GI; Buwalda, B.; Schuurman, T.; Luiten, PGM

    1992-01-01

    We examined ultrastructural correlates of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of young (3 months) vs aged (30 months) Wistar rats and established the effects of the calcium antagonist nimodipine in animals chronically treated from 24 to 30 months. The effects of nimodipine was studied since this compound improves hippocampal neuronal physiology and enhances cognitive function during aging. In the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus we found a 24% decrease in synaptic density (Nv) in a...

  1. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boku, Shuken, E-mail: shuboku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nakagawa, Shin [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takamura, Naoki [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Akiko [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takebayashi, Minoru [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan); Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  2. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis

  3. Running rewires the neuronal network of adult-born dentate granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Carmen; Peterson, Benjamin D; van Praag, Henriette

    2016-05-01

    Exercise improves cognition in humans and animals. Running increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. It is unclear how running modifies the circuitry of new dentate gyrus neurons to support their role in memory function. Here we combine retroviral labeling with rabies virus mediated trans-synaptic retrograde tracing to define and quantify new neuron afferent inputs in young adult male C57Bl/6 mice, housed with or without a running wheel for one month. Exercise resulted in a shift in new neuron networks that may promote sparse encoding and pattern separation. Neurogenesis increased in the dorsal, but not the ventral, dentate gyrus by three-fold, whereas afferent traced cell labeling doubled in number. Regional analysis indicated that running differentially affected specific inputs. Within the hippocampus the ratio of innervation from inhibitory interneurons and glutamatergic mossy cells to new neurons was reduced. Distal traced cells were located in sub-cortical and cortical regions, including perirhinal, entorhinal and sensory cortices. Innervation from entorhinal cortex (EC) was augmented, in proportion to the running-induced enhancement of adult neurogenesis. Within EC afferent input and short-term synaptic plasticity from lateral entorhinal cortex, considered to convey contextual information to the hippocampus was increased. Furthermore, running upregulated innervation from regions important for spatial memory and theta rhythm generation, including caudo-medial entorhinal cortex and subcortical medial septum, supra- and medial mammillary nuclei. Altogether, running may facilitate contextual, spatial and temporal information encoding by increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and by reorganization of new neuron circuitry. PMID:26589333

  4. Effect of intrauterine hypoxia and Angelica sinensis injection on dentate gyrus neurons and learning and memory in juvenile rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Yi Han; Jing Ma; Hong Yu; Yan He; Xiaoming Zhong

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study analyzed the effect of 3 days (2 h/d) intrauterine hypoxia on learning and memory in juvenile rats, as well as the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis on dentate gyrus neurons, as well as learning and memory.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of intrauterine hypoxia on hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons, as well as learning and memory, in juvenile rats; to explore N-methyI-D-aspartate receptor-1 (NMDAR1) expression in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats following intrauterine hypoxia, as well as prolonged hypoxia; to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of Angelica sinensis.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized and controlled experiment based on developmental neurobiology was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology in Luzhou Medical College from October 2007 to October 2008.MATERIALS: Angelica sinensis solution (250 g/L) was obtained from Central South Hospital of Wuhan University, China. Neuron-specific enolase and NMDAR1 mRNA in situ hybridization reagents were provided by Wuhan Boster Biological Technology, China. Image-Pro Plus 6.0 analysis system was purchased from Media Cybernetics, USA.METHODS: Healthy pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 30) were randomly divided into control (n = 10), hypoxia (n = 10), and Angelica (n = 10) groups. The Angelica and hypoxia pregnant rats were placed in a three-gas incubator (oxygen concentration: 13%) starting with day 14 of pregnancy for 2 hours/day for 5 consecutive days to establish a fetal rat intrauterine hypoxia model. One hour prior to modeling, the pregnant rats from the Angelica and hypoxia groups received Angelica sinensis and normal saline (8 mL/kg) injections, respectively, through the caudal vein. The control group procedures were identical to the hypoxia group, but lacked the hypoxic conditions.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissues of neonatal rats were used to detect expression of NMDAR1 mRNA, and brain tissues of juvenile rats aged 30 days were used to determine

  5. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions. PMID:26095117

  6. Doublecortin (DCX) is not Essential for Survival and Differentiation of Newborn Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jagroop; Xi, Yanwei; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Germain, Johanne; Francis, Fiona; Lagace, Diane C.

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX) is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX. PMID:26793044

  7. Modulation by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors of depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, Alexander; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In the hippocampus, synaptic depression of potentiated synapses in the form of depotentiation, or of naive synapses in the form of long-term depression (LTD) is mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms. Activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is critically required for both hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD in vivo, but their involvement in depotentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether this class of mGluRs contributes to depotentiation in freely moving rats. Male adult Wistar rats underwent chronic implantation of stimulating and recording electrodes in the perforant path and dentate gyrus granule cell layer, respectively, as well as an injection cannula in the ipsilateral cerebral ventricle. Robust LTP which endured for over 24 h, was induced by high frequency tetanization (HFT, 200 Hz). Depotentiation was induced with LFS (5 Hz, 600 pulses) given 5 min after the LTP-inducing tetanus was applied. The selective group 1 mGluR antagonists, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine and (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid significantly inhibited both depotentiation and LTP. Activation of group I mGluRs leads to changes in postsynaptic intracellular calcium levels. These findings suggest that activation of group I mGluRs mediate thresholds for depotentiation and for persistent LTP. Effects may be linked to the intensity and duration of the calcium signal elicited by LFS and HFT. PMID:17924526

  8. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on spatial memory and cholinergic expression in the dentate gyrus after fornix-fimbria transection in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Yilong Xue; Jingkun Pan; Yazhuo Hu; Yuhong Gao; Yun Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous experiments have confirmed bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) upregulate cholinergic expression in neurons isolated from the embryonic rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Therefore, BMPs could be useful for treating Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: BMP-4 was infused into the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fornix-fimbria transected rats to test the effects of BMP-4 on cholinergic expression in dentate gyrus neurons, and to observe changes in spatial memory behavior. DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory for Cell Biology, Institute of Geriatrics, General Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-seven healthy adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 250-300 g, were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of the General Hospital of Chinese PLA. Reagents: BMP-4 (B-2680, Sigma Company) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) antibody (AB5042, Chemicon Company) were used in this study. Equipments: a rat stereotaxic instrument (type: SN-2N, Narushige Group, Japan) and Image-prog-plus image analysis software (Media Cybernetics company, USA) were used in this study. The protocol was carried out in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.METHODS: This experiment was performed in the Institute of Geriatrics, General Hospital of Chinese PLA between July 2004 and March 2005. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Alzheimer's disease group (n = 7), normal control group (n = 5), BMP-4-Alzheimer's disease group (n = 8), and model group (n = 7). In the Alzheimer's disease group, the left hippocampal fornix-fimbria of rats was transected to mimic Alzheimer's disease symptoms. In the BMP-4-Alzheimer's disease group, 1 μL BMP-4 (10 mg/L) was perfused into the left dentate gyrus with a microinjector at 1 μL/min. In the model group, 1 μL saline was perfused into the same position by the same method. Twenty-eight days after injection

  9. Melatonin restores normal Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengchang Zhang; Shuang Zhao; Lu Bai; Mingming Guan; Jielin Mo; Ling Lan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to elucidate the effects of melatonin on learning and memory as well as apoptosis and expression of the Bax or Bcl-2 proteins in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats. Using the Morris water maze and the olfactory memory tests, we found that the average escape latency in pinealectomized rats was clearly increased compared with sham-operated rats. Moreover, the average escape latency in the melatonin-treated and pinealectomized rats was longer than that in the sham-operated rats and shorter than that in the pinealectomized and untreated rats. Immunohistochemistry and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) showed that there were fewer Bax immunoreactive cells and TUNEL-positive (apoptotic) cells but more Bcl-2 immunoreactive cells in the melatonin-treated rats compared with the pinealectomized rats. The sham-operated rats showed numbers of these cells similar to the melatonin-treated rats. These experimental findings demonstrate that melatonin treatment may reduce abnormal apoptosis by promoting gene expression of Bax and suppressing gene expression of Bcl-2 in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats. These effects appear to result in the inhibition of cellular apoptosis and the improvement of spatial learning and memory in pinealectomized rats.

  10. Ethanol extract ofOenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Hui Chen; Jae Chul Lee; Eun Joo Bae; Yun Lyul Lee; Jong Dai Kim; Moo-Ho Won; Il Jun Kang; Joon Ha Park; Jeong Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Bich Na Shin; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Seok Joon Hwang; Bing Chun Yan; Hyun Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to theOenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glu-tamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects ofOenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract ofOenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neu-roblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast). Our results showed thatOenanthe javanica extract signiifcantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was signiifcantly increased in the dentate gyrus of theOe-nanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not ifnd that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in theOenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate thatOenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-de-rived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  11. Ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to the Oenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects of Oenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast. Our results showed that Oenanthe javanica extract significantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not find that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate that Oenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  12. Reduced Hippocampal Dentate Cell Proliferation and Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Aged-Epileptic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    LucieneCovolan; ClaudioM TQueiroz; JairGuilhermeSantos; GilbertoFXavier

    2013-01-01

    Increased adult neurogenesis is observed after training in hippocampal-dependent tasks and also after acutely induced status epilepticus (SE) although the specific roles of these cells are still a matter of debate. In this study, we investigated hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation and the spatial learning performance in young or aged chronically epileptic rats. Status was induced by pilocarpine in 3 or 20-month old rats. Either two or twenty months later, rats were treated with...

  13. Effects of developmental hyperserotonemia on the morphology of rat dentate nuclear neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, L H; Segal, S

    2016-05-13

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, disordered communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, abnormalities in basic motor control, skilled motor gestures, and motor learning, are common in ASD. These characteristics have been attributed to a possible defect in the pre- and postnatal development of specific neural networks including the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, which is involved in motor learning, automaticity of movements, and higher cognitive functions. The current study utilized custom diolistic labeling and unbiased stereology to characterize morphological alterations in neurons of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in developing rat pups exposed to abnormally high levels of the serotonergic agonist 5-methyloxytryptamine (5-MT) pre-and postnatally. Occurring in as many as 30% of autistic subjects, developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS) is the most consistent neurochemical finding reported in autism and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD. This exposure produced dramatic changes in dendritic architecture and synaptic features. We observed changes in the dendritic branching morphology which did not lead to significant differences (p>0.5) in total dendritic length. Instead, DHS groups presented with dendritic trees that display changes in arborescence, that appear to be short reaching with elaborately branched segments, presenting with significantly fewer (p>0.001) dendritic spines and a decrease in numeric density when compared to age-matched controls. These negative changes may be implicated in the neuropathological and functional/behavioral changes observed in ASD, such as delays in motor learning, difficulties in automaticity of movements, and deficits in higher cognitive functions. PMID:26892293

  14. Regrowing the adult brain: NF-κB controls functional circuit formation and tissue homeostasis in the dentate gyrus.

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    Yvonne Imielski

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that genetic ablation of NF-κB resulted in severe defects in the neurogenic region (dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Despite increased stem cell proliferation, axogenesis, synaptogenesis and neuroprotection were hampered, leading to disruption of the mossy fiber pathway and to atrophy of the dentate gyrus during aging. Here, NF-κB controls the transcription of FOXO1 and PKA, regulating axogenesis. Structural defects culminated in behavioral impairments in pattern separation. Re-activation of NF-κB resulted in integration of newborn neurons, finally to regeneration of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by a complete recovery of structural and behavioral defects. These data identify NF-κB as a crucial regulator of dentate gyrus tissue homeostasis suggesting NF-κB to be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive and mood disorders.

  15. Functional Analysis of Neurovascular Adaptations to Exercise in the Dentate Gyrus of Young Adult Mice Associated With Cognitive Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter J.; Brzezinska, Weronika J.; Puchalski, Emily K.; Krone, David A.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that aerobic exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and can enhance cognitive performance holds promise as a model for regenerative medicine. This study adds two new pieces of information to the rapidly growing field. First, we tested whether exercise increases vascular density in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, whole hippocampus, and striatum in C57BL/6J mice known to display procognitive effects of exercise. Second, we determined the extent to which new neu...

  16. Neuronal apoptosis and synaptic density in the dentate gyrus of ischemic rats' response to chronic mild stress and the effects of Notch signaling.

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    Shaohua Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous research highlighted an inconsistency with Notch1 signaling-related compensatory neurogenesis after chronic mild stress (CMS in rodents suffering from cerebral ischemia, which continue to display post-stroke depressive symptoms. Here, we hypothesize that CMS aggrandized ischemia-related apoptosis injury and worsened synaptic integrity via gamma secretase-meditated Notch1 signaling. Adult rats were exposed to a CMS paradigm after left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Open-field and sucrose consumption testing were employed to assess depression-like behavior. Gene expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and synaptic density-related synaptophysin were measured by western blotting and real-time PCR on Day 28 after MCAO surgery. CMS induced depressive behaviors in ischemic rats, which was accompanied by an elevation in Bax/bcl-2 ratio, TUNEL staining in neurons and reduced synaptophysin expression in the dentate gyrus. These collective effects were reversed by the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenyl-glycine t-butyl ester. We found that post-stroke stressors made neurons in the dentate gyrus vulnerable to apoptosis, which supports a putative role for Notch signaling in neural integrity, potentially in newborn cells' synaptic deficit with regard to preexisting cells. These findings suggest that post-stroke depression therapeutically benefits from blocking gamma secretase mediated Notch signaling, and whether this signaling pathway could be a therapeutic target needs to be further investigated.

  17. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  18. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J; Ming, Guo-Li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function. PMID:26161071

  19. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1, the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, somatic hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  20. Role of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor in LTP, depotentiation and LTD in dentate gyrus of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausnitzer, J; Kulla, A; Manahan-Vaughan, D

    2004-02-01

    We investigated whether group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are critically involved in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP), depotentiation, or long-term depression (LTD) in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats (7 8 weeks) underwent implantation of stimulating and recording electrodes in the medial perforant path and dentate gyrus granule cell layer, respectively. A cannula was permanently implanted into the ipsilateral cerebral ventricle to enable drug administration. Intracerebral injection of the group III mGlu receptor agonist, L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (AP4), significantly inhibited LTP at a concentration which unaffects basal synaptic transmission. Depotentiation. short-term depression (STD) and LTDwere unaffected by the agonist. The antagonist. (R.S)-r-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG), inhibited agonist effects. but had no independent effects on basal synaptic transmission. CPPG did not affect the profile of LTP, depotentiation or STD elicited by low frequency stimulation (LFS) at 0.5 or 3 Hz. but significantly impaired LTD expression (at I Hz) and STD elicited at 5 Hz. These findings suggest that activation of group III mGlu receptors is critically required for LTD. but not LTP or depotentiation in the dentate gyrus and provide evidence for the involvement of separate mechanisms underlying LTD and depotentiation. PMID:15080077

  1. Neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Gun Lee; In Koo Hwang; Seung Myung Moon; Dae Young Yoo; Hyo Young Jung; Sung Min Nam; Jong Whi Kim; Jung Hoon Choi; Sun Shin Yi; Moo-Ho Won; Yeo Sung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes on antioxi-dant-like protein-1 immunoreactivity, protein carbonyl levels, and malondialdehyde formation, a marker for lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus. For this study, streptozotocin (75 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into adult rats to induce type 1 diabetes. The three experimental pa-rameters were determined at 2, 3, 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels signiifcantly increased by 20.7–21.9 mM after streptozotocin treatment. The number of antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactive neurons signiifcantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, 3 weeks after streptozotocin treatment compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which are modiifed by oxidative stress, signiifcantly increased with a peak at 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment, and then decreased 4 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment. These results suggest that neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment.

  2. Neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes on antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactivity, protein carbonyl levels, and malondialdehyde formation, a marker for lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus. For this study, streptozotocin (75 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into adult rats to induce type 1 diabetes. The three experimental parameters were determined at 2, 3, 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels significantly increased by 20.7-21.9 mM after streptozotocin treatment. The number of antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactive neurons significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, 3 weeks after streptozotocin treatment compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which are modified by oxidative stress, significantly increased with a peak at 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment, and then decreased 4 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment. These results suggest that neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment.

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters synaptic activity of adult hippocampal dentate granule cells under conditions of enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Allan, Andrea M; Ge, Shaoyu; Gu, Yan; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is characterized by a wide range of cognitive and behavioral deficits that may be linked to impaired hippocampal function and adult neurogenesis. Preclinical studies in mouse models of FASD indicate that PAE markedly attenuates enrichment-mediated increases in the number of adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells (aDGCs), but whether synaptic activity is also affected has not been studied. Here, we utilized retroviral birth-dating coupled with whole cell patch electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of PAE on enrichment-mediated changes in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity as a function of DGC age. We found that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) had no effect on baseline synaptic activity of 4- or 8-week-old aDGCs from control mice, but significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in 8-week-old aDGCs from PAE mice. In contrast, exposure to EE significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in older pre-existing DGCs situated in the outer dentate granule cell layer (i.e., those generated during embryonic development; dDGCs) in control mice, an effect that was blunted in PAE mice. These findings indicate distinct electrophysiological responses of hippocampal DGCs to behavioral challenge based on cellular ontogenetic age, and suggest that PAE disrupts EE-mediated changes in overall hippocampal network activity. These findings may have implications for future therapeutic targeting of hippocampal dentate circuitry in clinical FASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27009742

  4. NR2B受体拮抗剂抑制成年大鼠齿状回新生神经元诱导的长时程增强%NR2B receptor antagonist Ro25-6981 inhibits newborn neuron induced long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文平; 张亘瑷; 仇玉兰; 张策

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newborn neurons have bean shown to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunit NR2B plays an important role in mature neurons-induced LTP. But there have been no reports addressing on the effects of NR2B activation on newborn neuron-induced LTP.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of NR2B receptor antagonist Ro25-6981 on LTP induced by newborn neurons in adult rat dentate gyrus.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An electrophysiological recording trial was performed at the Department of Neuroblology,Shanxi Medical University from February to June 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-six male Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were provided by Laboratory Animal Center, Shanxi Medical University.METHODS: Following sacrifice for brain harvesting under anesthesia, the hippocempus was taken to preparation of 400 μ mol/L brain slices. Using extracellular field potential recordings, low-frequency stimulation was performed in the medial molecular layer of dentate gyrus with insulated bipolar tungsten electrodes. After having stable recordings, LTP was induced under high-frequency tetanic stimulation. LTP was induced with a protocol developed previously (4 trains, 500 ms each, 100 Hz within the train, repeated every 20 s). Only those slices which produced the field excitatory postsynaptic potential of 1 mV or cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF)-induced LTP (ACSF-LTP): brain slices were divided into 2 groups: ACSF group, in which, slices were continuously perfused using ACSF bubbled with 95% O2 and 5% CO2; ACSF+ Ro25-6981 group: a 10-minute treatment with 3μ mol/L Ro25-6981 was performed prior to tetanic stimulation, and the remaining procedures were the same as ACSF divided into 2 groups: BIC group: a 10-minute treatment with 10 μmol/L BIC was performed prior to titanic stimulation; BIC+Ro25-6981 group: 3μ mol/L Ro25-6981 and 10μ mol/L BIC were simultaneously perfused 10 minutes prior to tetanic stimulation.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LTP

  5. Properties of doublecortin-(DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex compared to the neurogenic dentate gyrus of adult mice.

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    Friederike Klempin

    Full Text Available The piriform cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and (via the entorhinal cortex sends efferents to the hippocampus, thereby connecting the two canonical neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain. Doublecortin (DCX is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that is expressed transiently in the course of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the adult piriform cortex, which is usually considered non-neurogenic (even though some reports exist that state otherwise, also contains an abundant population of DCX-positive cells. We asked how similar these cells would be to DCX-positive cells in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Using BAC-generated transgenic mice that express GFP under the DCX promoter, we studied DCX-expression and electrophysiological properties of DCX-positive cells in the mouse piriform cortex in comparison with the dentate gyrus. While one class of cells in the piriform cortex indeed showed features similar to newly generated immature granule neurons, the majority of DCX cells in the piriform cortex was mature and revealed large Na+ currents and multiple action potentials. Furthermore, when proliferative activity was assessed, we found that all DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex were strictly postmitotic, suggesting that no DCX-positive "neuroblasts" exist here as they do in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that DCX in the piriform cortex marks a unique population of postmitotic neurons with a subpopulation that retains immature characteristics associated with synaptic plasticity. DCX is thus, per se, no marker of neurogenesis but might be associated more broadly with plasticity.

  6. Lentiviral Silencing of GSK-3β in Adult Dentate Gyrus Impairs Contextual Fear Memory and Synaptic Plasticity

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    Benjamin eChew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to use glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β inhibitors for prophylactic treatment of neurocognitive conditions. However the use of lithium, a non-specific inhibitor of GSK3β results in mild cognitive impairment in humans. The effects of global GSK3β inhibition or knockout on learning and memory in healthy adult mice are also inconclusive. Our study aims to better understand the role of GSK3β in learning and memory through a more regionally, targeted approach, specifically performing lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GSK3β within the dentate gyrus (DG. DG-GSK3β-silenced mice showed impaired contextual fear memory retrieval. However, cue fear memory, spatial memory, locomotor activity and anxiety levels were similar to control. These GSK3β-silenced mice also showed increased induction and maintenance of dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP compared to control animals. Thus, this region-specific, targeted knockdown of GSK3β in the DG provides better understanding on the role of GSK3β in learning and memory.

  7. A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON NEURONAL NUMBERS IN RAT DENTATE GYRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Miki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol ingestion during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in their offspring. Among the symptoms of FAS, damage to the central nervous system has emerged as one of the most serious problems. We have previously shown that a relatively high dose of ethanol exposure during early postnatal life can cause alterations in spatial learning ability. This ability is controlled, at least in part, by the hippocampal formation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of rat pups to ethanol during early postnatal life had effects on the total number of the dentate gyrus neurons. Wistar rats were exposed to a relatively high daily dose of ethanol between postnatal days 10 to 15. Ethanol exposure was achieved by placing rat pups in a chamber containing ethanol vapour for 3 hours a day. The blood ethanol concentration was found to be about 430 mg/dL at the end of the exposure period. Groups of ethanol treated (ET, separation controls (SC and mother reared controls (MRC were anaesthetised and killed at 16-days-of-age by perfusion with phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The Cavalieri principle was used to determine the volume of subdivisions of the dentate gyrus, and the physical disector method was used to estimate the numerical densities of neurons within each subdivision. The total number of neurons was calculated by multiplying estimates of the numerical density with the volume. There was, on average, about 421,000 granule cells in all three treatment groups. In the hilus region, ET rats had about 27,000 neuronal cells. This value was significantly smaller than the average of 38,000 such neurons estimated to be present in both MRC and SC animals. It is concluded that neurons in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of a high dose of ethanol exposure during PND 10-15. It is likely that this deficit was due to neuronal death induced by some mechanisms related to

  8. Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Chao, Agnes; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents increases neurogenesis, enhances cognition, and promotes recovery from injury. However, little is known about the effects of EE on glia (astrocytes and microglia). Given their importance in neural repair, we predicted that EE would modulate glial phenotype and/or function within the hippocampus. Adult male rats were housed either 12 h/day in an enric...

  9. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  10. The contrasting effects of dendrotoxins and other potassium channel blockers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of rat hippocampal slices

    OpenAIRE

    Southan, A P; Owen, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of potassium channel blocking compounds on synaptic transmission in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the rat hippocampus were examined by means of simultaneous field potential recording techniques in brain slices.4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) enhanced the excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) and induced multiple population spike responses in both regions. EC50 values were 6.7 μM in the CA1 (n=5) and 161.7 μM (n=5) in the dentate gyrus.Tetraethylammonium (TEA) increased the am...

  11. In Vivo Targeting of Adult Neural Stem Cells in the Dentate Gyrus by a Split-Cre Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Beckervordersandforth; Aditi Deshpande; Iris Schäffner; Hagen B. Huttner; Alexandra Lepier; Dieter Chichung Lie; Magdalena Götz

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the labeling of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in the mouse and human dentate gyrus (DG) by the combinatorial expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Prominin1, as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Split-Cre-based genetic fate mapping of these double-positive cells in the adult murine DG reveals their NSC identity, as they are self-renewing and contribute to neurogenesis over several months. Their progeny reacts to stimuli such as voluntary exercise with ...

  12. ISX-9 can potentiate cell proliferation and neuronal commitment in the rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Luis E B; Patten, Anna R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; O'Rourke, Natasha F; Hanley, Ronan P; Kennedy, Samantha; Gopalakrishnan, Karthik; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Wulff, Jeremy; Christie, Brian R

    2016-09-22

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be modulated by various physiological and pathological conditions, including stress, affective disorders, and several neurological conditions. Given the proposed role of this form of structural plasticity in the functioning of the hippocampus (namely learning and memory and affective behaviors), it is believed that alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis might underlie some of the behavioral deficits associated with these psychiatric and neurological conditions. Thus, the search for compounds that can reverse these deficits with minimal side effects has become a recognized priority. In the present study we tested the pro-neurogenic effects of isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), a small synthetic molecule that has been recently identified through the screening of chemical libraries in stem cell-based assays. We found that administration of Isx-9 for 14days was able to potentiate cell proliferation and increase the number of immature neurons in the hippocampal DG of adult rats. In addition, Isx-9 treatment was able to completely reverse the marked reduction in these initial stages of the neurogenic process observed in vehicle-treated animals (which were submitted to repeated handling and exposure to daily intraperitoneal injections). Based on these results, we recommend that future neurogenesis studies that require repeated handling and manipulation of animals should include a naïve (non-manipulated) control to determine the baseline levels of hippocampal cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Overall, these findings demonstrate that Isx-9 is a promising synthetic compound for the mitigation of stress-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Future studies are thus warranted to evaluate the pro-neurogenic properties of Isx-9 in animal models of affective and neurological disorders associated with impaired hippocampal structural plasticity. PMID:27373772

  13. Involvement of dopamine D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, P; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Lv, J; Jin, Q H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations of DA in the DG were determined by in vivo microdialysis. The DA concentrations in the DG decreased in the VD rats compared with sham-operated group. Microinjection of SFK38393 (D1 receptor agonist) into the DG attenuates spatial learning and memory deficits in the VD rats. PMID:25272945

  14. Effect of topiramate on partial excitatory amino acids in hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats after alcohol withdrawal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Yang; Guang Wu; Haiying Jiang; Yuanzhe Jin; Songbiao Cui

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have indicated that the imbalances of various amino acid transmitters and neurotransmitters in brain are involved in the formation of alcohol withdrawal, especially that glutamic acid is one of the important transmitters for alcohol tolerance in central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of excitatory amino acids in hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with long-term alcohol drinking after withdrawal under consciousness, and investigate the therapeutic effect of topiramate on alcohol withdrawal.DESIGN: A randomized control animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University.MATERIALS: Thirty male Wistar rats of 4 months old, weighing 300-350 g, were purchased from the Experimental Animal Department, Medical College of Yanbian University. Topiramate was produced by Swish Cilag Company, and the batch number was 02CS063.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Yanbian University from August 2005 to February 2006. ① The rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group (n=10), alcohol group (n=10) and topiramate-treated group (n=10). Rats in the alcohol group and topiramate-treated group were given intragastric perfusion of 500 g/L alcohol (10 mL/kg), once a day for 4 weeks successively, and then those in the topiramate-treated group were treated with 80 mg/kg topiramate at 24 hours after the last perfusion of alcohol, once a day for 3 days successively. Rats in the control group were intragastricly given isovolume saline. ② The withdrawal symptoms were assessed at 6, 30, 48 and 72 hours after the last perfusion of alcohol by using the withdrawal rating scale set by Erden et al,which had four observational indexes of stereotyped behaviors, agitation, tail stiffness and abnormal posture,each index was scored by 5 points, the higher the score, the more obvious the symptoms. ③ The contents of aspartic acid and glutamic acid

  15. Beneficial effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on spatial learning and the dendritic tree of dentate gyrus granule cells in aged rats

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    Mohammad Hosseini-Sharifabad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hippocampal formation, particularly the dentate gyrus (DG, shows age-related morphological changes that could cause memory decline. It is indicated that Boswellia resins attenuates memory deficits and the major component of Boswellia serrata (Bs gum resin, beta boswellic acid increased neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Boswellia treatment on spatial learning performance and the morphology of dentate granule cells in aged rats. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats (24 months old were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was intragastrically administered with the aqueous extract of Bs (100 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks and control group received a similar volume of water. Spatial learning performance of rats was tested using Morris water maze task. At the end of experiment, the brain was removed and the right hippocampus was serially sectioned for morphometric analysis. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volume of the DG. A quantitative Golgi study was used to analyze the dendritic trees of dentate granule cells. Results: Chronic treatment with Bs improved spatial learning capability during the three acquisition days. Comparisons also revealed that Bs-treated aged rat had greater DG with increased dendritic complexity in the dentate granule cells than control rats. Hippocampal granule cells of Bs-treated aged rats had more dendritic segments, larger arbors, more numerical branching density and more dendritic spines in comparison to control animals. Conclusion: This study provided a neuro-anatomical basis for memory improvement due to chronic treatment with Bs.

  16. Depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats is modulated by D1/D5 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, A; Manahan-Vaughan, D

    2000-06-01

    Hippocampal depotentiation comprises a reversal of tetanization- induced long-term potentiation (LTP) which occurs following low-frequency stimulation. In the CA1 region, it has been reported that agonist activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors enhances LTP expression and inhibits depotentiation. The role of these receptors in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) has not been characterized. This study therefore investigated the role of D1/D5 receptors in LTP and depotentiation in the DG of freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats underwent chronic implantation of a recording electrode in the DG granule cell layer, a bipolar stimulating electrode in the medial perforant path and a cannula in the ipsilateral cerebral ventricle (to enable drug administration). The D1/D5 agonist Chloro-PB dose-dependently inhibited depotentation in the DG. This effect was prevented by the D1/D5 antagonist SCH 23390. Neither D1/D5 agonist nor antagonist had an effect on LTP expression or basal synaptic transmission. These results highlight differences between D1/D5 receptor-involvement in LTP and depotentiation in the CA1 region and DG, and indicate that whereas D1/D5 receptor activation may not be a critical factor in LTP induction in the DG, a differential role for these receptors in the expression of depotentiation, in this hippocampal subfield, may exist. PMID:10859139

  17. Impaired adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J Rodríguez

    Full Text Available It has become generally accepted that new neurones are added and integrated mainly in two areas of the mammalian CNS, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, which is of central importance in learning and memory. The newly generated cells display neuronal morphology, are able to generate action potentials and receive functional synaptic inputs, i.e. their properties are similar to those found in mature neurones. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the primary and widespread cause of dementia and is an age-related, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease that deteriorates cognitive functions. Here, we have used male and female triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD harbouring three mutant genes (beta-amyloid precursor protein, presenilin-1 and tau and their respective non-transgenic (non-Tg controls at 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months of age to establish the link between AD and neurogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry we determined the area density of proliferating cells within the SGZ of the DG, measured by the presence of phosphorylated Histone H3 (HH3, and their possible co-localisation with GFAP to exclude a glial phenotype. Less than 1% of the HH3 labeled cells co-localised with GFAP. Both non-Tg and 3xTg-AD showed an age-dependent decrease in neurogenesis. However, male 3xTg-AD mice demonstrated a further reduction in the production of new neurones from 9 months of age (73% decrease and a complete depletion at 12 months, when compared to controls. In addition, female 3xTg-AD mice showed an earlier but equivalent decrease in neurogenesis at 4 months (reduction of 63% with an almost inexistent rate at 12 months (88% decrease compared to controls. This reduction in neurogenesis was directly associated with the presence of beta-amyloid plaques and an increase in the number of beta-amyloid containing neurones in the hippocampus; which in the case of 3xgTg females was directly correlated. These

  18. Sustained lentiviral-mediated overexpression of microRNA124a in the dentate gyrus exacerbates anxiety- and autism-like behaviors associated with neonatal isolation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2016-09-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly disabling psychiatric disorders. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no efficient therapeutic interventions that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of microRNA (miR) machinery may contribute to the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in ASD. Here, we report a stress model demonstrating that neonatal isolation-induced long-lasting hippocampal elevation of miR124a was associated with reduced expression of its target BDNF mRNA. In addition, we investigated the impact of lentiviral-mediated overexpression of miR124a into the dentate gyrus (DG) on social interaction, repetitive- and anxiety-like behaviors in the neonatal isolation (Iso) model of autism. Rats isolated from the dams on PND 1 to PND 11 were assessed for their social interaction, marble burying test (MBT) and repetitive self-grooming behaviors as adults following miR124a overexpression. Also, anxiety-like behavior and locomotion were evaluated in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. Results show that, consistent with previously published reports, Iso rats displayed decreased social interaction contacts but increased repetitive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, across both autism- and anxiety-like behavioral assays, miR124a overexpression in the DG significantly exacerbated repetitive behaviors, social impairments and anxiety with no effect on locomotor activity. Our novel findings attribute neonatal isolation-inducible cognitive impairments to induction of miR124a and consequently suppressed BDNF mRNA, opening venues for intercepting these miR124a-mediated damages. They also highlight the importance of studying microRNAs in the context of ASD and identify miR124a as a novel potential therapeutic target for improving mood disorders. PMID:27211062

  19. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bhari Talip

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF extracted from palm oil on the dentate gyrus of rats following exposure to chronic restraint stress. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, stress, tocotrienol and combination of stress and tocotrienol. Animals were stressed by restraining them for 5 hours every day for 21 consecutive days. TRF was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Our results showed that the plasma corticosterone level was significantly increased in response to stress, compared to the control. The results confirmed previous findings that chronic restraint stress suppresses cellular proliferation and reduces granule cell number in the dentate gyrus. However, TRF supplementation failed to prevent or minimize these stress-induced changes. Therefore, we conclude that TRF at the current dosage is not effective in preventing the morphological changes in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic restraint stress.

  20. Modulation by serotonin 5-HT(4) receptors of long-term potentiation and depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, Alexander; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2002-02-01

    Tetanization-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus can be depotentiated by low-frequency stimulation. 5-HT(4) receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and are suggested to be involved in hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes. Since the role of these receptors in the dentate gyrus has yet not been characterized, this study investigated the effects of 5-HT(4) receptors on basal synaptic transmission, LTP and depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with a recording electrode in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, a stimulation electrode in the medial perforant path and a cannula for drug administration in the ipsilateral ventricle. The 5-HT(4) agonist methoxytryptamine dose-dependently inhibited basal synaptic transmission and LTP. Priming of receptors by a dose of this agonist which elicited no significant change of basal synaptic transmission inhibited depotentiation. These effects could be prevented by the 5-HT(4) antagonist RS 39604, which did not produce independent effects on synaptic transmission, LTP or depotentiation. The effects of methoxytryptamine were confirmed with the highly selective 5-HT(4) agonist, RS 67333. These results strongly support a role for 5-HT(4) receptors in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and provide an important link to findings with regard to the involvement of 5-HT in processes related to learning and memory. PMID:11739263

  1. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and identification of GABAergic cells in the ischemic rat dentate gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Finsen, Bente; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2006-01-01

    parallel, we investigated the colocalization of the cell death marker Fluorojade B (FJB) with somatostatin- or GAD67-immunoreactivity in hilus of control and ischemic rats. Although the majority of FJB positive cells also contained somatostatin, a small number of GAD67 immunoreactive neurons contained FJB...

  2. Effect of electroacupuncture on synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cerebral ischemic injured rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Yu; Zhuoxin Yang; Ling Wang; Min Pi; Jiawei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that the long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission may be the basis for the neural synaptic plasticity of hippocampus, but can be evoked by various factors including electroacupuncture.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture on the activities of basic synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus of hippocampus and the changes of high frequency stimulation (HFS) induced activity of synaptic transmission in cerebral ischemic injured rats.DESIGN: A randomized control trial.SETTING: Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Sixty healthy male Wistar rats, weighing 150-250 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The experiment began after adaptation of environment for 1 week under standard experimental environment. The main experimental instruments included the programming electrical acupuncture apparatus (PCEA, product of the Institute of Acupuncture and Meridians, Anhui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine) and multichannel physiologic recorder (RM-86, Nihon Konden).METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between July 2003 and July 2004. ① Embedding of brain electrodes: In reference of the Pellegrino's rat brain atlas, the bipolar electrode stimulator was embedded into the perforant path (PP) anterior to the entorhinal area with location coordinates of AP 7.5 mm, L 4.2 mm and H 3.0 mm, that is, 7.5 mm posterior to the anterior fontanelle, 4.2 mm laterally on the right side and 3.0 mm under the subcortex. The subcortex recorder electrode coordinates are AP 3.8 mm, L 2.5 mm and H 3.5 mm, located in the granular cell layer of the unilateral dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, at the site of which an opening with the diameter of 1.5 mm was drilled for the purpose of embedding of the stimulating and recording

  3. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; JI Yong-juan; JIANG Hong; LIU De-xiang; ZHANG Qian; FAN Shu-jian; PAN Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F=6.173, P <0.05, stress: F=6.056, P <0.05). Stress was the main factor affecting sucrose preference (F=123.608, P <0.05). Decreased sucrose preference and suppressed behavior emerged directly following stress, lasting to at least the eighth day after stress in young animals (P <0.05). The older stress rats showed a lower sucrose preference than young stress rats (P <0.05). Older control rats behaved differently from the younger control animals in the OF test, spending more time in the central square (P <0.05), exhibiting fewer vertical movements (P <0.05) and less grooming (P <0.05). Following exposure to stress, older-aged rats showed no obvious changes in vertical movement and grooming. This indicates that aged rats were in an unexcited state before the stress period, and responded less to stressful stimuli than younger rats. There was significantly lower BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress

  4. An increased expression of the mGlu5 receptor protein following LTP induction at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan-Vaughan, D; Ngomba, R T; Storto, M; Kulla, A; Catania, M V; Chiechio, S; Rampello, L; Passarelli, F; Capece, A; Reymann, K G; Nicoletti, F

    2003-01-01

    The involvement of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo has been consistently documented. We have investigated whether LTP induction in the dentate gyrus of rats leads to changes in expression of mGlu2/3 or -5 receptor subtypes in the hippocampus. LTP was induced at the medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses, and mGlu receptor expression was examined by Western blot or in situ hybridization. An up-regulation of mGlu5 receptors was observed in the hippocampus both 24 and 48 h following LTP induction. This effect was restricted to the dentate gyrus and CA1 region, whereas no changes in mGlu5 receptor protein (but an increase in mRNA levels) were observed in the CA3 region. The increased expression of mGlu5 receptors was directly related to the induction of LTP, because it was not observed when tetanic stimulation was carried out in animals treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5). Western blot analysis also showed a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the whole hippocampus 24 h after LTP induction, indicating that the increased expression of mGlu5 receptors was specific. These data suggest that an up-regulation of mGlu5 receptors is a component of the plastic changes that follow the induction of LTP at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse. PMID:12559118

  5. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  6. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  7. Fine processes of Nestin-GFP-positive radial glia-like stem cells in the adult dentate gyrus ensheathe local synapses and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jonathan; Gebara, Elias; Bushong, Eric A; Sánchez-Pascual, Irene; O'Laoi, Ruadhan; El M'Ghari, Imane; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Ellisman, Mark H; Toni, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis relies on the activation of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus, their division, and differentiation of their progeny into mature granule neurons. The complex morphology of radial glia-like (RGL) stem cells suggests that these cells establish numerous contacts with the cellular components of the neurogenic niche that may play a crucial role in the regulation of RGL stem cell activity. However, the morphology of RGL stem cells remains poorly described. Here, we used light microscopy and electron microscopy to examine Nestin-GFP transgenic mice and provide a detailed ultrastructural reconstruction analysis of Nestin-GFP-positive RGL cells of the dentate gyrus. We show that their primary processes follow a tortuous path from the subgranular zone through the granule cell layer and ensheathe local synapses and vasculature in the inner molecular layer. They share the ensheathing of synapses and vasculature with astrocytic processes and adhere to the adjacent processes of astrocytes. This extensive interaction of processes with their local environment could allow them to be uniquely receptive to signals from local neurons, glia, and vasculature, which may regulate their fate. PMID:27091993

  8. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Yoneyama, Masanori; Shiba, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Taro; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2016-07-01

    Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP) SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs. PMID:27426918

  9. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  10. The dentate mossy fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers are the axons of the dentate granule cells and project to hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and mossy cells of the dentate hilus (CA4) as well as a number of interneurons in the two areas. Besides their role in hippocampal function, studies of which are still evolving and t...

  11. Regulation of depotentiation and long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats by dopamine D2-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Kulla, Alexander

    2003-02-01

    Dopamine receptors are significantly involved in hippocampus-based cognitive processes. Whereas the involvement of D1-like receptors in hippocampal plasticity has been described, the role of D2-like receptors remains to be clarified. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of D2-like receptors to synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats underwent chronic implantation of a recording electrode in the granule cell layer, a stimulating electrode in the medial perforant path and a cannula in the ipsilateral cerebral ventricle (to enable drug administration). The D2-like receptor agonists quinpirole and noraporphine dose-dependently inhibited basal synaptic transmission. Agonist priming of D2-like receptors with a drug concentration which had no effect on synaptic transmission inhibited depotentiation but did not affect LTP. The agonist effects on depotentiation were prevented by the D2-like antagonist remoxipride. Remoxipride itself did not influence basal synaptic transmission or depotentiation. Interestingly, 'weak' LTP (24 h) was inhibited by prior application of remoxipride. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine D2-like receptors in the regulation of both depotentiation and LTP in vivo and offer an important and novel insight as to the involvement of these receptors in processes related to learning and memory. PMID:12507943

  12. Comparison of the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and intestinal crypt of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study compared the dose-response curves for the frequency of apoptosis in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and intestinal crypt using whole-body gamma irradiation. The incidence of gamma-ray-induced apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labelling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the DG and intestinal crypt were increased in a dose-dependent pattern (0-2 Gy). The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, with a significant relationship between the appearance of apoptosis and irradiation dose. The slopes of the dose-response curves in the DG were much steeper (∼5-6-fold) than those in the intestinal crypt within the range of 0-1 Gy exposure. Hippocampal DG might be a more effective and sensitive evaluation structure than the intestinal crypt to estimate the degree of radiation exposure in damaged organs of adult mice exposed to low irradiation dose. copy; The Author 2011. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  13. Oxytocin depolarizes fast-spiking hilar interneurons and induces GABA release onto mossy cells of the rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Scott W; Frazier, Charles J

    2016-09-01

    Delivery of exogenous oxytocin (OXT) to central oxytocin receptors (OXT-Rs) is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, social anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite significant research implicating central OXT signaling in modulation of mood, affect, social behavior, and stress response, relatively little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these complex actions, particularly in brain regions which express the OXT-R but lie outside of the hypothalamus (where OXT-synthesizing neurons reside). We report that bath application of low concentrations of the selective OXT-R agonist Thr4,Gly7-OXT (TGOT) reliably and robustly drives GABA release in the dentate gyrus in an action potential dependent manner. Additional experiments led to identification of a small subset of small hilar interneurons that are directly depolarized by acute application of TGOT. From a physiological perspective, TGOT-responsive hilar interneurons have high input resistance, rapid repolarization velocity during an action potential, and a robust afterhyperpolarization. Further, they fire irregularly (or stutter) in response to moderate depolarization, and fire quickly with minimal spike frequency accommodation in response to large current injections. From an anatomical perspective, TGOT responsive hilar interneurons have dense axonal arborizations in the hilus that were found in close proximity with mossy cell somata and/or proximal dendrites, and also invade the granule cell layer. Further, they have primary dendrites that always extend into the granule cell layer, and sometimes have clear arborizations in the molecular layer. Overall, these data reveal a novel site of action for OXT in an important limbic circuit, and represent a significant step towards better understanding how endogenous OXT may modulate flow of information in hippocampal networks. © 2016 Wiley

  14. Potential implications of a monosynaptic pathway from mossy cells to adult-born granule cells of the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Scharfman

    2015-08-01

    Here we first review fundamental information about MCs and the current hypotheses for their role in the normal DG and in diseases that involve the DG. Then we review previously published data which suggest that MCs are a source of input to a subset of GCs that are born in adulthood (adult-born GCs. In addition, we discuss the evidence that adult-born GCs may support the normal inhibitory 'gate' functions of the DG, where the GCs are a filter or gate for information from the entorhinal cortical input to area CA3. The implications are then discussed in the context of seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. In TLE, it has been suggested that the DG inhibitory gate is weak or broken and MC loss leads to insufficient activation of inhibitory neurons, causing hyperexcitability. That idea was called the “dormant basket cell hypothesis.” Recent data suggest that loss of normal adult-born GCs may also cause disinhibition, and seizure susceptibility. Therefore, we propose a reconsideration of the dormant basket cell hypothesis with an intervening adult-born GC between the MC and basket cell and call this hypothesis the “dormant immature granule cell hypothesis.”

  15. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  16. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  17. Effects of mild hypothermia on the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 in neurons of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Feng Zheng; Jiami Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that mild hypothermia can protect against injury to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of mild hypothermia on microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Also, to study neuronal uhrastructural changes in the dentate gyrus to investigate the mechanism of the protection against injury to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion conferred by mild hypothermia.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized grouping, neural cell morphology trial was performed at the Laboratory Animal Center of Yijishan Hospital between March and June 2007.MATERIALS: Eighty-five healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated to three groups: mild hyputhermia (n = 40), normothermia (n = 40), and sham-operated (n = 5).METHODS: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by the suture method in the mild hypothermia and normothermia groups, with a threading depth of 180.5 mm. In the sham-operated group, the suture was inserted 15 mm, with no vascular ligation, and was followed by reperfusion 2 hours later. In the sham-operated and normothermia groups, the rat rectal temperature was maintained at 36-37℃; in the mild hypothermia group, it was controlled at 32-33 ℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The hippocampal dentate gyrus was serially sectioned for hematoxylin-eosin staining and MAP2 immunohistochemistry. Ultrastructural changes and the MAP2 absorbance value of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were examined by transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: The sham-operated group exhibited approximately normal ultrastmcture of neurons in the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyms. In the normothermia group, ischemic hippocampal dentate gyms neurons were found with markedly fewer normal mitochondria, greatly proliferated rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a swollen and dysmorphic Golgi. In the mild hypothermia group, at each corresponding time point, these

  18. Morphological features of microglial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Gunn rat: a possible schizophrenia animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Liaury Kristian; Miyaoka Tsuyoshi; Tsumori Toshiko; Furuya Motohide; Wake Rei; Ieda Masa; Tsuchie Keiko; Taki Michiyo; Ishihara Kotomi; Tanra Andi; Horiguchi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a debilitating and complex mental disorder whose exact etiology remains unknown. There is growing amount of evidence of a relationship between neuroinflammation, as demonstrated by microglial activation, and schizophrenia. Our previous studies have proposed that hyperbilirubinemia plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, we suggested the Gunn rat, an animal model of bilirubin encephalopathy, as a possible animal model of schizophr...

  19. Prenatal nicotine and maternal deprivation stress de-regulate the development of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus neurons in hippocampus of infant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC, postnatal maternal deprivation (MD or the combination of the two (NIC+MD to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14 pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG, decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment.

  20. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Täuber Martin G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981. Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28 or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15 every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40 starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures.

  1. Seipin knockout in mice impairs stem cell proliferation and progenitor cell differentiation in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus via reduced levels of PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seipin gene (BSCL2 was originally identified in humans as a loss-of-function gene associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2. Neuronal seipin-knockout (seipin-nKO mice display a depression-like phenotype with a reduced level of hippocampal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. The present study investigated the influence of seipin deficiency on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and the underlying mechanisms of the effects. We show that the proliferative capability of stem cells in seipin-nKO mice was substantially reduced compared to in wild-type (WT mice, and that this could be rescued by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (rosi. In seipin-nKO mice, neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells was inhibited, with the enhancement of astrogliogenesis; both of these effects were recovered by rosi treatment during early stages of progenitor cell differentiation. In addition, rosi treatment could correct the decline in hippocampal ERK2 phosphorylation and cyclin A mRNA level in seipin-nKO mice. The MEK inhibitor U0126 abolished the rosi-rescued cell proliferation and cyclin A expression in seipin-nKO mice. In seipin-nKO mice, the hippocampal Wnt3 protein level was less than that in WT mice, and there was a reduction of neurogenin 1 (Neurog1 and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1 mRNA, levels of which were corrected by rosi treatment. STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr705 was enhanced in seipin-nKO mice, and was further elevated by rosi treatment. Finally, rosi treatment for 10 days could alleviate the depression-like phenotype in seipin-nKO mice, and this alleviation was blocked by the MEK inhibitor U0126. The results indicate that, by reducing PPARγ, seipin deficiency impairs proliferation and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells, respectively, in the adult DG, which might be responsible for the production of the depression-like phenotype in seipin-nKO mice.

  2. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

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    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  3. Prolonged induction of c-fos in neuropeptide Y- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons of the rat dentate gyrus after electroconvulsive stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Greisen, M H; Bolwig, T G;

    1996-01-01

    Induction of c-fos mRNA and Fos was studied in the hilus and granular layer of the dentate gyrus at various times up to 24 h after single electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. In both areas of the dentate gyrus, a prominent induction of c-fos m....../or somatostatin (SS). Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we examined to what extent Fos was induced in these hilar neurons after ECS. Although a minor population of non-NPY non-SS cells displayed Fos induction early after ECS, prolonged induction of Fos almost exclusively occurred in NPY or SS neurons...

  4. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats. PMID:26687276

  5. Constraint-induced movement therapy enhanced neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after stroke in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuansheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Shanshan; Nie, Yingxue

    2009-08-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been extensively used for stroke rehabilitation. CIMT encourages use of the impaired limb along with restraint of the ipsilesional limb in daily life, and may promote behavioral recovery and induce structural changes in brain after stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CIMT enhances neurogenesis in rat brain after stroke that was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult rats were divided into sham group, ischemia group and ischemia treated with CIMT group. Rats of CIMT group were treated with a plaster cast to restrain the healthy forelimb for 14 days beginning 1 week after ischemia. The proliferation of neuronal cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and behavioral recovery were analyzed at day 29 after ischemia. We also measured the tissue level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) by ELISA. SDF-1 might be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis following stroke. In the subventricular zone of the animals treated with CIMT, there was a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells (135 +/- 18, P behavioral performances and increased the SDF-1 protein levels in the cortex and dentate gyrus. In conclusion, CIMT treatment enhances neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:19638734

  6. Lithium, but Not Fluoxetine or the Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Receptor Antagonist R121919, Increases Cell Proliferation in the Adult Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Nicola D; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Owens, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs have previously been reported to increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in laboratory animals. We found no effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist R121919 [3-[6-(dimethylamino)-4-methylpyridin-3-yl]-2,5-dimethyl-N,N-dipropyl-1H-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-8-ium-7-amine] on the rate of cell proliferation or hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRN...

  7. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  8. A cell adhesion molecule mimetic, FGL peptide, induces alterations in synapse and dendritic spine structure in the dentate gyrus of aged rats: a three-dimensional ultrastructural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popov, Victor I; Medvedev, Nikolay I; Kraev, Igor V;

    2008-01-01

    100 serial ultrathin sections. FGL affected neither hippocampal volume nor spine or synaptic density in the middle molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. However, it increased the ratio of mushroom to thin spines, number of multivesicular bodies and also increased the frequency of appearance of coated...... pits. Three-dimensional analysis showed a significant decrease in both post-synaptic density and apposition zone curvature of mushroom spines following FGL treatment, whereas for thin spines the convexity of the apposition zone increased. These data indicate that FGL induces large changes in the fine...

  9. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  10. Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not me...

  11. Redistribution of ionotropic glutamate receptors detected by laser microdissection of the rat dentate gyrus 48 h following LTP induction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T T Kennard

    Full Text Available The persistence and input specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP make it attractive as a mechanism of information storage. In its initial phase, both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that LTP is associated with increased membrane localization of AMPA receptor subunits, but the molecular basis of LTP maintenance over the long-term is still unclear. We have previously shown that expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits is elevated in whole homogenates prepared from dentate gyrus 48 h after LTP induction in vivo. In the present study, we utilized laser microdissection (LMD techniques to determine whether AMPA and NMDA receptor upregulation occurs specifically in the stimulated regions of the dentate gyrus dendritic arbor. Receptor proteins GluN1, GluA1 and GluA2, as well as postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa and tubulin were detected by Western blot analysis in microdissected samples. Gradients of expression were observed for GluN1 and GluA2, decreasing from the inner to the outer zones of the molecular layer, and were independent of LTP. When induced at medial perforant path synapses, LTP was associated with an apparent specific redistribution of GluA1 and GluN1 to the middle molecular layer that contains these synapses. These data indicate that glutamate receptor proteins are delivered specifically to dendritic regions possessing LTP-expressing synapses, and that these changes are preserved for at least 48 h.

  12. 慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回GFAP表达的影响%Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on GFAP expression in the dentate gyms of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康朝胜; 孙宝飞; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of adult mice after chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods 80 healthy adult Kunming mice, weighing 20-22g, were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group and the high-dose group ( 10 males and 10 females in each group). Mice in the four groups were respectively fed with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 AS2O3 for 3 months, and the dosage was adjusted according to changes of weight. Then ability of learning and memory was tested by a Y-maze, and expression of the GFAP protein in the dentate gyrus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Ability of learning and memory in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group ( P < 0.05 ). Immunohistochemical results showed that the number of GFAP-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly more increased in the dose groups compared with the normal control group(P<0.01 ), and the average optical density was also increased (P <0.01 ). Western blot results showed the GFAP protein content increased with the dosage increasing (P <0.01 ). Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage ability of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to proliferation of astroeytes and expression of GFAP in the dentate gyrus.%目的 研究砷中毒后小鼠齿状回胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的变化.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组及慢性砷中毒高、中、低剂量组,每组20只,分别以蒸馏水、1/5 LD50、1/10 LD50、1/40LD50 As2O3连续灌胃3个月,根据其体质量变化随时调整用药剂量,采用Y-电迷宫检测各组小鼠学习记忆行为,采用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术检测不同浓度砷中毒对小鼠齿状回部位GFAP表达的影响.结果 与正常对照组比较,高剂量砷中毒组学习、记忆Y-迷

  13. Aquisição de uma tarefa temporal (DRL por ratos submetidos a lesão seletiva do giro denteado The acquisition of a temporal task (DRL by dentate gyrus-selective colchicine lesioned rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Oliveira Bueno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A lesão seletiva do giro denteado (DG reduz a eficiência do desempenho de ratos treinados pré-operatoriamente em um esquema de reforçamento diferencial de baixas taxas (DRL; embora os animais lesados sejam capazes de suprimir a resposta de pressão na barra por determinado intervalo de tempo após a resposta anterior, eles subestimam esse intervalo, resultando em um desempenho menos eficiente. Como os animais tinham recebido treinamento pré-operatório, não ficou claro se a lesão interfere na aquisição da discriminação temporal. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da lesão do DG na aquisição de uma tarefa de DRL-20 s. Ratos foram submetidos à neurocirurgia e então ao treino na tarefa de DRL-20 s. Os resultados mostraram que embora os animais lesados se beneficiem do treinamento na tarefa, sua aquisição não é tão eficiente quanto a exibida pelos animais controle. Os resultados sugerem ainda que a lesão do giro denteado interfere na acuidade da discriminação temporal.Previous studies have shown that dentate gyrus damage render rats less efficient than sham-operated controls in the performance of a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL-20 s task acquired prior to the lesion; even though the lesioned rats were able to postpone their responses after a previous bar press, they seem to underestimate time relative to sham-operated controls, which interferes with their performance. This study investigated the effects of multiplesite, intradentate, colchicine injections on the acquisition and performance of a DRL-20 s task in rats not exposed to preoperatory training, i.e., trained after the lesion. Results showed that the lesioned rats improved along repetitive training in the DRL-20 s task; however, relative to the sham-operated controls, their acquisition rate was slower and the level of proficiency achieved was poorer, indicating that damage to the dentate gyrus interferes with temporal discrimination.

  14. Time-dependent induction of depotentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: involvement of group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, A; Reymann, K G; Manahan-Vaughan, D

    1999-11-01

    Depotentiation comprises a reversal of tetanization-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) which occurs following low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in the hippocampus in vivo. Although depotentiation has been consistently demonstrated in the CA1 region, no positive reports of the existence of depotentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo have occurred. This study therefore investigated whether depotentiation is possible in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We found that depotentiation can be induced, but it is very tightly dependent on the interval between tetanization and LFS. Thus, LFS given 2 or 5 min following tetanization produced significant depotentiation, whereas LFS given 10-30 min following tetanization had no significant effect on the expression of LTP. Depotentiation occurred in two phases: a transient depression of evoked responses to below pre-tetanization values, which occurred in the first 60 min following LFS, and a recovery of this response to a stable level of synaptic transmission which comprised a significant reduction in the magnitude of LTP. Group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play an important role in the expression of long-term depression in vivo. We therefore investigated whether group 2 mGluRs contribute to depotentiation. The group 2 antagonist (2S)-alpha-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU) inhibited the early transient depression at a concentration which inhibits LTD in vivo, but did not block the expression of depotentiation. EGLU also inhibited the transient depression induced by 5 Hz given alone. Increasing the concentration of EGLU prevented depotentiation, however. The group 2 agonist (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenyl- glycine (4C3HPG) inhibited LTP and enhanced depotentiation. These data suggest a role for group 2 mGluRs in depotentiation. PMID:10583475

  15. Expression of nestin by neural cells in the adult rat and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Neurons and glial cells in the developing brain arise from neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is thought to be expressed exclusively by NPCs in the normal brain, and is replaced by the expression of proteins specific for neurons or glia in differentiated cells. Nestin expressing NPCs are found in the adult brain in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. While significant attention has been paid to studying NPCs in the SVZ and SGZ in the adult brain, relatively little attention has been paid to determining whether nestin-expressing neural cells (NECs exist outside of the SVZ and SGZ. We therefore stained sections immunocytochemically from the adult rat and human brain for NECs, observed four distinct classes of these cells, and present here the first comprehensive report on these cells. Class I cells are among the smallest neural cells in the brain and are widely distributed. Class II cells are located in the walls of the aqueduct and third ventricle. Class IV cells are found throughout the forebrain and typically reside immediately adjacent to a neuron. Class III cells are observed only in the basal forebrain and closely related areas such as the hippocampus and corpus striatum. Class III cells resemble neurons structurally and co-express markers associated exclusively with neurons. Cell proliferation experiments demonstrate that Class III cells are not recently born. Instead, these cells appear to be mature neurons in the adult brain that express nestin. Neurons that express nestin are not supposed to exist in the brain at any stage of development. That these unique neurons are found only in brain regions involved in higher order cognitive function suggests that they may be remodeling their cytoskeleton in supporting the neural plasticity required for these functions.

  16. Expression of mRNA coding voltage - gated sodium channel α-subunit in spontaneously epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUWa; CAIJi-Qun

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Subtypes Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ of sodium channel α- subunit mRNA were analyzed in adult rat brain of spontaneously epileptic rats, and investigated the relationship between sodium channel expression and epilepsy. METHODS Tissue samples were microdissected from occipital neocortex, CA1 and CA3 hippocampus areas and dentate gyms, observe

  17. Usp9x-deficiency disrupts the morphological development of the postnatal hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Sabrina; Premarathne, Susitha; Harvey, Tracey J; Iyer, Swati; Dixon, Chantelle; Alexander, Suzanne; Burne, Thomas H J; Wood, Stephen A; Piper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis persists within two main discrete locations, the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis within the adult dentate gyrus contributes to learning and memory, and deficiencies in neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline. Neural stem cells within the adult dentate gyrus reside within the subgranular zone (SGZ), and proteins intrinsic to stem cells, and factors within the niche microenvironment, are critical determinants for development and maintenance of this structure. Our understanding of the repertoire of these factors, however, remains limited. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP9X has recently emerged as a mediator of neural stem cell identity. Furthermore, mice lacking Usp9x exhibit a striking reduction in the overall size of the adult dentate gyrus. Here we reveal that the development of the postnatal SGZ is abnormal in mice lacking Usp9x. Usp9x conditional knockout mice exhibit a smaller hippocampus and shortened dentate gyrus blades from as early as P7. Moreover, the analysis of cellular populations within the dentate gyrus revealed reduced stem cell, neuroblast and neuronal numbers and abnormal neuroblast morphology. Collectively, these findings highlight the critical role played by USP9X in the normal morphological development of the postnatal dentate gyrus. PMID:27181636

  18. Alteration of forebrain neurogenesis after cervical spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

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    Marie-Solenne eFELIX

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain, remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neurons, astrocytes, or microglia during the subchronic and chronic phases of injury. We find that subchronic SCI leads to a reduction of BrdU incorporation and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. By contrast, subchronic SCI triggers an increased BrdU incorporation in the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, where most of the newly generated cells are identified as microglia. In chronic condition 90 days after SCI, BrdU incorporation returns to control levels in all regions examined, except in the hippocampus, where SCI produces a long-term reduction of neurogenesis, indicating that this structure is particularly sensitive to SCI. Finally, we observe that SCI triggers an acute inflammatory response in all brain regions examined, as well as a hippocampal-specific decline in BDNF levels, which could explain the SCI-mediated distant effects on forebrain neurogenesis. This study provides the first demonstration that forebrain neurogenesis is vulnerable to a distal SCI.

  19. The Effects of Exercise on Adolescent Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Exposure During the Brain Growth Spurt

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Greenough, William T.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal b...

  20. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  1. TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

  2. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2 at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95 and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(ARγ2 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  4. The effect of immature adult-born dentate granule cells on hyponeophagial behavior is related to their roles in learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eDeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression is based on the correlation between the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the affective status of rodents. However, studies investigating the role of neurogenesis in the causation of mood regulation have reported inconsistent results. Here, we explored whether the affective state can be affected differentially by adult-born neurons with distinctive physiological characteristics at different maturation stages. We revealed that reducing the immature newborn neuron population had no effect on anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in an array of tests; however, it enhanced hyponeophagia in a novelty suppressed feeding test, but only when the novel environment was drastically different from the home cage. We further demonstrated that reducing the immature newborn neuron population led to delayed habituation to a novel environment and impaired contextual learning. Hence, rather than being directly involved in mood regulation, our studies raise the possibility that adult neurogenesis may influence hyponeophagia through its role in mnemonic processing.

  5. Cannabinoid administration increases 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsanou, K; Wang, H; Dalton, V S; Nguyen, V

    2010-08-11

    The endocannabinoid and serotonin systems share a high level of overlap in terms of the physiological processes that they regulate, however, little is known about their functional interactions particularly during adolescence, a vulnerable period for both the development of psychosis and for initiation to substance use. In the present study, the effects of cannabinoid treatment on serotonin 5HT1A receptor density and mRNA expression were investigated in two age groups: Adolescent (postnatal day 35) and adult (postnatal day 70) rats were injected with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days and sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. 5HT1A receptor density was measured in different brain regions using [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT quantitative autoradiography whereas mRNA expression was measured in adjacent brain sections. Higher levels of both serotonin 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression were observed in limbic regions in adolescent control animals compared to adults. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 23% in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 4 days compared to vehicle treated controls. The same treatment increased mRNA expression by 27% and by 14% in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus respectively. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 22% in the CA1 of adult animals treated with 50 microg HU210, by 26% in the dentate gurus of adult rats treated with 100 microg for 14 days. By contrast, 5HT1A receptor density or mRNA expression was not affected in the brain of adolescent animals in any of the brain regions examined. These results suggest that cannabinoid treatment has differential effects on serotonin-related neurochemistry in adolescent compared to adult rats. The effects in the adult brain may compromise hippocampal function and could account for the cognitive deficits seen in habitual heavy cannabis users. PMID:20438810

  6. Effect of thyroxine on munc-18 and syntaxin-1 expression in dorsal hippocampus of adult-onset hypothyroid rats

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    Y. Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces a variety of impairments on hippocampus- dependent neurocognitive functioningin which many synaptic proteins in hippocampus neurons are involved. Here, we observed the effect of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the expression of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus and whether the altered proteins could be restored by levothyroxine (T4 treatment. All rats were separated into 4 groups randomly: hypothyroid group, 5μg T4/100 g body weight (BW treated group, 20 μg T4/100g BW treated group and control group. The radioimmunoassay kits were applied to assay the levels of serum T3 and T4, and the levels of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in hippocampus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Both analysis corroborated that syntaxin-1 in the hypothyroid group was significantly higher. Munc-18 was lower in four layers of CA3 and dentate gyrus by immunohistochemistry. After two weeks of treatment with 5 μg T4/100g BW for hypothyroidism, syntaxin-1 levels were completely restored, whereas the recovery of munc-18 only located in two of the four impaired layers. Twenty μg T4/100g BW treatment normalized munc-18 levels. These data suggested that adult-onset hypothyroidism induced increment of syntaxin-1 and decrement of munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus, which could be restored by T4 treatment. Larger dosage of T4 caused more effective restorations.

  7. INDUCTION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE RAT DENTATE GYRUS AFTER ADRENALECTOMY - COMPARISON WITH NEURODEGENERATIVE CHANGES USING SILVER IMPREGNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGERS, HJ; MEDEMA, RM; POSTEMA, F; KORF, J

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we performed a light microscopic anatomical comparison of adrenalectomy (ADX)-induced neurodegeneration using silver impregnation and reaction of astroglial cells using GFAP immunocytochemistry in the hippocampus of the rat. Three survival times following ADX were studied: 24 ho

  8. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Bhari Talip; Mohd Asnizam Asari; Aaijaz Ahmed Khan; Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam Sirajudeen

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study w...

  9. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  10. Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed radioautographic technique, based on the uptake labeling of monoamine terminals in vitro, was used to quantify the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in adult rat hippocampus. After incubation of brain slices with 1 microM 3H-NA, the NA varicosities were visualized as small aggregates of silver grains, in light microscope radioautographs prepared at 3 equidistant horizontal levels across the ventral 2/3 of the hippocampus. Using a computer-assisted image analyzer, counts were obtained from the subiculum (SUB), 3 sectors of Ammon's horn (CA1, CA3-a, CA3-b) and 3 sectors of the dentate gyrus (DG-medial blade, crest, and lateral blade), every lamina being sampled in each region. After a double correction for duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness, and following measurement of varicosity diameter in electron microscope radioautographs, it was possible to express these results in number of terminals per volumetric unit of tissue. It was thus found that the overall density of hippocampal NA innervation averages 2.1 million varicosities/mm3 of tissue, a value almost twice as high as that in cerebral cortex. This innervation is 20% denser ventrally than dorsally and is heterogeneous both in terms of regional and laminar distribution. SUB and DG are more strongly innervated than Ammon's horn, wherein CA1 has the lowest overall density. In SUB and CA1, there is a clear predilection of NA varicosities for the stratum moleculare. In CA3, there is a narrow band of even stronger innervation in the stratum radiatum, near the apical border of the stratum pyramidale, contrasting with a 3 times lower density in this cell layer and the stratum oriens. In DG, the NA innervation is again the weakest in the cell body layer and exhibits an almost 3-fold greater density in the polymorph layer, the highest of all hippocampus

  11. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  12. Fast, potent pharmacological expansion of endogenous hes3+/sox2+ cells in the adult mouse and rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pacioni

    Full Text Available The adult hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. As a consequence, it is a brain region of remarkable plasticity. This plasticity exhibits itself both as cellular changes and neurogenesis. For neurogenesis to occur, a population of local stem cells and progenitor cells is maintained in the adult brain and these are able to proliferate and differentiate into neurons which contribute to the hippocampal circuitry. There is much interest in understanding the role of immature cells in the hippocampus, in relation to learning and memory. Methods and mechanisms that increase the numbers of these cells will be valuable in this research field. We show here that single injections of soluble factors into the lateral ventricle of adult rats and mice induces the rapid (within one week increase in the number of putative stem cells/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. The established progenitor marker Sox2 together with the more recently established marker Hes3, were used to quantify the manipulation of the Sox2/Hes3 double-positive cell population. We report that in both adult rodent species, Sox2+/Hes3+ cell numbers can be increased within one week. The most prominent increase was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. This study presents a fast, pharmacological method to manipulate the numbers of endogenous putative stem cells/progenitor cells. This method may be easily modified to alter the degree of activation (e.g. by the use of osmotic pumps for delivery, or by repeat injections through implanted cannulas, in order to be best adapted to different paradigms of research (neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, learning, memory, plasticity, etc.

  13. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  14. Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevner, Robert F

    2016-02-15

    The dentate gyrus (DG), a part of the hippocampal formation, has important functions in learning, memory, and adult neurogenesis. Compared with homologous areas in sauropsids (birds and reptiles), the mammalian DG is larger and exhibits qualitatively different phenotypes: 1) folded (C- or V-shaped) granule neuron layer, concave toward the hilus and delimited by a hippocampal fissure; 2) nonperiventricular adult neurogenesis; and 3) prolonged ontogeny, involving extensive abventricular (basal) migration and proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). Although gaps remain, available data indicate that these DG traits are present in all orders of mammals, including monotremes and marsupials. The exception is Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), in which DG size, convolution, and adult neurogenesis have undergone evolutionary regression. Parsimony suggests that increased growth and convolution of the DG arose in stem mammals concurrently with nonperiventricular adult hippocampal neurogenesis and basal migration of NSPCs during development. These traits could all result from an evolutionary change that enhanced radial migration of NSPCs out of the periventricular zones, possibly by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, to colonize and maintain nonperiventricular proliferative niches. In turn, increased NSPC migration and clonal expansion might be a consequence of growth in the cortical hem (medial patterning center), which produces morphogens such as Wnt3a, generates Cajal-Retzius neurons, and is regulated by Lhx2. Finally, correlations between DG convolution and neocortical gyrification (or capacity for gyrification) suggest that enhanced abventricular migration and proliferation of NSPCs played a transformative role in growth and folding of neocortex as well as archicortex. PMID:26179319

  15. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  16. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  17. Increases in Doublecortin Immunoreactivity in the Dentate Gyrus following Extinction of Heroin-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P. Hicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus play a role in various forms of learning and memory. However, adult born neurons in the DG, while still at an immature stage, exhibit unique electrophysiological properties and are also functionally implicated in learning and memory processes. We investigated the effects of extinction of drug-seeking behavior on the formation of immature neurons in the DG as assessed by quantification of doublecortin (DCX immunoreactivity. Rats were allowed to self-administer heroin (0.03 mg/kg/infusion for 12 days and then subjected either to 10 days of extinction training or forced abstinence. We also examined extinction responding patterns following heroin self-administration in glial fibrillary acidic protein thymidine kinase (GFAP-tk transgenic mice, which have been previously demonstrated to show reduced formation of immature and mature neurons in the DG following treatment with ganciclovir (GCV. We found that extinction training increased DCX immunoreactivity in the dorsal DG as compared with animals undergoing forced abstinence, and that GCV-treated GFAP-tk mice displayed impaired extinction learning as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that extinction of drug-seeking behavior increases the formation of immature neurons in the DG and that these neurons may play a functional role in extinction learning.

  18. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  19. Effects of early postnatal X-irradiation of the hippocampus on discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats with x-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure, but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task-difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task-difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task-difficulty) and reversal (moderate task-difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampal-damaged rats are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  20. Early postnatal x-irradiation of the hippocampus and discrimination learning in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats with X-irradiation-produced degranulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were trained in the acquisition and reversal of simultaneous visual and tactile discriminations in a T-maze. These experiments employed the same treatment, apparatus, and procedure but varied in task difficulty. In the brightness and roughness discriminations, the irradiated rats were not handicapped in acquiring or reversing discriminations of low or low-moderate task difficulty. However, these rats were handicapped in acquiring and reversing discriminations of moderate and high task difficulty. In a Black/White discrimination, in which the stimuli were restricted to the goal-arm walls, the irradiated rats were handicapped in the acquisition (low task difficulty) and reversal (moderate task difficulty) phases of the task. These results suggest that the irradiated rats were not handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was high, irrespective of modality used, but were handicapped when the noticeability of the stimuli was low. In addition, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rats with hippocampal damage are inattentive due to hyperactivity

  1. Neuronal Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Astrocytic Gonadotrophin Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH) Immunoreactivity in the Adult Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J K; Tse, M T; Hamson, D K; Taves, M D; Ma, C; McGuire, N; Arckens, L; Bentley, G E; Galea, L A M; Floresco, S B; Soma, K K

    2015-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) are neuropeptides secreted by the hypothalamus that regulate reproduction. GnRH receptors are not only present in the anterior pituitary, but also are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus of rats, suggesting that GnRH regulates hippocampal function. GnIH inhibits pituitary gonadotrophin secretion and is also expressed in the hippocampus of a songbird; its role outside of the reproductive axis is not well established. In the present study, we employed immunohistochemistry to examine three forms of GnRH [mammalian GnRH-I (mGnRH-I), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and lamprey GnRH-III (lGnRH-III)] and GnIH in the adult rat hippocampus. No mGnRH-I and cGnRH-II+ cell bodies were present in the hippocampus. Sparse mGnRH-I and cGnRH-II+ fibres were present within the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus, along the hippocampal fissure, and within the hilus of the dentate gyrus. No lGnRH-III was present in the rodent hippocampus. GnIH-immunoreactivity was present in the hippocampus in cell bodies that resembled astrocytes. Males had more GnIH+ cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus than females. To confirm the GnIH+ cell body phenotype, we performed double-label immunofluorescence against GnIH, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NeuN. Immunofluorescence revealed that all GnIH+ cell bodies in the hippocampus also contained GFAP, a marker of astrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that GnRH does not reach GnRH receptors in the rat hippocampus primarily via synaptic release. By contrast, GnIH might be synthesised locally in the rat hippocampus by astrocytes. These data shed light on the sites of action and possible functions of GnRH and GnIH outside of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:26258544

  2. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  3. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  4. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  5. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  6. Microglia engulf viable newborn cells in the epileptic dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microglia, which are the brain's resident immune cells, engulf dead neural progenitor cells during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The number of newborn cells in the SGZ increases significantly after status epilepticus (SE), but whether and how microglia regulate the number of newborn cells after SE remain unclear. Here, we show that microglia rapidly eliminate newborn cells after SE by primary phagocytosis, a process by which viable cells are engulfed, thereby regulating the number of newborn cells that are incorporated into the DG. The number of newborn cells in the DG was increased at 5 days after SE in the adult mouse brain but rapidly decreased to the control levels within a week. During this period, microglia in the DG were highly active and engulfed newborn cells. We found that the majority of engulfed newborn cells were caspase-negative viable cells. Finally, inactivation of microglia with minocycline maintained the increase in the number of newborn cells after SE. Furthermore, minocycline treatment after SE induced the emergence of hilar ectopic granule cells. Thus, our findings suggest that microglia may contribute to homeostasis of the dentate neurogenic niche by eliminating excess newborn cells after SE via primary phagocytosis. GLIA 2016;64:1508-1517. PMID:27301702

  7. Behavior modification after inactivation of cerebellar dentate nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd C; Villatoro, Lee; Arneson, Tom; Ahuja, Brittany; Voss, Stephanie; Swain, Rodney A

    2012-08-01

    Effort-based decision making occurs when subjects are given a choice between a reward available at a high response cost and a reward available at a low response cost and is altered in individuals with disorders such as autism or particular patterns of brain injury. The current study explored the relationship between effort-based decision making and reinforcement characteristics in the T maze. This was done using both normal animals and animals with bilateral inactivation of the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Rats chose between alternatives in which one arm contained high-density reinforcement (HR) and the other arm contained low-density reinforcement (LR). During training, the HR arm was obstructed and the point at which the animal no longer worked for reinforcement (breaking point) was determined. The cerebellar dentate nuclei were then transiently inactivated and once again breaking points were assessed. The results indicated that inactivation of the dentate nucleus disrupted effort-based decision making. Additionally, altering both the palatability and the magnitude of the reinforcement were assessed in an attempt to reestablish the original preinactivation breaking point. It was hypothesized that an increase in the strength or magnitude of the reinforcement would promote an increase in the breaking point of the animal even when the cerebellum was inactivated. The results indicated that with both strategies animals effectively reestablished original breaking points. The results of this study will inform the current literature regarding the modification of behavior after brain injury and further the understanding of the behavioral deficits associated with cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:22845704

  8. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  9. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  10. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  11. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  12. Apoptosis and autophagy control cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus following hippocampal lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhou; Wei Peng; Qi Zhu; Shan Gong; Lidong Shan; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Shiyu Guo; Xinghong Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Brain injuries often result in the promotion of cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG),but the number of newborn cells declines with time.However,the cause of this decline remains poorly understood.Elucidation of the fate of these newborn cells will further the understanding of the pathological process and treatment of brain injury.In the present study,the number of newborn cells was quantitatively analyzed using an unbiased stereological method following hippocampal lesion by kainic acid,in combination with detection of apoptosis and autophagy.Results revealed that hippocampal lesion resulted in a significantly increased number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine(BrdU)-positive cells in the DG,which subsequently decreased with time.BrdU/cleaved caspase-3 double-labeled cells were detected in the granular cell layer and hilus of DG.However,expressions of LC3-11,Beclin 1,and p53 were upregulated,and pro-caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were downregulated.Results indicated that hippocampal lesion in adult rats resulted in significant cell proliferation in the DG,which subsequently reduced with time.In addition,results suggested that apoptosis and autophagic processes could regulate cell proliferation in the DG following hippocampal lesion.

  13. Estradiol rapidly modulates spinogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus: Involvement of kinase networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Yasushi; Munetomo, Arisa; Mukai, Hideo; Ikeda, Muneki; Sato, Rei; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Murakami, Gen; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Kimoto, Tetsuya; Kawato, Suguru

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estradiol (E2) is locally synthesized within the hippocampus and the gonads. Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by E2 is essential for synaptic regulation. The molecular mechanisms of modulation through the synaptic estrogen receptor (ER) and its downstream signaling, however, are largely unknown in the dentate gyrus (DG). We investigated the E2-induced modulation of dendritic spines in male adult rat hippocampal slices by imaging Lucifer Yellow-injected DG granule cells. Treatments with 1 nM E2 increased the density of spines by approximately 1.4-fold within 2h. Spine head diameter analysis showed that the density of middle-head spines (0.4-0.5 μm) was significantly increased. The E2-induced spine density increase was suppressed by blocking Erk MAPK, PKA, PKC and LIMK. These suppressive effects by kinase inhibitors are not non-specific ones because the GSK-3β antagonist did not inhibit E2-induced spine increase. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 also blocked the E2-induced spine increase. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 rapidly increases the density of spines through kinase networks that are driven by synaptic ER. PMID:26122288

  14. Mixed electrical-chemical synapses in adult rat hippocampus are primarily glutamatergic and coupled by connexin-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Hamzei-Sichani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrodendritic electrical signaling via gap junctions is now an accepted feature of neuronal communication in the mammalian brain, whereas axodendritic and axosomatic gap junctions have rarely been described. We present ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and dye-coupling evidence for “mixed” (electrical/chemical synapses in adult rat hippocampus on both principal cells and interneurons. Thin-section electron microscopic images of small gap junction-like appositions were found at mossy fiber (MF terminals on thorny excrescences of CA3 pyramidal neurons (CA3pyr, apparently forming glutamatergic mixed synapses. Lucifer Yellow injected into four weakly-fixed CA3pyr was detected in MF axons that contacted the injected CA3pyr, supporting gap junction-mediated coupling between those two types of principal cells. Freeze-fracture replica immunogold-labeling revealed diverse sizes and morphologies of connexin36-containing gap junctions throughout hippocampus. Of 20 immunogold-labeled gap junctions, seven were large (328-1140 connexons, three of which were consistent with electrical synapses between interneurons; but nine were at axon terminal synapses, three of which were immediately adjacent to distinctive glutamate receptor-containing postsynaptic densities, forming mixed glutamatergic synapses. Four others were adjacent to small clusters of immunogold-labeled 10-nm E-face intramembrane particles, apparently representing extrasynaptic glutamate receptor particles. Gap junctions also were on spines in stratum lucidum, stratum oriens, dentate gyrus, and hilus, on both interneurons and unidentified neurons. In addition, one putative GABAergic mixed synapse was found in thin section images of a CA3pyr, but none found by immunogold-labeling were at GABAergic mixed synapses, suggesting their rarity. Cx36-containing gap junctions throughout hippocampus suggest the possibility of reciprocal modulation of electrical and chemical signals in diverse

  15. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  16. Low-frequency stimulation induces a durable long-term depression in young adult hyperthyroid rats: the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein phosphatase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Burak; Bitiktaş, Soner; Kavraal, Şehrazat; Dursun, Nurcan; Dönmez Altuntaş, Hamiyet; Suer, Cem

    2016-06-15

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD) are cellular mechanisms of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. We have previously shown that adult hyperthyroid rats showed a delay in the acquisition of a place learning task and attenuated long-term potentiation. However, changes in LTD in hyperthyroidism remain unclear. Rats were administered 0.2 mg/kg/day of L-thyroxine for 21 days starting at postnatal day 40 to induce hyperthyroidism. LTD was induced in the dentate gyrus using low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the perforant pathway. The mRNA expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) were evaluated using a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. In control rats, a standard LFS protocol induced a slight depression of the population spike (PS) amplitude during the induction phase of LTD (76±13% vs. baseline), but a small potentiation of the PS amplitude was observed in the early (107±18%) and late (111±20%) phases of LTD. Interestingly, in the hyperthyroid rats, the same LFS protocol induced a reliable LTD in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as evidenced by a marked depression in the PS amplitude during the induction (54±6% vs. baseline) and the early phases (56±8%) of LTD. Elevated mRNA levels of p38-MAPK and PP1 were observed in the hippocampus of the LFS-treated hyperthyroid rats compared with the hippocampus of the vehicle-treated hyperthyroid rats. No significant change in p38-MAPK or PP1 mRNA expression was observed in the euthyroid rats. The present study shows that a standard LFS protocol can induce a durable depression of synaptic strength and an upregulation of PP1 and p38-MAPK mRNA in hyperthyroid rats. We conclude that hyperthyroidism can induce molecular changes associated with degeneration of the hippocampus. The relationship between the levels of thyroid hormone and dementia requires further investigation. PMID:27128724

  17. Effects of proBDNF on cell proliferation and differentiation in hippocampal dentate gyrus in Alzheimer' disease rat model%脑源性神经营养因子前体对阿尔茨海默病大鼠海马齿状回神经元增殖和分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志强; 李静; 邓娟; 蒋晓江; 周华东

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of proBDNF on cell proliferation and differentiation in hippocampal dentate gyrus in Alzheimer' disease (AD) rat model. Methods The AD rat model was established. Alzet osmotic minipumps were connected to fight hippocampus of AD rat and filled with pmBDNF, sheep antibody to proBDNF or normal sheep serum respectively. Rats received the injection for 14 days at the speed of 0. 5 μ/h. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg, ip) was injected twice daily for 14 days. BrdU immunohistochemistry was processed to determine the number of newly generated cells. To examine the phenotype of newly generated cells, immunofluorescent triple labeling was conducted to colocalize BrdU-positive cells with rabbit anti-doublecortine (DCX) or mouse anti-glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Results proBDNF group had fewer BrdU positive cells in dentate gyrus (P < 0. 01 ), while antiproBDNF group had more BrdU positive cells ( P < 0. 01 ) as compared with control group respectively.Immunofluoresent triple labeling showed that there was no phenotypicdifference of BrdU positive cells between each group. Conclusion proBDNF can suppress the proliferation of hippocampal neuron in dentate gyms in AD rats while antiproBDNF has the opposite effect. These findings suggest that promoting the hippocampal neurogenesis by blocking the functions of endogenous proBDNF may be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD.%目的 观察脑源性神经营养因子前体(pmBDNF)对阿尔茨海默病(AD)大鼠模型海马齿状回神经元增殖和分化的影响.方法 成功建立AD大鼠模型后,采用微量渗透泵连续14 d向右侧海马注射proBDNF、羊抗proBDNF抗体或正常羊血清,浓度均为1μg/μl,速度0.5μ/h,同时给予5-溴-2'-脱氧尿核苷(BrdU)50 ms/kg·体重腹腔注射,每日 2次,持续14 d.免疫组化染色并统计新生细胞数量;应用BrdU与微管相关蛋白Doublecortin抗体/抗胶质纤维酸性蛋白抗体免疫三标记法,鉴

  18. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  19. Postnatal changes in glucose transporter 3 expression in the dentate gyrus of the C57BL/6 mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yim, Hee Sun; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Chung, Jin Young; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dae Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we observed the ontogenetic changes in glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) immunoreactivity, a major neuronal GLUT, in the dentate gyrus of mouse brains at various ages: postnatal day (P) 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. At P1, cresyl violet staining showed abundant neurons in the dentate gyrus, whereas the granule cell layer was ill-defined. At P7, the granule cell layer was observed, and cresyl violet-positive cells were dispersed throughout the polymorphic layer. At P14, the granule cell layer was well-defined, and cresyl violet positive cells were detected abundantly in the polymorphic layer. At P28 and P56, cresyl violet-positive cells were observed in the granule cell layer, as well as in the polymorphic layer. At P1, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the dentate gyrus. At P7, GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were scattered in the polymorphic and molecular layer. However, at P14, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the polymorphic layer as well as subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. At P28, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. At P56, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were mainly colocalized with doublecortin, which is a marker for differentiated neuroblasts, in the polymorphic layer and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus at P14 and P56. These results suggest that the expression of GLUT3 is closely associated with postnatal development of the dentate gyrus and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27051437

  20. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  1. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  2. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  3. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  4. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  5. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  6. Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxe, Michael D.; Battaglia, Fortunato; Wang, Jing-wen; Malleret, Gael; David, Denis J.; Monckton, James E.; Garcia, A. Denise R.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Kandel, Eric R.; Santarelli, Luca; Hen, René; Drew, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Although hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in many adult mammals, the functional impact of this process on physiology and behavior remains unclear. In the present study, we used two independent methods to ablate hippocampal neurogenesis and found that each procedure caused a limited behavioral deficit and a loss of synaptic plasticity within the dentate gyrus. Specifically, focal X irradiation of the hippocampus or genetic ablation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural ...

  7. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore, we reported recently that epigenetic changes related to gene transcription are involved in memory formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we investigated epigenetic, gene expression and behavioral changes in 4-weeks voluntarily exercised rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exercised and control rats coped differently when exposed to a novel environment. Whereas the control rats explored the new cage for the complete 30-min period, exercised animals only did so during the first 15 min after which they returned to sleeping or resting behavior. Both groups of animals showed similar behavioral responses in the initial forced swim session. When re-tested 24 h later however the exercised rats showed significantly more immobility behavior and less struggling and swimming. If rats were killed at 2 h after novelty or the initial swim test, i.e. at the peak of histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction, then the exercised rats showed a significantly higher number of dentate granule neurons expressing the histone modifications and immediate-early gene induction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, irrespective of the behavioral response in the novel cage or initial forced swim session, the impact of the event at the dentate gyrus level was greater in exercised rats than in control animals. Furthermore, in view of our concept that the neuronal response in the dentate gyrus after forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercised rats of enhanced neuronal responses as well as higher immobility responses in the re-test are consistent with the reportedly improved cognitive performance in these animals. Thus, improved stress coping in exercised subjects seems to involve enhanced cognitive capabilities possibly resulting from

  8. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  9. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  10. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  11. Neurons of the dentate molecular layer in the rabbit hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Sancho-Bielsa

    Full Text Available The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus appears as the main entrance gate for information into the hippocampus, i.e., where the perforant path axons from the entorhinal cortex synapse onto the spines and dendrites of granule cells. A few dispersed neuronal somata appear intermingled in between and probably control the flow of information in this area. In rabbits, the number of neurons in the molecular layer increases in the first week of postnatal life and then stabilizes to appear permanent and heterogeneous over the individuals' life span, including old animals. By means of Golgi impregnations, NADPH histochemistry, immunocytochemical stainings and intracellular labelings (lucifer yellow and biocytin injections, eight neuronal morphological types have been detected in the molecular layer of developing adult and old rabbits. Six of them appear as interneurons displaying smooth dendrites and GABA immunoreactivity: those here called as globoid, vertical, small horizontal, large horizontal, inverted pyramidal and polymorphic. Additionally there are two GABA negative types: the sarmentous and ectopic granular neurons. The distribution of the somata and dendritic trees of these neurons shows preferences for a definite sublayer of the molecular layer: small horizontal, sarmentous and inverted pyramidal neurons are preferably found in the outer third of the molecular layer; vertical, globoid and polymorph neurons locate the intermediate third, while large horizontal and ectopic granular neurons occupy the inner third or the juxtagranular molecular layer. Our results reveal substantial differences in the morphology and electrophysiological behaviour between each neuronal archetype in the dentate molecular layer, allowing us to propose a new classification for this neural population.

  12. Hippocampal plasticity after a vagus nerve injury in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia Ronchi; Vitaly Ryu; ong ling; Krzysztof Czaja

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of the vagus nerve has been previously reported to promote neural plasticity and neurogenesis in the brain. Several studies also revealed plastic changes in the spinal cord after injuries to somatosensory nerves originating from both the brachial and lumbo-sacral plexuses. However, the neurogenic responses of the brain to the injury of the viscerosensory innervation are not as yet well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus respond to a chemical and physical damage to the vagus nerve in the adult rat. Intraperitoneal capsaicin administration was used to damage non-myelinated vagal afferents while subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was used to damage both the myelinated and non-myelinated vagal afferents. The 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation together with cell-specific markers was used to study neural proliferation in subgranular zone, granule cell layer, molecular layer and hilus of the dentate gyrus. Microglia activation was determined by quantifying changes in the intensity of fluorescent staining with a primary antibody against ionizing calcium adapter-binding molecule 1. Results revealed that vagotomy decreased BrdU incorporation in the hilus 15 days after injury compared to the capsaicin group. Capsaicin administration decreased BrdU incorporation in the granular cell layer 60 days after the treatment. Capsaicin decreased the number of doublecortin-expressing cells in the dentate gyrus, whereas vagotomy did not alter the expression of doublecortin in the hippocampus. Both the capsaicin- and the vagotomy-induced damage to the vagus nerve decreased microglia activation in the hippocampus at 15 days after the injury. At 30 days post injury, capsaicin-treated and vagotomized rats revealed significantly more activated microglia. Our findings show that damage to the subdiaphragmatic vagus in adult rats is followed by microglia activation and long-lasting changes in the dentate gyrus

  13. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 3H-WB 4101, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  14. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  15. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The

  16. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  17. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, J E; Ramsay, C. R.; Averley, P.; Bonetti, D.; Boyers, D.; L. Campbell; Chadwick, G.R.; Duncan, A; Elders, A.; Gouick, J.; Hall, A.F.; Heasman, L; Heasman, P.A.; Hodge, P.J.; C. Jones

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered ne...

  18. The effects of undernutrition on connectivity in the cerebellar cortex of adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, F; Warren, M. A.; Gumusburun, E

    1994-01-01

    The effects of a 30 d period of undernutrition, followed in some animals by nutritional rehabilitation, on neuronal connectivity in adult rat cerebellum were investigated using the disector method. There was no significant difference between well fed (719 +/- 74, mean +/- S.E.) and undernourished (709 +/- 53) synapse-to-neuron ratios in 134-d-old rat cerebellar cortex, nor was there a significant difference in synapse-to-neuron ratios between control animals (941 +/- 71) and previously undern...

  19. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  20. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Oboma, Yibala .I; Asuqwo E.E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26) adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6) and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal ...

  1. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  2. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol. PMID:23454116

  3. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  4. 胎次、性别对成年小鼠海马齿状回神经发生及学习记忆的影响%Effects of parity and gender on neurogenesis of hippocampal dentate gyrus and learning and memory ability in adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁艳平; 邵宝平; 董辉; 刘知东; 赵倩楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of parity and gender on neurogenesis of hippocampal dentate gyrus and the ability of learning and memory of adult mice.Methods Morris water maze test was used to assess the differences of learning and memory ability between the adult mice born in the first to third parities.The differences of neurogenesis were examined with BrdU-labeled hippocampual dentate gyrus of the adult mice.Results (1) The learning and memory ability (LMA) of mice born in the 2nd parity was significantly higher than that of the 1 st and 3rd parity (P < 0.05) in the same sex,that was LMA2 > LMA1 > LMA3.Besides,female mice had better learning and memory ability than the male mice,(P > 0.05).(2) The number of BrdU-positive hippocampal cells of the mice born in the 2nd parity was higher than that of the 1 st and 3rd parity in the same sex,but the difference was non-significant (P > 0.05),and BrdU-positive cells of the female mice was higher than that in the male mice,but also with a non-significant difference.Conclusions There are essential differences in the neurogenesis of hippocampal dentate gyrus and the learning and memory ability in adult mice of different gender and born in different parities.Therefore,it should be considered to use mice of the same gender and born at the same parity in relevant experimental studies.%目的 探讨胎次、性别是否对成年小鼠海马齿状回神经发生及学习记忆产生影响.方法 运用Morris水迷宫系统检测第1~3胎成年小鼠的学习记忆能力,腹腔注射BrdU,标记神经干细胞,检测不同胎次、性别小鼠海马齿状回中的神经发生的差异.结果 (1)在同性别、不同胎次成年小鼠间,第2胎的学习记忆能力(LMA)均显著地高于第1、3胎的,其影响规律为LMA2>LMA1>LMA3,且P<0.05;在同胎次、不同性别成年小鼠间,雌性小鼠的LMA均高于雄性小鼠的,但其差异无显著性(P>0.05).(2)在同性别、

  5. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  6. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  8. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  9. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  10. Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Chun; Rukstalis, J. Michael; Nishimura, Wataru; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Habener, Joel F.; Arun SHARMA; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The adult pancreas has considerable capacity to regenerate in response to injury. We hypothesized that after partial pancreatectomy (Px) in adult rats, pancreatic-duct cells serve as a source of regeneration by undergoing a reproducible dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. We support this hypothesis by the detection of an early loss of the ductal differentiation marker Hnf6 in the mature ducts, followed by the transient appearance of areas composed of proliferating ductules, called foci o...

  11. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Feng Tsai; Chia-Yuan Chang; Lung Yu; Yu-Min Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old) and adult (8-week-old) rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the a...

  12. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  14. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  15. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of GAD67-expressing, newborn granule cells in mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eCabezas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs have been suggested to synthesize both GABA and glutamate immediately after birth and under pathological conditions in the adult. Expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67 by GCs during the first few weeks of postnatal development may then allow for transient GABA synthesis and synaptic release from these cells. Here, using the GAD67-EGFP transgenic strain G42, we explored the phenotype of GAD67-expressing GCs in the mouse dentate gyrus. We report a transient, GAD67-driven EGFP expression in differentiating GCs throughout ontogenesis. EGFP expression correlates with the expression of GAD and molecular markers of GABA release and uptake in 2-4 weeks postmitotic GCs. These rather immature cells are able to fire action potentials and are synaptically integrated in the hippocampal network. Yet they show physiological properties that differentiate them from mature GCs. Finally, GAD67-expressing GCs express a specific complement of GABAA receptor subunits as well as distinctive features of synaptic and tonic GABA signaling. Our results reveal that GAD67 expression in dentate gyrus granule cells is a transient marker of late differentiation that persists throughout life and the G42 strain may be used to visualize newborn GCs at a specific, well-defined differentiation stage.

  17. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  18. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  19. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  20. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  1. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  2. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  3. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  4. Cochlear function in young and adult Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Groh, Daniel; Mazelová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 186, - (2003), s. 75-84. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/01/1063; GA MZd NK6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Fischer 344 rat Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2003

  5. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  6. Rapid and long-term induction of effector immediate early genes (BDNF, Neuritin and Arc) in peri-infarct cortex and dentate gyrus after ischemic injury in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Teilum, Maria; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    The genomic response following brain ischemia is very complex and involves activation of both protective and detrimental signaling pathways. Immediate early genes (IEGs) represent the first wave of gene expression following ischemia and are induced in extensive regions of the ischemic brain...... including cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neuritin and Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) belong to a subgroup of immediate early genes implicated in synaptic plasticity known as effector immediate early genes. Here, we investigated the...... at 0-6 h of reperfusion for Neuritin and 0-12 h of reperfusion for Arc while BDNF was induced 0-9 h of reperfusion. Our study demonstrates a rapid and long-term activation of effector immediate early genes in distinct brain areas following ischemic injury in rat. Effector gene activation may be part...

  7. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  8. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  9. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  10. Improved spatial learning and memory by perilla diet is correlated with immunoreactivities to neurofilament and α-synuclein in hilus of dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jinwoo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perilla (Perilla frutescens oil is very rich in α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. As it is widely reported that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves cognitive function in children and adults, feeding rats with perilla diets followed by analysis of proteomic changes in the hippocampus can provide valuable information on the mechanism of learning and memory at the molecular level. To identify proteins playing roles in learning and memory, differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus of the 5 week old rats fed perilla diets for 3 weeks or 3 months were identified by proteomic analysis and validated by immunological assays. Results The perilla diet groups showed improved spatial learning and memory performances in a T-maze test. They also displayed elevated level of 22:6n-3 fatty acid, an omega-3 fatty acid (p Conclusion Improved cognitive function upon administration of n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla diet is associated with the differential expression of hippocampal proteins related to cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, transport, neuro-projection, and apoptosis. Particularly, the enhanced immunoreactivities to α-synuclein and neurofilament in the hilus of dentate gyrus suggest that perilla diet supplementation promotes neuronal signaling and alters synaptic plasticity for improved learning and memory.

  11. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  12. Bupropion Attenuates Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Grant, Kathleen M.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2008-01-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphe...

  13. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Arterial blood architecture of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kqiku, Lumnije; Biblekaj, Robert; Weiglein, Andreas H.; Kqiku, Xhylsime; Städtler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To describe vascular anatomy of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens dissected from human cadavers. Methods Twenty dentate maxillary specimens were dissected, anatomically prepared, and injected with liquid latex for a better visualization of the maxillary sinus artery. Results We found an intraosseous anastomosis in 100% and an extraosseous anastomosis in 90% of the cases. The anterior lateral wall of the maxillary sinus was transversed by two anastomoses between the posterior superi...

  15. Maxillary sinus floor in edentulous and dentate patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba T; Langlais R; Morimoto Y; Tanaka T; Hashimoto K

    2001-01-01

    To compare the depth of the maxillary sinus floor on panoramic radiographs between the edentulous and dentate patients. Thirty panoramic radiographs of edentulous female patients and 47 panoramic radiographs of female dentate patients were used for the sample. To measure the depth of the maxillary sinus floor, the outline of the maxillary sinus on the panoramic radiograph was traced on transparent paper. An apparent difference in depth of the maxillary sinus floor was recognized only in compa...

  16. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  17. Radiation Sterilization of Green Tea Has No Effect on Its Beneficial Activity in Adult Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effects of drinking green tea (GT) extract (made from non-irradiated or irradiated GT leaves) on certain physiological and biochemical parameters in adult rats were measured. Rats (n = 10 per treatment group) drank either water or GT extract (hot water extract of GT leaves that were either non-irradiated or irradiated at 10, 20 or 30 kGy) ad libitum for 5 week duration of the test. Neither control nor- irradiated GT extract had any effect on body wt, total body wt gain or relative internal organs wt. Both control and irradiated GT extract had beneficial effects on total plasma lipids. Consumption of GT extract (made from leaves irradiated to doses of 0, 10, 20 or 30 kGy) lowered blood glucose level by 24.3 %, 25.7 %, 24.3 % and 24.1 % respectively, compared to the control group that received only water (glucose in water control groups 107 mg dl ). The corresponding values for blood cholesterol were reduced by 23.0 %, 22.6 %, 21.3 % and 21.3 %, respectively, compared to the water control group (= 115.17 mg dl-1). The present study indicates that consumption of GT extract, either control or irradiated, raised the high density lipoprotein cholesterol in adult rats and subsequently lowered the atherogenic index. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that consumption of GT extracts, from either control or irradiated GT leaves, beneficially affects the heart risk factors of disease in adult rats

  18. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  19. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohsen pour; M. Shariati; Esfandiari, A

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug tre...

  20. The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twenty eight days...

  1. Induction of abnormal oocyte division under the constant light in the young adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Fangxiong Shi

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of constant light on the ovary, 12 young adult female rats were exposed to constant light for 37 days and their estrous cycles were recorded by daily examination and the ovaries were examined histologically. The results showed that constant light induced in an abnormal and uncontrolled division of oocytes. In these divided-oocyte follicles (DOFs), two or more divided-oocytes shared one zona pellucida and usually floated freely in the follicular antrum. This fantastic phenomenon was discovered for the first time, and it was different from multioocyte follicles (MOFs) and polyovular follicles (POFs) founded in rats, humans, rabbits, mice and dogs.

  2. The histological effects of Annona Muricata (Soursop) on the Adrenal Gland of Adult Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the histological effects of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata on the adrenal gland of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats weighing between 180 – 210g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and received 0.3 ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C & D were orally administered 0.2 ml, 0.4 ml and 0.6 ml of ethanolic extract of Annona muricat...

  3. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  4. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  5. A Method to Isolate Viable Schwann Cells from Adult Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction Schwann cells (SCs) are the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, which play an important role for repairing nerve injuries and demyelination diseases. The ability to generate large numbers of viable SCs in a short period of time from adult peripheral nerves makes them potential candidates for the clinical application of cell transplantation to enhance remyelination in human demyelinating disease and repair nerve damage. Previously most methods to isolate SCs are not clinically accept...

  6. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  7. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  8. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood. PMID:27069006

  9. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  10. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  11. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T3), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals

  12. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  13. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure induces long-lasting learning impairment, less anxiety-like response and hippocampal injury in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kuo-Ching; Fan, Lir-Wan; Kaizaki, Asuka; Pang, Yi; Cai, Zhengwei; Tien, Lu-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Infection during early neonatal period has been shown to cause lasting neurological disabilities and is associated with the subsequent impairment in development of learning and memory ability and anxiety-related behavior in adults. We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in cognitive deficits in juvenile rats (P21); thus, the goal of the present study was to determine whether neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects in adult rats. After an LP...

  14. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  15. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  16. Retrograde Labeling of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells with the Flurogold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiHuang; YannianHui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the densities and distribution of retinal ganglion cells(RGC) in adult rat retinae with flurogold(FG) labeling retogradely.Methods:FG was injected to the superior colliculid(SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei(dLGN) in adult rats and the retinae were examined by fluorescence microscopy at various periods of time.Results:FG-labelled RGC were observed in the retina as early as 3 days after application of FG.The labeled cells gradually increased in density,reached 95% of the maximal number on days 7 and the maximal nuber on days 30.The density of labeled cells was higher in the posterior pole than in the peripheral area.The fluorescence intensity in labeled cells maintained up to 60 days.Conclusion:The FG retrograde labeling method is reliable and effective for quantity of RGC.Eye Science 2000;46:29-33.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporter EAAC1 in the brainstem of adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-xing; LIU Tao; ZHAO Jing-wei; LI Jin-lian; DONG Yu-lin; LI Ji-shuo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the distribution of EAAC1, a subtype of glutamate transporters, in the brainstem of adult rat. Methods: Immunocytochemical staining with avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method was employed. Results:EAAC1 was widely distributed throughout the brainstem. In many regions, the EAAC1-like immunoreactivity was primarily distributed in the neuropil. Cell body staining was observed in the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, external cortex of the inferior colliculus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, ventral tegmental nucleus, superior olivary complex, nucleus of the trapezoid body, cochlear nucleus, sensory trigeminal complex, Barrington's nucleus,trigeminal motor nucleus, parabrachial nuclei, dorsal nucleus of vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, locus coeruleus, lateral and superior vestibular nuclei, lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus. Conclusion: Glutamate transporter EAAC 1 is widely distributed throughout the brainstem of adult rat, which may play an important role in excitatory activities of the neurons induced by glutamate.

  18. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  19. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases excitability in the dentate gyrus: role of 5HT2A receptor-induced PGE2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stuart A; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2016-03-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused psychostimulant, which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA-treated rats, which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA-treated rats. We hypothesized that the widely abused psychostimulant MDMA causes a loss of parvalbumin (PV) cells and increases excitability in the dentate gyrus. MDMA increases serotonin (5HT) release and activates 5HT2A

  20. Chronic Effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate on Stereological Parameters of Testis in Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn recent years concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of male reproductive disorders from exposure to endocrine disruptors. So, chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate were studied on histological and stereological structure of testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and MethodsThirty two adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in four equal experiment groups; oil vehicle group and three treated groups which received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day di(2-ethylhexylphthalate by gavage for 90 days, respectively. At the end of exposure period the volume of testes was measured by Cavellieri method, testes weight was recorded and then fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5 µm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules, tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were estimated.ResultsThe results showed that mean weight and volume of testis were decreased significantly (35.2% and 23.9% respectively in rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP for 90 days. Seminiferous tubules diameter reduced, 4.4% and 13.4% in 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP-treated groups, respectively. Relative volumes of tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were increased significantly in 100 (P< 0.05 and 500 (P< 0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups. Also, testosterone serum levels were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. ConclusionPresent study indicated dose-dependent reductions of testicular parameters in adult male rats chronically exposed to di(2-ethylhexylphthalate.

  1. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  2. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shenouda, Sylvia K.; Varner, Kurt J.; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated administration of MDMA (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown; oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included: al...

  3. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-D...

  4. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    experimental groups receiving dexmedetomidine, while propofol administration was associated with increased systemic lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. A substantial difference in anaesthesia/surgery-induced neuroapoptosis was found between young and adult rats in several brain regions. Combination of...... one of four anaesthetics regimens: (i) sevoflurane/dexmedetomidine, (ii) sevoflurane/fentanyl; (iii) propofol/dexmedetomidine, and (iv) propofol/fentanyl. Animals underwent a dorsal skin flap procedure while physiologic, metabolic and biochemical parameters were closely monitored. Neuroapoptotic...

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of adult rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Hagg; Varon, S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for injured dopaminergic neurons of the adult rat substantia nigra compacta. Fourteen days after a unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal pathway two-thirds of the neurons (identified by retrograde labeling) had degenerated. In sharp contrast, 73% (a few cases, > 90%) of this cell loss was prevented by continuous infusion of CNTF close to the injured neurons. However, CNTF did not pre...

  6. Isolation of Enteric Ganglia from the Myenteric Plexus of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Christine B.

    1994-01-01

    Enteric neurons and glia cells were isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats. A procedure is described using a combination of microdissection and mechanical dissociation after enzyme treatment which yields large numbers of cell clusters suitable for tissue culture and grafting into the injured spinal cord. Differentiated enteric ganglia remained viable for at least 5 days in vitro Cultured neurons expressed histochemical reactivity for acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide...

  7. The intraglandular submandibular ganglion of postnatal and adult rats. I. A light and electron microscope study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. K.; Wong, W C; Ling, E A

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the intraglandular submandibular ganglion is described in both postnatal and adult rats. The ganglion is localised mainly at the hilum where the majority of the cell bodies are observed. Ganglia are also present in the intralobular septa of both the submandibular and the sublingual glands. Often they are found along the main salivary ducts with the larger ganglia being encapsulated by connective tissue. On electron microscopy, the submandibular ganglion cells show the usual f...

  8. Alteration of Forebrain Neurogenesis after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    OpenAIRE

    ValeryAMatarazzo; PatrickGauthier

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain), remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neuron...

  9. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  10. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  11. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  12. Effects of Neonatal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure on Cognitive, Emotional, and Motor Function in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A Forcelli; Kozlowski, Ryan; Snyder, Charles; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potent proapoptotic effect of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in developmental rodent models, little is known about the long-term impact of exposure during brain development. Clinically, this is of growing concern. To determine the behavioral consequences of such exposure, we examined phenobarbital, phenytoin, and lamotrigine for their effects on adult behaviors after administration to neonatal rats throughout the second postnatal week. AED treatment from postnatal days 7 to 13...

  13. Methylmercury chloride damage to the adult rat hippocampus cannot be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyan Lu; Jinwei Wu; Guangyuan Cheng; Jianying Tian; Zeqing Lu; Yongyi Bi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that methylmercury can damage hippocampal neurons and accord-ingly cause cognitive dysfunction. However, a non-invasive, safe and accurate detection method for detecting hippocampal injury has yet to be developed. This study aimed to detect methylmer-cury-induced damage on hippocampal tissue using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were given a subcutaneous injection of 4 and 2 mg/kg methylmercury into the neck for 50 consecutive days. Water maze and pathology tests confirmed that cognitive function had been impaired and that the ultrastructure of hippocampal tissue was altered after injection. The results of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-acetyl aspartate/creatine, choline complex/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratio in rat hippocampal tissue were unchanged. Therefore, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can not be used to determine structural damage in the adult rat hippocampus caused by methylmercury chloride.

  14. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  15. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  16. Effects of 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide on Peripubertal and Adult Sprague–Dawley Rats: Ovarian, Clinical, and Pathologic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, F Salih; Goode, Amanda K; Kock, Nancy D.; Arifin, Esther A; Cline, J. Mark; Adams, Michael R.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Christian, Patricia J.; Isom, Scott; Kaplan, Jay R.; Appt, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Young rats treated daily with intraperitoneal 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) undergo selective destruction of primordial follicles, resulting in gradual ovarian failure resembling the menopausal transition in women. To determine whether VCD has similar effects on ovaries of older rats, adult and peripubertal Sprague–Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally daily for 30 d with vehicle or VCD at 40 or 80 mg/kg. Body weight, food intake, complete blood counts, and markers of liver injury ...

  17. The neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL facilitates long-term plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallérac, Glenn; Zerwas, Meike; Novikova, Tatiana;

    2011-01-01

    beneficial impact on normal memory functioning, as well as to rescue some pathological cognitive impairments. Whether its facilitating impact may be mediated through promoting neuronal plasticity is not known. The present study was therefore designed to test whether FGL modulates the induction and...... maintenance of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) in vivo. For this, we first assessed the effect of the FGL peptide on synaptic functions at perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses in the anesthetized rat. FGL, or its control inactive peptide, was injected locally 60 min before applying high......-frequency stimulation (HFS) to the medial perforant path. The results suggest that although FGL did not alter basal synaptic transmission, it facilitated both the induction and maintenance of LTP. Interestingly, FGL also modified the heterosynaptic plasticity observed at the neighboring lateral perforant path synapses...

  18. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  19. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  20. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0.25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05 basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  1. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  2. GABA(A) receptor density is altered by cannabinoid treatment in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Dalton, Victoria Stephanie; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-09-10

    Cannabinoids are known to induce transient psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in healthy individuals and contribute to trigger schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals, particularly during adolescence. Converging preclinical evidence suggests important interactions between cannabinoid and GABAergic systems. In the present study, we compared the effects of cannabinoid treatment on GABA(A) receptor binding in the brain of adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (5 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) rats were treated with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg/day) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and GABA(A) receptor density was measured in several brain regions using [(35)S]TBPS and in vitro autoradiography. Adolescent rats had higher numbers of GABA(A) receptors compared to adults. A 24% increase of binding in adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 14 days compared to controls was observed in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (16.1 versus 12.9 fmol/mg tissue equivalent, t=2.720, pHU210 did not affect GABA(A) receptors in adolescent rats in any treatment regimen and in adult rats treated with HU210 for 1 or 4 days. These data suggest that long-term, high-dose treatment with HU210 increases GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of adult rats, changes that may interfere with associated hippocampal cognitive functions such as learning and memory. In addition, our results suggest that the adolescent brain does not display the same compensatory mechanisms that are activated in the adult brain following cannabinoid treatment. PMID:20599838

  3. Suspension of Mitotic Activity in Dentate Gyrus of the Hibernating Ground Squirrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Popov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4–6°C permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  4. Differential expression of TRPM7 in rat hepatoma and embryonic and adult hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D Hung; Grant, Caroline E; Hill, Ceredwyn E

    2012-04-01

    TRPM7 channels are implicated in cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, a profile of TRPM7 activity in a specific cell type has not been determined from embryonic to terminally differentiated state. Here, we characterized TRPM7 expression in a spectrum of rat liver cells at different developmental stages. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, TRPM7-like Na(+) currents were identified in RLC-18 cells, a differentiated, proliferating hepatocellular line derived from day 17 embryonic rat liver. Currents were outwardly rectifying, enhanced in divalent-free solutions, and inhibited by intracellular Mg(2+). Reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that RLC-18 cells express both TRPM6 and TRPM7. However, mean currents were reduced almost 80% by 1 mmol/L 2-aminoethoxyphenylborate (2-APB) and were abolished in RLC-18 cells heterologously expressing a dominant negative TRPM7 construct, suggesting that TRPM7 is the major current carrier in these cells. Functional comparison showed that relative to terminally differentiated adult rat hepatocytes, currents were 1.8 and 3.9 times higher in, respectively, RLC-18 and WIF-B cells, a rat hepatoma - human fibroblast cross. Our results demonstrate that plasma membrane TRPM7 channels are more highly expressed in proliferating cells as compared with terminally differentiated and nondividing rat hepatocytes and suggest that downregulation of this channel is associated with hepatocellular differentiation. PMID:22429021

  5. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  6. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  7. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (pinfrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  8. Influence of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 殷德振; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 程志安; 杨睿; 黄霖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in adult rats.Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into experimental and control groups, each group having 12 rats. The spinal cord injury was established by transecting the spinal cord at T10 level with microsurgery scissors.OECs were purified from SD rat olfactory bulb and cultured in DMEM ( Dulbecco's minimum essential medium) and cryopreserved (-120℃) for two weeks.OECs suspension[(1-1.4)×105/ul] was transplanted into transected spinal cord, while the DMEM solution was injected instead in the control group. At 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation, the rats were evaluated with climbing test and MEP ( moter evoked potentials) monitoring. The samples of spinal cord were procured and studied with histological and immunohisto chemical stainings.Results: At 6 weeks after transplantation, all of the rats in both transplanted and control groups were paraplegic, and MEPs could not be recorded. Morphology of transplanted OECs was normal, and OECs were interfused with host well. Axons could regrow into gap tissue between the spinal cords. Both OECs and regrown axons were immunoreactive for MBP. No regrown axons were found in the control group. At 12 weeks after transplantation, 2 rats (2/7) had lower extremities muscle contraction, 2 rats (2/7) had hip and/or knee active movement, and MEP of 5 rats (5/7) could be recorded in the calf in the transplantation group. None of the rats (7/ 7) in the control group had functional improvement, and none had MEPs recorded. In the transplanted group,histological and immunohistochemical methods showed the number of transplanted OECs reduced and some regrown axons had reached the end of transected spinal cord.However, no regrown axons could be seen except scar formation in the control group.Conclusions: Cryopreserved OECs could integrated with the host and

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  10. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

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    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  11. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

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    Seiichiro Jinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the “dormant basket cell” and the “irritable mossy cell” hypotheses. The “dormant basket cell” hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The “irritable mossy cell” hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  12. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

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    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  13. Prevention by Regular Exercise of Acute Sleep Deprivation-Induced Impairment of Late Phase LTP and Related Signaling Molecules in the Dentate Gyrus.

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    Zagaar, Munder A; Dao, An T; Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2016-07-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus are intimately related physically and functionally, yet they react differently to insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of regular treadmill exercise on late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the DG region of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats ran on treadmills for 4 weeks then were acutely sleep deprived for 24 h using the modified multiple platform method. After sleep deprivation, the rats were anesthetized and L-LTP was induced in the DG region. Extracellular field potentials from the DG were recorded in vivo, and levels of L-LTP-related signaling proteins were assessed both before and after L-LTP expression using immunoblot analysis. Sleep deprivation reduced the basal levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) as well as other upstream modulators including calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the DG of the hippocampus. Regular exercise prevented impairment of the basal levels of P-CREB and total CREB as well as those of CaMKIV in sleep-deprived animals. Furthermore, regular exercise prevented sleep deprivation-induced inhibition of L-LTP and post-L-LTP downregulation of P-CREB and BDNF levels in the DG. The current findings show that our exercise regimen prevents sleep deprivation-induced deficits in L-LTP as well as the basal and poststimulation levels of key signaling molecules. PMID:25902862

  14. Effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbuminand Calretinin in adult female rat offspring%孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin和Calretinin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍校琼; 王岐本; 蔡维君; 罗明英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白阳性神经元表达的影响。方法6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组)和对照组(CON组)。PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组不给予孕期应激。子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代随机分别又分为PS-S组,PS-NS组,CON-S组和CON-NS组(n均=6)。PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应激和冰水应激。动物在接受应激后均给与水和酒精喂养,用Western blot检测海马钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin(PV)和Calretinin(CR)蛋白的表达,进一步结合共聚焦免疫荧光组织化学方法检测PV和CR在海马CA1、CA3区和齿状回(dentate gyrus, DG)的表达。结果与CON-NS组相比,海马区PV和CR的蛋白表达在CON-S,PS-NS和PS-S组下降,以PS-S组表达最低。PV在海马CA1、CA3区和DG的免疫荧光结果与PV的蛋白表达呈一致性,免疫阳性细胞明显减少;而CR的表达除了在海马CA1区的PS-NS组略有升高外,在其余各组的表达均较减少。与CON-NS组相比,PV和CR在其它各组的蛋白表达和免疫阳性细胞计数差异有统计学意义,其中以PS-S组的表达降低最为有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论孕期应激可影响子代雌鼠成年后海马结构钙结合蛋白PV和CR的表达。%Objective To observe the effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbumin(PV) and Calretinin(CR)in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into a prenatal stress (PS) group and a control group (CON). Rats in PS group were subjected to restraint stress during the late gestational periods, while rats in the control group were not given prenatal stress. The adult female offspring were randomly divided into PS plus stress group (PS-S) and PS without stress group (PS-NS), CON plus stress group (CON-S) and CON plus no stress group (CON-NS). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to

  15. Application of Luxol Fast Blue staining in locating the corticospinal tract in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Guangming Lü; Xiaosong Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for myelin staining,mordant,or the special reaction of osmic acid with lipoid is used according to different principles.The commonly used methods are classic Well staining ,classic lithium carbonate-haematine staining,fast green staining,silver staining ,etc.Luxol Fast Blue can brightly stain myelin sheath,and has certain specificity .The background can be very clean if there is proper differentiation,whereas Luxol Fast Blue is cheap and convenient to operate,thus it is an ideal staining reagent for routine myelin sheath.OBJECTIVE: To show the coricospinal tract of normal adult rats with Luxol Fast Blue shaining method.DESIGN:A repetitive measurement design.SETTINGS: Institute of Nuerobiology,Nantong University;Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.MATERIALS: Six healthy adult male SD rats of clean dergree,weighing averagely 300 g.were provided by the experimental animal center of Nantong University.1 g/L Luxol Fast Blue solution was provided by Sigma Company;Leica CM1900 cryostat microtome by Leica Company;Leica DMR microscope by Leica Company.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Staff Room of Human Anatomy,Nantong University in May 2005.The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of combined anesthetic(2 mL/kg),then the chest was open for perfusing saline and phosphate buffer containing formamint via heart. Brain and spinal cord were removed after 1 hour then fixed,then changed to phosphate buffer(pH 7.4)containing 300 g/L saccharu at 4 ℃.and stayed overnight,tissue blocks at pyramid,decussation of pyramid and cervical,thoracic,lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord were removed to prepare continuous horizontal frozen sections(30 μm) after sedimentation,the sections were dried at room temperature.The corticospinal tract of normal adult rats were shown with Luxol Fast Blue staining method,and observed under Leica DMR microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Positive fibers in

  16. Mature granule cells of the dentate gyrus-Passive bystanders or principal performers in hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey; Kreutz, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    The dentate gyrus is the main entrance of highly processed information to the hippocampus which derives from associative cortices and it is one of the few privileged areas in the brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. This creates the unique situation that neurons of diverse maturation stages are part of one neuronal network at any given point in life. While recently adult-born cells have a low induction threshold for long-term potentiation several studies suggest that following maturation granule cells are poorly excitable and they exhibit reduced Hebbian synaptic plasticity to an extent that it was even suggested that they functionally retire. Here, we review the functional properties of mature granule cells and discuss how plasticity of intrinsic excitability and alterations in excitation-inhibition balance might impact on their role in hippocampal information processing. PMID:26949226

  17. Perinatal asphyxia reduces dentate granule cells and exacerbates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood.

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    Tomoyasu Wakuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications have been regarded as a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life. One of the mechanisms underlying the association is postulated to be a hypoxic process in the brain in the offspring around the time of birth. Hippocampus is one of the brain regions implicated in the late-onset dopaminergic dysfunction associated with hypoxic obstetric complications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an animal model of perinatal asphyxia, in which rat pups were exposed to 15 min of intrauterine anoxia during Cesarean section birth. At 6 and 12 weeks after birth, the behavior of the pups was assessed using a methamphetamine-induced locomotion test. In addition, the histopathology of the hippocampus was examined by means of stereology. At 6 weeks, there was no change in the methamphetamine-induced locomotion. However, at 12 weeks of age, we found an elevation in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, which was associated with an increase of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. At the same age, we also found a reduction of the dentate granule cells of the hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the dopaminergic dysregulation after perinatal asphyxia is associated with a reduction in hippocampal dentate granule cells, and this may partly contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  18. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  19. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  20. Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats

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    Alireza Sarkaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia (CHI is a neurological disease where impaired hippocampus electrical activity and cognition caused by a serial pathophysiological events. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of grape seed extract (GSE on passive avoidance memory and long-term potentiation (LTP after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO in male adult rats.   Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: 1 Sham+Veh, 2 Isch+Veh, 3 Sham+GSE, 4 Isch+GSE. In order to make 2CCAO as an animal model of CHI, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. To evaluation of passive avoidance memory, step-down latency (STL was measured and LTP was recorded from hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG after high frequency stimulation (HFS in all rats. Results: We found that memory was significantly impaired in rats after CHI (P

  1. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT RAT HIPPOCAMPUS BUT DOES NOT IMPAIR SPATIAL LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has long been heralded that the mature brain does not generate new neurons, it only loses them as a function of injury, disease and age. An exciting recent finding in neuroscience has been that the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus has the distinctive property of ...

  2. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  3. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  4. a-Band Oscillations in Intracellular Membrane Potentials of Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Awake Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross W.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus and dentate gyrus play critical roles in processing declarative memories and spatial information. Dentate granule cells, the first relay in the trisynaptic circuit through the hippocampus, exhibit low spontaneous firing rates even during locomotion. Using intracellular recordings from dentate neurons in awake mice operating a…

  5. Thymoquinone supplementation ameliorates lead-induced testis function impairment in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    This study was realized to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active component of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against lead (Pb)-induced inhibition of rat testicular functions. Adult rats were randomized into four groups: a control group receiving no treatment; a Pb group exposed to 2000 parts per million (ppm) of Pb acetate in drinking water; a Pb-TQ group co-treated with Pb (as in Pb group) plus TQ (5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day, per orally (p.o.)); and a TQ group receiving TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). All treatments were for 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed for the body weight gain or for relative testes weight among the four groups of animals. Testicular Pb content significantly increased in metal-intoxicated rats compared with that in control rats. TQ supplementation had no effect on this testicular Pb accumulation. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the low plasma testosterone level and the decreased epididymal sperm count caused by Pb. In conclusion, the results suggest, for the first time, that TQ protects against Pb-induced impairment of testicular steroidogenic and spermatogenic functions. This study will open new perspectives for the clinical use of TQ in Pb intoxication. PMID:25216800

  6. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  7. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  8. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  9. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  10. BDNF-induced LTP is associated with rapid Arc/Arg3.1-dependent enhancement in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Sjoukje D; Trentani, Andrea; Tiron, Adrian; Mao, Xiaosong; Kuhl, Dietmar; Bramham, Clive R

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a remarkable phenomenon involved in various aspects of learning and memory as well as disease pathophysiology. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents a major player in the regulation of this unique form of neuroplasticity, yet the mechanisms underlying its pro-neurogenic actions remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects associated with brief (25 min), unilateral infusion of BDNF in the rat dentate gyrus. Acute BDNF infusion induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of medial perforant path-evoked synaptic transmission and, concomitantly, enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis bilaterally, reflected by increased dentate gyrus BrdU + cell numbers. Importantly, inhibition of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) translation through local, unilateral infusion of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ArcAS) prior to BDNF infusion blocked both BDNF-LTP induction and the associated pro-neurogenic effects. Notably, basal rates of proliferation and newborn cell survival were unaltered in homozygous Arc/Arg3.1 knockout mice. Taken together these findings link the pro-neurogenic effects of acute BDNF infusion to induction of Arc/Arg3.1-dependent LTP in the adult rodent dentate gyrus. PMID:26888068

  11. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  12. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  13. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  15. Contribution of constitutively proliferating precursor cell subtypes to dentate neurogenesis after cortical infarcts

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    Oberland Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion. Results Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14. These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct. Conclusions Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.

  16. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

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    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  17. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory. PMID:26348792

  18. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  19. Transient and persistent expression of NT-3/HDNF mRNA in the rat brain during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, W J; Ernfors, P; Persson, H

    1991-06-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is closely related to two known neurotrophic agents, NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and acts upon overlapping, yet distinct, populations of peripheral ganglia. NT-3 mRNA expression in the adult rat brain is largely confined to the hippocampus. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine expression of this novel neurotrophic factor during postnatal development. The striking observation was made that NT-3 mRNA was transiently expressed at high levels in the cingulate cortex during the first 2 weeks of age. In the hippocampus, the adult pattern of expression, in the CA2, medial CA1, and granule layer of the dentate gyrus, was detected at all ages examined. However, there were two major differences in NT-3 mRNA expression in the developing hippocampus: Labeled cells were detected in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 1 (P1) and 1 week that were absent by 2 weeks of age. Further, the caudal hippocampus, which has a lower intensity of labeling than the rostral region in the adult, was devoid of NT-3-expressing cells in the P1 and 1-week-old rat brain. These data indicate a substantial plasticity in NT-3 mRNA expression and suggest that the spectrum of neurons supported by NT-3 during development is partially different from that in the mature rat brain. PMID:2045877

  20. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  1. Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex of mice: effects of deprived rearing and voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils. PMID:20508828

  2. Synaptic Remodeling in the Dentate Gyrus, CA3, CA1, Subiculum, and Entorhinal Cortex of Mice: Effects of Deprived Rearing and Voluntary Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. U. Schaefers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus. We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus. We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  3. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-04-26

    Neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain in three areas: Subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG); subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle; olfactory bulb. Different molecular markers can be used to characterize the cells involved in adult neurogenesis. It has been recently suggested that a population of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells may migrate to the brain and differentiate into neuronal lineage. To explore this hypothesis, we injected recombinant SV40-derived vectors into the BM and followed the potential migration of the transduced cells. Long-term BM-directed gene transfer using recombinant SV40-derived vectors leads to expression of the genes delivered to the BM firstly in circulating cells, then after several months in mature neurons and microglial cells, and thus without central nervous system (CNS) lesion. Most of transgene-expressing cells expressed NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Thus, BM-derived cells may function as progenitors of CNS cells in adult animals. The mechanism by which the cells from the BM come to be neurons remains to be determined. Although the observed gradual increase in transgene-expressing neurons over 16 mo suggests that the pathway involved differentiation of BM-resident cells into neurons, cell fusion as the principal route cannot be totally ruled out. Additional studies using similar viral vectors showed that BM-derived progenitor cells migrating in the CNS express markers of neuronal precursors or immature neurons. Transgene-positive cells were found in the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus 16 mo after intramarrow injection of the vector. In addition to cells expressing markers of mature neurons, transgene-positive cells were also positive for nestin and doublecortin, molecules expressed by developing neuronal cells. These cells were actively proliferating, as shown by short term BrdU incorporation studies. Inducing seizures by using kainic acid increased the number of BM progenitor cells

  4. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  5. Measurement of Ca channel activity of isolated adult rat heart cells using 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated adult rat heart cells incubated with 5 microM Mn in a medium with 1 mM Ca showed a rapid phase of Mn binding plus a slow phase of Mn uptake. The rapid phase was extracellular binding, as judged by its temperature-insensitive removal by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetic acid. The slow linear phase represented cellular uptake, as judged by its release with digitonin plus the ionophore A23187. Isoproterenol increased the linear rate of Mn uptake and induced spontaneous beating activity in some cells. Both effects were inhibited by nitrendipine. Electrical stimulation of the cells in suspension increased the linear rate of cellular Mn uptake. The increase was potentiated by isoproterenol, and inhibited by nitrendipine or verapamil. Stimulation-dependent Mn uptake (per milligram protein) was greater for cells from 5- to 6-week-old rats than for 8- to 9-month-old female retired breeder rats, in the presence of isoproterenol. Ryanodine increased the stimulation-dependent Mn uptake in the presence of isoproterenol, but not in its absence. We conclude: (i) that cellular uptake of 54Mn is a good probe of Ca channel function; (ii) that isoproterenol promotes Mn influx by the channel in isolated heart cells; (iii) that cells from young rats (5-6 weeks) have a higher beta-adrenergically induced Ca channel activity than cells from mature rats (8-9 months); and (iv) that ryanodine promotes Ca channel activity (perhaps indirectly) in the presence of isoproterenol

  6. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  7. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

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    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  8. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  9. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retrograde cell reaction after facial nerve crush in young adults rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W.H.; Ulenkate, H.J.L.M.; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. We examined whether it also exerts a strong effect on retrograde axonal reaction in young adult rats when administered subcutaneously. The dose was 1 mg/kg body weight, three times a week, similar to that used in a previous experiment in which CNTF was reported to have an effect. We studied changes in the morphology of the motor nerve cell bodie...

  10. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

  11. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  12. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  13. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orli Yarom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  14. Special function of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuhong; Guo, Kaihua; Li, Dongpei; Yuan, Qunfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+ neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+ neurons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+ neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+ neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximate...

  15. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  16. Radioautographic characterization of a serotonin-accumulating nerve cell group in adult rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensely labeled nerve cell bodies were identified by radioautography within the pars ventralis of nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami (hdv), following intraventricular perfusion with 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated serotonin [3H]5-HT in adult rats pretreated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This selective reaction, which involved approximately 1000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, was unaltered by concomitant administration of 10-3 M non-radioactive norepinephrine, and was absent after intraventricular injection of 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated norepinephrine. The 3H-labeled 5-HT nerve cell bodies were loosely grouped within the inner and caudal half of the hdv, and appeared morphologically similar to the unreactive neurons among which they were interspersed. Within the same region, numerous labeled axonal varicosities were also detected which were never found in synaptic contact with the reactive cells. If the 3H-labeled 5-HT neurons endogenous 5-HT, they might constitute an intrinsic source of 5-HT innervation in the adult rat hypothalamus. (Auth.)

  17. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26416672

  18. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  19. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways. PMID:27296518

  20. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  1. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akane, Hirotoshi [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Shiraki, Ayako [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Itahashi, Megu [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Murakami, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Veterinary Toxicology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc{sup +} neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos{sup +} neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues

  2. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc+ neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos+ neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues decreased

  3. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  5. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  7. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:23683528

  8. Prenatal Rosiglitazone Administration to Neonatal Rat Pups Does Not Alter the Adult Metabolic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatally administered rosiglitazone (RGZ is effective in enhancing lung maturity; however, its long-term safety remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of prenatally administered RGZ on the metabolic phenotype of adult rats. Methods. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were administered either placebo or RGZ at embryonic days 18 and 19. Between 12 and 20 weeks of age, the rats underwent glucose and insulin tolerance tests and de novo fatty acid synthesis assays. The lungs, liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue were processed by Western hybridization for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP, and surfactant proteins B (SPB and C (SPC. Plasma was assayed for triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, and troponin-I levels. Lungs were also morphometrically analyzed. Results. Insulin and glucose challenges, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and all serum assays revealed no differences among all groups. Western hybridization for PPARγ, ADRP, SPB, and SPC in lung, liver, muscle, and fat tissue showed equal levels. Histologic analyses showed a similar number of alveoli and septal thickness in all experimental groups. Conclusions. When administered prenatally, RGZ does not affect long-term fetal programming and may be safe for enhancing fetal lung maturation.

  9. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  10. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 μg/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  11. Differential Mechanisms of Ang (1-7)-Mediated Vasodepressor Effect in Adult and Aged Candesartan-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, E S; K. M. Denton; Widdop, R. E.; Bosnyak, S.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R). However, the role of vascular AT2R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinati...

  12. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100.......3% lower), this difference was not found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, a combination of PHA and AKG treatment (AKG+PHA 100%) stimulates proliferation of GI-tract crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness cf. that of Control rats, findings that would be of benefit to the elderly and to...

  13. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  14. Hormone responsiveness of cultured Sertoli cells obtained from adult rats after their rapid isolation under less harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M; Bhattacharya, I; Devi, Y S; Arya, S P; Majumdar, S S

    2016-05-01

    During adulthood, testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) coordinate all stages of germ cell (Gc) development involved in sperm production. However, our understanding about the functions of adult Sc is limited because of the difficulties involved in the process of isolating these cells from the adult testis, mainly because of the presence of large number of advanced Gc which interfere with Sc isolation at this age. Most of our knowledge about Sc function are derived from studies which used pre-pubertal rat Sc (18 ± 2-day old) as it is easy to isolate and culture Sc at this age. To this end, we established a less time consuming and less harsh procedure of isolating Sc from adult (60 days of age) rat testis for facilitating research on Sc-mediated regulation of spermatogenesis during adulthood. The cells were isolated using collagenase digestion at higher temperature, reducing the exposure time of cells to the enzyme. Step-wise digestion with intermittent removal of small clusters of tissue helped in increasing the yield of Sc. Isolated Sc were cultured and treated with FSH and testosterone (T) to evaluate their hormone responsiveness in terms of lactate, E2 , cAMP production. Adult Sc were found to be active and produced high amounts of lactate in a FSH-independent manner. FSH-mediated augmentation of cAMP and E2 production by adult Sc was less as compared with that by pre-pubertal Sc obtained from 18-day-old rats. Androgen-binding ability of adult Sc was significantly higher than pre-pubertal Sc. Although T treatment remarkably augmented expression of Claudin 11, it failed to augment lactate production by adult Sc. This efficient and rapid procedure for isolation and culture of functionally viable adult rat Sertoli cells may pave the way for determining their role in regulation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26991307

  15. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  16. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood. PMID:26620193

  17. Transplanted Dentate Progenitor Cells Show Increased Survival in an Enriched Environment But Do Not Exert a Neurotrophic Effect on Spatial Memory Within 2 Weeks of Engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Amanda L; Walker, Tara L; Waber Nguyen, Amanda J; Berman, Robert F; Kempermann, Gerd; Waldau, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin D2 knockout mice show decreased levels of endogenous dentate neurogenesis. We investigated whether transplanted dentate progenitor cells from wild-type mice respond in vivo to an enriched environment and whether they improve deficient dentate neurogenesis through a neurotrophic effect. Adult cyclin D2 knockout mice were transplanted with passaged adult progenitor cells and kept in an enriched environment or under standard housing conditions in isolation. After 1 week, animals living in an enriched environment underwent water maze testing. Progenitor cells grown on a laminin/poly-d-lysine monolayer expressed Sox2 and nestin and could be differentiated in vitro into neurons and astrocytes. After transplantation into the dentate gyrus, cells preferentially survived along the laminin-rich ependymal lining of the basal cistern or basal membrane of capillaries. A subpopulation of transplanted cells migrated into the interstitial space of the hippocampus and was not associated with laminin. Environmental enrichment led to a significant increase in the survival of transplanted progenitor cells on laminin in the dentate gyrus after 2 weeks. However, animals did not show an enhanced performance in the Morris water maze, and transplantation failed to exert a neurotrophic effect on endogenous neurogenesis after 2 weeks. However, a major limitation of the study is the short-term period of investigation, which may have been insufficient to capture functional effects. In conclusion, initial survival of transplanted neural progenitor cells was dependent on the presence of laminin and was significantly enhanced by environmental enrichment. Further studies are needed to address whether an enriched environment continues to promote graft survival over longer periods of time. PMID:25621922

  18. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

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    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  19. Inhibition of injury-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus impairs spontaneous cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Daniels, Teresa E; Rolfe, Andrew; Waters, Michael; Hamm, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Neurogenesis persists throughout life in the neurogenic regions of the mature mammalian brain, and this response is enhanced after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the hippocampus, adult neurogenesis plays an important role in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory functions and is thought to contribute to the spontaneous cognitive recovery observed after TBI. Utilizing an antimitotic agent, arabinofuranosyl cytidine (Ara-C), the current study investigated the direct association of injury-induced hippocampal neurogenesis with cognitive recovery. In this study, adult rats received a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury followed by a 7-day intraventricular infusion of 2% Ara-C or vehicle. To examine the effect of Ara-C on cell proliferation, animals received intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), to label dividing cells, and were sacrificed at 7 days after injury. Brain sections were immunostained for BrdU or doublecortin (DCX), and the total number of BrdU(+) or DCX(+) cells in the hippocampus was quantified. To examine the outcome of inhibiting the injury-induced cell proliferative response on cognitive recovery, animals were assessed on Morris water maze (MWM) tasks at 21-25 or 56-60 days postinjury. We found that a 7-day infusion of Ara-C significantly reduced the total number of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) in both hemispheres. Moreover, inhibition of the injury-induced cell proliferative response in the DG completely abolished the innate cognitive recovery on MWM performance at 56-60 days postinjury. These results support the causal relationship of injury-induced hippocampal neurogenesis on cognitive functional recovery and suggest the importance of this endogenous repair mechanism on restoration of hippocampal function. PMID:25242459

  20. Parenteral magnesium load testing with 28Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency

  1. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring. PMID:26224008

  2. Neurons of the Dentate Molecular Layer in the Rabbit Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho-Bielsa, Francisco J.; Navarro-López, Juan D.; Gregori Alonso-Llosa; Asunción Molowny; Xavier Ponsoda; Javier Yajeya; Carlos López-García

    2012-01-01

    The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus appears as the main entrance gate for information into the hippocampus, i.e., where the perforant path axons from the entorhinal cortex synapse onto the spines and dendrites of granule cells. A few dispersed neuronal somata appear intermingled in between and probably control the flow of information in this area. In rabbits, the number of neurons in the molecular layer increases in the first week of postnatal life and then stabilizes to appear permanent...

  3. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  4. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  5. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

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    Helen E Scharfman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuitry of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the dentate gyrus, and the so-called ‘mossy cells.’ The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease.

  6. Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...

  7. PRENATAL COCAINE ELIMINATES THE SEX-DEPENDENT DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVATION OBSERVED IN ADULT RATS AFTER COCAINE CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the adult rat, acute administration of cocaine results in enhanced expression of certain behaviors. his activation is often referred to as "stereotypy" because of its repetitive nature. epeated exposure to the same dose of cocaine does not result in tolerance or a diminution o...

  8. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE. 1. THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGION OF JUVENILE AND ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques were devised to isolate tissue from the epithelium of terminal airways and the alveoli proximal to the airways. One day old juveniles and six week old adult rats were exposed to either room air or 0.5 ppm NO2 for 23 hrs per day seven days per week. An additional group ...

  9. ALKYLTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of ATPase activities by triethyltin (TET), diethyltin (DET), monoethyltin (MET) and trimethyltin (TMT) was studied in homogenates of brain and liver from adult rats. MET did not produce significant inhibition. ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates from TET-t...

  10. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  11. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Duarte-Guterman; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Carmen Chow; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized ad...

  12. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Ch. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: meinecke@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain research, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Institute for Experimental Physics II, Faculty for Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 {mu}m thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 {mu}m) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques.

  13. Cellular distribution and localisation of iron in adult rat brain (substantia nigra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron appears to be one of the main factors in the metal induced neurodegeneration. Quantitative information on cellular, sub-cellular and cell specific distributions of iron is therefore important to assess. The investigations reported here were carried out on a brain from an adult rat. Therefore, 6 μm thick embedded, unstained brain sections containing the midbrain (substantia nigra, SN) were analysed. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a focussed proton beam (beam - diameter app. 1 μm) was performed to determine the quantitative iron content on a cellular and sub-cellular level. The integral analysis shows that the iron content in the SN pars reticulata is twice as high than in the SN pars compacta. The analysis of the iron content on the cellular level revealed no remarkable differences between glia cells and neurons. This is in contrast to other studies using staining techniques

  14. Dispase rapidly and effectively purifies Schwann cells from newborn mice and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxue Zhu; Jinbao Qin; Zunli Shen; James D. Kretlow; Xiaopan Wang; Zhangyin Liu; Yuqing Jin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerve of neonatal mice and purified using dispase and collagenase. Results showed that after the first round of purification with dispase, most of the Schwann cells appeared round in shape and floated in culture solution after 15 minutes. In addition, cell yield and cell purity were higher when compared to the collagenase group. After the second round of purification, the final cell yield for the dispase group was higher than that for the collagenase group, but no significant difference was found in cell purity. Moreover, similar results in cell quantity and purity were observed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. These findings indicate that purification with dispase can result in the rapid isolation of Schwann cells with a high yield and purity.

  15. Roles of mitochondria and temperature in the control of intracellular calcium in adult rat sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, S. H.; Carl, A; McHugh, J.M.; Goff, H.R.; Kenyon, J L

    2007-01-01

    We recorded Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 20 and 30 °C. In neurons bathed in tetraethylammonium and dialyzed with cesium, warming reduced resting average [Ca2+]i from 87 to 49 nM and the time constant of the decay of [Ca2+]i transients (τr) from 1.3 s to 0.99 s (Q10 = 1.4). The Buffer Index, the ratio between Ca2+ influx and Δ[Ca2+]i (∫ICa·dt/Δ[Ca2+]i), increased 2- to 3-fold with warming. Neither inhibition of the pl...

  16. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine processing in the cerebellum: Autoradiographic studies in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well confirmed evidence has demonstrated that the cerebellum is an important target of thyroid hormone action during development. Moreover, the presence of nuclear receptors and strong 5'-deiodinase activity in cerebella of adult rats have suggested that this region may continue to respond to thyroid hormones during maturity. Recent autoradiographic observations have focused attention on the cerebellar granular layer, in that [125I]T3 administered iv to adult rats was found to be selectively and saturably concentrated there. To determine the specificity of iodothyronine localization in the granular layer, we have now compared film autoradiographic observations made after iv [125I]T4 and iv [125I]rT3 with those found after iv [125I]T3. The results demonstrated that, as in the case of the latter hormone, labeling within the cerebellar cortex after iv [125I]T4 was both selective and saturable. Moreover, except for a lag in time to resolution and a longer retention time, the distribution of cerebellar radioactivity after iv labeled T4 was qualitatively similar to that seen after iv [125I]T3. However, the ability of T4 to become differentially concentrated in the granular layer of cerebellum was absolutely dependent on its ability to be converted intracerebrally to T3. Thus, pretreatment with ipodate, which blocks brain 5'-deiodinase activity and, therefore, the intracerebral formation of T3 from T4, completely prevented cerebellar granular layer labeling after iv [125I]T4 even though it did not interfere with differential labeling of this region by iv delivered [125I]T3. In the same experiments, propylthiouracil, a potent peripheral, but not central, 5'-deiodinase inhibitor, had no qualitative effect on the distribution of either T4 or T3 in cerebellum

  17. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  18. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

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    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  19. Hyparrhenia hirta: A potential protective agent against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz-Ketata, Hanen; Salah, Ghada Ben; Mahjoubi, Amira; Aidi, Zied; Kallel, Choumous; Kammoun, Hassen; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the adverse hematotoxic and genotoxic effects of water nitrate pollution on male adult rats and the use of hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in alleviating these effects. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) was administered to adult rats by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) bw daily for 50 days, while hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract was given by drinking water at a dose of 1.5 mg mL(-1) (200 mg kg(-1) bw). The NaNO3 -treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Meanwhile, the results showed a marked reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, along with an elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and a reduction in the total glutathione content, indicating the induction of oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of NaNO3 -treated group. Interestingly, NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. The oxidative stress induced by nitrate treatment might be the major cause for chromosomal rearrangements as free radicals leading to DNA damage. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above. PMID:24740966

  20. In vitro transformation of adult rat liver cells by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid,Syarifuddin

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary cultures of liver cells from normal adult rats were treated with 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB at various concentrations for 6 days. 3'-Me-DAB treatment induced rapid proliferation of epithelial clear cells with chromosomal abnormalities and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. In early culture, marker chromosomes were detected in 13 of 44 3'-Me-DAB-treated cultures but not in control cultures. GGT activity was not detected in the epithelial clear cells in either 3'-Me-DAB-treated or control cultures. In late culture, 21 cell lines established from 39 carcinogen-treated cultures consisted of 3 diploid cell lines, 5 pseudodiploid cell lines and 13 aneuploid cell lines. Eighteen of these 21 cell lines had marker chromosomes. Of the 2 cell lines established from 15 control cultures both were aneuploid, but a marker chromosome was detected in only one of these. GGT activity was detected in 11 of 21 cell lines established from the carcinogen-treated cultures but not in those from control cultures. Morphological features of the cell lines which varied from normal to cancerous included polymorphism, increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and prominent nucleoli. No cell line established in this study developed tumors in host rats during a 1-year observation period.

  1. Effect of Cucurbita pepo L. Fruit Pulp on Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

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    M Mohsen pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp contains anti-oxidant, vitamins A, C and E, cucurbitacin, β-carotene and α-carotene, B complex vitamins, vitamin B6, pantetonic acid and contains minerals as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pumpkin fruits on spermatogenesis and testicular tissue changes in male rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on forty adult male Wistar rats in four groups of ten. The control group received no drug treatment whereas the experimental groups were treated with 20, 40 and 80 percent of Cucurbita pepo L. fruit pulp orally for 28 days. At the end of the twenty-eighth day, the animals were operated and tissue sections were prepared after testes were removed. Histological changes between the experimental and control groups were examined by light microscopy. Using t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test data were analyzed. . Results: The consumption of pumpkin fruit at amounts of 40 and 80 percent increase in the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids were (p <0.05. It also showed that at 80% increase in the concentration of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules was observed. Conclusion: The results indicated that the pumpkin fruits containing ingredients such as cucurbitacin, pantothenic acid, vitamins and minerals that can increase testosterone level and improve the process of spermatogenesis.

  2. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing angiostatin inhibits preretinal neovascularization in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Chun; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Show-Li; Sun, Ming-Hui; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, Lih; Lin, Keng-Kuo; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Clinically, preretinal neovascularization (PNV) induced by vessel occlusion is one of the leading causes to induce blindness. The present study was designed to determine if a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing mouse angiostatin (rAAV-angiostatin) can inhibit experimental PNV in an adult Sprague-Dawley rat model. rAAV-angiostatin and rAAV-lacZ were delivered by intravitreal injections to the right and left eyes of rats. Transgenetic expression of angiostatin in the retina was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PNV was established by rose-bengal-assisted laser-induced retinal vein occlusion 21 days after the viral injections. The total number and sizes of the neovascular tufts were analyzed 14 days after venous occlusion using retinal flat mount by fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran angiography. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to study any possibility of retinal toxicity of rAAV-angiostatin 3 months after the injections. Angiostatin gene expression in the retina was detectable by RT-PCR, and ERG analysis showed no reduction of b-waves in the rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes. The number and size of neovascular tufts were significantly lower in rAAV-angiostatin-injected eyes (p = 0.001) than controls. These findings indicated that rAAV-angiostatin successfully suppressed experimental PNV, and no retinal toxicity of the rAAV-angiostatin injection was observed according to ERG recordings. PMID:15637422

  3. Fenugreek potent activity against nitrate-induced diabetes in young and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakf, Azza M; Hassan, Hanaa A; Mahmoud, Ashraf Z; Habza, Marwa N

    2015-05-01

    Nitrate has described as an endocrine disruptor that promotes onset of diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate diabetic effect of high nitrate intake in young and adult male rats and its amelioration by fenugreek administration. The study revealed significant increase in serum glucose and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), while serum insulin and liver glycogen were decreased among nitrate exposed animals, in particular the young group. A significant reduction in the body weight gain and serum thyroid hormones (T4 & T3) was also recorded. Further reduction in serum levels of urea and creatinine, as well as total protein in serum, liver and pancreas was demonstrated, with elevation in their levels in the urine of all nitrate exposed groups. Meanwhile, the activity of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) was increased, with decline in their activity in the liver tissue. In addition, an elevation in serum total bilirubin, tissues (liver and pancreas) nitric oxide and lipid profile, as well as liver activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was recorded. Fenugreek administration to nitrate exposed rats was found to be effective in alleviating hyperglycemia and other biochemical changes characterizing nitrate-induced diabetes. So, fenugreek can be considered to possess potent activity against onset of nitrate induced-diabetes. PMID:24615531

  4. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  5. Reutilization of surfactant phosphatidylcholine by isolated adult rat type II cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reutilization of surfactant phospholipids by the mammalian lung has been demonstrated in vivo by other laboratories. The authors have reported the uptake of native surfactant labeled with radioisotopes or fluorescent fatty acids previously. This work has been extended to determine if surfactant lipids are utilized intact or metabolized and resynthesized. Adult rat type II cells were prepared by trypsin treatment and purified by albumin gradient centrifugation and differential adherence. After 22 hrs in culture the cells were incubated in serum-free medium containing 3% bovine serum albumin, rat lung surfactant (20 μM phosphatidylcholine), 1,2[1-14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and [3H-methyl-choline]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. After a 90 min incubation the cells were scraped from the culture dishes, disrupted by homogenization and lamellar bodies isolated from other cellular fractions. The ratio of the labeled lipids in the medium was compared to that in the lamellar body fractions and in the combined residual fractions. These experiments showed that the ratio of the lamellar body label to the medium label is 0.87 and that for the combined residual fractions the ratio is 1.05 suggesting that the phosphatidylcholine is taken up and reutilized as an intact molecule by the type II cells

  6. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  7. PDX-1 Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Cells after Partial Pancreatectomy in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 王春友; 万赤丹; 熊炯忻; 许逸卿; 周峰

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the protein and mRNA expression of pancreas/duodenal homeobox-1(PDX-1), a transcription factor as a marker for pancreatic stem cells, in pancreatic ductal cells of rats after partial (90 %) pancreatectomy and evaluated the significance of the PDX-1 expression.Western blot and Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of PDX-1 protein and mRNA respectively. PDX-1 protein was only faintly detected in pancreatic ductal cells on the day 1 after partial pancreatectomy. On the day 2 and 3 after operation in operation group, a 2-3 fold increased PDX-1 protein was observed, corresponding to the characteristic 42-kD protein in Western blot. There was significant difference between operation group and sham-operation group (P<0.05). PDX-1 protein expression on the day 5 and 7 after operation had already been no difference from control group (P>0.05). RT-PCR revealed the PDX-1mRNA expression showed no significant difference between operation group at various time points and sham-operation group (P>0.05). These results indicate that there was overexpression of PDX-1 in the cells of pancreatic epithelium during the regeneration of remnant pancreas after partial pancreatectomy in adult rats, suggesting the pancreatic stem cells in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells are involved in the regeneration of remnant pancreas and the expression of PDX-1 in ductal cells was regulated posttranscription.

  8. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  9. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  10. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

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    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  11. The neurotoxic effects of artemether on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum of adult male wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 70kg adult man, artemether is given at a total dosage of 480mg for five days in the treatment of malarial. Using t-test analysis technique at 95% confidence interval i.e t < 0.05 and P - value = 2.26, no significant difference was observed between the average brain and cerebellar weight, the average width of cerebellar cortical layers, the density and the average size of Purkinje Cells in the control groups C1 and C2 and the experimental group E. In the present study, there were no gross or morphological differences between the two groups of animals (control and experimental groups) on day 7 at the completion of experimental procedure. A significant statistical increase in average body weight was observed in the control groups C1 (which received only standard diet and water) and C2 (which received 1.23mg/kg body weight of normal saline intramuscularly in addition to standard diet and water) from 140 + 19.65g on day 1 to 146 + 19.90g on day 7 and 151 + 12.0g on day 1 to 156.2 + 12.2g on Day 7 respectively. There was a non-statistically significant apparent reduction in body weight in the experimental group E, (which received intramuscular injection of 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether), from 160 + 9.0g on day 1 to 157.4 + 8.0g on day 7. The rats in the control groups CI and C2 displayed normal balance and co-ordination, while rats in the experimental group E, showed abnormalities of balance and co-ordination. This study investigated the effects of corresponding 1.23mg/kg body weight of artemether for a period of seven days on the functions of rats after drug administration. (author)

  12. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  13. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  14. Excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miki; Fujise, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yuka; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is nonessential for dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) and the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is unknown in the dentate gyrus. Excess increase in extracellular Zn(2+) in the hippocampal CA1, which is induced with excitation of zincergic neurons, induces memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, it was examined whether extracellular Zn(2+) induces object recognition memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells. KCl (100 mM, 2 µl) was locally injected into the dentate gyrus. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells induced with high K(+) was blocked by co-injection of CaEDTA and CNQX, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator and an AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that high K(+) increases the influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation. Dentate gyrus LTP induction was attenuated 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also attenuated when KCl was injected 5 min after the induction. Memory deficit was induced when training of object recognition test was performed 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also induced when KCl was injected 5 min after the training. High K(+)-induced impairments of LTP and memory were rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA. These results indicate that excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP induction. Even in the dentate gyrus where is scarcely innervated by zincergic neurons, it is likely that extracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis is strictly regulated for cognition. PMID:26044210

  15. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  16. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

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    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  17. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  18. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats produces limited effects on endocrine, behavioral, or gene expression measures in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Olson, Darin E.; Owens, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Stress and/or antidepressants during pregnancy have been implicated in a wide range of long-term effects in the offspring. We investigated the long-term effects of prenatal stress and/or clinically relevant antidepressant exposure on male adult offspring in a model of the pharmacotherapy of maternal depression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that delivered clinically relevant exposure to the antidepressant escitalopram throughout gestation. Subsequently, preg...

  19. Functional capacity and cryopreservation of fetal rat pancreas in streptozotocin-diabetes. [Effectiveness of transplantation of fetal pancreas for control of diabetes in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Clark, W.; Molnar, I.G.; Kemp, J.; Mazur, P.; Mullen, Y.S.

    1976-01-01

    The fetal rat pancreas has a marked capacity for growth and maturation in glucose responsivity after transplantation under the kidney capsules of adult rats. The optimal conditions for function of the organ are a 3-week period of growth in a normal rat before transfer to a diabetic animal. Under these conditions diabetes is completely reversed by one fetal pancreas, and glucose disappearance rate and plasma insulin response to glucose are normal. Shunting of the venous drainage into the liver from fetal pancreases placed beneath the kidney capsule results in a marked improvement in diabetes control, and this technique may prove useful in experimental or human applications. Cryopreservation of the fetal pancreas has been successfully accomplished and will serve as a useful adjuvant to this method of reversing experimental diabetes.

  20. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:26915106

  1. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  2. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  3. The protective effect of vitamin E against oxidative damage caused by formaldehyde in the testes of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dang-Xia Zhou; Shu-Dong Qiu; Jie Zhang; Hong Tian; Hai-Xue Wang

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of formaldehyde (FA) on testes and the protective effect of vitamin E (VE) against oxidative damage by FA in the testes of adult rats. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1)control; (2) FA treatment group (Fat); and (3) Fat + VE group. Fat and Fat + VE groups were exposed to FA by inhalation at a concentration of 10 mg/m3 for 2 weeks. In addition, Fat + VE group were orally administered VE during the 2-week FA treatment. After the treatment, the histopathological and biochemical changes in testes, as well as the quantity and quality of sperm, were observed. Results: The testicular weight, the quantity and quality of sperm, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly decreased whereas the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in testes of rats in Fat group compared with those in the control group. VE treatment restored these parameters in Fat + VE group. In addition,microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed that seminiferous tubules atrophied, seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed in rats in Fat group and VE treatment significantly improved the testicular structure in Fat + VE group. Conclusion: FA destroys the testicular structure and function in adult rats by inducing oxidative stress,and this damage could be partially reversed by VE.

  4. Whole-body retetion of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body retention of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin after oral and intravenous administration was investigated in young and adult rats. Whole-body retention of 58Co-cyanocobalamin was considerably higher than that of 60CoCl2 in rats of all age groups. Younger rats showed higher retention of both CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin than did the adult rats. The biological half life in the slowly decreasing phase after oral administration of 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin was approximately equal in all age groups and was estimated to be about 10 and 25 days, respectively. These results suggested that the whole-body retention of orally administered 60CoCl2 and 58Co-cyanocobalamin in rats of various ages depends mainly on intestinal absorption rather than endogenous excretion rate. The excretion pattern of 58Co-cyanocobalamin, i.e., F/U ratio etc., is very different from that of inorganic cobalt, and it is therefore assumed that 58Co-cyanocobalamin is rather stable in the body. (auth.)

  5. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  6. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Gholamreza Najafi; Leila Roshangar

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin ...

  7. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  8. Peripheral inflammation facilitates Abeta fiber-mediated synaptic input to the substantia gelatinosa of the adult rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Woolf, C J

    1999-01-15

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in thick adult rat transverse spinal cord slices with attached dorsal roots to study changes in fast synaptic transmission induced by peripheral inflammation. In slices from naive rats, primary afferent stimulation at Abeta fiber intensity elicited polysynaptic EPSCs in only 14 of 57 (25%) SG neurons. In contrast, Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic EPSCs in 39 of 62 (63%) SG neurons recorded in slices from rats inflamed by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) 48 hr earlier (p < 0.001). Although the peripheral inflammation had no significant effect on the threshold and conduction velocities of Abeta, Adelta, and C fibers recorded in dorsal roots, the mean threshold intensity for eliciting EPSCs was significantly lower in cells recorded from rats with inflammation (naive: 33.2 +/- 15.1 microA, n = 57; inflamed: 22.8 +/- 11.3 microA, n = 62, p < 0.001), and the mean latency of EPSCs elicited by Abeta fiber stimulation in CFA-treated rats was significantly shorter than that recorded from naive rats (3.3 +/- 1.8 msec, n = 36 vs 6.0 +/- 3.5 msec, n = 12; p = 0.010). Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic IPSCs in 4 of 25 (16%) cells recorded from naive rat preparations and 14 of 26 (54%) SG neurons from CFA-treated rats (p < 0.001). The mean threshold intensity for IPSCs was also significantly lower in CFA-treated rats (naive: 32.5 +/- 15.7 microA, n = 25; inflamed: 21. 9 +/- 9.9 microA, n = 26, p = 0.013). The facilitation of Abeta fiber-mediated input into the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral inflammation may contribute to altered sensory processing. PMID:9880605

  9. Evaluation of some hormonal levels related to age in adult and aged male rats exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we grow older, the ability to produce most hormones in adequate amounts declined. This decline in natural hormones production coincides with nearly every age-related health problems. The present work aims to evaluate the levels of some hormones related to age namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) and melatonin and also the alteration in lipid fractions using male rats subjected to acute sublethal dose of gamma radiation. This study included thirty two male albino rats divided into two main groups; adult group (four months old) and aged group (20 months old). Each group was divided into two subgroups; control group and group irradiated at a dose level of 5 Gray whole body gamma irradiation. Blood samples were collected from both adult and aged groups 3 days post-irradiation after 16 hours fasting. As related to age, the aged group showed significant decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels and significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and cholesterol/HDL ratio when compared to adult group. Concerning the effect of gamma radiation, the irradiated adult group showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels by values equal to -32.2%, - 39.8% and -67.9%, respectively, and nonsignificant changes in lipids concentrations except for LDL-c level, which showed significant (P<0.05) increase at +58.2 % in irradiated adult group as compared to adult controls. On the other hand, exposure to irradiation of aged rats did not affect the hormonal levels assayed except for the level of DHEA-s which was decreased significantly (P<0.05) by -26.4% as compared to control aged rats. Also, total cholesterol and LDL-c levels were increased significantly (P<0.01) by +17.1% and +27.4 %, respectively in irradiated rats as compared to control aged group. It could be concluded that y-radiation obviously accelerates the aging process in adults suggesting the need for protective agents to overcome the

  10. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  11. Altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with Clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kiranmai S; Murthy, K Dilip; Rao, Muddanna S; Karanth, K Sudhakar

    2005-07-01

    Young adult (60 day old) Wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. These rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. Subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. The amygdala was processed for Golgi staining and the stained neurons were traced using a camera lucida and analysed. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic intersections, branching points and dendritic processes arising from the soma of amygdaloid neurons in CTR treated rats especially in the 100 mg/kg group of rats, compared with age-matched saline controls. This improved dendritic arborization of amygdaloid neurons correlates with the increased passive avoidance learning and memory in the CTR treated rats as reported earlier. The results suggest that Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract enhances memory by increasing the functional growth of neurons of the amygdala. PMID:16161034

  12. Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of β1-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% β2- and 7% β1-adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of [3H]thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% β2-adrenoceptors and 27% β1-adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be β1 mediated. The lack of β1-adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO

  13. Exposure to Hyperoxia Decreases the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors in Adult Rat Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Klekamp, Jessica G.; Jarzecka, Kasia; Perkett, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of inspired oxygen leads to respiratory failure and death in many animal models. Endothelial cell death is an early finding, before the onset of respiratory failure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in the lungs of adult animals. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to >95% FiO2 for 24 or 48 hours. Northern blot analysis revealed a marked reduction in VEGF mRNA abundance by 24 hours, which decreased to less than 50% ...

  14. Interaction Between Vitamin D Receptor and Caveolin-3 and Regulation by 1, 25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guisheng; Simpson, Robert U.

    2010-01-01

    We show that 1alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and a synthetic non-genotropic vitamin D analog agonist, 1a,25(OH)2-lumisterol (JN), exhibit similar rapid effects on sarcomere shortening (contraction) of isolated adult cardiomyocyte. We also report that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) specifically interacts with Caveolin-3 in the t-tubules and sarcolemma of isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed co-localization of VDR and Caveolin-3 ...

  15. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  16. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  17. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  18. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  19. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  20. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  1. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  2. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  3. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  4. Effects of rapamycin treatment after controlled cortical impact injury on neurogenesis and synaptic reorganization in the mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A Boychuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE is one consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI. A prominent cell signaling pathway activated in animal models of both TBI and epilepsy is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has shown promise as a potential modulator of epileptogenesis in several animal models of epilepsy, but cellular mechanisms linking mTOR expression and epileptogenesis are unclear. In this study, the role of mTOR in modifying functional hippocampal circuit reorganization after focal TBI induced by controlled cortical impact was investigated. Rapamycin (3 or 10 mg/kg, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, was administered by intraperitoneal injection beginning on the day of injury and continued daily until tissue collection. Relative to controls, rapamycin treatment reduced dentate granule cell area in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injury two weeks post-injury. Brain injury resulted in a significant increase in doublecortin immunolabeling in the dentate gyrus ipsilateral to the injury, indicating increased neurogenesis shortly after TBI. Rapamycin treatment prevented the increase in doublecortin labeling, with no overall effect on Fluoro-Jade B staining in the ipsilateral hemisphere, suggesting that rapamycin treatment reduced posttraumatic neurogenesis but did not prevent cell loss after injury. At later times post-injury (8-13 weeks, evidence of mossy fiber sprouting and increased recurrent excitation of dentate granule cells was detected, which were attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin treatment also diminished seizure prevalence relative to vehicle-treated controls after TBI. Collectively, these results support a role for adult neurogenesis in PTE development and suggest that suppression of epileptogenesis by mTOR inhibition includes effects on post-injury neurogenesis.

  5. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  6. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  7. Protracted postnatal neurogenesis and radiosensitivity in the rabbit's dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hippocampal formation of a 3-month-old rabbit submitted to a 4.5 Gy gamma irradiation a cytologic study with light and electron microscopy allowed us to make clear the dentate gyrus particular radiosensitivity as soon as the first hours after irradiation. The pycnosis lesion observed in the subgranular zone has drawn our attention in particular. We apply ourselves to describe and precise the lesion and its evolution; thanks to an autoradiographic study, we have shown its link with late postnatal neurogenesis which goes on in this zone and at last we have used the subgranular cells 'radiosensitivity as a biological test allowing to compare the various rays' effects (gamma and neutron rays). In the brain of a one-month-old monkey submitted to a 4 Gy total irradiation the same pycnotic lesion is observed: 1) in the dentate gyrus's subgranular zone and 2) in the cerebellum's outer granular layer. These two postnatal proliferative zones remain particularly sensitive to ionizing radiations. (orig.)

  8. A practical approach to diseases affecting dentate nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, S; Jaggi, S; Patel, B; Yadav, R; Hanagandi, P; Faria do Amaral, L L

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases affect the dentate nuclei. When faced with the radiological demonstration of signal changes in the dentate nuclei, radiologists and clinical neurologists have to sieve through the many possibilities, which they do not encounter on a regular basis. This task can be challenging, and therefore, developing a clinical, radiological, and laboratory approach is important. Information on the topic is scattered and the subject has not yet been reviewed. In this review, a combined clinicoradiological approach is presented. The signal changes in T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion, susceptibility weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced images can give specific or highly suggestive patterns, which are illustrated. The role of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnostic process is discussed. Specific radiological patterns do not exist in a significant proportion of patients where the clinical and laboratory analysis becomes important. In this review, we group the clinical constellations to narrow down the differential diagnosis and highlight the diagnostic clinical signs, such as tendon xanthomas and Kayser-Fleischer rings. As will be seen, a number of these conditions are potentially reversible, and hence, their early diagnosis is desirable. Finally, key diagnostic tests and available therapies are outlined. The practical approach thus begins with the radiologist and winds its way through the clinician, towards carefully selected diagnostic tests defining the therapy options. PMID:26577296

  9. ERK Is Involved in the Reorganization of Somatosensory Cortical Maps in Adult Rats Submitted to Hindlimb Unloading

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Dupont; Laurence Stevens; Laetitia Cochon; Maurice Falempin; Bruno Bastide; Marie-Hélène Canu

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU) in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical ...

  10. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zago, A.; R.M. Leão; P.E. Carneiro-de-Oliveira; Marin, M.T.; F.C. Cruz; C.S. Planeta

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have eva...

  11. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  12. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,29,3,4,49,5,59- Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 ...

  13. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  14. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  15. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  16. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-jing Chen; Bing-qing Shen; Dan-dan Liu; Sheng-tian Li

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spont...

  17. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  18. Gender-Related Differences in Sensitivity to Diazinon in Gonads of Adult Rats and the Protective Effect of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Sargazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate pesticide which is known to induce oxidative stress in the target tissues such as the reproductive system. The aim of present study was to compare and evaluate the effects of DZN on Malondialdehyde (MDA and Glutathione (GSH levels in testis and ovary of rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 adult Wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats. Each of male and female groups included 30 rats and were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, treatment group 1 (received DZN+olive oil daily, 60 mg/kg, treatment group 2 (received DZN, 60 mg/kg + vitamin E, 200 mg/kg daily and treatment group 3 (received vitamin E daily, 200 mg/kg. MDA and GSH levels were determined in gonads. Results: In both genders, due to administration of DZN, we found significant reduction in GSH content and increase in MDA level. The use of vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content while decreased MDA level of ovary and testis compared with DZN treated rats. Gonad of female rats compared with male rats showed more increase in MDA level and further decline in GSH content in treatment groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced sexual organ toxicity. Our results concluded that vitamin E may have a protective role in this toxicity. Female rats are likely more vulnerable to oxidative stress and its damages.

  19. Fetal programming of colon cancer in adult rats: correlations with altered neonatal trajectory, circulating IGF-I and IGFPBs, and testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifelong consumption of soy protein isolate (SPI) reduces the incidence of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined if a maternal SPI diet during pregnancy could protect against colon cancer in progeny. Four groups of male rats were used: a lifetime ...

  20. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroid rats was hybridized in duplicates to the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U34N rat neurobiology microarray, which contains probes for 1224 neural-specific genes. Changes in gene expression were considered significant only if they were observed in both pair-wise comparisons as well as by Northern blot analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with modest changes in the expression of only 11 genes. The expression of the phosphodiesterase Enpp2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth hormone (GH), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase beta-subunit (Camk2b), neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Pcp4), a sodium-dependent neurotransmitter, and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (S-MAG) was significantly increased. Three genes were suppressed by hyperthyroidism, including the activity and neurotransmitter-induced early genes-1 and -7 (ANIA-1 and ANIA-7) and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein one (Gnb1). The present study underscores the paucity of TH responsive genes in adult cerebral tissue. PMID:15234464

  1. Environmental Circadian Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpeng; Ma, Shanshan; Guo, Dewei; Cheng, Tian; Li, Hongwei; Tian, Yi; Li, Jianbin; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate many physiologic processes and behaviors. Therefore, their disruption causes a variety of potential adverse effects in humans and animals. Circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure has been discovered to produce pathophysiologic consequences after brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to more severe impairment and disruption of neurophysiologic processes are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of constant light exposure on the neurobehavioral impairment and survival of neurons in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a weight-drop model of TBI and then exposed to either a standard 12-/12-h light/dark cycle or a constant 24-h light/light cycle for 14 days. Our results showed that 14 days of constant light exposure after TBI significantly worsened the sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which were associated with decreased body weight, impaired water and food intake, increased cortical lesion volume, and decreased neuronal survival. Furthermore, environmental circadian disruption inhibited cell proliferation and newborn cell survival and decreased immature cell production in rats subjected to the TBI model. We conclude that circadian disruption induced by constant light exposure worsens histologic and neurobehavioral impairment and inhibits neurogenesis in adult TBI rats. Our novel findings suggest that light exposure should be decreased and circadian rhythm reestablished in hospitalized TBI patients and that drugs and strategies that maintain circadian rhythm would offer a novel therapeutic option. PMID:26886755

  2. ERK is involved in the reorganization of somatosensory cortical maps in adult rats submitted to hindlimb unloading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Dupont

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor restriction by a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading (HU in the adult rat induces a reorganization of topographic maps and receptive fields. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of intracellular MAPK signaling pathway since Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 is known to play a significant role in the control of synaptic plasticity. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity in adult rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the time-course of ERK1/2 activation by immunoblot and of cortical reorganization by electrophysiological recordings, on rats submitted to hindlimb unloading over four weeks. Immunohistochemistry analysis provided evidence that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in layer III neurons of the somatosensory cortex. This increase was transient, and parallel to the changes in hindpaw cortical map area (layer IV. By contrast, receptive fields were progressively enlarged from 7 to 28 days of hindlimb unloading. To determine whether ERK1/2 was involved in cortical remapping, we administered a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD-98059 through osmotic mini-pump in rats hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Results demonstrate that focal inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway prevents cortical reorganization, but had no effect on receptive fields. These results suggest that ERK1/2 plays a role in the induction of cortical plasticity during hindlimb unloading.

  3. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  4. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  5. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  6. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  7. Characterization of Fiber Types in Different Muscles of the Hindlimb in Female Weanling and Adult Wistar Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed lesser diameter and distribution of fiber types in different skeletal muscles from female Wistar rats using a histoenzymology Myofibrillar Adenosine Tri-phosphatase (mATPase) method. Fragments from muscles were frozen and processed by mATPase in different pH. Adult and weanling rat soleus muscles presented a predominance of type I fibers and larger fiber diameters. In the plantar muscle in adult rats, the type IIB fibers demonstrated greater lesser diameter while in the weanling animals, types I and IIB fibers were larger. The plantar muscle of animals of both ages was composed predominantly of the type IID fibers. The type IID fibers were observed in similar amounts in the lateral gastrocnemius and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. Type IIB fibers showed predominance and presented higher size in comparison with other types in the EDL muscle. The present study shows that data on fiber type distribution and fiber lesser diameter obtained in adult animals cannot always be applied to weanling animals of the same species. Using the mATPase, despite the difficult handling, is an important tool to determine the different characteristics of the specific fibers in the skeletal muscle tissue

  8. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  9. Effect of Obstructive Cholestasis on Sperm Parameters in the Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nasiri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids , nitric oxide and cytokins in the blood streams. These consequences may affect sex hormones since proper fertility will be resulted from physiological balance of sex hormones, we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and gonadotropins and sperm parameters in adult male rats.Materials & Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: control (No-surgery, Sham (surgical control, and cholestatic (surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animals were killed by ether, and serum concentrations of FSH and LH were determined by radioimmunoassay, sperm parameters were evaluated by light microscop.Results: The findings of this study showed that LH and FSH levels decreased significantly in cholestatic compared to control and sham groups (p0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicated that obstructive cholestasis lead to decrease in the levels of serum gonadotropins, but it has no significant effect on sperm parameters. We speculated that spermatogenesis, and sperm parameters were not dependent on gonadotropin hormones but other factors may involved.

  10. Expression of CDc6 after acute spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lu, Jian; Yu, Qin; Xiao, Jian-Ru; Wei, Hai-Feng; Song, Xin-Jian; Ge, Jian-Bing; Tao, Wei-Dong; Qian, Rong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The cell division cycle 6 (CDc6) protein has been primarily investigated as a component of the pre-replicative complex for the initiation of DNA replication. Some studies have shown that CDc6 played a critical role in the development of human carcinoma. However, the expression and roles of CDc6 in the central nervous system remain unknown. We have performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of CDc6 expression in spinal cord. Western blot have found that CDc6 protein levels first significantly increase, reach a peak at day 3, and then gradually return to normal level at day 14 after SCI. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CDc6 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Additionally, colocalization of CDc6/active caspase-3 has been detected in neurons and colocalization of CDc6/proliferating cell nuclear antigen has been detected in astrocytes and microglial. In vitro, CDc6 depletion by short interfering RNA inhibits astrocyte proliferation and reduces cyclin A and cyclin D1 protein levels. CDc6 knockdown also decreases neuronal apoptosis. We speculate that CDc6 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:26899166

  11. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. PMID:27565750

  12. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of [125I]EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of [125I]EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of [125I]EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland

  13. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  14. Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons

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    Anand Praveen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat hyperalgesia. This study examined the morphological and functional effects of oxaliplatin treatment in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Results 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P Conclusions Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.

  15. Ontogeny of rat chondrocyte proliferation: studies in embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madaí A GóMEZ-CAMARILLO; Juan B.KOURI

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ontogeny of chondrocyte cell division using embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. We searched for mitosis phases and performed a comparative evaluation of mitotic index, basic fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) receptors, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK1)and Cyclin-B expression in fetal, neonate, 3, 5, 8 weeks old rats and experimental OA. Our results showed that mitosis phases were observed in all normal cartilage studied, although, we found a decrease in mitotic index in relation to tissue development. No mitosis was detected in OA cartilage. We also found a statistical significant reduction in cell number in OA cartilage, compared with the normal tissue. Furthermore, FGFb and TGF-β1 receptors diminished in relation to tissue development, and were very scarce in experimental OA. Western blot assays showed CDK-1 expression in all cases, including human-OA cartilage. Similar results were observed for Cyclin-B, except for 8 weeks, when it was not expressed. Our results suggest that cell division seems to be scarce, if not absent within the OA cartilage studied.Nevertheless, the existence of factors essential for cell division leaves open the question concerning chondrocyte proliferation in OA cartilage, which is likely to be present in the early stages of the disease.

  16. Reversibility of electrophysiological changes induced by chronic high-altitude hypoxia in adult rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouabe, C; Amsellem, J; Espinosa, L; Ribaux, P; Blaineau, S; Mégas, P; Bonvallet, R

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that regression of left ventricular hypertrophy normalizes membrane ionic current abnormalities. This work was designed to determine whether regression of right ventricular hypertrophy induced by permanent high-altitude exposure (4,500 m, 20 days) in adult rats also normalizes changes of ventricular myocyte electrophysiology. According to the current data, prolonged action potential, decreased transient outward current density, and increased inward sodium/calcium exchange current density normalized 20 days after the end of altitude exposure, whereas right ventricular hypertrophy evidenced by both the right ventricular weight-to-heart weight ratio and the right ventricular free wall thickness measurement normalized 40 days after the end of altitude exposure. This morphological normalization occurred at both the level of muscular tissue, as shown by the decrease toward control values of some myocyte parameters (perimeter, capacitance, and width), and the level of the interstitial collagenous connective tissue. In the chronic high-altitude hypoxia model, the regression of right ventricular hypertrophy would not be a prerequisite for normalization of ventricular electrophysiological abnormalities. PMID:11893582

  17. Attachment of adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) on laminin and two laminin fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Schneidemann, S; Gehr, P; Rutishauser, B; Eppenberger, H M

    1994-01-01

    Adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC) were cultivated on five different substrates: gelatin, fibronectin, laminin-nidogen complex (laminin), the E8 laminin fragment, and the E1 laminin fragment. Comparative cell attachment assays have shown that ARC prefer adhesion to E8 laminin fragment and laminin. It were shown by video time-lapse (VTL) studies that, during the redifferentiation process of ARC in culture, the morphology of ARC grown on laminin, fibronectin, and gelatin is indistinguishable, whereas the size of ARC grown on the E8 fragment is larger, and when grown on the E1 fragment definitely smaller than ARC on the whole laminin protein. Immunostaining for vinculin combined with reflection contrast microscopy were used to visualize the focal contacts of ARC on these substrates. Quantitative measurements, done with the help of a test line system, show that the lengths of adhesion plaques/micron2 on gelatin, fibronectin, and laminin are about the same. On the E8 fragment more attachment sites/micron2 and on the E1 fragment fewer attachment sites/micron2 were counted than on whole laminin protein. This suggests that substrates influence the number of focal contacts. Correlating these results with the observations made in the VTL recording system, one can suggest that the length of adhesion sites/micron2 increases in very flat and large cells. PMID:7718361

  18. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  19. Adult rat retinal ganglion cells and glia can be printed by piezoelectric inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated whether inkjet printing technology can be extended to print cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia, and the effects on survival and growth of these cells in culture, which is an important step in the development of tissue grafts for regenerative medicine, and may aid in the cure of blindness. We observed that RGC and glia can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric printer. Whilst inkjet printing reduced the cell population due to sedimentation within the printing system, imaging of the printhead nozzle, which is the area where the cells experience the greatest shear stress and rate, confirmed that there was no evidence of destruction or even significant distortion of the cells during jet ejection and drop formation. Importantly, the viability of the cells was not affected by the printing process. When we cultured the same number of printed and non-printed RGC/glial cells, there was no significant difference in cell survival and RGC neurite outgrowth. In addition, use of a glial substrate significantly increased RGC neurite outgrowth, and this effect was retained when the cells had been printed. In conclusion, printing of RGC and glia using a piezoelectric printhead does not adversely affect viability and survival/growth of the cells in culture. Importantly, printed glial cells retain their growth-promoting properties when used as a substrate, opening new avenues for printed CNS grafts in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  20. Retinoic acid restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial memory deficit in vitamin A deprived rats.

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    Emilie Bonnet

    Full Text Available A dysfunction of retinoid hippocampal signaling pathway has been involved in the appearance of affective and cognitive disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in emotion and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin A deficiency (VAD on neurogenesis and memory and the ability of retinoic acid (RA treatment to prevent VAD-induced impairments. Adult retinoid-deficient rats were generated by a vitamin A-free diet from weaning in order to allow a normal development. The effects of VAD and/or RA administration were examined on hippocampal neurogenesis, retinoid target genes such as neurotrophin receptors and spatial reference memory measured in the water maze. Long-term VAD decreased neurogenesis and led to memory deficits. More importantly, these effects were reversed by 4 weeks of RA treatment. These beneficial effects may be in part related to an up-regulation of retinoid-mediated molecular events, such as the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkA. We have demonstrated for the first time that the effect of vitamin A deficient diet on the level of hippoccampal neurogenesis is reversible and that RA treatment is important for the maintenance of the hippocampal plasticity and function.

  1. Effect of Caffeine and Folic Acid on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Disorders In Adult Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine-rich drinks on human health indicate that certain controversial issues are still unresolved. On the other hand, folic acid has similar effect as beta-carotene, which exerted a beneficial radioprotective role as natural antioxidant agent. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant and protective roles of caffeine, folic acid or their combination orally administrated four weeks before exposure of adult male Spraque Dawely rats to whole body irradiation (4.5 Gy). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), malondialdhyde (MDA), total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G) and A/G ratio were investigated 1,3 and 7 days post irradiation. The results revealed significant decrease in T3, T4 total protein and globulin due to radiation exposure. While, the levels of MDA, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly increased. Administration of caffeine and /or folic before irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration of the radiation induced changes in thyroid hormones, T3 T4, lipid peroxides (MDA), total protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G)

  2. Up-Regulation of KPNB1 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aihua; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yu; Han, Lijian; Zhu, Liang; Ni, Haidan; Chen, Rongrong; Cao, Maohong

    2015-11-01

    Kpnb1, also known as Importin β1, is a member of the Karyopherin protein family which plays a important role in nuclear import and export pathways. Its expression has been shown to be responsive to stress, such as heat shock, ethanol and oxidative stress. Previous studies demonstrated that Kpnb1 had anti-apoptotic in cervical cancer. These together prompted us to explore whether Kpnb1 has some association with neuron apoptosis in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our study, an ICH model was established by injecting into the right basal ganglia of adult rats with their autologous whole blood and assessed by behavioral tests. We found Kpnb1 were significantly up-regulated adjacent to the hematoma following ICH by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorenscence manifested Kpnb1 was strikingly increased in neurons, not astrocytes or microglia. Furthermore, we also found that kpnb1 had co-localizations with active-caspase-3 which is a neuronal apoptosis marker suggesting its role in neuronal apoptosis. What's more, our in vitro study, using Kpnb1 RNA interference in PC12 cells, further indicated that Kpnb1 might exert its pro-apoptotic function on neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, Kpnb1 may play a role in the neuronal apoptosis following ICH. PMID:26303509

  3. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  4. Flux control exerted by overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase over palmitoyl-CoA oxidation and ketogenesis is lower in suckling than in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, S; Lascelles, C V; Zammit, V A; Quant, P A

    1996-01-01

    We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate. PMID:8912677

  5. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

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    Ghasem Saki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then, all male rats were sacrificed, the right epididymides were removed and sperm concentration and motility were determined. The sperm suspension was added to the ova. Fertilization capacity was assessed by counting two-cell embryos 24-26 h after completion of fertilization in vitro. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of sperm concentration in the control and experimental groups were 60.8 ± 9.3 10 6 /ml and 20.4 ± 5.3 10 6 /ml, respectively. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the two groups in terms of sperm concentration. The percentage of motility in the experimental group was significantly different ( P < 0.05. The same results were obtained in case of fertility ( P < 0.05. Stress caused by forced swimming was observed by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: These results suggest that forced swimming stress in time course equal or more than spermatogenesis period, i.e. 48-50 days in the rat will be significantly effective to reduce the number and motility of sperms as well as the fertilization capacity.

  6. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3+ apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB+ interneurons, although the number of reelin+ interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of cholinergic

  7. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  8. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  9. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  10. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability. PMID:26657171

  11. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years. PMID:24169089

  12. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  13. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

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    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  14. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

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    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  16. Cerebral metabolism of plasma [14C]palmitate in awake, adult rat: subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following intravenous injection of [U-14C]palmitate in awake adult rats, whole brain radioactivity reached a broad maximum between 15-60 min, then declined rapidly to reach a relatively stable level between 4 hr and 20 hr. At 44 hr total radioactivity was 57% of the 4 hr value (p less than 0.05). About 50% of palmitate which entered the brain from the blood was oxidized rapidly, producing 14C-labeled water-soluble components which later left the cytosol. Radioactivity in the cytosolic fraction peaked at 45 min and then declined, coincident with the decline in total brain radioactivity. Membrane fractions were rapidly labeled to levels which remained relatively stable from 1 to 44 hr. Increases in the relative distributions of radioactivity were seen between 1 and 4 hr for the microsomal and mitochondrial fractions, and beyond 4 hr for the synaptic and myelin membrane fractions (p less than 0.05). Radioactivity in membrane fractions was 80-90% lipid, 5-13% water-soluble components and 3-17% protein. The proportion of label in membrane-associated protein increased with time. Proportions of radioactivity in the combined membrane fractions increased from 65% to 76% to 80% at 4, 20 and 44 hr, respectively. The results show that plasma-derived palmitate enters oxidative and synthetic pathways to an equal extent, immediately after entry into the brain. At and after 4 hr, the radiolabel resides predominantly in stable membrane lipids and protein. Brain radioactivity at 4 hr can be used therefore, to examine incorporation of palmitate into lipids in vivo, in different experimental conditions

  17. Enhancement by citral of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lan; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2016-02-10

    Although citral, which is abundantly present in lemongrass, has various actions including antinociception, how citral affects synaptic transmission has not been examined as yet. Citral activates in heterologous cells transient receptor potential vanilloid-1, ankyrin-1, and melastatin-8 (TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, respectively) channels, the activation of which in the spinal lamina II [substantia gelatinosa (SG)] increases the spontaneous release of L-glutamate from nerve terminals. It remains to be examined what types of transient receptor potential channel in native neurons are activated by citral. With a focus on transient receptor potential activation, we examined the effect of citral on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to SG neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. Bath-applied citral for 3 min increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in a concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effective concentration=0.58 mM), with a small increase in its amplitude. The spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency increase produced by citral was repeated at a time interval of 30 min, albeit this action recovered with a slow time course after washout. The presynaptic effect of citral was inhibited by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, but not by voltage-gated Na-channel blocker tetrodotoxin, TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, and TRPM8 antagonist BCTC. It is concluded that citral increases spontaneous L-glutamate release in SG neurons by activating TRPA1 channels. Considering that the SG plays a pivotal role in modulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery, the citral activity could contribute toward at least a part of the modulation. PMID:26720890

  18. Neonatal androgenization exacerbates alcohol-induced liver injury in adult rats, an effect abrogated by estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney M Ellefson

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD affects millions of people worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, fewer than 10% of heavy drinkers progress to later stages of injury, suggesting other factors in ALD development, including environmental exposures and genetics. Females display greater susceptibility to the early damaging effects of ethanol. Estrogen (E2 and ethanol metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, CYP450 are implicated in sex differences of ALD. Sex steroid hormones are developmentally regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, which controls sex-specific cycling of gonadal steroid production and expression of hepatic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine if early postnatal inhibition of adult cyclic E2 alters ethanol metabolizing enzyme expression contributing to the development of ALD in adulthood. An androgenized rat model was used to inhibit cyclic E2 production. Control females (Ctrl, androgenized females (Andro and Andro females with E2 implants were administered either an ethanol or isocalorically-matched control Lieber-DeCarli diet for four weeks and liver injury and CYP450 expression assessed. Androgenization exacerbated the deleterious effects of ethanol demonstrated by increased steatosis, lipid peroxidation, profibrotic gene expression and decreased antioxidant defenses compared to Ctrl. Additionally, CYP2E1 expression was down-regulated in Andro animals on both diets. No change was observed in CYP1A2 protein expression. Further, continuous exogenous administration of E2 to Andro in adulthood attenuated these effects, suggesting that E2 has protective effects in the androgenized animal. Therefore, early postnatal inhibition of cyclic E2 modulates development and progression of ALD in adulthood.

  19. Roles of mitochondria and temperature in the control of intracellular calcium in adult rat sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S H; Carl, A; McHugh, J M; Goff, H R; Kenyon, J L

    2008-04-01

    We recorded Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+](i)) in isolated adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 20 and 30 degrees C. In neurons bathed in tetraethylammonium and dialyzed with cesium, warming reduced resting [Ca2+](i) from 87 to 49 nM and the time constant of the decay of [Ca2+](i) transients (tau(r)) from 1.3 to 0.99s (Q(10)=1.4). The Buffer Index, the ratio between Ca2+ influx and Delta[Ca2+](i) (f I(ca)d(t)/Delta[Ca2+]i) , increased two- to threefold with warming. Neither inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase by intracellular sodium orthovanadate nor inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum by thapsigargin plus ryanodine were necessary for the effects of warming on these parameters. In contrast, inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter by intracellular ruthenium red largely reversed the effects of warming. Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP, 500 nM) increased resting [Ca2+](i) at 30 degrees C. Ten millimolar intracellular sodium prolonged the recovery of [Ca2+](i) transients to 10-40s. This effect was reversed by an inhibitor of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca2+ -exchange (CGP 37157, 10 microM). Thus, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is necessary for the temperature-dependent increase in Ca2+ buffering and mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes contribute to the control of [Ca2+](i) between 50 and 150 nM at 30 degrees C. PMID:17716728

  20. Elucidation of thrifty features in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2012-03-20

    Since the introduction of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the potential traits of thrift have been described in increasingly broad terms but biochemical and behavioral evidence of thrift has not been well demonstrated. The objective of our studies was to use a rodent model to identify features of thrift programmed by early life protein restriction. Robust programming of thrifty features requires a thrifty nutritional environment during the entire window of developmental plasticity. Therefore, pregnant rats were exposed to a low protein diet throughout the window of developmental plasticity spanning the period of gestation and lactation and its effects on energy acquisition, storage and expenditure in the adult offspring were examined. Maternal protein restriction reduced birth weight and produced long term reductions in body and organ weights in the offspring. Low protein offspring demonstrated an increased drive to seek food as evidenced by hyperphagia that was mediated by changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin levels. Hyperphagia was accompanied by increased efficiency in converting caloric intake into body mass. The higher feed efficiency was mediated by greater insulin sensitivity. Energy expenditure of low protein offspring in locomotion was not affected either in the light or dark phase. However, low protein offspring exhibited higher resting and basal metabolic rates as evidenced by higher core body temperature in the fed and fasted states. The increased thermogenesis was not mediated by thyroid hormones but by an increased sympathetic nervous system drive as reflected by a lower areal bone mineral density and bone mineral content and lower plasma adiponectin and triglyceride levels. Elevated thermogenesis in the low protein offspring possibly offsets the effects of hyperphagia, minimizes their chances of weight gain, and improves survivability. This constellation of metabolic features in the low protein offspring will maximize survival potential in a post

  1. Calcium channel blockade attenuates abnormal synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus elicited by entorhinal amyloidopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Naderi, Nima; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-10-01

    Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, synaptic currents in the DG granule cells were assessed by whole cell patch clamp. EPSCs were evoked by stimulating the perforant pathway. Voltage clamp recording showed profound decrease of evoked EPSC amplitude and paired pulse facilitation in the DG granule cells of Aβ treated rats. Furthermore, AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in the Aβ treated animals. On the other hand, amplitude of IPSC currents was significantly increased in the DG granule cells of these animals. These modifications of synaptic currents were partially reversed by daily intracerebroventricular administration of isradipine or nimodipine. In conclusion, our results suggest that Aβ in the EC triggers decreased excitatory transmission in the DG with substantial decrement in AMPA currents, leading to a prominent activity of inhibitory circuits and increased inhibition of granule cells which may contribute to the development of AD-related neurological deficits in AD and treatment by CCBs could preserve normal synaptic transmission against Aβ toxicity. PMID:27240164

  2. Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim: The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8 per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion: Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.

  3. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  4. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  5. Effects of adult exposure to bisphenol a on genes involved in the physiopathology of rat prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castro

    Full Text Available Several neurological and behavioral dysfunctions have been reported in animals exposed to bisphenol A (BPA. However, little is known about the impact of adult exposure to BPA on brain physiopathology. Here, we focused on prefrontal cortex (PFC of rats, because it is an important area for cognitive control, complex behaviors and is altered in many psychopathologies. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and serotonin (5-HT systems are essential for PFC function. Therefore, we examined the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase (5α-R and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom, enzymes that synthesize GABAA receptor modulators, and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph, the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis. To gain better understanding of BPA's action in the adult PFC, 84 genes involved in neurotoxicity were also analysed. Adult male and female rats were subcutaneously injected for 4 days with 50 µg/kg/day, the current reference safe dose for BPA. mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R, P450arom and Tph were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Genes linked to neurotoxicity were analyzed by PCR-Array technology. Adult exposure to BPA increased both P450arom and Tph2 expression in PFC of male and female, but decreased 5α-R1 expression in female. Moreover, we identified 17 genes related to PFC functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory, as potential targets of BPA. Our results provided new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA action in the physiopathology of PFC, but also raise the question about the safety of short-term exposure to it in the adulthood.

  6. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as Predictor of Body Mass Index and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis: Neuroplasticity and the Metabolic Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Coplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and promotes neurogenesis. We reported an inverse correlation between adult body mass and neurogenesis in nonhuman primates. Here we examine relationships between physiological levels of the neurotrophic incretin, plasma GLP-1 (pGLP-1, and body mass index (BMI in adolescence to adult neurogenesis and associations with a diabesity diathesis and infant stress. Morphometry, fasting pGLP-1, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles were measured in early adolescence in 10 stressed and 4 unstressed male bonnet macaques. As adults, dentate gyrus neurogenesis was assessed by doublecortin staining. High pGLP-1, low body weight, and low central adiposity, yet peripheral insulin resistance and high plasma lipids, during adolescence were associated with relatively high adult neurogenesis rates. High pGLP-1 also predicted low body weight with, paradoxically, insulin resistance and high plasma lipids. No rearing effects for neurogenesis rates were observed. We replicated an inverse relationship between BMI and neurogenesis. Adolescent pGLP-1 directly predicted adult neurogenesis. Two divergent processes relevant to human diabesity emerge—high BMI, low pGLP-1, and low neurogenesis and low BMI, high pGLP-1, high neurogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid elevations. Diabesity markers putatively reflect high nutrient levels necessary for neurogenesis at the expense of peripheral tissues.

  7. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  8. Specific radiosensitivy and postnatal neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult and young rabbits were delivered a gamma exposure of 4.5 Gy. A light and electron microscope cytological investigation of the hippocampal region in the early hours following the exposure showed the particular radiosensitivity of the dentate gyrus which was demonstrated by: 1) pycnotic cells to be found at the basis of the granular cell layer (subgranular zone) exclusively; 2) a more discrete injury of the granular layer where most nuclei showed a lighter chromatin appearing as ''light spots''. Both radioinduced injuries are described, especially their kinetics, importance, and the effects of dose and age of the animal. The presence of pycnotic cells in the subgranular zone was related to the late postnatal neurogenesis occurring in this zone. The pattern and chronology of this late postnatal neurogenesis was investigated by autoradiography following 3H thymidine injection. Finally, two series of investigations combining autoradiography and irradiation brought further data on the radiosensitivity and radioresistance of the dental gyrus cells and demonstrated the recovery capacity of the subgranular zone

  9. Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis. PMID:27078690

  10. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  11. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previously, we showed high-level, long-term liver replacement after transplantation of unfractionated embryonic day (ED) 14 fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPC). However, for clinical applications, it will be essential to transplant highly enriched cells, while maintaining...... high repopulation potential. METHODS: Dlk-1, a member of the delta-like family of cell surface transmembrane proteins, is highly expressed in human and rodent fetal liver. Dlk-1(+) cells, isolated from ED14 fetal liver using immunomagnetic beads, were examined for their hepatic gene expression profile...... and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  12. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  13. The food-conditioned place preference task in adolescent, adult and aged rats of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Hagerbaumer, Diana A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    The rat basolateral amygdala shows neuroanatomical sex differences, continuing development after puberty and aging-related alterations. Implications for amygdala-dependent memory processes were explored here by testing male and female hooded rats in adolescence, adulthood and old age on the food-conditioned place preference task. While aged rats were unimpaired, adolescents failed to learn the task. This finding may be related to ongoing development of the basolateral amygdala and related mem...

  14. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. PMID:26428246

  15. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  16. A method for the isolation and culture of adult rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells to study retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Peter Heller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 minutes yielded 4 x 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases.

  17. The effects of buthionine sulfoximine treatment on diaphragm contractility and SERCA pump function in adult and middle aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian C; Vigna, Chris; Levy, Andrew S; Steven G Denniss; Rush, James W E; Tupling, A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 10 days of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment on in vitro contractility and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) expression and function in adult (AD; 6–8 months old) and middle aged (MA; 14–17 months old) rat diaphragm in both the basal state and following fatiguing stimulation. BSO treatment reduced the cellular concentrations of free glutathione (GSH) by >95% and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by >80% in both age cohorts. GSH content in AD Control...

  18. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2 ',3,4,4 ',5,5 '-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viluksela; Päivi Heikkinen; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Filip Rendel; Robert Roos; Javier Esteban; Merja Korkalainen; Sanna Lensu; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Kari Savolainen; Satu Sankari; Hellmuth Lilienthal; Annika Adamsson; Jorma Toppari; Maria Herlin

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN DIFFERENT EXPRESSION AND ORGANIZATION OF COLLAGEN IN SKIN WOUNDS OF ADULT AND FETAL RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 张群; 钱云良

    2000-01-01

    ReSllm6 Objectif Observer la distribution en espece et dans ie temps du collag&ne dans ies plaies cutals chez ies ratsfretaux et ies rats adultes. methaeS In coloration de van Gieson, moyen stwifique pour ie collagsne, a ate utiliSde pour examiner l' expreSsion et i' organimtion de la dispeition du collagsne. ho matches d' immu~histChchimie et d' hybridetion insitu furent aPPliqudes pour observer la localimtion du mptide et de "tARN dans ie suivi temporal durant la gUdrison des Plaies.Anultats COllagbne de ...

  20. EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

  1. Macro- and Microscopic Structural Features of the Cerebellar Dentate Nucleus in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Shyian, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times the study of one part of the brain - the cerebellum - has attracted the attention of many researchers, however, neither anatomy of the cerebellum, nor its function remain fully studied. The nuclei of the cerebellum, including the dentate nucleus are not sufficiently studied. The structural features of the cerebellar dentate nucleus of human in ontogenesis and its topographic and anatomic location are important not only for anatomists, physiologists, but also for clinicians...

  2. Vascular reactivity of arteria femoralis in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Vojtko, R.; Villaris, R.; Varga, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Kristová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 10 (2013), s. 553-555. ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rats * Wistar-Kyoto rats * acetylcholine * norepinephrine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2013

  3. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats ...

  4. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  5. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  6. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  7. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. PMID:27121170

  8. Expression of polysialyltransferases (STX and PST) in adult rat olfactory bulb after an olfactory associative discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, J; Manrique, C; Duhoo, Y; Roman, F S; Guiraudie-Capraz, G

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis occur in the adult hippocampus and in other brain structures such as the olfactory bulb and often involve the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. During an olfactory associative discrimination learning task, NCAM polysialylation triggers neuronal plasticity in the adult hippocampus. The PST enzyme likely modulates this polysialylation, but not STX, a second sialyltransferase. How the two polysialyltransferases are involved in the adult olfactory bulb remains unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of olfactory associative learning on plasticity and neurogenesis. After a hippocampo-dependent olfactory associative task learning, we measured the expression of both PST and STX polysialyltransferases in the olfactory bulbs of adult rats using quantitative PCR. In parallel, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate both NCAM polysialylation level and newly-born cells, with or without learning. After learning, no changes were observed neither in the expression level of PST and NCAM polysialylation, nor in STX gene expression level and newly-born cells number in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26844880

  9. Effects of Calendula officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood sugar, LDL, HDL and Total cholesterol in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Adult male wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoodi; A. Azimi; Shahidi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: It’s very important to decrease the glucose level and lipid’s serum in diabetes patients by using medicinal plants. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis on blood glucose, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol in diabetic rats was examined. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic and diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis (100, 150...

  10. Eating High Fat Chow Decreases Dopamine Clearance in Adolescent and Adult Male Rats but Selectively Enhances the Locomotor Stimulating Effects of Cocaine in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Horton, Rebecca E.; Owens, William A.; Lynette C Daws; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard o...

  11. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick F. MacFabe; Karina Rodríguez-Capote; Jennifer E.  Franklin; Martin Kavaliers; Fred Possmayer; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Andrew E. Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ...

  12. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E.; Varela, Fausto A.; Kozanian, Olga O.

    2013-01-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasi...

  13. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Vollala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2¹/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose. After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.

  14. Actin related protein complex subunit 1b controls sperm release, barrier integrity and cell division during adult rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Dumasia, Kushaan; Deshpande, Sharvari; Gaonkar, Reshma; Balasinor, N H

    2016-08-01

    Actin remodeling is a vital process for signaling, movement and survival in all cells. In the testes, extensive actin reorganization occurs at spermatid-Sertoli cell junctions during sperm release (spermiation) and at inter Sertoli cell junctions during restructuring of the blood testis barrier (BTB). During spermiation, tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs), rich in branched actin networks, ensure recycling of spermatid-Sertoli cell junctional molecules. Similar recycling occurs during BTB restructuring around the same time as spermiation occurs. Actin related protein 2/3 complex is an essential actin nucleation and branching protein. One of its subunits, Arpc1b, was earlier found to be down-regulated in an estrogen-induced rat model of spermiation failure. Also, Arpc1b was found to be estrogen responsive through estrogen receptor beta in seminiferous tubule culture. Here, knockdown of Arpc1b by siRNA in adult rat testis led to defects in spermiation caused by failure in TBC formation. Knockdown also compromised BTB integrity and caused polarity defects of mature spermatids. Apart from these effects pertaining to Sertoli cells, Arpc1b reduction perturbed ability of germ cells to enter G2/M phase thus hindering cell division. In summary, Arpc1b, an estrogen responsive gene, is a regulator of spermiation, mature spermatid polarity, BTB integrity and cell division during adult spermatogenesis. PMID:27113856

  15. Special function of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Zhao; Kaihua Guo; Dongpei Li; Qunfang Yuan; Zhibin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Nestin+neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+neu-rons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximately 53.6%of nestin+neurons were projected to the olfactory bulb and co-labeled with fast blue. A large number of nestin+neurons were not present in each region of the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Nestin+neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca showed obvious compensatory function. The number of nestin+neurons decreased to a minimum later than nestin-/ChAT+neurons in the medial sep-tum-diagonal band of Broca. The results suggest that nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a closer connection to olfactory bulb neurons. Nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a stronger tolerance to injury than Nestin-/ChAT+neurons. The difference between nestin+and nestin-/ChAT+neurons during the recovery process requires further investigations.

  16. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  17. Evidence that the periaqueductal gray matter mediates the facilitation of panic-like reactions in neonatally-isolated adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino-dos-Santos, Jeyce Willig; Müller, Cláudia Janaína Torres; Bernabé, Cristie Setúbal; Rosa, Caroline Azevedo; Tufik, Sérgio; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of evidence suggests that childhood separation anxiety (CSA) predisposes the subject to adult-onset panic disorder (PD). As well, panic is frequently comorbid with both anxiety and depression. The brain mechanisms whereby CSA predisposes to PD are but completely unknown in spite of the increasing evidence that panic attacks are mediated at midbrain's dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). Accordingly, here we examined whether the neonatal social isolation (NSI), a model of CSA, facilitates panic-like behaviors produced by electrical stimulations of DPAG of rats as adults. Eventual changes in anxiety and depression were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swimming test (FST) respectively. Male pups were subjected to 3-h daily isolations from post-natal day 2 (PN2) until weaning (PN21) allotting half of litters in individual boxes inside a sound-attenuated chamber (NSI, n = 26) whilst siblings (sham-isolated rats, SHAM, n = 27) and dam were moved to another box in a separate room. Non-handled controls (CTRL, n = 18) remained undisturbed with dams until weaning. As adults, rats were implanted with electrodes into the DPAG (PN60) and subjected to sessions of intracranial stimulation (PN65), EPM (PN66) and FST (PN67-PN68). Groups were compared by Fisher's exact test (stimulation sites), likelihood ratio chi-square tests (stimulus-response threshold curves) and Bonferroni's post hoc t-tests (EPM and FST), for Ptrotting, galloping and jumping were markedly facilitated in NSI rats relative to both SHAM and CTRL groups. Conversely, anxiety and depression scores either did not change or were even reduced in neonatally-handled groups relative to CTRL, respectively. Data are the first behavioral evidence in animals that early-life separation stress produces the selective facilitation of panic-like behaviors in adulthood. Most importantly, results implicate the DPAG not only in panic attacks but also in separation-anxious children

  18. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (Pneurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling. PMID:26126927

  19. Effect of ormeloxifene, a nonsteroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive, on systemic hemodynamics in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiralal Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the short-term effects of ormeloxifene on systemic hemodynamics, coagulation profile, and serum antioxidant activity in vivo in comparison with raloxifene. Materials and Methods: Colony-bred adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 19 groups of 10 each and received either ormeloxifene or raloxifene (0.25, 1.25, or 3 mg/kg/day for 7, 15, or 30 days by the oral route. Animals of control group received vehicle (gum-acacia in distilled water alone in a similar manner. Systemic hemodynamics and serum total antioxidant activity were assessed 24 h after the last treatment. Results: There was no significant effect of ormeloxifene administered at these doses and schedules on hemodynamic parameters or antioxidant activity, except for increase in amplitude of R wave in rats treated with 3 mg/kg/day dose for 30 days. This effect with raloxifene was evident only 7 days after treatment at this dose. Overall response was, however, almost similar with both the agents. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate comparable pharmacological profile of ormeloxifene and raloxifene on short-term administration to rats. Based on changes observed in the ECG (R wave, long-term studies may lead to justifiable comparison of beneficial and harmful effects of ormeloxifene and raloxifene in relation to cardiovascular effects.

  20. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  1. Protective effects of pomegranate peel against hematotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwej, Awatef; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kallel, Choumous; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2016-06-01

    Context Pomegranate peel (PP) has health benefits including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic properties. Objective This study investigated the biochemical composition and protective effects of PP against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride (BaCl2) in adult rats. Materials and methods Adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six each: control, barium (67 ppm via drinking water), PP (5% via diet), and their combination during 21 d. Oxidative stress was determined by MDA, AOPP, and antioxidant status: CAT, GPx, GSH, Vit C. Osmotic fragility (OF), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and micronucleus (MN) assays were also studied. Results PP showed a rich composition of antioxidant compounds. DPPH test found IC50 value= 5.3 μg/mL and a high polysaccharides content (315 ± 5 mg/g of extract). In vivo study showed a decrease in red blood cells (70%) and platelet counts (46%), hemoglobin content (8%), hematocrit percent (7%), and an 80% increase of white blood cells in Ba-treated rats. A reduction in antioxidant status: catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, glutathione, and vitamin C levels by 31, 21, 28, and 29%, respectively, and an increase in MDA (46%) and AOPP levels (72%) were also observed compared with controls. BaCl2-treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations with abnormal metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Oxidative stress induced by BaCl2 might be the major cause for chromosomal abnormalities leading to DNA damage. Discussion and conclusion A decrease in hematotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by PP is due to its powerful antioxidant capacity. PMID:26971618

  2. Distinct effects of repeated restraint stress on basolateral amygdala neuronal membrane properties in resilient adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-08-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  3. Nerve growth factor antibody exacerbates neuropathological signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in adult lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, A; Properzi, F; Triaca, V; Aloe, L

    2000-05-01

    In this study, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats and rats exhibiting EAE expressing high circulating anti-nerve growth factor antibody were daily monitored for clinical signs and chronic relapses. Eighty-five days after EAE induction, blood, spinal cord and brain stem were used for histological examination, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) evaluation. The results showed that NGF-deprived rats display more severe clinical signs of disease. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of NGF in the brain stem and spinal cord but not of BDNF, which decreased only in spinal cord. These observations provide additional support to the hypothesis of a protective NGF role in rats exhibiting EAE. PMID:10713350

  4. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  5. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G.; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest A little stress can be good for you. Just over 100 years ago, psychologists Robert Yerkes and John Dodson suggested that cognitive performance improves as stress increases, although it falls off again if stress levels continue to rise. The hippocampus is a key brain region for both memory and the regulation of emotion, and is highly sensitive to the main class of stress hormones, glucocorticoids. One particular subregion of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, contains a high dens...

  6. Cocaine Increases Stimulated Dopamine Release more in Periadolescent than Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Q. David; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The neural mechanisms responsible for the enhanced adolescent vulnerability for initiating drug abuse are unclear. We investigated whether age differences in dopamine neurotransmission could explain cocaine’s enhanced psychomotor effects in the periadolescent rat. Electrical stimulation the medial forebrain bundle of anesthetized post-natal age 28 days (PN28) and PN65 rats elicited dopamine release in caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens core before and after 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p. Extracellu...

  7. Perinatal taurine depletion increases susceptibility to adult sugar-induced hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Suwanich, Atchariya; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine depletion produces autonomic nervous system dysregulation and increases arterial pressure in young male rats on a high sugar diet. Sprague-Dawley dams were taurine depleted (beta-alanine 3% in water) or untreated from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow with or without 5% glucose. At 7–8 weeks of age, male offspring were tested in a conscious, unrestrained or an anesthetic state. Body weight was slightly l...

  8. Corruption of the dentate gyrus by "dominant" granule cells: Implications for dentate gyrus function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E; Myers, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization an