Sample records for adult porcine skin

  1. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin. (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L


    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity.

  2. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system. (United States)

    Baynes, R E


    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  3. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging. (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit


    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  4. Mediators of increased blood flow in porcine skin

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    H. D. Moore


    Full Text Available Nicotinates and benzalkonium chloride (B.Cl cause inflammatory changes in human skin, thought to be dependent upon prostaglandin formation. This study has examined the effects of hexyl-nicotinate (HN and B.Cl on blood flow in porcine skin. The role of prostaglandins and interleukin (IL-1 in the blood flow response has been investigated. Blood flow was increased by both HN and B.Cl, the response to B.Cl being more protracted. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor pretreatment reduced these responses. IL-1-like biological activity was identified in normal porcine epidermis and the amounts recovered from inflamed skin were similar. Thus prostaglandin formation in HN or B.Cl-induced inflammation, if IL-1 dependent, is not associated with the loss of significant amounts of the cytokine from the epidermis.

  5. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin (United States)

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  6. Efficacy of transgene expression in porcine skin as a function of electrode choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotholf, Anita; Mahmood, Faisad; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik;


    , have mainly been performed in rodents and the body of evidence on electrode choice and optimal pulsing conditions is limited. We therefore tested plate and needle electrodes in vivo in porcine skin, which resembles human skin in structure. The luciferase (pCMV-Luc) gene was injected intradermally......, our data support that needle electrodes should be used in human clinical studies of gene electrotransfer to skin for improved expression....... and subsequently electroporated. Simultaneously, studies with gene electrotransfer to porcine skin using plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and betagalactosidase were performed. Interestingly, we found needle electrodes to be more efficient than plate electrodes (p

  7. Efficacy of transgene expression in porcine skin as a function of electrode choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A; Mahmood, Faisal; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik;


    , have mainly been performed in rodents and the body of evidence on electrode choice and optimal pulsing conditions is limited. We therefore tested plate and needle electrodes in vivo in porcine skin, which resembles human skin in structure. The luciferase (pCMV-Luc) gene was injected intradermally...... and subsequently electroporated. Simultaneously, studies with gene electrotransfer to porcine skin using plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and betagalactosidase were performed. Interestingly, we found needle electrodes to be more efficient than plate electrodes (p...

  8. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.


    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  9. In vitro permeation and disposition of niacinamide in silicone and porcine skin of skin barrier-mimetic formulations. (United States)

    Haque, Tasnuva; Lane, Majella E; Sil, Bruno C; Crowther, Jonathan M; Moore, David J


    Niacinamide (NIA) is an amide form of vitamin B3 which is used in cosmetic formulations to improve various skin conditions and it has also been shown to increase stratum corneum thickness following repeated application. In this study, three doses (5, 20 and 50μL per cm(2)) of two NIA containing oil-in-water skin barrier-mimetic formulations were evaluated in silicone membrane and porcine ear skin and compared with a commercial control formulation. Permeation studies were conducted over 24h in Franz cells and at the end of the experiment membranes were washed and niacinamide was extracted. For the three doses, retention or deposition of NIA was generally higher in porcine skin compared with silicone membrane, consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the active. Despite the control containing a higher amount of active, comparable amounts of NIA were deposited in skin for all formulations for all doses; total skin absorption values (permeation and retention) of NIA were also comparable across all formulations. For infinite (50μL) and finite (5μL) doses the absolute permeation of NIA from the control formulation was significantly higher in porcine skin compared with both test formulations. This likely reflects differences in formulation components and/or presence of skin penetration enhancers in the formulations. Higher permeation for the 50 and 20μL dose was also evident in porcine skin compared with silicone membrane but the opposite is the case for the finite dose. The findings point to the critical importance of dose and occlusion when evaluating topical formulations in vitro and also the likelihood of exaggerated effects of excipients on permeation at infinite and pseudo-finite dose applications.

  10. Development of hair coat and skin glands in fetal porcine integument.


    Meyer, W.; Görgen, S


    The prenatal development of the hair coat and skin glands was studied in skin samples of ten body regions of porcine fetuses (German Landrace) ranging between 40 and 114 days (birth) of gestation (15-1000 g body weight), using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. During the development of hair follicles, central and lateral primary hair follicles as well as secondary hair follicles can be distinguished. Initiation of primary hair follicles begins at 40-41 days of gestational age...

  11. Efficacy of transgene expression in porcine skin as a function of electrode choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A; Mahmood, Faisal; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik;


    Gene electrotransfer is a non-viral technique using electroporation for gene transfection. The method is widely used in the preclinical setting and results from the first clinical study in tumours have been published. However, the preclinical studies, which form the basis for the clinical trials...... and subsequently electroporated. Simultaneously, studies with gene electrotransfer to porcine skin using plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and betagalactosidase were performed. Interestingly, we found needle electrodes to be more efficient than plate electrodes (p...

  12. Analysis of oocyte-like cells differentiated from porcine fetal skin-derived stem cells. (United States)

    Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Huynh, Evanna; Shao, Hua; Villagómez, Daniel A F; Kidder, Gerald M; King, W Allan; Li, Julang


    We previously reported the differentiation of cells derived from porcine female fetal skin into cells resembling germ cells and oocytes. A subpopulation of these cells expressed germ cell markers and formed aggregates resembling cumulus-oocyte complexes. Some of these aggregates extruded large oocyte-like cells (OLCs) that expressed markers consistent with those of oocytes. The objective of the current study was to further characterize OLCs differentiated from porcine skin-derived stem cells. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed the expression of connexin37 and connexin43, both of which are characteristic of ovarian follicles. The expression of meiosis markers DMC1 and synaptonemal complex protein, but not STRA8 and REC8, was detected in the OLC cultures. Immunofluorescence with an antibody against synaptonemal complex protein on chromosome spreads revealed a very small subpopulation of stained OLCs that had a similar pattern to leptotene, zytotene, or pachytene nuclei during prophase I of meiosis. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of the differentially methylated region of H19 indicated that this region is almost completely demethylated in OLCs, similar to in vivo-derived oocytes. We also investigated the differentiation potential of male skin-derived stem cells in the same differentiation medium. Large cells with oocyte morphology were generated in the male stem cell differentiation cultures. These OLCs expressed oocyte genes such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), growth differentiation factor-9b (GDF9B), deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL), VASA, zona pellucida B (ZPB), and zona pellucida C (ZPC). It was concluded that skin-derived stem cells from both male and female porcine fetuses are capable of entering an oocyte differentiation pathway, but the culture system currently in place is inadequate to support the complete development of competent oocytes.

  13. Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy? (United States)


    UDIIILI: oa. I..UN I ItA!.. I NUMDI:It Does Glucagon improve survival in a porcine (Sus Scrofa ) of adult asphyxial cardiac arrest in addition to...EXPIRATION DATE: 25 Mar 13 PROTOCOL TITLE: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition...Additions: Deletions: 2 Protocol No: A-2007-03 Protocol Title: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial

  14. Excised porcine skin experimental systems to validate quantitative microdialysis methods for determination of drugs in skin after topical application. (United States)

    Seki, Toshinobu; Wang, Aiping; Yuan, Dan; Saso, Yuko; Hosoya, Osamu; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro


    Microdialysis is useful as a method to evaluate the disposition of drugs in the skin to design improved transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs). In this study, quantitative microdialysis methods were validated in excised porcine skin experimental systems in vitro. Flurbiprofen (FP), used as a model drug, showed high affinity for the skin tissues in equilibrium states between the medium and skin. The membrane clearances of FP for permeation through the membrane of a dialysis fiber placed in the skin (CL(m in S)) were lower than that in the medium. The adsorption of components in the skin to the membrane surface of the dialysis fiber and accumulation of FP near the dialysis fiber are the most likely reasons for this. When CL(m in S) was used to predict the extracellular FP concentration in skin (C(T)), the value obtained was lower than that expected from the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, which should be equal to C(T) at equilibrium. In the zero net flux (ZNF) method, in which the concentration difference of perfusate (DeltaC) between the inflow and outflow were used to obtain C(T), the predicted C(T) was similar to the expected value. In an in vitro skin permeation experiment, the ZNF method was used for the prediction of C(T) near the dialysis fiber. The predicted C(T) was over 10 times higher than the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, suggesting a concentration gradient in the dermis. Although the ZNF method is good for predicting the C(T) in skin, the mass balance has to be considered for the quantitative evaluation of the skin permeation of drugs. In this study, the effect of the mass transfer of FP from the perfusate to the skin on the cumulative amount of FP passing through the skin was relatively low because of the use of suitable solutions as perfusate. The perfusion conditions and schedules should be designed carefully for quantitative evaluations using the ZNF method. These results provide useful information for the in

  15. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin. (United States)

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C


    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  16. Use of autologous tissue engineered skin to treat porcine full-thickness skin defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xia; CAO Yi-lin; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; GUAN Wen-xiang


    Objective: To explore a feasible method to repair full-thickness skin defects utilizing tissue engineered techniques. Methods: The Changfeng hybrid swines were used and the skin specimens were cut from the posterior limb girdle region, from which the keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated and harvested by trypsin, EDTA, and type II collagenase. The cells were seeded in Petri dishes for primary culture. When the cells were in logarithmic growth phase, they were treated with trypsin to separate them from the floor of the tissue culture dishes. A biodegradable material, Pluronic F-127, was prefabricated and mixed with these cells, and then the cell-Pluronic compounds were seeded evenly into a polyglycolic acid (PGA). Then the constructs were replanted to the autologous animals to repair the full-thickness skin defects. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 postoperative weeks. Results: The cell-Pluronic F-127-PGA compounds repaired autologous full-thickness skin defects 1 week after implantation. Histologically, the tissue engineered skin was similar to the normal skin with stratified epidermis overlying a moderately thick collageneous dermis. Three of the structural proteins in the epidermal basement membrane zone, type IV collagen, laminin, and type VII collagen were detected using immunohistochemical methods. Conclusions: By studying the histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue, the bioengineered skin graft holds great promise for improving healing of the skin defects.

  17. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari


    was more prevalent in the SPD-positive Jewish subsample (p=0.02). In the total sample, diabetes mellitus was more common in women than in men (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Lifetime SPD appears to be relatively common in Israeli adults and associated with other mental disorders. Differences in the self......OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis....... METHODS: Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings...

  18. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

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    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Sang Jun [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoon Taek, E-mail: [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  19. Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin caused by optical clearing agents (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Wen, Xiang; Duan, Shu; Zhu, Dan


    Dehydration is supposed to be one of mechanisms of optical clearing, but current studies merely gave some qualitative descriptions. Here an analysis method was established to evaluate the water content of skin with PLS method based on the measurements of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and weight of porcine skin. Furthermore, a commercial spectrometer with integrating sphere was used to measure the reflectance and transmittance after treatment with different agents. Then the established method was used to evaluate the water content, while the Inverse Adding-Double algorithm was used to calculate the reduced scattering coefficients. The results show that both the water contents and reduced scattering coefficients decrease during the optical clearing process, and there is direct relationship between the optical clearing efficacy and dehydration. With the treating time last, the relative change in reduced scattering coefficient is larger than that in dehydration of skin, and the difference between the changes depends on the agents. Therefore, we conclude that dehydration is the main mechanism of skin optical clearing during the 60 min treatment of the agents, but for some OCAs, i.e., PEG400, glycerol, or D-sorbitol, there might be some other mechanisms contributing to the optical clearing efficacy.

  20. The Rapid Inactivation of Porcine Skin by Applying High Hydrostatic Pressure without Damaging the Extracellular Matrix

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    Naoki Morimoto


    Full Text Available We previously reported that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP of 200 MPa for 10 minutes could induce cell killing. In this study, we explored whether HHP at 200 MPa or HHP at lower pressure, in combination with hyposmotic distilled water (DW, could inactivate the skin, as well as cultured cells. We investigated the inactivation of porcine skin samples 4 mm in diameter. They were immersed in either a normal saline solution (NSS or DW, and then were pressurized at 100 and 200 MPa for 5, 10, 30, or 60 min. Next, we explored the inactivation of specimens punched out from the pressurized skin 10 × 2 cm in size. The viability was evaluated using a WST-8 assay and an outgrowth culture. The histology of specimens was analyzed histologically. The mitochondrial activity was inactivated after the pressurization at 200 MPa in both experiments, and no outgrowth was observed after the pressurization at 200 MPa. The arrangement and proportion of the dermal collagen fibers or the elastin fibers were not adversely affected after the pressurization at 200 MPa for up to 60 minutes. This study showed that a HHP at 200 MPa for 10 min could inactivate the skin without damaging the dermal matrix.

  1. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.


    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  2. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Gonchukov, S A [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation); Koenig, K [JenLab GmbH, Schillerstr. 1, 07745 Jena (Germany)


    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  3. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and a series of fatty acids on LHRH permeability through porcine skin. (United States)

    Bhatia, K S; Singh, J


    The effect of chemical penetration enhancers (e.g., fatty acids) in combination with iontophoresis was examined on the in vitro permeability of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) through porcine skin. Porcine epidermis was pretreated with either ethanol (EtOH) or 10% fatty acid/EtOH. The permeability coefficient of LHRH was significantly (p Iontophoresis further enhanced the permeability of LHRH (p permeability. Among saturated fatty acids tested, 10% palmitic acid/iontophoresis showed the highest permeability coefficient [(59.52 +/- 2.40) x 10(-4) cm/h], which was approximately 16-fold higher than that of the control [(3.57 +/- 0.41) x 10(-4) cm/h]. Unsaturated cis-octadecenoic acids were more effective penetration enhancers when compared with octadecanoic acid. Among cis-octadecenoic acids in combination with EtOH, the greater iontophoretic permeability coefficient [(59.18 +/- 12.43) x 10(-4) cm/h] was obtained through linolenic acid treated epidermis, which was significantly greater (p iontophoresis treated epidermis was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced than the prerecovery value but could not completely recover to the baseline flux (i.e., flux of LHRH through untreated epidermis).

  4. Characterisation of a behavioural protocol for the assessment of nociception in normal and inflamed porcine skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo


    of behavioural cutaneous nociception was performed via the assessment of differences in cutaneous pain sensitivity as determined by the body size of the animals, the anatomical locations of interest and the sensory modalities involved. Consequently, this new protocol allowed measuring the change in cutaneous...... pain sensitivity following ultraviolet-B and capsaicin-induced inflammation in porcine skin. A series of experiments was performed to characterise the new experimental protocol, which included (1) the identification and quantification of reflexive behavioural responses indicative of the nociceptive...... pain sensitivity, although associated with high levels of individual variability. The nociceptive assays proved to be valuable in measuring the development of altered cutaneous pain sensitivity following two inflammatory challenges. Behavioural signs of hyperalgesia were recorded in pigs exposed...

  5. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  6. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model. (United States)

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan


    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting.

  7. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the porcine type XVII collagen noncollagenous 16 A domain and localization of the domain to the upper part of porcine skin basement membrane zone. (United States)

    Xu, Luting; Olivry, Thierry; Chan, Lawrence S


    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering human skin disease mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies targeting skin basement membrane component type XVII collagen, a transmembrane protein. Also designated BP180 and BPAG2, type XVII collagen is an extracellular matrix element essential for the connection between the epidermis and the underlying dermis. In addition to being a target antigen in the human disease bullous pemphigoid, type XVII collagen is also targeted by autoantibodies of canine, feline, equine and porcine patients suffering from a similar blistering skin disease. Previously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analyses have shown that autoantibodies from pigs affected with bullous pemphigoid recognize the human NC16A domain of type XVII collagen. To facilitate the development of porcine model of bullous pemphigoid, we isolated cDNA encoding the porcine type XVII collagen NC16A domain using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. The amino acids deduced from the NC16A cDNA showed 61% identity with the sequence of human NC16A. An antibody generated against a 20-amino acid peptide within the porcine NC16A localized the NC16A epitope to the upper part of porcine skin basement membrane zone. Our data provide further information of the porcine bullous pemphigoid target antigen and may help investigators for their further studies of this disease.

  8. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.


    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  9. Decolonisation of MRSA, S. aureus and E. coli by cold-atmospheric plasma using a porcine skin model in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Maisch

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years new antibacterial agents approved by the U.S. FDA decreased whereas in parallel the resistance situation of multi-resistant bacteria increased. Thus, community and nosocomial acquired infections of resistant bacteria led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapy, prolonging treatment time and increasing healthcare costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of cold atmospheric plasma for decolonisation of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli using an ex vivo pig skin model. Freshly excised skin samples were taken from six month old female pigs (breed: Pietrain. After application of pure bacteria on the surface of the explants these were treated with cold atmospheric plasma for up to 15 min. Two different plasma devices were evaluated. A decolonisation efficacy of 3 log(10 steps was achieved already after 6 min of plasma treatment. Longer plasma treatment times achieved a killing rate of 5 log(10 steps independently from the applied bacteria strains. Histological evaluations of untreated and treated skin areas upon cold atmospheric plasma treatment within 24 h showed no morphological changes as well as no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis determined by the TUNEL-assay indicating that the porcine skin is still vital. This study demonstrates for the first time that cold atmospheric plasma is able to very efficiently kill bacteria applied to an intact skin surface using an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results emphasize the potential of cold atmospheric plasma as a new possible treatment option for decolonisation of human skin from bacteria in patients in the future without harming the surrounding tissue.

  10. Multiple skin tumors of indeterminate cells in an adult. (United States)

    Kolde, G; Bröcker, E B


    An adult patient with multiple unusual histiocytic tumors of the skin is described. As shown by immunohistologic study, electron microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy, the tumors represent circumscribed proliferations of the Langerhans cell-related indeterminate dendritic cells of the skin. This distinct cutaneous histiocytosis may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  11. Antibiotic consumption and Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization in hospitalized adults. (United States)

    Kirby, A; Berry, C; West, R


    Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly antibiotic resistant, and skin colonization may contribute to their spread in hospitals. This study screened 100 hospitalized adults for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization, and assessed potential risk factors, including antibiotic consumption. Multi-variable analysis found that antibiotic consumption whilst an inpatient [odds ratio (OR) 3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-8.4] and male sex (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.06-8.4) were risk factors for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization. If these risk factors are confirmed, work to understand the biological mechanism involved may lead to the development of interventions to prevent Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization.

  12. A New Skin Detection Approach for Adult Image Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nadian Ghomsheh


    Full Text Available With rapid proliferation of adult content on the internet, development of software to detect and filter this content is gaining more and more attention. In this study, a new method for adult image identification is proposed. Accurate human skin detection and extraction of relative features are the bottlenecks in this regard. In the proposed skin detection method, first, Hue color information is utilized to examine whether skin is present in the image, and if so, using dynamic thresholding an estimate of the skin region is obtained. In the second step, for images that contain skin, an exponential function is fitted to the histogram of the estimated skin area. Based on the parameters of the fitted function, the final skin map of the image is extracted. Area, texture, and a new shape feature are extracted from each region and used for image classification using neural networks. 95% accuracy for skin detection and 93.7% accuracy of adult image detection, compared to other methods showed the significance of the proposed method.

  13. Evaluation of transdermal delivery of nanoemulsions in ex vivo porcine skin using two-photon microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy (United States)

    Choi, Sanghoon; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Yong Joong; Delmas, Thomas; Kim, Changhwan; Park, Soyeun; Lee, Ho


    This study experimentally evaluates the self-targeting ability of asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions in ex vivo experiments with porcine skin samples. Homebuilt two-photon and confocal laser-scanning microscopes were employed to noninvasively examine the transdermal delivery of two distinct nanoemulsions. Prior to the application of nanoemulsions, we noninvasively observed the morphology of porcine skin using two-photon microscopy. We have successfully visualized the distributions of the targeted and nontargeted nanoemulsions absorbed into the porcine skin samples. Asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions showed an improved ex vivo transdermal delivery through the stratum corneum compared with nonloaded nanoemulsions. As a secondary measure, nanoemulsions-applied samples were sliced in the depth direction with a surgical knife in order to obtain the complete depth-direction distribution profile of Nile red fluorescence. XZ images demonstrated that asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsion penetrated deeper into the skin compared with nontargeted nanoemulsions. The basal layer boundary is clearly visible in the case of the asiaticoside-loaded skin sample. These results reaffirm the feasibility of using self-targeting ligands to improve permeation through the skin barrier for cosmetics and topical drug applications.

  14. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (United States)

    Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki


    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of human than the mouse counterpart. The predicted amino acid sequence of porcine NLRP3 presented nine C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. In newborn swine, the expression of NLRP3 was detected at higher levels in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, while lower levels were observed in intestinal tissues. In adult swine, NLRP3 was strongly expressed in Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression level in the lower intestinal tissues was comparable to that in spleen. Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding domain ligands, as well as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus gasseri, enhanced NLRP3 expression in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of newborn and adult swine. Our results should aid in understanding the intestinal immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying NLRP3 activation and the priming ability of immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in porcine GALT.

  15. Threshold Damage of In vivo Porcine Skin at 2000 nm Laser Irradiation (United States)


    middle point between the lowest value consistent damage (P^) and largest value of no damage ( Pno ). The standard deviation of ED50 value was equal to...32% of the border width (P&- Pno ). Even though the Yucatan mini-pig skin best represents human skin, the dark pigmentation of the skin hindered the

  16. Effects of relative humidity and ambient temperature on the ballistic delivery of micro-particles to excised porcine skin. (United States)

    Kendall, Mark; Rishworth, Stephen; Carter, Fiona; Mitchell, Thomas


    The effectiveness of ballistic particle delivery to the skin is often dependent upon breaching the stratum corneum (SC) and targeting cells within defined layers of the viable epidermis. This paper experimentally determines the influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the ballistic delivery of particles to the skin. Gold particles of radius 0.9+/-0.6 microm were accelerated by a hand-held supersonic device to impact freshly excised porcine skin at 410-665 m per s. Increasing the RH from 15% to 95% (temperature at 25 degrees C) led to a particle penetration increase by a factor of 1.8. Temperature increases from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C (RH at 15%) enhanced particle penetration 2-fold. In both cases, these increases were sufficient to move the target layer from the SC to the viable epidermis. Relative trends in particle penetration compared well with predictions from a theoretical model well. Calculated absolute penetration depths are 6-fold greater than the measurements. The inversely calculated dynamic yield stress of the SC is up to a factor of 10 higher than reported quasi-static measurements, due to changes in tissue failure modes over a strain-rate range spanning 10 orders of magnitude. If targeted particle delivery is required, it is recommended that the environmental RH and temperature be monitored.

  17. Recombinant human collagen III gel for transplantation of autologous skin cells in porcine full-thickness wounds. (United States)

    Nuutila, Kristo; Peura, Matti; Suomela, Sari; Hukkanen, Mika; Siltanen, Antti; Harjula, Ari; Vuola, Jyrki; Kankuri, Esko


    Complex skin wounds, such as chronic ulcers and deep burns, require lengthy treatments and cause extensive burdens on healthcare and the economy. Use of biomaterials and cell transplantation may improve traditional treatments and promote the healing of difficult-to-treat wounds. In this study, we investigated the use of recombinant human collagen III (rhCol-III) gel as a delivery vehicle for cultured autologous skin cells (keratinocytes only or keratinocyte-fibroblast mixtures). We examined its effect on the healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine wound-healing model. Two Landrace pigs were used for the study. Fourteen deep dermal wounds were created on the back of each pig with an 8 mm biopsy punch. Syringes containing acellular rhCol-III gel (n = 8) or rhCol-III gel with autologous keratinocytes (n = 8) or rhCol-III gel with autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts (n = 8) were applied into wounds. Untreated wounds were used as controls for the treatment groups (n = 4). We used rhCol-III gel to manufacture a cell-delivery syringe containing autologous skin cells. In a full-thickness wound-healing model, we observed that rhCol-III gel enhances early granulation tissue formation. Interestingly, we found cell type-dependent differences in the stability of rhCol-III in vivo. Fibroblast-containing gel was effectively removed from the wound, whereas gels without cells or with keratinocytes only remained intact. Our results demonstrate that the properties of rhCol-III gel for skin cell transplantation can be significantly altered in a cell type-dependent manner.

  18. Size dependent skin penetration of nanoparticles in murine and porcine dermatitis models. (United States)

    Try, Céline; Moulari, Brice; Béduneau, Arnaud; Fantini, Oscar; Pin, Didier; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf


    A major limitation in the current topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases is the inability to selectively deliver the drug to the inflammation site. Recently, smart drug delivery systems such as nanocarriers are being investigated to enhance the selective deposition of anti-inflammatory drugs in inflamed areas of the skin to achieve higher therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Of such systems, polymeric nanoparticles are considered very efficient carriers for the topical drug delivery. In the current work, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles of nominal sizes of 70nm (NP70) and 300nm (NP300) were studied for their intra-epidermal distribution in murine and pig atopic dermatitis models over time against the respective healthy controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopical examination of skin biopsies was utilized for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of nanoparticles skin deposition and penetration depth. While no skin penetration was found for any of the particles in healthy skin, the accumulation of NP70 was significantly higher than NP300 in inflamed skin (15-fold in mice, 5-fold in pigs). Penetration depth of NP70 decreased over time in mice from 55±3μm to 20±2μm and similar tendencies were observed for the other formulations. In inflamed pig skin, a similar trend was found for the penetration depth (NP70: 46±12μm versus NP300: 23±3μm); however, the NP amount remained constant for the whole analyzed period. Their ability to penetrate specifically into inflamed skin combined with minimal effects on healthy skin underlines small polymeric nanoparticles' potential as selective drug carriers in future treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

  19. The influence of hydrophylic polymers on the release rate of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation assessed in vitro using porcine ear skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Pastuszka Dorota


    Full Text Available A shortage of available experimental data exists in the available bibliography on the release rate of calcium dobesilate (CD from hydrogel formulations. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected hydrophilic nonionic polymers and anionic polymers on the release rate of CD from formulation provided for dermal application, as compared to the reference product in the market. The work utilized excised pork skin, while, Methylcellulose (MC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, and anionic polymers (copolymers of acrylic acid were used as CD carriers. The release study was executed by the pharmacopoeial paddle method, with extraction cells and fresh excised porcine skin as a membrane. CD in aqueous acceptor fluid was quantified by UV-VIS spectrometry at 300 nm. Subsequently, the kinetic curves were fitted to a zero-order kinetics model, a first-order kinetics model, a second-order kinetics model, as well as to the Higuchi model. The work saw that porcine ear skin influences the release pattern of the CD, compared to the artificial membrane. In the study, the evaluated formulations with MC, polyacrylic acid (PA and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11 (PC-11 deliver over 60% of the active component (AC, within 250 min, through the excised porcine ear skin, to the acceptor compartment. Moreover, the release observed via porcine ear skin to the aqueous acceptor compartment is congenial to zero-order or first-order kinetics. In addition, the formulations prepared on the basis of MC and PA appear to control AC delivery, independently of actual concentration of AC.

  20. Ultrasound-mediated transdermal drug delivery of fluorescent nanoparticles and hyaluronic acid into porcine skin in vitro (United States)

    Wang, Huan-Lei; Fan, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xia-Sheng; Tu, Juan; Ma, Yong; Zhang, Dong


    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) can effectively bypass the first-pass effect. In this paper, ultrasound-facilitated TDD on fresh porcine skin was studied under various acoustic parameters, including frequency, amplitude, and exposure time. The delivery of yellow-green fluorescent nanoparticles and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) in the skin samples was observed by laser confocal microscopy and ultraviolet spectrometry, respectively. The results showed that, with the application of ultrasound exposures, the permeability of the skin to these markers (e.g., their penetration depth and concentration) could be raised above its passive diffusion permeability. Moreover, ultrasound-facilitated TDD was also tested with/without the presence of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). When the ultrasound was applied without UCAs, low ultrasound frequency will give a better drug delivery effect than high frequency, but the penetration depth was less likely to exceed 200 μm. However, with the help of the ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation effect, both the penetration depth and concentration in the skin were significantly enhanced even more. The best ultrasound-facilitated TDD could be achieved with a drug penetration depth of over 600 μm, and the penetration concentrations of fluorescent nanoparticles and HA increased up to about 4-5 folds. In order to get better understanding of ultrasound-facilitated TDD, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of skin samples, which showed that the skin structure changed greatly under the treatment of ultrasound and UCA. The present work suggests that, for TDD applications (e.g., nanoparticle drug carriers, transdermal patches and cosmetics), protocols and methods presented in this paper are potentially useful. Project partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81127901, 81227004, 81473692, 81673995, 11374155, 11574156, 11274170, 11274176, 11474001

  1. Wound healing activity of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Periyanayagam


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To prescreen the ex- vivo wound healing activity of flavonoid rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Family Moraceae using porcine skin wound healing model (PSWHM along with  phytochemical, XRF, HPTLC analysis. The aim of this present study is to provide pharmacological validation to the traditional claim for wound healing activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves. Method: Total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and ursolic acid content by HPTLC, trace elements by X-ray fluorescence were determined.  The wound healing effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus (EAAH was evaluated using ex- vivo porcine skin wound healing model - a novel organ culture model system for evaluation of drugs in cell-cell junction in the wound healing process. Results: Total phenolic content by UV method, HPTLC determination of ursolic acid content of EAAH was found to be 376.5mg/g GAE, 134mg/g respectively. XRF study showed the presence of calcium (39.4%, potassium (29.6%, magnesium (2.06%, Iron (0.99%, sulphur (1.83%, zinc (0.083%, strontium (0.23%, manganese (0.13% and aluminium (0.005%.   Histopathological evaluation showed all treated wounds were sound with no signs of apoptosis, necrosis or bacterial contamination and no toxicity of the tested concentrations of EAAH of the leaves. Morphology of the wound margins, epidermis and dermis layer were found to be normal. Epidermal migration or keratinocyte migration distances from the edges of each wound were measured, normalized with the PBS control group and expressed as mean%. The result clearly showed EAAH (1.5% promoted statistically significant wound healing effect is comparable to the standard drug Mupirocin. Conclusion: This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus possesses potential wound healing activity on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model. Wound healing

  2. Skin tears: care and management of the older adult at home. (United States)

    Holmes, Regina F; Davidson, Martha W; Thompson, Bonnie J; Kelechi, Teresa J


    Skin tears experienced by older adults require special skills to promote healing. Home healthcare providers are in key positions to manage skin tears and prevent further skin trauma. Several guidelines, risk assessments, classifications, and products exist to manage high-risk patients. Frequent evaluation of the effectiveness of the treatment and prevention strategies in an overall skin care protocol for home care patients is critical to reduce skin tear incidence and promote prompt healing when skin tears are present.

  3. Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments. (United States)

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Hood, Robert L; Chen, Ye; Xu, Yong; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Rylander, Christopher G


    Shallow light penetration in tissue has been a technical barrier to the development of light-based methods for in vivo diagnosis and treatment of epithelial carcinomas. This problem can potentially be solved by utilizing minimally invasive probes to deliver light directly to target areas. To develop this solution, fiber optic microneedles capable of delivering light for either imaging or therapy were manufactured by tapering step-index silica-based optical fibers employing a melt-drawing process. Some of the microneedles were manufactured to have sharper tips by changing the heat source during the melt-drawing process. All of the microneedles were individually inserted into ex vivo pig skin samples to demonstrate the feasibility of their application in human tissues. The force on each microneedle was measured during insertion in order to determine the effects of sharper tips on the peak force and the steadiness of the increase in force. Skin penetration experiments showed that sharp fiber optic microneedles that are 3 mm long penetrate through 2 mm of ex vivo pig skin specimens. These sharp microneedles had a minimum average diameter of 73 mum and a maximum tip diameter of 8 mum. Flat microneedles, which had larger tip diameters, required a minimum average diameter of 125 mum in order to penetrate through pig skin samples. Force versus displacement plots showed that a sharp tip on a fiber optic microneedle decreased the skin's resistance during insertion. Also, the force acting on a sharp microneedle increased more steadily compared with a microneedle with a flat tip. However, many of the sharp microneedles sustained damage during skin penetration. Two designs that did not accrue damage were identified and will provide a basis of more robust microneedles. Developing resilient microneedles with smaller diameters will lead to transformative, novel modes of transdermal imaging and treatment that are less invasive and less painful for the patient.

  4. An ideal preparation for dermal regeneration: skin renewal growth factors, the growth factor composites from porcine platelets. (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Wu, Yo-Ping Greg; Lo, Wen-Cheng


    The use of growth factor composites from platelets has been introduced to many areas of clinical applications and studies. With the richest source of growth factors (GFs), beneficial effects have been shown on tissue regeneration and wound healing. However, animal and clinical studies have revealed inconsistent outcomes with the use of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), which were likely due to variations in the presence and concentrations of GFs between various sources. Autologous PDGFs are considered to be safer, but they are limited by the feasibility of large-scale production to be used extensively in the acute phase, greater surface area, or general cosmetic applications. This study employed a simple process to obtain growth factor composites from activated platelets of porcine origin, namely skin renewal growth factors (SRGF). The functions of SRGF were subsequently evaluated on cultured human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Our data revealed that SRGF significantly promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts, accompanied by increased expression of collagens (types I, III, IV, and VIII) and proteoglycans. Diminished proliferation and arrested differentiation of keratinocytes were evidenced by the attenuated expression of laminin V and keratin 10. In addition, SRGF also suppressed the growth of melanocytes and reduced the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and paired box 3 (PAX3), which mediates melanogensis. Our results suggest that SRGF possesses beneficial properties and is a promising and cost-effective composition for the development of a safe cosmetic agent or topical products for skin regeneration. The development of SRGF may also provide an alternative strategy for tissue engineering.

  5. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen


    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  6. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study. (United States)

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga


    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care.

  7. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 enhances retinal ganglion cell survival in adult porcine retinal explants. (United States)

    Taylor, Linnéa; Arnér, Karin; Ghosh, Fredrik


    Signaling through the polymodal cation channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been implicated in retinal neuronal degeneration. To further outline the involvement of this channel in this process, we here explore modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) activity on neuronal health and glial activation in an in vitro model of retinal degeneration. For this purpose, adult porcine retinal explants were cultured using a previously established standard protocol for up to 5 days with specific TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A (GSK), or specific antagonist RN-1734, or culture medium only. Glial and neuronal cell health were evaluated by a battery of immunohistochemical markers, as well as morphological staining. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 by RN-1734 significantly enhanced ganglion cell survival, improved the maintenance of the retinal laminar architecture, reduced apoptotic cell death and attenuated the gliotic response as well as preserved the expression of TRPV4 in the plexiform layers and ganglion cells. In contrast, culture controls, as well as specimens treated with GSK, displayed rapid remodeling and neurodegeneration as well as a downregulation of TRPV4 and the Müller cell homeostatic mediator glutamine synthetase. Our results indicate that TRPV4 signaling is an important contributor to the retinal degeneration in this model, affecting neuronal cell health and glial homeostasis. The finding that pharmacological inhibition of the receptor significantly attenuates neuronal degeneration and gliosis in vitro, suggests that TRPV4 signaling may be an interesting pharmaceutical target to explore for treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  8. Effect of sample preservation on stress softening and permanent set of porcine skin. (United States)

    Caro-Bretelle, A S; Gountsop, P N; Ienny, P; Leger, R; Corn, S; Bazin, I; Bretelle, F


    Skin is a composite material with a complex structure which exhibits a wide range of behaviours such as anisotropy, viscoelasticity, hyperelasticity, plasticity etc. Indeed it remains a great challenge to understand its behaviour as it is involved in many consumer and medical applications. In most studies, experiments are performed in situ or in vitro on fresh tissues but most of the time samples are preserved before testing (fridge, freezer, saline solution etc.). In this paper, the impact of samples conservation on the softening behaviour and on the permanent set is studied in order to select the appropriate conservation protocol. Samples are extracted from several pigs' abdomens (direction parallel to spine) and the mechanical testing consists in loading-unloading uniaxial tension tests instrumented with digital image correlation inducing thus reliable strain measurements in a chosen region of interest. The results of this study revealed that preservation conditions must be carefully chosen; conservation in a saline solution and freezing without any caution alter the irreversible part of the global mechanical behaviour of the tissues.

  9. Prediction of formulation effects on dermal absorption of topically applied ectoparasiticides dosed in vitro on canine and porcine skin using a mixture-adjusted quantitative structure permeability relationship. (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Brooks, J D; Collard, W T; Deng, J; de Rose, G; Mahabir, S P; Merritt, D A; Marchiondo, A A


    Topical application of ectoparasiticides for flea and tick control is a major focus for product development in animal health. The objective of this work was to develop a quantitative structure permeability relationship (QSPeR) model sensitive to formulation effects for predicting absorption and skin deposition of five topically applied drugs administered in six vehicle combinations to porcine and canine skin in vitro. Saturated solutions (20 μL) of (14) C-labeled demiditraz, fipronil, permethrin, imidacloprid, or sisapronil were administered in single or binary (50:50 v/v) combinations of water, ethanol, and transcutol (6 formulations, n = 4-5 replicates per treatment) nonoccluded to 0.64 cm(2) disks of dermatomed pig or dog skin mounted in flow-through diffusion cells. Perfusate flux over 24 h and skin deposition at termination were determined. Permeability (logKp), absorption, and penetration endpoints were modeled using a four-term Abrahams and Martin (hydrogen-bond donor acidity and basicity, dipolarity/polarizability, and excess molar refractivity) linear free energy QSPeR equation with a mixture factor added to compensate for formulation ingredient interactions. Goodness of fit was judged by r(2) , cross-validation coefficient, coefficients (q(2) s), and Williams Plot to visualize the applicability domain. Formulation composition was the primary determinant of permeation. Compounds generally penetrated dog skin better than porcine skin. The vast majority of permeated penetrant was deposited within the dosed skin relative to transdermal flux, an attribute for ectoparasiticides. The best QSPeR logKp model for pig skin permeation (r(2) = 0.86, q(2) s = 0.85) included log octanol/water partition coefficient as the mixture factor, while for dogs (r(2) = 0.91, q(2) s = 0.90), it was log water solubility. These studies clearly showed that the permeation of topical ectoparasiticides could be well predicted using QSPeR models that account for both the physical

  10. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy. (United States)

    Wilson, S E


    This article reviews the diagnosis and management of mild-to-moderate skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults in a general practice setting. Therapies reviewed are those in current use: penicillins; beta-lactamase stable penicillins, including flucloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate; oral quinolones; macrolides; and oral cephalosporins. Consideration is given to duration of therapy, side-effect profile and compliance.

  11. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting. (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K


    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (pskin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been demonstrated. Future research to enhance quality of skin replacement therapies should be directed toward modulation of inflammation and assessments for complete excision.

  12. Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin. (United States)

    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Knorr, Fanny; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa


    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles.

  13. "Mirror, mirror...." a preliminary investigation of skin tone dissatisfaction and its impact among British adults. (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Henry, Amy; Peacock, Nicola; Roberts-Dunn, Ahkin; Porter, Alan


    This study examined skin tone dissatisfaction, measured using a skin tone chart, among a multiethnic sample of British adults. A total of 648 British White individuals, 292 British South Asians, and 260 British African Caribbean participants completed a visual task in which they were asked to indicate their actual and ideal skin tones. They also completed measures of body appreciation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity attachment. Results showed that Asians had a lighter skin tone ideal than White and African Caribbean participants. Conversely, White participants had higher skin tone dissatisfaction (preferring a darker skin tone) than Asian and African Caribbean participants, who preferred a lighter skin tone. Results also showed that skin tone dissatisfaction predicted body appreciation once the effects of participant ethnicity, age, ethnic identity attachment, and self-esteem had been accounted for. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  15. Beliefs and Intentions for Skin Protection and UV Exposure in Young Adults (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Manne, Sharon L.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Collins, Bradley; Lessin, Stuart R.


    Objective: To evaluate Fishbein's integrative model in predicting young adults' skin protection, sun exposure, and indoor tanning intentions. Methods: Two hundred twelve participants completed an online survey. Results: Damage distress, self-efficacy, and perceived control accounted for 34% of the variance in skin protection intentions. Outcome…

  16. Method for Obtaining Committed Adult Mesenchymal Precursors from Skin and Lung Tissue


    Aurora Bernal; María Fernández; Pérez, Laura M.; Nuria San Martín; Gálvez, Beatriz G.


    AIMS: The present study reports an easy and efficient method for obtaining adult mesenchymal precursors from different adult mouse tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung by a non-enzymatic method. Skin and lung mesenchymal precursors isolated by a modified explant technique were characterized in vitro by defined morphology and by a specific gene expression profile and surface markers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our re...

  17. Confocal Raman microscopy and multivariate statistical analysis for determination of different penetration abilities of caffeine and propylene glycol applied simultaneously in a mixture on porcine skin ex vivo. (United States)

    Mujica Ascencio, Saul; Choe, ChunSik; Meinke, Martina C; Müller, Rainer H; Maksimov, George V; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E


    Propylene glycol is one of the known substances added in cosmetic formulations as a penetration enhancer. Recently, nanocrystals have been employed also to increase the skin penetration of active components. Caffeine is a component with many applications and its penetration into the epidermis is controversially discussed in the literature. In the present study, the penetration ability of two components - caffeine nanocrystals and propylene glycol, applied topically on porcine ear skin in the form of a gel, was investigated ex vivo using two confocal Raman microscopes operated at different excitation wavelengths (785nm and 633nm). Several depth profiles were acquired in the fingerprint region and different spectral ranges, i.e., 526-600cm(-1) and 810-880cm(-1) were chosen for independent analysis of caffeine and propylene glycol penetration into the skin, respectively. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) combined with Student's t-test were employed to calculate the maximum penetration depths of each substance (caffeine and propylene glycol). The results show that propylene glycol penetrates significantly deeper than caffeine (20.7-22.0μm versus 12.3-13.0μm) without any penetration enhancement effect on caffeine. The results confirm that different substances, even if applied onto the skin as a mixture, can penetrate differently. The penetration depths of caffeine and propylene glycol obtained using two different confocal Raman microscopes are comparable showing that both types of microscopes are well suited for such investigations and that multivariate statistical PCA-LDA methods combined with Student's t-test are very useful for analyzing the penetration of different substances into the skin.

  18. Evaluation of Skin Findings in Adult Obese Dermatology Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between systemic diseases and obesity is well-known, but the dermatological effects of obesity are ignored. In the literature, a few articles have appeared concerning the skin findings related to obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the skin findings in obese patients who applied to dermatology outpatient clinic and to compare obese and non-obese outpatients. Material and Method: A total 640 patients (300-in study group, 340-in control group were included in the study. All subjects were asked questions about socio-demographic features and presence of coexisting systemic diseases. Body mass index was calculated, dermatologic examination was performed, and diagnosis was recorded. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Three-hundred obese patients (study group; 229 females, 71 males, mean age: 45.89 years and 340 non-obese outpatients (control group; 160 females, 180 males, mean age: 38.99 years were included in our study. There were more females in the study group and the mean age was higher than the control group. Most common skin findings of obese patients were: Skin tag (53.3%, plantar hyperkeratosis (29.6%, fungal infections (25.3%, striae (20.3% and acanthosis nigricans (15.3%. Fungal infections, intertrigo, varicose veins and keratosis pilaris were more common in females than males in the study group. Within the study group, patients with skin tag, acanthosis nigricans and plantar hyperkeratosis had higher BMI.Conclusion: Skin tag, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal infections, striae and acanthosis nigricans were found to be the most common skin diseases in obese patients in our study. Studies related with pathophysiologic features of the skin of obese patients will give more information about the development and treatment of these diseases. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 184-7

  19. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function (United States)

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Boeglin, William E.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Brash, Alan R.


    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  20. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care. (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J


    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research.

  1. Expression of collagen genes in the cones of skin in the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring. (United States)

    Zhu, Kathy Q; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Couture, Oliver P; Tuggle, Christopher K; Gibran, Nicole S; Engrav, Loren H


    During the past decades there has been minimal improvement in prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. Reasons include the lack of a validated animal model, imprecise techniques to dissect scar into the histologic components, and limited methodology for measurement of gene expression. These problems have been addressed with the Duroc/Yorkshire model of healing, laser capture microdissection, and the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. Here we compared collagen gene expression in fibroproliferative healing in the Duroc breed to nonfibroproliferative healing in the Yorkshires. We made shallow and deep dorsal wounds, biopsied at 1, 2, 3, 12, and 20 weeks. We sampled the dermal cones by laser capture microdissection, extracted and amplified the RNA, and hybridized Affymetrix Porcine GeneChips. We also obtained samples of human hypertrophic scar approximately 20 weeks postinjury. Data were normalized and statistical analysis performed with mixed linear regression using the Bioconductor R/maanova package. Genes for further analysis were also restricted with four biologic criteria, including that the 20-week deep Duroc expression match the human samples. Eleven collagen genes and seven collagen types were differentially over expressed in deep Duroc wounds including 1a1, 1a2, 3a1, 4a1, 4a2, 5a1, 5a2, 5a3, 6a3 (transcript variant 5), 14a1 and 15a1. COL7a1 gene was differentially under expressed in deep Duroc wounds. The results suggest that collagens I, III, IV, V, VI, VII, XIV, and XV [corrected] are involved in the process of fibroproliferative scarring. With these clues, we will attempt to construct the regulatory pathway(s) of fibroproliferative healing.

  2. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties. (United States)

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W


    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking.


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    Kotowaroo Goonmatee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the rise in the prevalence of skin infections in many countries and the lack of published data pertaining to the prevalence and awareness of skin infection in Mauritius, this survey is the first of its kind to provide data on this issue. The aim of this study is to describe the association of skin infection with various predisposing factors such as socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and level of awareness and to assess the impact of skin infections on quality of life. Material and Methods: A stratified sample of 500 adults was randomly selected for this study. Subjects were administered a questionnaire to elicit information on sociodemographic factors, awareness, family history and prevalence of skin infections. Quality of life was investigated by a validated questionnaire (DLQI. SPSS Software and Microsoft Excel were used to analyse data. Results: Among 500 participants, 166 (33% cases of skin infections were obtained. Acne was found to be more prevalent (n=59. It was found that skin infection varies with gender and higher prevalence was observed during summer as compared to winter (p=0.017. It was noted that family history and income level were associated with an increase incidence of skin infection (p=0.000. With respect to quality of life, psychological distress was mostly affected. Conclusion: Acne was found to be more prevalent. Respondents with middle income status were mostly affected with skin infection. Those with a family history were more prone to skin infection. The Quality of Life index was found to be an efficient method in assessing the impact of skin infection on the respondents’ lives.

  4. Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses (United States)

    Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.


    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

  5. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne;


    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  6. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans. (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li


    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  7. Sun exposure, skin color and vitamin D status in Arab children and adults. (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Khan, Nasiruddin; Sabico, Shaun; Aljohani, Naji; Alfawaz, Hanan; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Alokail, Majed S


    Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated with better vitamin D status. In this context, we aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25-(OH)D] concentrations are related to skin color, sun exposure and gender among healthy Saudi children and adults. A total of 808 Saudi children (age=14.6±0.04years) and 561 (age=31.4±0.3years) adults of both genders were included in this study. Levels of sun exposure and skin color were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry and plasma 25-(OH)D concentrations were analyzed. On the basis of duration of sun exposure (20min), a significantly lower concentration of 25-(OH)D (40.9±1.2 vs. 35.5±1.8nmol/l; pcolor on vitamin D status of children or adults, except in dark-skinned boys who had lower 25(OH)D concentrations associated with limited sun exposure.

  8. Modeling the effect of experimental variables on the in vitro permeation of six model compounds across porcine skin. (United States)

    Karadzovska, Daniela; Brooks, James D; Riviere, Jim E


    A majority of quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPeRs) predict the permeability coefficient (k(p)) of compounds topically applied as infinite, saturated doses from water vehicles. Alternate delivery vehicles and other experimental variables are rarely incorporated in such models. This research presents the development and statistical validation of QSPeR models that incorporate the effects of penetrant, vehicle, and experimental conditions such as dose volume (finite/infinite), and saturation level (saturated/unsaturated). A composite parameter, a mixture factor (MF), was also included to account for the physicochemical properties of the compound/vehicle mixture components. The resultant models effectively described skin flux and absorption, identifying the summation of hydrogen bond acidity and basicity, excess molar refractivity, dose volume, saturation level, and vehicle as the most prominent factors influencing flux values. The main factors influencing absorption values were the summation of hydrogen bond basicity, dipolarity/polarizability, the McGowan characteristic volume, dose volume, saturation level, and vehicle. The same MF (inverse of the melting point) was considered suitable to describe both flux and absorption. For endpoints involving skin deposition, log propylene glycol solubility was a more suitable MF. Such models show potential for use in drug delivery and toxicology research, specifically in assessing percutaneous absorption data collected under different experimental conditions.

  9. Studies on the conservation of epidermal specificies of skin and certain mucosas in adult mammals. (United States)

    Billingham, R E; Silvers, W K


    To determine whether the factor(s) responsible for the conservation of epidermal specificities in adult guinea pigs and hamsters resides in the germinal layer of the epidermis or in the dermis, thin grafts of skin, possessing qualitatively distinct regional characteristics, were separated into their superficial epidermal and dermal components with the aid of trypsin. Dermis of one type was combined with epidermis of another to produce "recombinant" grafts which were then transplanted to small, full thickness cutaneous sites on the thorax of geneticaily compatible hosts. A variant of this procedure involved transplanting sheets of superficial epidermis of various types to shallow split thickness recipient areas in the skin of the thorax. All grafts were maintained for 100 days before they were excised and examined histologically. The results indicate that, whereas the dermis determines the kind of epidermis produced in recombinant grafts involving the ear, the sole of the foot, and the trunk, this is not the case in recombinants which include tongue, esophageal, or cheek pouch epithelia. The one exception to this occurred when tongue or esophagus epithelia were transplanted to split thickness beds in trunk skin. Here they appeared to produce an epidermis characteristic of their new location. It is believed that this exception is probably due to the fact that the native follicular epidermis present in trunk dermis made such a substantial contribution to the new superficial epidermis that it behaved overtly as body skin epidermis. Taken together, these results suggest that basal layer cells of the superficial epidermis of sole of foot skin, ear skin, and the hair-bearing skin of the general integument behave as if they are equipotential, and that in adult life maintenance of these particular epidermal specificities is the outcome of persistent specific inductive stimuli from the underlying dermis. The results of subsidiary experiments are reported which indicate that

  10. Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults. (United States)

    Muggli, R


    Biophysical skin parameters are indicators of age-related structural and functional changes in skin tissues. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults tested the effect of Efamol evening primrose oil [EPO, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) containing vegetable oil] on skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, firmness, elasticity, fatigue resistance and roughness. Efamol EPO was administered orally in soft gel capsules, 3 x 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. The two treatment groups did not differ at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, however, all measured variables, with the exception of skin redness, were significantly different in the EPO group compared with placebo. Skin moisture, TEWL, elasticity, firmness, fatigue resistance and roughness had significantly improved by 12.9, 7.7, 4.7, 16.7, 14.2 and 21.7%, respectively. The two-sided levels of significance in favor of the EPO treatment ranged between 0.034 and 0.001. These findings lend further support to the notion that GLA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the skin, i.e. it is unable to synthesize GLA, and therefore depends on preformed GLA for optimal structure and function.

  11. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation. (United States)

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio


    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  12. Efeito do pH na calcificação in vitro de pele porcina In Vitro calcification of porcine skin: influence of pH

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    Thelma M. Batista


    Full Text Available A engenharia de tecidos tem sido utilizada como alternativa na reconstrução de tecidos duros e moles. Este estudo teve como objetivo a calcificação "in vitro" de pele porcina visando à obtenção de um material para regeneração de tecido duro. As matrizes de pele porcina foram calcificadas em cela dupla termostatizada a 37 °C em pH 7,4 e pH 9,0 e caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, termogravimetria (TGA, espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR, calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e difração de raios X. Os resultados obtidos por DSC mostraram que as amostras calcificadas têm um pequeno aumento nos valores de temperatura de desnaturação em relação à amostra não calcificada, enquanto as curvas termogravimétricas mostraram uma porcentagem maior de material inorgânico para o pH 7,4 em comparação com as amostras obtidas em pH 9,0. A formação de sais de fosfato de cálcio nas fibras de colágeno foi confirmada por difração de raios X (DRX, espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV.Tissue engineering has been used as an alternative in the reconstruction of hard and soft tissues. The objective of this work was to study the in vitro calcification of porcine skin aiming at obtaining a material to be used for regeneration of hard tissue. Pig skin was calcified at 37 °C, pH 7.4 and pH 9.0 and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X ray diffraction (XRD. The results obtained by DSC showed that calcified samples had a small increase in the values of denaturation temperature when compared with uncalcified samples. Thermogravimetric curves showed higher quantity of inorganic material for the pH 7.4 matrix when compared to samples obtained in pH 9.0. The formation of calcium phosphate salts on collagen fibers was seen by SEM, which was also confirmed

  13. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda


    Full Text Available Adult stem cells (ASCs reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014. Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013. Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4cKO mice, we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4cKO mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014. Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155.

  14. 选择性去细胞猪皮在深Ⅱ度烧伤创面中的应用%Application of selective acellular porcine skin in deep second degree burn wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红明; 柴家科; 孙天骏


    Objective To use selective acellular porcine skin studied by our institute to cover second degree burn wounds previously and investigate its effects onprotection and promoting healing. Methods Forty-one burn patients were investigated. Twenty-nine of them were male, and the others were female. The average of the wounds ranged from 5% to 39% TBSA. Two to foury days after the injury, selective acellular porcine skin was used to cover 2% ( TBSA ) wounds after debridement, and the wounds on the same subject were served as control which were treated by regular dressing change every 2 days. The appearance and healing time of all burn wounds were observed. Results Selective acellular porcine skin stuck to wound bed well without inflammatory response such as redness and swelling on surrounding normal skin and after 14-21 days it became dry and peeled from wound bed gradually with epithelialization of the wounds. The healing rate at two weeks after the injury was significantly higher on wounds covering with selective acellular porcine skin [ ( 82. 34 ±20. 13 )% ] than control group [ ( 76. 21 ±22. 52 )% ]. Conclusion Selective acellular porcine skin is a good skin substitute which could provide effective protection and promoting wound healing to second degree burn wounds when used in the early stage.%目的 将选择性去细胞猪皮用于深Ⅱ度烧伤创面早期包扎,观察其创面保护和促愈效果.方法 41例烧伤患者,男性29例,女性12例,年龄18~53岁,平均(31.4± 9.7)岁,烧伤面积5%~39%.伤后2~4 d,2%创面清创后以选择性去细胞猪皮覆盖,其余创面常规换药,以同体同侧或对侧创面作为对照,隔日换药,观察创面愈合情况,计算伤后2周创面愈合率,记录创面愈合时间.结果 选择性去细胞猪皮与创面基底贴敷良好,创周无红肿等炎症反应表现,14~21d逐渐干燥、脱落,创面愈合.伤后2周创面愈合率(82.34 ± 20.13)%,对照组为(76.21 ± 22.52)%.

  15. Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wong (Christine); S. Paratore (Sabrina); M.T. Dours-Zimmermann (María); T. Rochat (Thierry); T. Pietri (Thomas); U. Suter (Ueli); D. Zimmermann (Dieter); S. Dufour (Sylvie); J.P. Thiery (Joachim); D.N. Meijer (Dies); C. Beermann (Christopher); Y. Barrandon (Yann); L. Sommer (Lukas)


    textabstractGiven their accessibility, multipotent skin-derived cells might be useful for future cell replacement therapies. We describe the isolation of multipotent stem cell-like cells from the adult trunk skin of mice and humans that express the neural crest stem cell markers p75 and Sox10 and di


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Oishi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS presents generalized form bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infection, typically seen in infants and children. SSSS may occur also in adults; however, the majority of adult cases are those with immunosuppression. Atypical clinical features of impetigo in adults sometimes make it difficult to diagnose correctly. Case Report: A 74-year-old healthy woman was hospitalized, complaining of extensive desquamative erythema and a number of erosions. She was administered oral antiviral drugs under suspicion of herpes zoster prior to 10 days. Initial diagnosis on the admission was toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN due to antiviral tablets; however, steroid pulse therapy resulted in no effect. Bacterial culture yielded coagulase-positive methicillin-resistent S. aureus, producing exfoliative toxin B. A biopsy specimen showed subcorneal splitting of the epidermis. The diffuse erosions gradually improved over 10 days by the treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusions: The differentiation between streptococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS and TEN is sometimes difficult. It is important to remind SSSS when we suspect TEN, even in healthy adults..

  17. Construction of the subtractive cDNA library of injured adult and fetal rabbit skins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 刘大维; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 周继红; 蒋建新


    Objective: Early gestational mammalian fetuses possess the amazing ability to heal cutaneous wounds in a scarless fashion. Over the past years, scientists have been working to decipher the mechanisms underlying this regenerative repair. The remarkable phenotypic differences between fetal and adult healings behoves us to learn their characteristics in genetics, which represents potentially important mechanisms involved in wound repair observed in fetal versus adult tissues. In this sense, it is reasonable to construct subtractive cDNA library for future research.Methods: Middle laparotomy and hysterotomy were performed on pregnant rabbits at 20-day gestation to expose the fetal back, and a longitudinal incision through the skin was made on the back of the fetus. The traumatized fetal skin was harvested 12 hours post-operation, the fetus control and traumatized adult skin specimens were taken at the same time. dscDNA was synthesized from total RNA of skin samples with SMART technology. Taking one of the three samples as Tester respectively and the other two as Drivers, we obtained 1 forward and 2 reverse hybridization products. After being amplified with selective polymerase chain reaction, the products were inserted into a vector, and then transferred into E.coli HB101. The colonies were screened afterwards. Results: The wounded fetuses were alive for a long time even after birth. Every determinant step, such as RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, Rsa I digestion, adaptor ligation and hybridization, was well-operated. Subtractive efficiency identification demonstrated that the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was successful. Insertion into vector and transferring to E.coli were satisfactory. Conclusions: Instead of classic SSH, an improved SSH with 2 Drivers was applied for the experiment. Results confirmed that the improved program was reasonable and correct in both theory and practice. The subtractive cDNA library we have obtained is going to be used for

  18. 大面积烧伤微粒皮移植应用脱细胞猪皮与异体皮作为覆盖物的对比研究%Acellular porcine skin and allogeneic skin as wound-covering materials for extensive deep burns:a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武全; 邱啸臣; 刘军; 魏迪南; 陈宗华; 刘文军; 黄斌; 付晋凤; 夏照帆


    Objective To evaluate the advantages of microskin graft using acellular porcine skin for treatment of extensive deep burns by comparing with that using allogeneic skin. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 70 severe burn patients who were treated in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University during Jan. 1999 to Jan. 2011. The patients were divided into the acellular porcine skin group and allogeneic skin group, each containing 35 patients. The survival rates of microskin grafts were determined at 4 weeks post-operation. Besides, the rejection of acellular porcine skin and allogeneic skin, changes of body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocyte and serum protein were observed at pre- and post-operation. Results (1) The survival rate was (71. 5 + 6. 5)% in acellular porcine skin group and (70. 6 + 7. 5)% in allogeneic skin group, with no significant difference found between the two groups (P>0. 05). (2) Acellular porcine skin group. At 3 days post-operation the acellular porcine skin was stillattached to the wound, most of the skin was not discolorated, and small part of the skin became cinnamomeous. The acellular porcine skin was gradually separated from the auto-microskin at 3-4 weeks post operation, and there was small amount of exudates under the acellular porcine skin, which could be drained through a small cut. In the pressed area, there was still a small amount of exudates, but the acellular porcine skin was not dissolved and the microskin grafts survived and became confluent. (3) Allogeneic skin group. The allogeneic epidermal was rejected and was off from the wound at 3-14 days post transplantation, and at 10-30 days after transplantation the allogenic dermis became dry. During 25-60 days after transplantation, the allogenic dermis was completely stripped off, the microskin grafts became confluent, and the wound was healed. (4) The body temperature of the two groups was significantly descended after operation (P0

  19. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui


    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis) (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Dry skin Overview Dry, ashy skin: People who had atopic ... often have very dry skin as adults. Dry skin: Overview Also called xerosis Dry skin is common. ...

  1. Method for obtaining committed adult mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bernal

    Full Text Available AIMS: The present study reports an easy and efficient method for obtaining adult mesenchymal precursors from different adult mouse tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung by a non-enzymatic method. Skin and lung mesenchymal precursors isolated by a modified explant technique were characterized in vitro by defined morphology and by a specific gene expression profile and surface markers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that these precursors express stem cell and mesenchymal surface markers as well as epithelial markers. However, they are negative for markers of endothelium, cardiac and skeletal muscle or adipose tissue, indicating that they have initiated commitment to the tissues from which were isolated. These precursors can migrate without any stimulus and in response to stimuli as SDF1, MCP1 and TNFα and can be differentiated into epithelial lineages. Based on the properties of these precursors from adult tissues, we propose their use as tools for regenerative biomedicine.

  2. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure. (United States)

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K


    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  3. Arsenic methylation and skin lesions in migrant and native adult women with chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking groundwater. (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Chai, Yuanqing; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na


    In order to figure out the prevalence of skin lesions and methylation capacity for migrant and native adult women in an endemic area for arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China, 207 adult women were selected for study subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of skin lesions for the external group, provincial group and native group was 36.54, 26.15 and 35.56 %, respectively. The nail content of arsenic and urinary concentrations of dimethylarsenic (DMA), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) were significantly higher in women with skin lesions than in those without skin lesions. The highest urinary concentrations of DMA, MMA and iAs were 213.93, 45.72 and 45.01 μg/L in the native group. The arsenic methylation capacity index revealed that the external group had the greatest capacity, while the native group had the lowest. The odds ratios of skin lesions in relation to arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capacity varied widely among the three groups. Urinary MMA and iAs concentrations were positively associated with risk of skin lesions in the three groups of adult women, while primary and secondary methylation capacities were negatively related to risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. The external group might be more susceptible to MMA and iAs, while the provincial and native groups were more tolerance to MMA and iAs. Lower primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities increased the risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. Moreover, higher nail arsenic concentration increased the risk of skin lesions of adult women.

  4. The porcine skin associated T-cell homing chemokine CCL27: molecular cloning and mRNA expression in piglets infected experimentally with Staphylococcus hyicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Ahrens, P.;


    . In this paper, we report the cloning of porcine CCL27 cDNA and investigation of CCL27 mRNA expression in Staphylococcus hyicus infected piglets. At the protein level, 77 and 74% homology was found to human and mouse CCL27 sequences, respectively. The results of the expression analyses show that CCL27 m...


    Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad


    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit.

  6. Enzymatic Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Porcine Skin Collagen Hydrolysates%猪皮胶原蛋白酶解及其酶解产物的抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李诚; 余霞; 付刚; 李华; 陈代文


    One-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method was used to investigate the effects of the main process parameters for the hydrolysis of porcine skin by alcalase on degree of hydrolysis and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of porcine skin hydrolysates.The optimal hydrolysis conditions for maximizing superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of porcine skin hydrolysates were 4 h hydrolysis at pH 7.5,55 ℃,an enzyme/substrate ratio of 6000 U/g and a substrate concentration.Under these conditions,the degree of hydrolysis of collagen proteins in porcine skin was 9.55%,and the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of the obtained hydrolysates 60.11%.At diluted concentrations between 10 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL,the maximum DPPH radical scavenging rate of the hydrolysates was 95.06% with an IC50 of 3.89 mg/mL,and the maximum superoxide radical scavenging rate 65.89% with an IC50 of 16.43 mg/mL.Therefore,the collagen hydrolysates have excellent free radical scavenging capacities.%以新鲜猪皮为原料,利用Alcalase水解胶原蛋白,并对影响Alcalase水解过程的各个因素进行研究,通过对水解度和超氧阴离子自由基(O-2.)清除率的测定,确定Alcalase水解猪皮胶原蛋白的最适条件;研究在最适条件下制备的不同质量浓度的猪皮胶原蛋白酶解液对DPPH自由基和O-2.的清除效果。结果表明:Alcalase水解猪皮胶原蛋白的最适条件为:pH7.5、温度55℃、酶与底物比6000U/g、底物质量浓度40mg/mL,水解时间4h;在此水解条件下,水解度达到9.55%,O-2.清除率达到60.11%;在相应质量浓度10~50mg/mL范围内,猪皮胶原蛋白酶解液的DPPH自由基最大清除率为95.06%,IC50为3.89mg/mL;O-2.最大清除率为65.89%,IC50为16.43mg/mL。猪皮胶原蛋白酶解液具有较强的自由基清除能力。

  7. Recombinant B domain deleted porcine factor VIII for the treatment of bleeding episodes in adults with acquired hemophilia A. (United States)

    Gomperts, Edward


    Hemophilia A is an inherited deficiency of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) often complicated by inhibitor development (CHAWI) in which neutralizing antibodies block the therapeutic benefit of replacement therapy. Inhibitors to FVIII can also be seen in an auto-immune disease known as acquired hemophilia A (AHA). 'Bypassing' therapies have been shown to provide hemostasis but dosing must be done empirically because current assays cannot measure objective markers of treatment efficacy and safety. A recombinant porcine sequence factor VIII (r-pFVIII) has been developed for the management of AHA. Preclinical, Phase I and Phase II clinical research studies in CHAWI subjects showed therapeutic potential and safety of this agent. A Phase II/III study in AHA with serious bleeding episodes shows a positive response in all subjects after administration. Based on current preclinical and clinical trial data, r-pFVIII should become the first line of treatment in the management of hemorrhage in patients with AHA.

  8. Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia in an adult: use of a porcine small intestine submucosa biocompatible prosthesis. (United States)

    Puglisi, Francesco; Capuano, Palma; Iambrenghi, Onofrio Caputi; Armenise, Nicola; Carlucci, Francesco; Memeo, Maurizio; Memeo, Riccardo; Martines, Gennaro


    Morgagni hernia is a rare cause of diaphragmatic hernia. There are few reports of laparoscopic repair in the literature. Tension-free hernia closure with synthetic mesh reduces recurrence but occasionally results in complications, such as visceral stricture, erosion or perforation. We report a case of successful laparoscopic repair of a very large symptomatic Morgagni hernia in a 78-year-old patient, treated by positioning a gradually resorbable mesh made from porcine SIS (Surgisis Soft Tissue Graft device--Cook Inc, Bloomington, Ind). After surgery, the patient reported an immediate, marked improvement in clinical symptoms. During the postoperative course, pleural and pericardial leakage occurred. The pleural leakage was immediately drained with thoracentesis, and the pericardial leakage was treated conservatively. No other complications occurred after patient discharge. One year later, the patient was in very good general condition. No recurrence was documented with abdominal CT scan, which also demonstrated connective tissue proliferation that was progressively replacing the prosthesis. Laparoscopic repair is a safe, efficacious procedure for the treatment of diaphragmatic hernia, and presents all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. The use of new types of material featuring marked biocompatibility and gradual reabsorbability characteristics offers considerable benefits.

  9. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function: IMPLICATION OF AN EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINOLEATE. (United States)

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P; Calcutt, M Wade; Boeglin, William E; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Brash, Alan R


    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier.

  10. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole;


    . Recently, genes for ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD were cloned. Exfoliative toxins produced by S. aureus have been shown to selectively cleave human or mouse desmoglein 1, a desmosomal adhesion molecule, that when inactivated results in blisters. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target...... of Exhs in porcine skin. Each of recombinant Exhs injected in the skin of pigs caused superficial epidermal blisters or crust formation. Cell surface staining of desmoglein 1, but not that of desmoglein 3, was abolished when cryosections of normal porcine skin were incubated with one of Exhs suggesting......, injection of ExhA and ExhC at high concentration caused superficial blisters in neonatal mice. These findings strongly suggest that Exhs cause blister formation of porcine skin by digesting porcine desmoglein I in a similar fashion to exfoliative toxins from S. aureus....

  11. Hyaluronan and Fibrin Biomaterial as Scaffolds for Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Gardin


    Full Text Available Recently, we have described a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. Due to their possible application in neuronal tissue regeneration, here we tested two kinds of scaffold well known in tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membranes and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres from skin and adipose tissue were seeded onto two scaffold types: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres were then induced to acquire a glial and neuronal-like phenotype. Gene expression, morphological feature and chromosomal imbalance (kariotype were analyzed and compared. Adipose and skin derived neurospheres are able to grow well and to differentiate into glial/neuron cells without any chromosomal imbalance in both scaffolds. Adult cells are able to express typical cell surface markers such as S100; GFAP; nestin; βIII tubulin; CNPase. In summary, we have demonstrated that neurospheres isolated from skin and adipose tissues are able to differentiate in glial/neuron-like cells, without any chromosomal imbalance in two scaffold types, useful for tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes.

  12. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro. (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou


    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE.

  13. Adenoviruses Expressing PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA Induces the Transdifferentiation of Porcine Neonatal Pancreas Cell Clusters and Adult Pig Pancreatic Cells into Beta-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hye You


    Full Text Available BackgroundA limitation in the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is a special feature of diabetes. The identification of alternative sources for the induction of insulin-producing surrogate beta-cells is a matter of profound importance. PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA overexpression have been shown to influence the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic stem cells. However, few studies have been conducted using adult animal pancreatic stem cells.MethodsAdult pig pancreatic cells were prepared from the non-endocrine fraction of adult pig pancreata. Porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs were prepared from neonatal pigs aged 1-2 days. The dispersed pancreatic cells were infected with PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA adenoviruses. After infection, these cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of normoglycemic nude mice.ResultsThe adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA induced insulin gene expression in NPCCs, but not in adult pig pancreatic cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the number of insulin-positive cells in NPCCs and adult pig pancreatic cells was approximately 2.6- and 1.1-fold greater than those in the green fluorescent protein control group, respectively. At four weeks after transplantation, the relative volume of insulin-positive cells in the grafts increased in the NPCCs, but not in the adult porcine pancreatic cells.ConclusionThese data indicate that PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA facilitate the beta-cell differentiation of NPCCs, but not adult pig pancreatic cells. Therefore PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA-induced NPCCs can be considered good sources for the induction of pancreatic beta-cells, and may also have some utility in the treatment of diabetes.

  14. Prevalence and heritability of skin picking in an adult community sample: a twin study. (United States)

    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Cherkas, Lynn; Harris, Juliette; Keuthen, Nancy; Mataix-Cols, David


    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that can lead to skin damage and other medical complications. Epidemiological data is scarce and its causes are unknown. The present study examined the prevalence and heritability of skin-picking symptoms in a large sample of twins. A total of 2,518 twins completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of skin-picking behavior. The prevalence of clinically significant skin picking was established using empirically derived cut-offs. Twin modeling methods were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to skin picking into additive genetic and shared and non-shared environmental factors. A total of 1.2% of twins scored above the cut-off, indicative of clinically significant skin picking. All these participants were women. Univariate model-fitting analyses (female twins only, N = 2,191) showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 40% (95% CI 19-58%) of the variance in skin picking, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (60% [95% CI 42-81%]). Shared environmental factors were negligible. It is concluded that pathological skin picking is relatively prevalent problem, particularly among women, and that it tends to run in families primarily due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental factors are also likely to play an important role in its etiology.

  15. Rho kinase inhibitor y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H.J. van den; Rodijk-Olthuis, D.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Erp, P.E.J. van; Joosten, I.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases,

  16. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are required for Sebocyte differentiation and stratified squamous differentiation in adult mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S House

    Full Text Available C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are bZIP transcription factors that are highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands of skin and yet germ line deletion of either family member alone has only mild or no effect on keratinocyte biology and their role in sebocyte biology has never been examined. To address possible functional redundancies and reveal functional roles of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal skin, mouse models were developed in which either family member could be acutely ablated alone or together in the epidermis and sebaceous glands of adult mice. Acute removal of either C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta alone in adult mouse skin revealed modest to no discernable changes in epidermis or sebaceous glands. In contrast, co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal epidermis resulted in disruption of stratified squamous differentiation characterized by hyperproliferation of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes and a defective basal to spinous keratinocyte transition involving an expanded basal compartment and a diminished and delayed spinous compartment. Acute co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in sebaceous glands resulted in severe morphological defects, and sebocyte differentiation was blocked as determined by lack of sebum production and reduced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD3 and melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, two markers of terminal sebocyte differentiation. Specialized sebocytes of Meibomian glands and preputial glands were also affected. Our results indicate that in adult mouse skin, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are critically involved in regulating sebocyte differentiation and epidermal homeostasis involving the basal to spinous keratinocyte transition and basal cell cycle withdrawal.

  17. Comparison of histological changes induced on oral mucosa and skin by the use of mono polar electrosurgery and CO2 laser in a porcine experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Introduction: Upon use of monopolar electrosurgery or CO2-laser high-frequency, current or infrared light respectively are converted to heat, inducing beneficial and undesired tissue effects. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate histologically and immunohistochemically the effects of monopolar electrosurgery and CO2-laser upon skin and oral mucosa and to compare them with those of scalpel. Material and methods: 5 healthy swine were used. Standardized incisions were made by scalpel and the above instruments at 3 surgical sites. Results: Lateral thermal damage to CO2-laser-incisions and the inflammatory extent in skin sections were significantly greater than scalpel incisions, but inflammation did not differ significantly between electrosurgical and scalpel incisions. Conclusions: CO2-laser was associated with greater thermal damage, impinging or epithelial proliferation and postoperative inflammation.

  18. Clinical Aspects of Pediatric and Adult Onset Mastocytosis in the Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heide (Rogier)


    textabstractThe term mastocytosis can be summarized as an accumulation of mast cells without an apparent cause. In the majority of the cases the disease is manifest in the skin and can be diagnosed on clinical suspicion and skin biopsy. Mastocytosis has a wide clinical spectrum and it is not a disea

  19. Peristomal moisture-associated skin damage in adults with fecal ostomies: a comprehensive review and consensus. (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Colwell, Janice C; Doughty, Dorothy; Goldberg, Margaret; Hoeflok, Jo; Manson, Andrea; McNichol, Laurie; Rao, Samara


    Approximately 1 million persons living in North America have an ostomy, and approximately 70% will experience stomal or peristomal complications. The most prevalent of these complications is peristomal skin damage, and the most common form of peristomal skin damage occurs when the skin is exposed to effluent from the ostomy, resulting in inflammation and erosion of the skin. Despite its prevalence, research-based evidence related to the assessment, prevention, and management of peristomal moisture-associated skin damage is sparse, and current practice is largely based on expert opinion. In order to address current gaps in clinical evidence and knowledge of this condition, a group of WOC and enterostomal therapy nurses with expertise in ostomy care was convened in 2012. This article summarizes results from the panel's literature review and summarizes consensus-based statements outlining best practices for the assessment, prevention, and management of peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis among patients with fecal ostomies.

  20. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity. (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi


    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  1. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti


    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  2. Odorous and Non-Fatal Skin Secretion of Adult Wrinkled Frog (Rana rugosa) Is Effective in Avoiding Predation by Snakes (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti


    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes’ responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes. PMID:24278410

  3. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yoshimura

    Full Text Available The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  4. New Wine in Old Skins: Changing Patterns in the Governing of the Adult Learner in Sweden (United States)

    Fejes, Andreas


    This paper explores the ways in which the adult learner has been governed in recent years and whether the techniques for doing this have changed over the last 50 years. The focus is first on which adult subject (adult learner) is constructed in the material analysed. What kinds of subjects are governed? This is followed by an analysis of what…

  5. The Skin-Ego: Dyadic Sensuality, Trauma in Infancy, and Adult Narcissistic Issues. (United States)

    Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine


    The skin-ego is a metaphor created by the French psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu to describe the process by which the infant's emerging ego develops a container for psychic contents and achieves a secure feeling of well-being. The ego encloses the psychic apparatus as the skin encloses the body. The ego becomes able to fix barriers protecting the internal world and to screen exchanges with the id, the superego, and the outside world. The skin-ego is an envelope that contains thoughts and gives to thinking activity some limits, continuity, and a protection against the instincts. The functions of the skin-ego are to maintain thoughts, to contain ideas and affects, to provide a protective shield, to register traces of primary communication with the outside world, to manage inter-sensorial correspondences, to individuate, to support sexual excitation, and to recharge the libido. The skin-ego is the foundation of the container-contained relationship. An important part of psychoanalytic work with borderline patients is the reconstruction of the earliest phases of the skin-ego and their consequences for mental organization.

  6. Importance of a suitable working protocol for tape stripping experiments on porcine ear skin: Influence of lipophilic formulations and strip adhesion impairment. (United States)

    Nagelreiter, C; Mahrhauser, D; Wiatschka, K; Skipiol, S; Valenta, C


    The tape stripping method is a very important tool for dermopharmacokinetic experiments in vitro and the accurate measurement of the removed corneocytes is key for a reliable calculation of a drug's skin penetration behavior. Therefore, various methods to quantify the amount of corneocytes removed with each tape strip have been employed, ranging from gravimetric approaches to protein assays and recently near infrared densitometry (NIR) has become very widely used. As this method is based on a reduction of light intensity, interference of formulation components seems conceivable, as they could scatter light and change the results. In this study, NIR measurements were compared to a protein assay and in addition, the influence of highly lipophilic formulations on the results of tape stripping experiments was investigated as impairment of the adherence of strips has been reported. To this end, different tape stripping protocols were employed. The obtained results ensure suitability of the NIR method and moreover suggest a more pronounced influence on adherence with increasing lipophilicity in applied formulations. The results show that adaptation of the tape stripping protocol to the specifications of envisioned experiments is important for reliable results. Two protocols were found favorable and are presented in this work.

  7. Targeted Disruption of the Lama3 Gene in Adult Mice Is Sufficient to Induce Skin Inflammation and Fibrosis. (United States)

    Pesch, Monika; König, Sabrina; Aumailley, Monique


    Genetic, clinical, and biochemical studies have shown that integrity of the dermal-epidermal junction requires a particular subset of laminins, that is, those containing the α3 chain encoded by the Lama3 gene. Inherited mutations in the human gene or introduction of constitutive mutations in the mouse gene prevent expression of these laminins, causing junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a very severe, often lethal disorder characterized by detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. This has precluded in vivo functional analysis of α3 chain-containing laminins, and it is still unknown whether and how they contribute to adult skin homeostasis. To address this question, we have disrupted the Lama3 gene in basal keratinocytes of adult mice. This led to the gradual disappearance of α3 chain-containing laminins along the dermal-epidermal junction and formation of subepidermal blisters like in congenital junctional epidermis bullosa. The mice lose their nails and have bullae and erosions on the footpads. Because the blistering is restricted to the interfollicular epidermis, the animals do not lose the epidermis and are viable. There is abundant and scattered deposition of collagen VII on the dermal side of the blisters, inflammation, and development of skin fibrosis with extensive accumulation of interstitial and microfibrillar collagens.

  8. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  9. The expression characteristics and biological significance of bFGF, EGF,TGF-β isoforms and their receptors in skins from fetus and adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Fu Xiaobing; Sun Xiaoqing; Sun Tongzhu; Zhao Zhili; Sheng Zhiyong


    To observe the localization and expression characteristics of alpha-smooth muscle actin (AS-MA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) isoforms, and their receptors in fetal and adult skins in order to explore their potential biological significance.Methods: The expression and the distribution of ASMA, bFGF, EGF, TGF-βisoforms, and their receptors were detected with immunohistochemistry and histopathology methods in 36 skin specimens. Among them, 30 specimens belonged to fetuses at different developmental stages and 6 were from adults. Results:Positive immunohistochemical signals of ASMA, bFGF, EGF, and TGF-βisoforms and their receptors could be found in fetal and postnatal skins.These factors were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of epidermal cells, endothelial cells,hair follicle epithelial cells and some fibroblasts. Receptors of these factors were mostly located in the cellular membrane of the above mentioned cells, while protein particles of ASMA could be observed in myofibroblasts and sweat gland cells. Along with ascent in gestational age, the positive cellular rates of bFGF, EGF, TGF-βisoforms, their receptors, and ASMA in skin were elevated progressively. In skins specimens obtained from fetuses of late-trimester (29-31 week gestation) and adult, the positive rates of these proteins were significantly raised in comparison with skin of fetuses of early-trimester. Conclusion: The endogenous bFGF, EGF, three TGF-βisoforms and their receptors might be involved in the development of the skin in embryonic stage and in the cutaneous structure and function,and also wound healing in adult stage. The relative lack of these factors and their receptors might be one reason why the wound of fetus heal by regeneration rather than by scarring.

  10. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults (United States)


    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  11. A highly enriched niche of precursor cells with neuronal and glial potential within the hair follicle dermal papilla of adult skin. (United States)

    Hunt, David P J; Morris, Paul N; Sterling, Jane; Anderson, Jane A; Joannides, Alexis; Jahoda, Colin; Compston, Alastair; Chandran, Siddharthan


    Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) are multipotent neural crest-related stem cells that grow as self-renewing spheres and are capable of generating neurons and myelinating glial cells. SKPs are of clinical interest because they are accessible and potentially autologous. However, although spheres can be readily isolated from embryonic and neonatal skin, SKP frequency falls away sharply in adulthood, and primary sphere generation from adult human skin is more problematic. In addition, the culture-initiating cell population is undefined and heterogeneous, limiting experimental studies addressing important aspects of these cells such as the behavior of endogenous precursors in vivo and the molecular mechanisms of neural generation. Using a combined fate-mapping and microdissection approach, we identified and characterized a highly enriched niche of neural crest-derived sphere-forming cells within the dermal papilla of the hair follicle of adult skin. We demonstrated that the dermal papilla of the rodent vibrissal follicle is 1,000-fold enriched for sphere-forming neural crest-derived cells compared with whole facial skin. These "papillaspheres" share a phenotypic and developmental profile similar to that of SKPs, can be readily expanded in vitro, and are able to generate both neuronal and glial cells in response to appropriate cues. We demonstrate that papillaspheres can be efficiently generated and expanded from adult human facial skin by microdissection of a single hair follicle. This strategy of targeting a highly enriched niche of sphere-forming cells provides a novel and efficient method for generating neuronal and glial cells from an accessible adult somatic source that is both defined and minimally invasive.

  12. Low skin carotenoid concentration measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy is associated with metabolic syndrome in adults. (United States)

    Holt, Edward W; Wei, Esther K; Bennett, Nancy; Zhang, Laura M


    Oxidative stress is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Antioxidants, including carotenoids, are decreased in MS. We hypothesized that a low skin carotenoid score (SCS), calculated using resonance Raman spectroscopy, would correlate with the presence of MS. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients referred for dietary assessment between 2010 and 2012. For each patient, a nutrition history, medical history, and SCS were recorded. χ(2) and Student t test were used to determine factors associated with MS. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with MS. One hundred fifty-five patients were included. The mean age was 54.1 ± 13.1 years, and the mean body mass index was 28.3 ± 6.1 kg/m(2). Metabolic syndrome was present in 43.9% of patients. The mean SCS was 28 084 ± 14 006 Raman counts (RC), including 23 058 ± 9812 RC for patients with MS and 32 011 ± 15 514 RC for patients without MS (P = .0001). In a multivariate analysis, SCS less than 25 000 RC (odds ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-10.7; P = .01) was independently associated with MS. A higher number of MS components was associated with a progressively lower SCS (P = .004). In a consecutive sample of patients referred for dietary assessment, a noninvasively measured SCS was lower among patients with MS.

  13. Ex vivo differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells to skin epidermal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Kaihong; Xiong Jun; Fan Lixing; Hu Kaimeng; Liu Houqi


    Objective: By establishing the indirect contact co-culture system, we studied the in vitro condition for MAPCs differentiating into epidermal cells and the transformation of MAPCs into epidermal cell phenotype. Methods: Cell culture insert membrane was used for substitute basal membrane and MAPCs, fibroblast cells (FCs) and mixture of MAPCs and epidermal cells and FCs were separately implanted into 2 sides of it. PKH26 was used to label cloned MAPCs; type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method was used to isolate and culture the skin epidermal cells from 1-day-old SD rat. Results: Part of the MAPCs transformed into cells expressing keratin in the presence of peripheral epithelia and FCs. Type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method successfully selected rats' epidermal stem cells. The mixture of the 2 kinds of cells or indirect culture might promote the differentiation through mesenchymal factors secreted by dermis FC. Conclusion: We were the first to have established the in vitro model of MAPCs differentiation into epidermal cells, in which MAPCs were transformed into epithelium-like cells.

  14. Clinical use of acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis with split- thickaess autologous skin graftin 119 cases%去细胞异体真皮、去细胞猪真皮和自体刃厚皮移植在临床中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 杨红明; 李利根; 郭振荣; 盛志勇; 许明火; 陈宝驹; 贾晓明; 京萨; 陆江阳; 李国红


    Objective To observe the effect of acellular allogenic dermis or acelludar porcine dermis together with split-thickness autologous skin graft on coverage of deep burn wound and the wound of scar excision. Methods Acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis produced by our unit, with split-thickness autologous skin graft, were used in repairing various wounds in 119 cases. The take rate of various wounds was compared, and the take rate of wounds in which autologous skin fr-om different sites was used to cover either acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis was also compared. Histological examination and follow-up were made in some cases. Results After tangential excision, eschar excision and scar excision, the wounds were covered with either allogenic acellular dernis or porcine acellular dermis and autologous split-thickness skin. The take rate was found to be (93.4 ± 3.4) %, ( 92.1 ± 4.6) %, (94.5 ± 3.5) %, respectively. There was no a significant defference in take rate( P > 0.05). No significant difference in take rate between the transplantation of allogenic acellular dermis with autologous split-thickness skin and transplantation of porcine acellular demis with autologous split-thickness skin was found (P>0.05). When autologous split-thickness skin harvested from the trunk or extremites was used, the take rate was(93.1 ±4.8)%, (89.0±6.2)%, respectively, whereas the take rate was only about 70% ~ 80% when skin harvested from the scalp was used. The take rate was only about 40% when ace llalar allogenic dermis and autologous micro-skin graft were used to cover the wound. Histological examination 19 months after the transplantation revealed normal structure. Collagenous fibers were orderly arranged. There was no apparent hyperplasia of collagenous fibers. Hair follicles, sweat glands and other skin appendages were not found in the healed area. Grossly, no obvious pigmentation was

  15. Porcine cholecyst–derived scaffold promotes full-thickness wound healing in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Revi


    Full Text Available Graft-assisted healing is an important strategy for treating full-thickness skin wounds. This study evaluated the properties of porcine cholecyst–derived scaffold and its use for treating full-thickness skin wound in rabbit. The physical properties of cholecyst-derived scaffold were congenial for skin-graft application. Compared to a commercially available skin-graft substitute made of porcine small intestinal submucosa, the cholecyst-derived scaffold was rich in natural biomolecules like elastin and glycosaminoglycans. When used as a xenograft, it promoted healing with excess cell proliferation at early phases and acceptable collagen deposition in the later remodelling phases.

  16. Crowdsourced Data Indicate Widespread Multidrug Resistance in Skin Flora of Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Freeman


    Full Text Available In a laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology majors, students plated bacteria from swabs of their facial skin under conditions that selected for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; added disks containing the antibiotics penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin; and measured zones of inhibition. Students also recorded demographic and lifestyle variables and merged this information with similar data collected from 9,000 other students who had contributed to the database from 2003 to 2011. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC testing performed at the Harborview Medical Center Microbiology Laboratory (Seattle, WA indicated a high degree of accuracy for student-generated data; species identification with a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI Biotyper revealed that over 88% of the cells analyzed by students were S. epidermidis or S. capitus. The overall frequency of resistant cells was high, ranging from 13.2% of sampled bacteria resistant to oxacillin to 61.7% resistant to penicillin. Stepwise logistic regressions suggested that recent antibiotic use was strongly associated with resistance to three of the four antibiotics tested (p = 0.0003 for penicillin, p << 0.0001 for erythromycin and tetracycline, and that age, gender, use of acne medication, use of antibacterial soaps, or makeup use were associated with resistance to at least one of the four antibiotics. Furthermore, drug resistance to one antibiotic was closely linked to resistance to the other three antibiotics in every case (all p values << 0.0001, suggesting the involvement of multidrug–resistant strains. The data reported here suggest that citizen science could not only provide an important educational experience for undergraduates, but potentially play a role in efforts to expand antibiotic resistance (ABR surveillance.

  17. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N;


    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection......Limited specificity of the tuberculin skin test incited the development of the intradermal Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific rdESAT-6 skin test. Animal studies have shown, however, that there is a possible risk of sensitization when repeated injections of rdESAT-6 are given. The aim of this phase...

  18. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir


    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model.

  19. The porcine ear skin as a model system for the human integument: influence of storage conditions on basic features of epidermis structure and function--a histological and histochemical study. (United States)

    Meyer, W; Zschemisch, N H; Godynicki, S


    Based on careful tissue processing, detailed structural analysis, and histochemical as well as cytophotometrical evaluation of the epidermis, the study presents data with respect to changes of tissue integrity during two storing modes (room temperature and 4 degrees C) and various storage times of the porcine auricle. Structural degeneration was first noted in the barrier region of the epidermis from where such changes spread, independent of storage conditions, from small horizontal necrotic islands and continuously with increasing storage time. The histochemical results corroborated these observations, emphasizing, however, that the lower epidermal layers seemed intact for a longer time period than the upper layers. Cytophotometrical evaluation of histochemical stainings showed, with regard to the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, that oxidative metabolism was negatively affected in the early stages of storage, whereas epidermal lipids (neutral fats, glycolipids) remained relatively stable, even during storage at room temperature. In conclusion, it was obvious that the barrier region is the most sensitive element of the porcine ear epidermis. Taking into consideration that this part of the epidermis is most important for permeation studies, it seems reasonable to avoid any storage of porcine auricles at room temperature, and to use only auricles that have been stored at 4 degrees C for not more than 4 to 6 hours, immediately after delivery from the slaughter-house. In this way better tissue preservation can be achieved, whereby the use of shinkage-free water-soluble plastic embedding would generally improve the histological control of structural integrity, and the application of an easy to handle enzyme histochemical procedure (e.g. succinate dehydrogenase demonstration) to unfixed fresh-frozen sections would help to control basic aspects of tissue functions. The results are discussed in relation to the use of porcine integument as a model in human dermatological

  20. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). (United States)

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P Artemia was more effective than singular enrichment with probiotics or prebiotics.

  1. Improvement of green tea polyphenol with milk on skin with respect to antioxidation in healthy adults: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover clinical trial. (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lin, Tung-Yi; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun


    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely tested for their effects on several metabolic syndromes and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The present study was formulated to assess the physiological efficacy of green tea polyphenol infused with milk (GTPM) on skin integrity in correlation with antioxidative status in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy voluntary subjects were recruited and assigned to two groups, who drank 240 ml of mineral water mixed with either an experimental (GTPM) or placebo package (2 packs per day) for the following 6 months. The experimental group then switched to the placebo package, and vice versa, for a further 6 months, with one month of washout period in between. During the initial, 3(rd), 6(th), 10(th), and 13(th) month anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting blood samples were withdrawn for various biochemical assays. Skin examination was performed at the initial, 6(th) and 13(th) month. No significant alterations were observed in any of the anthropometric measurements. Administration of GTPM significantly increased (p antioxidant index and antioxidant enzyme activities when compared with the placebo group, whereas a concomitant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation were noted. Moreover, GTPM intake notably improved skin integrity and texture by markedly lowering (p skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects. GTPM proved to be an effective antioxidant by lowering oxidative stress and thereby ameliorating skin texture and integrity.

  2. Trichostatin A-Mediated Epigenetic Transformation of Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Biases the In Vitro Developmental Capability, Quality, and Pluripotency Extent of Porcine Cloned Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Samiec


    Full Text Available The current research was conducted to explore the in vitro developmental outcome and cytological/molecular quality of porcine nuclear-transferred (NT embryos reconstituted with adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ABM-MSCs that were epigenetically transformed by treatment with nonspecific inhibitor of histone deacetylases, known as trichostatin A (TSA. The cytological quality of cloned blastocysts was assessed by estimation of the total cells number (TCN and apoptotic index. Their molecular quality was evaluated by real-time PCR-mediated quantification of gene transcripts for pluripotency- and multipotent stemness-related markers (Oct4, Nanog, and Nestin. The morula and blastocyst formation rates of NT embryos derived from ABM-MSCs undergoing TSA treatment were significantly higher than in the TSA-unexposed group. Moreover, the NT blastocysts generated using TSA-treated ABM-MSCs exhibited significantly higher TCN and increased pluripotency extent measured with relative abundance of Oct4 and Nanog mRNAs as compared to the TSA-untreated group. Altogether, the improvements in morula/blastocyst yields and quality of cloned pig embryos seem to arise from enhanced abilities for promotion of correct epigenetic reprogramming of TSA-exposed ABM-MSC nuclei in a cytoplasm of reconstructed oocytes. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the successful production of mammalian high-quality NT blastocysts using TSA-dependent epigenomic modulation of ABM-MSCs.

  3. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements. (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J


    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  4. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila


    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks...... introns, as does its human and mouse counterparts. RT-PCR cloning revealed two SLITRK1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and a transcript variant that results in a truncated protein. The encoded SLITRK1 protein, consisting of 695 amino acids, displays a very high homology to human SLITRK1 (99%). The porcine...

  5. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane


    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  6. Common burden of chronic skin diseases? Contributors to psychological distress in adults with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Lu, Y.; Duller, P.; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    BACKGROUND: Chronic skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, are known to affect quality of life by heightening psychological distress. Knowledge about factors contributing to psychological distress is essential for supporting physicians in diagnostic and multidisciplinary treatment o

  7. Skin conductance biofeedback training in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and stress-triggered seizures: a proof-of-concept study. (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Kotwas, Iliana; Lanteaume, Laura; Berthet, Christelle; Bastien, Mireille; Vion-Dury, Jean; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice


    The present proof-of-concept study investigated the feasibility of skin conductance biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), whose seizures are triggered by stress. Skin conductance biofeedback aims to increase levels of peripheral sympathetic arousal in order to reduce cortical excitability. This might seem somewhat counterintuitive, since such autonomic arousal may also be associated with increased stress and anxiety. Thus, this sought to verify that patients with TLE and stress-triggered seizures are not worsened in terms of stress, anxiety, and negative emotional response to this nonpharmacological treatment. Eleven patients with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress were treated with 12 sessions of biofeedback. Patients did not worsen on cognitive evaluation of attentional biases towards negative emotional stimuli (P>.05) or on psychometric evaluation with state anxiety inventory (P = .059); in addition, a significant improvement was found in the Negative Affect Schedule (P = .014) and in the Beck Depression Inventory (P = .009). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency with a mean reduction of -48.61% (SD = 27.79) (P = .005). There was a correlation between the mean change in skin conductance activity over the biofeedback treatment and the reduction of seizure frequency (r(11) = .62, P = .042). Thus, the skin conductance biofeedback used in the present study, which teaches patients to achieve an increased level of peripheral sympathetic arousal, was a well-tolerated nonpharmacological treatment. Further, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic value of this nonpharmacological treatment in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress.

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  9. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus. (United States)

    Denner, Joachim


    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  10. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria and virus in porcine xenoskin for dressing agent (United States)

    Jo, Eu-Ri; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon


    In this study, gamma irradiation sensitivities of bacteria and viruses in porcine skin were evaluated to establish the optimum sterilization condition for the dressing material and a xenoskin graft. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as model pathogens and inoculated at 106-107 log CFU/g. As model viruses, porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and poliovirus were used and inoculated at 105-106 TCID50/g into porcine skin. The D10 value of E. coli was found to be 0.25±0.1 kGy. B. subtilis endospores produced under stressful environmental conditions showed lower radiation sensitivity as D10 was 3.88±0.3 kGy in porcine skin. The D10 values of PPV, BVDV, and poliovirus were found to be 1.73±0.2, 3.81±0.2, and 6.88±0.3 kGy, respectively. These results can offer the basic information required for inactivating pathogens by gamma irradiation and achieving dressing material and porcine skin grafts.

  11. Porcine Rotaviruses: Epidemiology, Immune Responses and Control Strategies (United States)

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Amimo, Joshua O.; Saif, Linda J.


    Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A–I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well. The presence of porcine RV H (RVH), a newly defined distinct genogroup, was recently confirmed in diarrheic pigs in Japan, Brazil, and the US. The complex epidemiology, pathogenicity and high genetic diversity of porcine RVAs are widely recognized and well-studied. More recent data show a significant genetic diversity based on the VP7 gene analysis of RVB and C strains in pigs. In this review, we will summarize previous and recent research to provide insights on historic and current prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine RVs in different geographic regions and production systems. We will also provide a brief overview of immune responses to porcine RVs, available control strategies and zoonotic potential of different RV genotypes. An improved understanding of the above parameters may lead to the development of more optimal strategies to manage RV diarrheal disease in swine and humans. PMID:28335454


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the food industry development, the food safety and the valorization of by-products represent important aspects. The present study consists in the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP method in pig slaughterhouses for scalding-skinning technology in order to ensure the conformity of meat quality and the by-products management and recycling. In order to optimize the scalding-skinning process of swine, all the classical technological steps of the technological processes were analyzed separately and globally, with the adaptation of the HACCP method for the new technology. The result of this study shows that the implementation of the new technology that combines existing technologies has many advantages from both an economic and a technological point of view. At the same time the new technology ensures food safety by taking account of the application of the food safety system, respectively, HACCP method.

  13. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  14. Your Skin (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  15. Treatment of radioinduced skin burns by adult stem cells;Traitement des brulures cutanees radio-induites par cellules souches adultes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Prat, M. [Hopital Militaire Percy, Centre de Transfusion Sanguine des Armees, Dept. Recherches et Therapies Cellulaires, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bey, E. [Hopital Militaire Percy, Service de Chirurgie Plastique, 92 - Clamart (France)


    In the area of skin injuries caused by ionizing radiations; the recent opportunity give us the the possibility to manage victims of radiation accidents with skin acute symptoms of irradiation. The approach of cell therapy developed for these patients could be in a second time, used for other types of injuries as thermal burns and the injuries linked to overexposure in radiotherapy. In spite of the diversity of approaches of allogeneic and autologous transplantation, the prognosis of deep and extended radioinduced burns is not completely satisfying because of inflammatory recurrences, origin of graft failures. The stem cells have been used in association. The stem cells were got from sampling of autologous bone marrow after an expansion in vitro from 15 to 17 days. The cultures were realised in medium with 8% of platelet lysate (clinical grade). The cells have been given by injection in complement of epidermis auto graft. A spectacular effect was noticed the day after the injection, but disappearing in some days encouraging to realize supplementary injections. An effect of the quickness and the quality of the graft success is appeared significant too. no necrosis recurrence for the patients after four years for the first one of them. We think that the stem cells participate to the local control of inflammation. (N.C.)

  16. Distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in rat tissues during embryonic skin development, hair formation, and the adult hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R


    on the binding distribution of [125I]EGF, representing the tissue localization of available EGF receptors, during embryonic rat skin development including hair follicle formation and the adult hair growth cycle. At 16 days embryonic development a relatively low receptor density is seen over all the epidermal...... condensates marking the first stage of hair follicle development. This restricted and temporary loss of EGF receptors above these specialized mesenchymal condensates implies a role for the EGF receptor and possibly EGF or an EGF-like ligand in stimulating the epithelial downgrowth required for hair follicle...... development. In the anagen hair bulb, receptors for EGF are detected over the outer root sheath and the epithelial cell layers at the base of the follicle and show a correlation with the areas of epithelial proliferation in the hair bulb. During the catagen and telogen phases of the hair cycle, receptors...

  17. Porcine prion protein amyloid. (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie


    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  18. Water‐Holding and Transport Properties of Skin Stratum Corneum of Infants and Toddlers Are Different from Those of Adults: Studies in Three Geographical Regions and Four Ethnic Groups


    Mack, Mary Catherine; Chu, Melissa R.; Tierney, Neena K.; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Georgios N. Stamatas; Kollias, Nikiforos; Bhagat, Kamlesh; Ma, Lin; Martin, Katharine M.


    Abstract Background/Objective Epidermal structure, function, and composition are different in white infants and adults. We investigated whether ethnicity and location contribute to differences in functional and clinical measurements of skin barrier function during the first years of life and in adults. Methods Children (n = 397, ages 3–49 mos) and women (n = 117, mean age 31 yrs) were enrolled at independent centers in Beijing, China (ethnic Chinese), Skillman, New Jersey (white, African Amer...

  19. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Helen A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content.

  20. Amount and distribution of collagen in the pancreas have no effect on porcine islet isolation outcome. (United States)

    Hilling, D; Rijkelijkhuizen, J K R A; Töns, H A M; Terpstra, O T; Bouwman, E


    Xenotransplantation of porcine islets of Langerhans is considered to be a possible alternative for clinical islet transplantation. However, porcine islet isolation procedures have been shown to produce highly variable yields between pigs with similar backgrounds. One of the variables that could account for this is the collagen substrate within the pancreas. We determined the amount and distribution of collagen within porcine pancreata as they determined islet isolation outcomes. This study involved the histological examination of 140 porcine pancreata (64 juvenile and 76 adult) and islet isolation from 58 adult organs. To quantify the amount of collagen, tissue samples were stained with Sirius Red. Collagen distribution was determined by assessing the presence of collagen in the endocrine-exocrine interface (the "islet capsule"), in tissue samples double-stained with Sirius Red and anti-insulin. Strong variation in total collagen was observed in both adult and juvenile pigs. The mean collagen content in the juvenile group was significantly lower than that in the adult group. Apparently, the pancreas undergoes a process of fibrosis as pigs age. The vast majority of islets from both adult and juvenile pancreata had no or only a limited collagen capsule. However, islet encapsulation was highly variable between pancreata. We observed no significant correlation between total collagen content or the percentage islet encapsulation and islet yield. Although total collagen content and islet encapsulation show great variability between pancreata, neither the amount nor the distribution of collagen affected porcine islet isolation outcome.

  1. The clinical utility of tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis among young adults: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sei Won


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of the tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-IT in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB are not clear in young adults. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TST and QFT-IT in smear-negative TB among young adults with no underlying disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled 166 young participants 20-29 years of age with suspected active TB in a military hospital of South Korea. The TST and QFT-IT were performed for all participants. Results Of the 143 patients included in the analysis, active TB was diagnosed in 100 (69.9%. There were 141 male patients, none of whom had immunosuppressive disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TST were 94% (95% CI, 87-98%, 88% (95% CI, 74-96%, 95% (95% CI, 88-98%, and 86% (95% CI, 72-94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the QFT-IT were 93% (95% CI, 86-97%, 95% (95% CI, 81-99%, 98% (95% CI, 92-99%, and 84% (95% CI, 69-93%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the TST and QFT-IT in any statistic. Conclusions Both the TST and QFT-IT showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating active TB from other diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of these two tests did not differ significantly when applied to this clinical population of young, immunocompetent adults in whom neonatal BCG vaccination was common, there was no history of previous TB and in whom suspicion of TB was high. Trial registration NCT00982969

  2. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, L.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Fredholm, M.


    Background: Desmoglein I (DSGI) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein I (PIG)DSGI by a very specific reaction. This study investigated...... epidermitis were diagnosed clinically as affected or unaffected. Two regions of the desmoglein I gene were sequenced and genotypes of the SNPs were established. Seven SNPs (823T>C, 828A>G, 829A>G, 830A>T, 831A>T, 838A>C and 1139C>T) were found in the analysed sequences and the allele frequencies were...... the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein I gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis....

  3. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  4. Molecular characterization, sequence analysis and tissue expression of a porcine gene – MOSPD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie


    Full Text Available The full-length cDNA sequence of a porcine gene, MOSPD2, was amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method based on a pig expressed sequence tag sequence which was highly homologous to the coding sequence of the human MOSPD2 gene. Sequence prediction analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 491 amino acids that has high homology with the motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2 of five species: horse (89%, human (90%, chimpanzee (89%, rhesus monkey (89% and mouse (85%; thus, it could be defined as a porcine MOSPD2 gene. This novel porcine gene was assigned GeneID: 100153601. This gene is structured in 15 exons and 14 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the porcine MOSPD2 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MOSPD2 gene of horse. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the porcine MOSPD2 gene is generally and differentially expressed in the spleen, muscle, skin, kidney, lung, liver, fat and heart. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on the porcine MOSPD2 gene.

  5. Skin Conditions (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  6. Effects of hyaluronic acid on biomechanic performance of porcine acellular dermal matrix plus thin skin autograft after transplantation%透明质酸对复合移植皮肤组织生物力学性能影响的实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京玉; 柴家科; 宋慧锋; 许明火


    Objective To explore the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on biomechanical properties for porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) plus thin skin autograft after transplantation.Methods The dorsa of 10 Japanese white rabbits were symmetrically divided into four areas of A-D by random grouping.Full-thickness skin defects were created in Groups A-C while Group D was blank with normal skin.Operations were performed in Group A:implant with HA + PADM + thin skin autografts,Group B:implant with PADM + thin skin autografts and Group C:skin autografts group.Histological examination of specimen was performed at Day 56 postoperatively.And the biomechanical properties such as relaxation and stress-strain properties of grafts were recorded.Results The structure of PADM was found to be basically intact by hematoxylin and eosin E dyeing in Groups A and B.In Group A,dense fiber structure could be observed.Lots of regularly arranged collagenous fibers and new blood capillaries were grown into the dermal matrix with sparsely distributed inflammatory cells.In Group B,acellular dermal matrix became clustered with a small amount of invaded fibroblasts.And there was a high expression of inflammatory cells.The biomechanic pedormances of transplanted skin were:Group A's curve was mostly close to that of Group D's,Group B's curve was the most further from that of Group D's (P =0.001 ) and Group G's curve stayed between Groups A and B.Under the same strain,the stress of Groups A-D was ( 87 ± 8 ),( 115 ± 9 ),(60 ± 7 ) and (81 ± 4) kPa respectively.No significant difference of stress existed between these two groups (P=0.838).There was significant difference of stress between Groups B/C and D (P =0.001 and P =0.009).Conclusion Topical hyaluronic acid may be used to enhance the biomechanics pedormances of transplanted skin.%目的 探讨外用透明质酸(HA)对异种(猪)去细胞真皮基质( PADM)复合移植皮肤组织生物力学性能的影响.方法 选用10只日本大耳兔作为

  7. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  8. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.


    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  9. Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  10. Skin Biomes. (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A


    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  11. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresen Lars


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoglein 1 (DSG1 is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein 1 (PIGDSG1 by a very specific reaction. This study investigated the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene (PIGDSG1 in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative epidermitis were diagnosed clinically as affected or unaffected. Two regions of the desmoglein 1 gene were sequenced and genotypes of the SNPs were established. Seven SNPs (823T>C, 828A>G, 829A>G, 830A>T, 831A>T, 838A>C and 1139C>T were found in the analysed sequences and the allele frequencies were determined for the SNPs resulting in amino acid change. Four of the seven polymorphisms were situated in the motif known to be important for toxin cleavage. The distribution of the genotypes between affected and unaffected animals was analysed. Conclusion The study indicated a possible correlation between the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis.

  12. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  13. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  14. Sagging Skin (United States)

    ... Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of your skin (TM) Public Resources Dermatologic Surgery Conditions Treatments and ... learn-more"> 3 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or ...

  15. Skin tears. (United States)

    Baranoski, S


    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  16. Skin turgor (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in pig skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars J; Herskin, Mette S


    Topical capsaicin is a well-established model of experimental hyperalgesia. Its application to the study of animals has been limited to few species. The effect of topical capsaicin on hyperalgesia in porcine skin was evaluated as part of a study of inflammatory pain in the pig. Two experiments we...

  18. Porcine surfactant (Curosurf) for acute respiratory failure after near-drowning in 12 year old. (United States)

    Onarheim, H; Vik, V


    This case report describes rapid and persistent improvement after one single dose of porcine surfactant (Curosurf) 0.5 ml/kg(-1) (40 mg/kg) intratracheally for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with severe oxygenation failure 8 h after freshwater near-drowning in a 12-year-old girl.

  19. Quantification of skin penetration of antioxidants of varying lipophilicity. (United States)

    Abla, M J; Banga, A K


    Antioxidants play a vital role in protecting the skin from environmental distress. As the skin is constantly exposed to harmful UV radiation, endogenous antioxidants present in the superficial layers of the skin neutralize reactive oxygen species. Over time, antioxidants become depleted and loss their protective effect on the skin. Therefore, supplementing skin with topical antioxidant can help replenish this loss and fight the oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to deliver antioxidants topically and quantify the amount permeated in the stratum corneum and underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) and vitamin (retinol) with various lipophilic properties were delivered via porcine ear skin, using propylene glycol as a vehicle. The amount in the stratum corneum and underlying skin was quantified using tape stripping and skin extraction methods, respectively, and samples were analysed via HPLC. All four antioxidants permeated into the skin from the propylene glycol vehicle. The order of the amount of antioxidant in the stratum corneum was catechin > resveratrol~ retinol> curcumin, whereas that in the underlying skin was retinol > catechin~ resveratrol~ curcumin. Of the total amount of polyphenols in the skin, approximately 90% was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 10% was quantified in the underlying skin. In contrast, 10% of retinol was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 90% permeated in the underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) showed high concentration in the stratum corneum whereas retinol showed high accumulation in the underlying layers of the skin.

  20. Skin Aging (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  1. Correction of tear trough deformity with novel porcine collagen dermal filler (Dermicol-P35). (United States)

    Goldberg, David J


    Deformity of the tear trough region, which can occur during the aging process, can result in dark shadows under the eyes and a fatigued appearance. Augmentation of the tear trough is challenging because of the thin skin and lack of fat in the region. Adding volume to the tear trough region with a dermal filler is a nonsurgical procedure with minimal discomfort to the patient. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is a new, ribose crosslinked, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler that does not require prior skin testing and has shown improved persistence compared with bovine collagen-based dermal fillers. In this article, we present the clinical outcomes of patients who have received treatment with a novel ribose crosslinked porcine collagen dermal filler for the correction of tear trough deformity.

  2. The Skin–Brain Connection Hypothesis, Bringing Together CCL27-Mediated T-Cell Activation in the Skin and Neural Cell Damage in the Adult Brain (United States)

    Blatt, Nataliya L.; Khaiboullin, Timur I.; Lombardi, Vincent C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.


    Recent discovery of an association of low serum melatonin levels with relapse in multiple sclerosis (MS) opens a new horizon in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Skin is the main organ for sensing seasonal changes in duration of sunlight exposure. Level of melatonin production is dependent on light exposure. The molecular mechanisms connecting peripheral (skin) sensing of the light exposure and developing brain inflammation (MS) have not been investigated. We hypothesize that there is a connection between the reaction of skin to seasonal changes in sunlight exposure and the risk of MS and that seasonal changes in light exposure cause peripheral (skin) inflammation, the production of cytokines, and the subsequent inflammation of the brain. In skin of genetically predisposed individuals, cytokines attract memory cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA+) T lymphocytes, which then maintain local inflammation. Once inflammation is resolved, CLA+ lymphocytes return to the circulation, some of which eventually migrate to the brain. Once in the brain these lymphocytes may initiate an inflammatory response. Our observation of increased CC chemokine ligand 27 (CCL27) in MS sera supports the involvement of skin in the pathogenesis of MS. Further, the importance of our data is that CCL27 is a chemokine released by activated keratinocytes, which is upregulated in inflamed skin. We propose that high serum levels of CCL27 in MS are the result of skin inflammation due to exposure to seasonal changes in the sunlight. Future studies will determine whether CCL27 serum level correlates with seasonal changes in sunlight exposure, MS exacerbation, and skin inflammation. PMID:28138328

  3. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products. (United States)

    Runeman, Bo


    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  4. MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women. (United States)

    Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane


    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage.

  5. 超声生物显微镜在正常人及银屑病患者皮肤研究中的应用%Application of ultrasound biomicroscopy on skin assessment in normal adults and psoriasis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李硕; 梁晓宁; 张岩; 刘翠霞; 黄雅丽; 卢瑞刚; 郭瑞君


    ObjectiveTo investigate the features of normal and psoriasis skin on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and explore the method of thickness measurement.MethodsUsing 50 MHz ultrasound probe of biological microscope, ultrasonographic observation and ultrasonic thickness measurement were conducted in 90 normal adults and 40 psoriasis patients. Innormal patients, ultrasound evaluations were performed at 10 different parts of the body skin.ResultsOn sonogram, the normal skin showed a “sandwich” structure with two parallel hyperechoic bands and the middle isoechoic dots and short liens. The sonograms of the psoriasis skin showed obviously thickened epidermis and dermis, disordered internal structure and clear boundary from adjacent normal skin. The range of the epidermis’ thickness measurement was between the medial forearm (0.12±0.03) mm and the palm (0.29±0.15) mm. The range of dermal thickness measurement was between the back hand (1.18±0.32) mm and parasternal (1.55±0.21) mm. Psoriasis skin was thicker than the uninvolved skin (P<0.001). And the dermis’ thickness of uninvolved skin in psoriasis patients was thicker than that of the normal adults (P<0.001).ConclusionNormal adult’s epidermis, dermis and skin appendages can be shown clearly using 50 MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy. And ultrasound biomicroscopy canaccurately measure the thickness of dermis and epidermis, which provides the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis.%目的探讨正常人皮肤及银屑病患者皮肤超声生物显微镜声像图特征及厚度测量方法。方法使用50 MHz探头的超声生物显微镜,对90例正常成人全身10个不同部位的皮肤以及40例银屑病患者皮肤进行声像观察及超声测厚。结果正常皮肤声像图表现为两条平行的强回声细带,中间为密集点状中等回声及稍强线样回声带。银屑病患者皮肤声像图表现为表皮、真皮明显增厚,结构紊乱,与正常皮肤界限清晰。测量

  6. Your Skin (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  7. Oily skin (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  8. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue (United States)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.


    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  9. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus]. (United States)

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang


    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  10. Analysis of cell growth and gene expression of porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as nuclear donor cell. (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Rhee, Sang Ho; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun


    In several laboratory animals and humans, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are of considerable interest because they are easy to harvest and can generate a huge proliferation of cells from a small quantity of fat. In this study, we investigated: (i) the expression patterns of reprogramming-related genes in porcine ASC; and (ii) whether ASC can be a suitable donor cell type for generating cloned pigs. For these experiments, ASC, adult skin fibroblasts (AF) and fetal fibroblasts (FF) were derived from a 4-year-old female miniature pig. The ASC expressed cell-surface markers characteristic of stem cells, and underwent in vitro differentiation when exposed to specific differentiation-inducing conditions. Expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 in ASC was similar to that in AF, but the highest expression of the DNMT3B gene was observed in ASC. The expression of OCT4 was significantly higher in FF and ASC than in AF (P development rate of cloned embryos derived from ASC was comparable to the development of those derived using FF. Total cell numbers of blastocysts derived using ASC and FF were significantly higher than in embryos made with AF. The results demonstrated that ASC used for SCNT have a potential comparable to those of AF and FF in terms of embryo in vitro development and blastocyst formation.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Porcine MyD88 Essential for TLR Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Tohno; Tomoyuki Shimazu; Hisashi Aso; Yasushi Kawai; Tadao Saito; Haruki Kitazawa


    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine MyD88 (poMyD88) from Peyer's patches (Pps) of GALT. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of poMyD88 contains 879 bp encoding a deduced 293 aa residues. The amino acid sequence of poMyD88 was characterized by N-terminal death, intermediate and C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR)domains. The putative poMyD88 protein shares a higher level of homology with its human (87.2% amino acid identity) than with its mouse (77.4% amino acid identity) counterpart. Overexpression of poMyD88 participated in the further enhanced activation of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing porcine TLR2 and porcine TLR4/MD-2, but not porcine RP105/MD-1 after stimulation with the corresponding ligands. The expression levels of MyD88 were highest in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and lower in digestive tissues of newborn swine. In adult swine, the expression levels in the digestive tissues were lower than those in MLNs and the spleen. These results suggest that an MyD88-dependent signaling pathway is present in newborn as well as in adult swine and that it is involved in the innate immune system of these animals.

  12. The Effectiveness of Porcine Dermal Collagen (Permacol(®)) on Wound Healing in the Rat Model. (United States)

    Kalin, Murat; Kuru, Serdar; Kismet, Kemal; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Akgun, Yusuf Akif; Astarci, Hesna Muzeyyen; Ustun, Huseyin; Ertas, Ertugrul


    Porcine acellular dermal collagen (PDC), which is a biological material derived from processing porcine dermis, has already been used for urologic, gynecologic, plastic, and general surgery procedures up to now. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of PDC on wound healing as a dermal substitute in the rat model. Twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. Standard full-thickness skin defects were created on the back of the rats. In the control group (Group 1), the dressings moisturized with saline were changed daily. In the study group (Group 2), porcine dermal collagen was implanted onto each wound and fixed with 4-0 polypropylene sutures. Contraction percentages of wound areas were calculated on the third, seventh, tenth, and fourteenth days by using the planimetric program. On fourteenth day, the wound areas were excised for histopathological examination, inflammatory scoring, and evaluation of collagen deposition. The study group was superior to the control group in terms of inflammatory scoring, type I/type III collagen ratio, and wound contraction rates. Porcine dermal collagen may be used effectively and safely on full-thickness wounds as a current dermal substitute.

  13. How to Prevent Spread of The Skin Infection Impetigo (United States)

    ... How to Prevent Spread of the Skin Infection Impetigo It's a common childhood ailment, but adults can ... 27, 2016 SUNDAY, Nov. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Impetigo is a contagious skin infection that's preventable and ...

  14. Evaluation of clinical use of OneDose™ metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors compared to thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure skin dose for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Ibrahim Al-Mohammed


    Full Text Available Background: Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to their bone marrow transplant. It involves the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore, it is important to measure and monitor the skin dose during the treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs and the OneDose™ metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET detectors are used during treatment delivery to measure the radiation dose and compare it with the target prescribed dose. Aims: The primary goal of this study was to measure the variation of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET detectors and TLD detectors, and compare the results with the target prescribed dose. The secondary aim was to evaluate the simplicity of use and determine if one system was superior to the other in clinical use. Material and Methods : The measurements involved twelve adult patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TLD and OneDose MOSFET dosimetry were performed at ten different anatomical sites of each patient. Results : The results showed that there was a variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET detectors and TLD in all patients. However, the variation was not significant. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site there was no significant different between the prescribed dose and the dose measured by either TLD or OneDose MOSFET detectors. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the OneDose MOSFET and TLDs in comparison to the target prescribed dose. However, OneDose MOSFET detectors give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment, and their simplicity of use to compare with TLD detectors may make them preferred for clinical use.

  15. Aging skin. (United States)

    Bolognia, J L


    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  16. Comparative study of the effectiveness and safety of porcine and bovine atelocollagen in Asian nasolabial fold correction. (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jae; Rhie, Jong-Won; Suh, Dong-Sam; Oh, Deuk-Young; Lee, Joong-Ho; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Sue-Min; Jun, Young-Joon


    Bovine-derived collagen has been used for soft-tissue augmentation since 1977. However, there are issues regarding the possibility of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Researchers discovered that the histologic structure of porcine-derived collagen is similar to that of human dermal collagen and that it is free from the risk of BSE. This study was conducted to establish the effectiveness and safety of porcine-derived collagen compared to bovine-derived collagen. The 73 patients included in this study were healthy volunteers who responded to an advertisement approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). They had visited the authors' hospital complaining of wrinkles on their nasolabial fold. Either porcine (TheraFill®) or bovine atelocollagen was randomly injected into each side of their nasolabial folds, and the five-grade Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) was used to evaluate the wrinkles before and after the injection. The average age of the 73 study patients was 46.18 years. The WSRS scores of the porcine and bovine atelocollagen-injected patients were 2.90 ± 0.71 and 2.85 ± 0.72 at the baseline and 2.15 ± 0.70 and 2.21 ± 0.67 after 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Adverse effects of the porcine atelocollagen injection were seen in 12 patients, with the most common symptom being redness. This study showed that porcine atelocollagen can be used easily and without the need for the skin testing which is necessary before bovine atelocollagen injection. The efficacy of porcine atelocollagen is also similar to that of bovine atelocollagen.

  17. A porcine model for teaching surgical cricothyridootomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer Netto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptability of an educational project using A porcine model of airway for teaching surgical cricothyroidotomy to medical students and medical residents at a university hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: we developed a teaching project using a porcine model for training in surgical cricothyroidotomy. Medical students and residents received lectures about this surgical technique and then held practical training with the model. After the procedure, all participants filled out a form about the importance of training in airway handling and the model used.RESULTS: There were 63 participants. The overall quality of the porcine model was estimated at 8.8, while the anatomical correlation between the model and the human anatomy received a mean score of 8.5. The model was unanimously approved and considered useful in teaching the procedure.CONCLUSION: the training of surgical cricothyroidotomy with a porcine model showed good acceptance among medical students and residents of this institution.

  18. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  19. Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  20. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... nerve fibers were localized to islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and blood vessels. Vagus stimulation had no effect on substance P and neurokinin A release, whereas capsaicin infusion stimulated release of both. Substance P and neurokinin A infusion increased release of insulin, glucagon, and exocrine...... secretion, whereas somatostatin secretion was unaffected. The effect of substance P on insulin, glucagon, and exocrine secretion was blocked by the NK-1 receptor antagonist. The effect of electrical stimulation of vagus nerves on insulin and exocrine secretion was not influenced by tachykinin receptor...

  1. Porcine islet isolation outcome is not affected by the amount and distribution of collagen in the pancreas. (United States)

    Hilling, Denise E; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josephine K R A; Töns, H Annemiek M; Terpstra, Onno T; Bouwman, Eelco


    Variable islet yields in porcine islet isolation may be caused by the collagen substrate within the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to determine the total amount and distribution of collagen within porcine pancreata and their relationship to islet isolation outcome. A total of 64 juvenile and 76 adult porcine pancreata of eight purebred breeds were histologically examined. The amount of collagen was quantitatively assessed in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red. Collagen distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by assessing the presence of collagen in the endocrine-exocrine interface and within the islet, in tissue samples stained with Sirius Red and anti-insulin. Islet isolation was performed in 58 pancreata of the adult group. Total collagen content and islet encapsulation ranged widely in both adult and juvenile pigs. However, the majority of islets in adult and juvenile pigs had no or only a limited collagen capsule. The difference in collagen content between adult and juvenile pigs could not be explained by age. Furthermore, no differences between adult and juvenile pigs were found in islet encapsulation or the amount of intra-islet collagen. In adult pigs, no significant relationships were found between obtained islet yield and total collagen content, islet encapsulation or amount of collagen within the islet. Considering the limitations in experimental design (staining method) and study material, isolation outcome does not seem to be affected by the total collagen content or collagen distribution. The influence of other matrix elements and collagen subtypes should be investigated.

  2. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  3. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  4. 0.1%他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤的疗效和观察%Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment for facial sensitive skin in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹源; 谢志强; 张春雷


    目的:观察0.1%的他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤的疗效和安全性。方法给予36例诊断为敏感性皮肤的患者外用0.1%他克莫司软膏,每日2次,共3周,如果用药不到3周痊愈,可停止用药。于治疗前及治疗后1、3周和停药后4周各随访1次,评估病情严重程度及临床疗效。采用皮肤病生活质量调查问卷评估敏感性皮肤对生活质量的影响。结果36例患者中32例完成临床试验。治疗3周后皮炎症状的临床痊愈率、显效率分别为46.9%、40.6%,有效率为87.5%。治疗3周后10项评估指标及生活质量均有明显改善(P <0.001)。主观症状改善最明显的是自觉干燥、针刺感。客观症状中脱屑、干燥症状对治疗的反应最好。药物不良反应发生率为72.2%(瘙痒占30.8%,烧灼感占69.2%,刺痛占7.7%),其中有50%只出现于用药后2d 内。结论0.1%他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤安全、有效,刺激反应较普遍,多为一过性,可耐受。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of adults patient with facial sensitive skin. Methods Total 36 cases were treated with topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment, twice daily, and the clinical symptom and sign scores were recorded before and after the treatment. A new scale, which including 6 subjective skin conditions (pricking, burning sensation, itching, pain, dry sensation, tightness) and 4 visible skin conditions (erythema, swelling, scaling, dryness) was adopted for assessment at the baseline and succeeding improvement of skin condition. Dermatology life quality index was used to evaluate the impact of sensitive skin on life quality. Meanwhile the adverse events were observed. Results Thirty-two of the 36 cases completed the whole course of treatment. The cure rate was 46.9%(15/32), markedly improvement rate was 40.6%(13/32), moderate

  5. Assessing the effects of a short-term green tea intervention in skin microvascular function and oxygen tension in older and younger adults. (United States)

    Wasilewski, Rebecca; Ubara, Emmanuel O; Klonizakis, Markos


    Green tea consumption has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, there is little evidence examining its potential differing effect between younger and older populations, whilst little is known on its effect on the circulatory system when oxygen demand is higher. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on microvascular functioning in both an older and younger population. Fifteen young [24 (4.0)] and fifteen older [61 (4.0)] participants, consumed two cups of green tea daily for 14days. We used Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to assess cutaneous microvascular function and Transcutaneous Oxygen monitoring (TcPO2) to assess skin oxygen tension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also assessed on both visits. We observed significant improvements in axon-mediated microvascular vasodilation for the younger group [1.6 (0.59) vs 2.05 (0.72), p<0.05] and the older group [1.25 (0.58) vs 1.65 (0.5) p<0.05]. Improvements in skin oxygen tension were also noted for both groups in both noted TcPO2 measures (i.e. 1.25 (0.58) vs 1.65 (0.5) (p<0.05), for ΔTcPO2max for the older group, between visits) respectively. Improvements were also observed for systolic blood pressure in both the younger [120 (10) vs 112 (10), p<0.05] and older group [129 (12) v 124 (11), p<0.001]. In conclusion, we observed statistically-significant improvements in microvascular function and skin oxygen tension. Our results suggest that green tea may prove beneficial as a dietary element in lifestyle interventions aiming to lower cardiovascular disease risk, in both older and younger populations.

  6. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Quan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  7. Decellularization methods of porcine kidneys for whole organ engineering using a high-throughput system. (United States)

    Sullivan, David C; Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Deegan, Daniel B; Baptista, Pedro M; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J


    End-stage renal failure is a devastating disease, with donor organ transplantation as the only functional restorative treatment. The current number of donor organs meets less than one-fifth of demand, so regenerative medicine approaches have been proposed as potential therapeutic alternatives. One such approach for whole large-organ bioengineering is to combine functional renal cells with a decellularized porcine kidney scaffold. The efficacy of cellular removal and biocompatibility of the preserved porcine matrices, as well as scaffold reproducibility, are critical to the success of this approach. We evaluated the effectiveness of 0.25 and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% Triton X-100 in the decellularization of adult porcine kidneys. To perform the decellularization, a high-throughput system was designed and constructed. In this study all three methods examined showed significant cellular removal, but 0.5% SDS was the most effective detergent (<50 ng DNA/mg dry tissue). Decellularized organs retained intact microarchitecture including the renal vasculature and essential extracellular matrix components. The SDS-treated decellularized scaffolds were non-cytotoxic to primary human renal cells. This method ensures clearance of porcine cellular material (which directly impacts immunoreactivity during transplantation) and preserves the extracellular matrix and cellular compatibility of these renal scaffolds. Thus, we have developed a rapid decellularization method that can be scaled up for use in other large organs, and this represents a step toward development of a transplantable organ using tissue engineering techniques.

  8. Human hamstring tenocytes survive when seeded into a decellularized porcine Achilles tendon extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Lohan, Anke; Stoll, Christiane; Albrecht, Marit; Denner, Andreas; John, Thilo; Krüger, Kay; Ertel, Wolfgang; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula


    Tendon ruptures and defects remain major orthopaedic challenges. Tendon healing is a time-consuming process, which results in scar tissue with an altered biomechanical competence. Using a xenogeneic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) as a natural scaffold, which can be reseeded with autologous human tenocytes, might be a promising approach to reconstruct damaged tendons. For this purpose, the porcine Achilles (AS) tendons serving as a scaffold were histologically characterized in comparison to human cell donor tendons. AS tendons were decellularized and then reseeded with primary human hamstring tenocytes using cell centrifuging, rotating culture and cell injection techniques. Vitality testing, histology and glycosaminoglycan/DNA quantifications were performed to document the success of tendon reseeding. Porcine AS tendons were characterized by a higher cell and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content than human cell donor tendons. Complete decellularization could be achieved, but led to a wash out of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Nevertheless, porcine tendon could be recellularized with vital human tenocytes. The recellularization led to a slight increase in cell number compared to the native tendon and some glycosaminoglycan recovery. This study indicates that porcine tendon can be de- and recellularized using adult human tenocytes. Future work should optimize cell distribution within the recellularized tendon ECM and consider tendon- and donor species-dependent differences.

  9. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... you ever get a bad sunburn that caused blisters when you were a child?Does your skin ... Cancer InstituteMelanoma International FoundationAmerican Cancer Society ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma by BG Goldstein, AO Goldstein( ...

  10. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of porcine cells and organs as a source of xenografts for human patients would vastly increase the donor pool; however, both humans and Old World primates vigorously reject pig tissues due to xenoantibodies that react with the polysaccharide galactose α (1,3 galactose (αGal present on the surface of many porcine cells. We previously examined the xenoantibody response in patients exposed to porcine hepatocytes via treatment(s with bioartficial liver devices (BALs, composed of porcine cells in a support matrix. We determined that xenoantibodies in BAL-treated patients are predominantly directed at porcine αGal carbohydrate epitopes, and are encoded by a small number of germline heavy chain variable region (VH immunoglobulin genes. The studies described in this manuscript were designed to identify whether the xenoantibody responses and the IgVH genes encoding antibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates used as preclinical models are similar to those in humans. Adult non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were injected intra-portally with porcine hepatocytes or heterotopically transplanted with a porcine liver lobe. Peripheral blood leukocytes and serum were obtained prior to and at multiple time points after exposure, and the immune response was characterized, using ELISA to evaluate the levels and specificities of circulating xenoantibodies, and the production of cDNA libraries to determine the genes used by B cells to encode those antibodies. Results Xenoantibodies produced following exposure to isolated hepatocytes and solid organ liver grafts were predominantly encoded by genes in the VH3 family, with a minor contribution from the VH4 family. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (VH cDNA library screening and gene sequencing of IgM libraries identified the genes as most closely-related to the IGHV3-11 and IGHV4-59 germline progenitors. One of the genes most similar to IGHV3-11, VH3-11cyno, has

  11. Squamous cell skin cancer (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  12. Genetic analysis of the porcine group B rotavirus NSP2 gene from wild-type Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Médici


    Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.

  13. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception (United States)

    Maté-Cid, Saúl; Fulford, Robert; Seiffert, Gary; Ginsborg, Jane


    Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception. PMID:27191400

  14. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hopkins

    Full Text Available Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception.

  15. Identification of a novel skin penetration enhancement peptide by phage display peptide library screening. (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Sahdev, Preety; Perumal, Omathanu; Tummala, Hemachand


    Skin is an important site for local or systemic application of drugs. However, a majority of drugs have poor permeability through the skin's topmost layer, stratum corneum (SC). The aim of this study was to identify safe and smaller peptides that could enhance the skin penetration of drug molecules. By screening phage display peptide library, we have identified a T2 peptide (LVGVFH), which enhanced the penetration of bacteriophages (~800 nm long bacterial viruses) across porcine and mouse skin. Pretreating the skin with synthetic T2 peptide at pH 4.5 resulted in significant penetration enhancement of hydrophilic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) across skin. FTIR spectroscopy showed that the T2 peptide interacted with skin lipids to enhance the skin penetration. Pretreating the skin with T2 peptide enhanced the partitioning of small molecules with different lipophilicities (5-FU, fluorescein isothiocyanate, and rhodamine 123 hydrochloride) into skin. Fluorescence studies showed that T2 peptide enhanced the diffusion of these molecules into intercellular lipids of SC and thus enhanced the penetration into the skin. Histidine at the c-terminus of T2 peptide was identified to be critical for the skin penetration enhancement. T2 peptide interacted with skin lipids to cause skin penetration enhancement. The study identified a novel, safe, and noninvasive peptide to improve the skin penetration of drugs without chemical conjugation.

  16. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S


    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  17. Porcine model of hemophilia A. (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi


    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  18. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  19. Skin Cancer Foundation (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  20. Skin Pigmentation Disorders (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  1. Skin Bleaching


    Ahmed, Samira M.


    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  2. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  3. Heat sensitivity of porcine IgG. (United States)

    Metzger, J J; Bourdieu, C; Rouze, P; Houdayer, M


    The sensitivity to heat of porcine IgG was studied. The serum from immunized pigs was heated at 56 degrees C for 30 min as for decomplementation. The elution pattern of the serum proteins on an agarose gel column showed a dramatic change with the appearance of a large peak of the gel-excluded material. This peak contained mainly IgG molecules which still retained its antibody activity. This fact points to misinterpretations which can easily occur in 7S and 19S antibody recognition during the porcine immune response. Correlation is suggested of this property with the large number of interheavy chain disulfide bridges present in porcine IgG.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling in Porcine Fetal Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjiong Chen; Shengbin Li; Lin Ye; Jianing Geng; Yajun Deng; Songnian Hu


    obtain an initial overview of gene diversity and expression pattern in porcinethymus, 11,712 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) from 100-day-old porcine thymus(FTY) were sequenced and 7,071 cleaned ESTs were used for gene expressionanalysis. Clustered by the PHRAP program, 959 contigs and 3,074 singlets wereobtained. Blast search showed that 806 contigs and 1,669 singlets (totally 5,442ESTs) had homologues in GenBank and 1,629 ESTs were novel. According to theGene Ontology classification, 36.99% ESTs were cataloged into the gene expressiongroup, indicating that although the functional gene (18.78% in defense group) ofthymus is expressed in a certain degree, the 100-day-old porcine thymus still existsin a developmental stage. Comparative analysis showed that the gene expressionpattern of the 100-day-old porcine thymus is similar to that of the human infantthymus.

  5. Spreading of a Lidocaine Formulation on Microneedle-Treated Skin. (United States)

    Nayak, Atul; Das, Diganta B; Chao, Tzu C; Starov, Victor M


    The spreadability of a liquid drug formulation on skin is an indication of it either remaining stationary or distributing (spreading) as a droplet. Factors determining droplet spreadability of the formulation are spreading area, diameter of the droplet base, viscosity of the liquid, contact angle, volume of droplet on skin and any others. The creation of microcavities from the application of microneedle (MN) has the potential to control droplet spreading, and hence, target specific areas of skin for drug delivery. However, there is little work that demonstrates spreading of liquid drug formulation on MN-treated skin. Below, spreading of a lidocaine hydrogel formulation and lidocaine solution (reference liquid) on porcine skin is investigated over MN-treated skin. Controlled spreadability was achieved with the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin as compared with lidocaine solution. It was observed that the droplet spreading parameters such as spreading radius, droplet height and dynamic contact angle were slightly lower for the lidocaine hydrogel than the lidocaine solution on skin. Also, the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin resulted in slower dynamic reduction of droplet height, contact angle and reduced time taken in attaining static advancing droplets because of the MN microcavities.

  6. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues


    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lim, Chang-Jin


    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mi...

  7. Chemiluminescent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and interations with intact skin (United States)

    Breidenich, Jennifer; Patrone, Julia; Kelly, Lisa; Benkoski, Jason; Le, Huong; Sample, Jennifer


    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanoparticle formulation designed for skin penetration for the purpose of skin imaging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), a drug delivery vehicle, were used as the matrix for targeted delivery of peroxide-sensitive chemiluminescent compounds to the epidermis. Luminol and oxalate were chosen as the chemiluminescent test systems, and a formulation was determined based upon non-toxic components, lotion-like properties, and longevity/visibility of a chemiluminescent signal. The luminescence lifetime was extended in the lipid formulation in comparison to the chemiluminescent system in solution. When applied to porcine skin, our formulation remained detectable relative to negative and positive controls. Initial MTT toxicity testing using HepG2 cells have indicated that this formulation is relatively non-toxic. This formulation could be used to image native peroxides present in tissue that may be indicative of skin disease.

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Buffalo Skin for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Rizk


    Full Text Available Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM, DSC and amino acids analysis. Proline and hydroxyproline contents of buffalo skin collagen were higher than those of calf skin collagen. Thermal stability of buffalo skin collagen is high with respect to that of calf skin collagen. The obtained buffalo skin collagen shows higher stiffness upon cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Thus buffalo skin collagen can be used for fabrication of high strength bioactive sponge and sheets for medical applications, like scaffold for tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound dressing system.

  9. Cutaneous skin tag (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  10. Comparison between cryopreserved and glycerol-preserved allografts in a partial-thickness porcine wound model. (United States)

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Lim, Kihwan; Lee, Sungjun; Choi, Yanghwan; Choi, Youngwhan; Lee, Jungsuk


    Human skin allografts are one of the best temporary biological coverings for severely burned patients. Cryopreserved (CPA) and glycerol-preserved (GPA) allografts are the most widely used types. This study compared the allograft efficiency of both preservation methods under the same conditions. To simulate actual clinical conditions, we used a porcine wound model. In addition, we evaluated the macroscopic and microscopic scoring of graft performance for each method. Porcine cadaver skin 1 mm thick was obtained from one pig. Cryopreserved skin cell viability was 20.8 %, glycerol-preserved skin was 9.08 %, and fresh skin was 58.6 %. We made ten partial-thickness wounds each in two pigs. The take rates on day 2 were 96.23 and 82.65 % in the GPA and CPA group (both n = 9), respectively. After 1 week, the take rates of both groups were nearly equal. The removal rate at week 5 was 98.87 and 94.41 % in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. On microscopic findings at week 2, inflammation was greater in the CPA group. Other findings such as fibroblast hyperplasia and neovascularization were not significantly different between both groups. At week 5, the score of collagen fiber synthesis was 2.67 ± 0.47 and 2.33 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. The epidermal-dermal junction was 2.22 ± 0.79 and 2.00 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. These findings suggest that wound healing takes longer in the CPA group. The preservation method of allografts is not a absolute factor in the wound healing process in this wound model.

  11. Long-Term Survival of Neonatal Porcine Islets Without Sertoli Cells in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vald and eacute;s-Gonz and aacute;lez


    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment for metabolic disorders such as type-1 diabetes. Transplantation protocols have investigated several anatomical sites for cell implantation; however, some of these procedures, such as intraportal infusion, can cause organ failure or thrombosis secondarily. Bio-artificial organs could be the choice, although concerns still remain. Using a subcutaneous device, we are able to preserve neonatal porcine islets without sertoli cells in healthy New Zealand rabbits. Devices were implanted in the back of the animals underneath the skin, and after 3 months the islets were transplanted. Histology showed the presence of inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils; however, insulin- and glucagon-positive cell clusters were identified inside the device at different time points for at least 90 days, and porcine C-peptide was also detected during the follow-up, indicating graft functionality. We have found that our device induces the deposition of a fibrous matrix enriched in blood vessels, which forms a good place for cell grafting, and this model is probably able to induce an immunoprivileged site. Under these conditions, transplanted porcine islet cells have the capability of producing insulin and glucagon for at least three months. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 101-108

  12. Imprinting Analysis of the Porcine MEST Gene in 75 and 90 Day Placentas and Prenatal Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchang XU; Lijie SU; Quanyong ZHOU; Changchun LI; Shuhong ZHAO


    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. Mouse mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) has been identified as an imprinted gene and mapped to an imprinted region of mouse chromosome 6 (MMU6). It plays essential roles in embryonic and placental growth, and it is required for maternal behavior in adult female mouse. Here, we isolated the porcine MEST gene and detected a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region. The RsaI polymorphism was used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in prenatal porcine tissues.Allele frequencies were significantly different between the native Chinese and Landrace breeds, except that most of the native Yushan pigs (21/26) are heterozygous at this locus. The results indicate that MEST was imprinted in placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation as well as in the 75 d fetal heart, muscle, kidney, lung and liver.

  13. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.


    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  14. Molecular survey of porcine teschovirus, porcine sapelovirus, and enterovirus G in captive wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa of Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane G. Donin


    Full Text Available AbstractPorcine teschovirus (PTV, porcine sapelovirus (PSV, and enterovirus G (EV-G are infectious agents specific to pig host species that are endemically spread worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the natural infection by these porcine enteric picornaviruses in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa of Paraná state, Brazil, and to evaluate peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari as alternative host species for these viruses. Fecal samples (n=36 from asymptomatic wild boars (n=22 with ages ranging from 2 to 7 months old (young, n=14 and 2 to 4 years old (adult, n=8 and from peccaries (6 to 8 months old, n=14 were collected from a farm and a zoo, respectively, both located in Paraná state. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested-PCR (n-PCR assays targeting the 5'non-translated region of the virus genome were used for screening the viruses. Porcine enteric picornaviruses were detected in 12 out of the 22 wild boar fecal samples. According to each of the viruses, EV-G was most frequently (11/22, 50% detected, followed by PTV (10/22, 45.5% and PSV (4/22, 18.2%. Regarding the age groups, young wild boars were more frequently (9/14, 64.3% infected with PTV, PSV, and EV-G than adult animals (3/8, 37.4%. One n-PCR amplified product for each of the viruses was submitted to sequencing analysis and the nucleotide sequences were compared with the related viruses, which showed similarities varying from 97.7% to 100% for PTV, 92.4% to 96.2% for PSV, and 87.1% to 100% for EV-G. Peccaries tested negative for the viruses and in this study they did not represent infection reservoirs. This study is the first to report the molecular detection of PTV, PSV, and EV-G from captive wild boars in a South American country and the first to screen peccaries as alternative host species for porcine enteric picornavirus.

  15. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life


    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta


    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  16. Skin Keratins. (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A


    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  17. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1 of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90% and to mouse (84% synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation.

  18. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.


    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions a

  19. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H;


    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine ...

  20. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael


    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  1. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?


    Telofski, Lorena S.; A. Peter Morello; Catherine Mack Correa, M.; Georgios N. Stamatas


    Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema) is included. As infant skin continues to...

  2. Fibromodulin-deficiency alters temporospatial expression patterns of transforming growth factor-β ligands and receptors during adult mouse skin wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng

    Full Text Available Fibromodulin (FMOD is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan required for scarless fetal cutaneous wound repair. Interestingly, increased FMOD levels have been correlated with decreased transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 expression in multiple fetal and adult rodent models. Our previous studies demonstrated that FMOD-deficiency in adult animals results in delayed wound closure and increased scar size accompanied by loose package collagen fiber networks with increased fibril diameter. In addition, we found that FMOD modulates in vitro expression and activities of TGF-β ligands in an isoform-specific manner. In this study, temporospatial expression profiles of TGF-β ligands and receptors in FMOD-null and wild-type (WT mice were compared by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a full-thickness, primary intention wound closure model. During the inflammatory stage, elevated inflammatory infiltration accompanied by increased type I TGF-β receptor levels in individual inflammatory cells was observed in FMOD-null wounds. This increased inflammation was correlated with accelerated epithelial migration during the proliferative stage. On the other hand, significantly more robust expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-β receptors in FMOD-null wounds during the proliferative stage was associated with delayed dermal cell migration and proliferation, which led to postponed granulation tissue formation and wound closure and increased scar size. Compared with WT controls, expression of TGF-β ligands and receptors by FMOD-null dermal cells was markedly reduced during the remodeling stage, which may have contributed to the declined collagen synthesis capability and unordinary collagen architecture. Taken together, this study demonstrates that a single missing gene, FMOD, leads to conspicuous alternations in TGF-β ligand and receptor expression at all stages of wound repair in various cell types. Therefore

  3. Animal models of skin regeneration. (United States)

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta; Kur, Anna


    Cutaneous injury in the majority of vertebrate animals results in the formation of a scar in the post-injured area. Scar tissues, although beneficial for maintaining integrity of the post-wounded region often interferes with full recovery of injured tissues. The goal of wound-healing studies is to identify mechanisms to redirect reparative pathways from debilitating scar formation to regenerative pathways that lead to normal functionality. To perform such studies models of regeneration, which are rare in mammals, are required. In this review we discussed skin regenerative capabilities present in lower vertebrates and in models of skin scar-free healing in mammals, e.g. mammalian fetuses. However, we especially focused on the attributes of two unusual models of skin scar-free healing capabilities that occur in adult mammals, that is, those associated with nude, FOXN1-deficient mice and in wild-type African spiny mice.

  4. Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1 in the porcine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dong-Il


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1 is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1 gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Results We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected. Conclusions It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.

  5. Randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults comparing replenishment with oral vitamin D3 with narrow-band UV type B light: effects on cholesterol and the transcriptional profiles of skin and blood. (United States)

    Ponda, Manish P; Liang, Yupu; Kim, Jaehwan; Hutt, Richard; Dowd, Kathleen; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary M; Rodrick, Tori; Kim, Dong Joo; Barash, Irina; Lowes, Michelle A; Breslow, Jan L


    Background: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration replenishment of vitamin D with UVB exposure would lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation.Design: We performed a randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults and compared vitamin D replenishment between subjects who received oral vitamin D3 (n = 60) and those who received narrow-band UVB exposure (n = 58) ≤6 mo.Results: There was no difference in the change from baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations between oral vitamin D3 and UVB groups (difference in median of oral vitamin D3 minus that of UVB: 1.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.0, 7.0 mg/dL). There were also no differences within groups or between groups for changes in total or HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Transcriptional profiling of skin and blood, however, revealed significant upregulation of immune pathway signaling with oral vitamin D3 but significant downregulation with UVB.Conclusions: Correcting vitamin D deficiency with either oral vitamin D3 or UVB does not improve the lipid profile. Beyond cholesterol, these 2 modalities of raising 25(OH)D have disparate effects on gene transcription. This trial was registered at as NCT01688102.

  6. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream. (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon


    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Adult Porcine Muscle Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, K.J.


    In the past decade, tissue-specific stem cell research has been emerging. Stem cells are characterized by a long-term expansion and a broad developmental potential in vitro. Pre-clinical studies appear promising, but still many limitations have to be overcome before broad therapeutic use of stem cel

  8. Morphologic construction and markers of epidermal stem cell comparision of skin between fetal and adult%胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤的形态结构及表皮干细胞分子标志物的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永胜; 陈晓蓉


    目的:探讨胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤的形态结构及表皮干细胞分子标志物的差异,为后续皮肤功能的研究及皮肤移植提供理论依据。方法取胎儿背部与成人腿部皮肤,标本取材后立即用10%中性甲醛固定,石蜡包埋。所有标本经石蜡切片,HE染色,观察皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器的形态结构;应用免疫组织化学法检测皮肤组织中表皮干细胞标志物p63、β1整合素和角蛋白19(K19)的表达。结果胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器结构不同,胎儿表皮由2~3层上皮细胞组成,基底层细胞呈立方形,核圆,染色深,未发现颗粒层细胞,真皮乳头状突起不明显;成人全层皮肤明显厚于胎儿皮肤,尤其是成人皮肤的真皮层明显较胎儿真皮发达,成人皮肤真皮乳头状突起明显,成人表皮由6~7层上皮细胞组成,基底层细胞呈立方形或柱形,细胞核染色较深,呈卵圆形,居中,有明显的颗粒层,但细胞轮廓不清晰,胞质内可见蓝色颗粒。经测定胎儿皮肤表达的p63、β1整合素及K19的平均光密度值高于成人( P<0.01)。结论胎儿皮肤和成人皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器形态结构存在差异,表皮干细胞分子标志物表达也存在差异。%Objective To explore the differences of morphologic structure and markers of epithelial stem cell be-tween fetal and adult skin and to provide experimental basis for further study of the function of the skin and skin transplantion. Methods The skin was obtained from the part of fatal dorsal and adult leg respectively. After draw-ing materials, the specimens were immediately drawn with 10% neutral formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded. After all the specimens were sliced series, the structure of epidermis, dermis and skin appendages were observed by HE staining. The quantity of p63,β1 integrin, keratin 19 (K19) expression were determined by immunohistochemis-try. Results There were differences

  9. Skin color - patchy (United States)

    ... page: // Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  10. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay. (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan


    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  11. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis. (United States)

    Shawki, Hossam H; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Kawashima, Akihiro


    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS-PAGE gel as two bands at 75 kDa and 70 kDa in adult porcine testis, whereas one band at 70 kDa in epididymal sperm. pCABS1 immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules was detected in the elongated spermatids, and that in the epididymal sperm was found in the acrosome as well as flagellum. The immunoreactivity of pCABS1 in the acrosomai region disappeared during acrosome reaction. We also identified that pCABS1 has a transmembrane domain using computational prediction of the amino acids sequence. The treatment of porcine capacitated sperm with anti-pCABS1 antiserum significantly decreased acrosome reactions. These results suggest that pCABS1 plays an important role in controlling calcium ion signaling during the acrosome reaction.

  12. Sources of cumulus expansion enabling factor (CEEF) in porcine follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It was shown that expansion of porcine cumulus did not depend on oocyte-secreted factor(s), and it is therefore presumed that porcine CEEF may not be produced exclusively by the oocyte. In this experiment, we used mouse oocytectomized complexes (OOX), which were incapable of CEEF production, to assess the secretion of CEEF by evacuated zona, oocytes of different quality and somatic cells in the porcine follicles. The results showed that: (ⅰ) Evacuated zonae from both porcine and mouse oocytes did not produce CEEF. (ⅱ) Porcine oocytes of A, B and C types from 3 - 6 mm follicles were not significantly different in both production and activity of CEEF. (ⅲ) Both porcine OOX from 3 - 6 mm follicles and granulose cells from < 1 mm follicles secreted CEEF in a large quantity, independent of gonadotropins; mural granulose cells from 3-6 mm follicles, however, produced neglectable amount of CEEF. (ⅳ) The follicular fluid from 3-6 mm porcine follicles contained CEEF activity that was concentration-dependent, and thus it enabled cumulus expansion in 60% mouse OOX when used at 10% of concentration, but the expansion rate of mouse OOX decreased to 9% when the concentration was increased to 50%. (ⅴ) Mouse OOX cultured in porcine CEEF-containing M199 expanded only in the presence of gonadotropins, suggesting that the activity of porcine CEEF is hormone-de- pendent.

  13. Role of collagen in terahertz absorption in skin (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin O.; Taylor, Zachary D.; Suen, Jonathan Y.; Burt, Benjamin O.; Lee, Hua; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Singh, Rahul S.


    Reflective terahertz (THz) imaging may potentially become a valuable tool in determining skin hydration due to its non-ionizing photon energy, high sensitivity to water concentration and ability to penetrate through clothing. The high absorption coefficient of water in the THz range is responsible for contrast between substances with lesser or higher degrees of water saturation. Water content, as well as collagen fiber arrangement, varies between different layers of skin. This study sought to determine whether the high THz absorption in water could be exploited to distinguish between these layers. Porcine skin specimens were sectioned into samples of increasing thickness, with the undersides corresponding to different layers in skin. The undersides of the samples were scanned using a THz imaging system operating at a center frequency of 0.5 THz with 0.125 THz of noise-equivalent bandwidth at a standoff of 4 cm and a spot size of 13 mm. Collagen solutions of varying hydrations were also prepared and raster scanned with the same system. The reflectivity of the deeper layers of skin was found to be higher than that of the upper layers, indicating that the deeper layers are more hydrated. The collagen solutions with higher hydration also had higher THz reflectivity. These results suggested that THz is able to distinguish between different layers of skin based on water content and the nature of its association with components in skin.

  14. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal. (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude


    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health.

  15. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan


    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully...... delipated in this way. Parthenogenetic activation (PA) after complete removal of zona resulted in similar blastocyst rates in delipated vs. control oocytes (28 ± 7% vs. 28 ± 5%, respectively). Subsequent vitrification of produced blastocysts with the Cryotop technique resulted in higher survival rates......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  16. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila;


    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  17. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika;


    Genetically modified pigs are becoming an invaluable animal model for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Unlike traditional transgenesis, which is accomplished by randomly inserting an exogenous transgene cassette into the natural chromosomal context, targeted genome editing...... confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  18. Purification of tubulin from porcine brain. (United States)

    Gell, Christopher; Friel, Claire T; Borgonovo, Barbara; Drechsel, David N; Hyman, Anthony A; Howard, Jonathon


    Microtubules, polymers of the heterodimeric protein αβ-tubulin, give shape to cells and are the tracks for vesicle transport and chromosome segregation. In vitro assays to study microtubule functions and their regulation by microtubule-associated proteins require the availability of purified αβ-tubulin. In this chapter, we describe the process of purification of heterodimeric αβ-tubulin from porcine brain.

  19. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells



    OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3)H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or l...

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the regulation of the endocrine porcine pancreas. Initially, we isolated and purified CGRP from extracts of porcine adrenal glands and pancreases. A single molecular form of the peptide...... was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...

  1. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A


    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  2. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao X


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or lipase were determined during the culture process. RESULTS: There were no remarkable morphological changes in the pancreatic acinar cells during the 20 days culture. The acini showed a tendency to gather but did not attach to the walls of the culture disks. A good (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells in the primary culture was maintained. The secretion of amylase or lipase from the acini decreased with the length of time of the culture. DISCUSSION: The primary culture of acinar cells from a porcine pancreas which was carried out in this study maintained the normal morphology of the acinar cells and their ability to grow but not their secretion of amylase or lipase. The method would benefit by the further experiments on acini of porcine pancreas.

  3. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  4. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D. Joshua


    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  5. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    Full Text Available The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus. These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks and intermediate (13-19 weeks adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks. Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given

  6. Skin Care and Aging (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  7. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the ... pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins ...

  8. DA 5505: a novel topical formulation of terbinafine that enhances skin penetration and retention. (United States)

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Han, Sang-Duk; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon Ho; Kim, Jong Oh


    Topical fungal infections can become severe if left untreated. Efficient treatment modalities for topical fungal infections aid the penetration of antifungal agents deep into viable skin layers. Terbinafine is a fungicidal agent that inhibits ergosterol, an essential fungal component. The main objective of this study was to evaluate skin permeation and retention of a terbinafine-loaded solution containing chitosan as a film former. Comparative assessment of skin permeation and retention was performed using a prepared formulation (DA 5505) and marketed formulations of terbinafine in murine and porcine skin. To mimic fungal infection of skin, keratinized skin was induced in NC/Nga mice. In comparison with the marketed formulations, DA 5505 exhibited significantly better skin permeation. The flux, permeation coefficient, and enhancement ratio of terbinafine were remarkably increased by DA 5505 in comparison with the marketed formulations, and lag time was dramatically reduced. DA 5505 significantly increased cumulative terbinafine retention in viable skin layers in comparison with the marketed solution, suggesting enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, DA 5505 exhibited superior skin permeation in normal skin and keratinized skin. Thus, the DA 5505 formulation has the potential to effectively deliver terbinafine to superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  9. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;


    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  10. Feasibility of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent: a preclinical study. (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Hemar, Julie; Hasirci, Vasif; Breton, Pierre; Damour, Odile


    Oral tissue engineering aims to treat and fill tissue deficits caused by congenital defects, facial trauma, or malignant lesion surgery, as well as to study the biology of oral mucosa. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) require a large animal model to evaluate cell-based devices, including tissue-engineered oral mucosa, prior to initiating human clinical studies. Porcine oral mucosa is non-keratinized and resembles that of humans more closely than any other animal in terms of structure and composition; however, there have not been any reports on the reconstruction of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent, probably due to the difficulty to culture porcine fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3D porcine oral mucosa equivalent based on a collagen-GAG-chitosan scaffold, as well as reconstructed porcine epithelium by using an amniotic membrane as support, or without any support in form of epithelial cell sheets by using thermoresponsive culture plates. Explants technique was used for the isolation of the porcine fibroblasts and a modified fibroblast medium containing 20% fetal calf serum was used for their culture. The histological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of the resulting porcine oral mucosa models showed the presence of non-keratinized epithelia expressing keratin 13, the major differentiation marker of non-keratinized oral mucosa, in all models, and the presence of newly synthesized collagen fibers in the lamina propria equivalent of the full-thickness model, indicating the functionality of porcine fibroblasts.

  11. Inhibition of Porcine Small Intestinal Sucrase by Validamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 申屠旭萍; 沈寅初


    As an important medicinal intermediate with broad uses, validamine, an aminocyclitol, isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins, has gained more and more attention. The absolute configuration of validamine is similar to that of α-D-glucose, and it demonstrates powerful inhibition activity on glycosidase. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was investigated. Validamine was found to be a potent, competitive inhibitor to porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 6.85 × 10-4 mol·L-1. Validamine exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition effect on porcine small intestinal sucrase, whereby the inhibition interaction of validamine and porcine small intestinal sucrase was a fast binding process. The inhibition of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was pH-dependent.

  12. Identification of porcine alveolar macrophage glycoproteins involved in infection of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Pol, J.M.A.; Godeke, G.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.


    The aim of this study was to identify the receptor(s) for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against these cells. Hybridoma supernatants were selected for their ability to block PRRSV infection. Four MAbs, 1-8D2, 9.4C7, 9.9F2, and 3-3H2 inhibited i

  13. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.;


    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...

  14. Enhanced skin delivery of vismodegib by microneedle treatment. (United States)

    Nguyen, Hiep X; Banga, Ajay K


    The present study investigated the effects of microneedle treatment (maltose microneedles, Admin Pen™ 1200, and Admin Pen™ 1500) on in vitro transdermal delivery of vismodegib with different needle lengths, skin equilibration times, and microneedle insertion durations. The influence of microneedle treatment on the dimensions of microchannels (dye binding, calcein imaging, histology, and confocal microscopy studies), transepidermal water loss, and skin permeability of vismodegib was also evaluated. Skin viscoelasticity was assessed using a rheometer, and microneedle geometry was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Permeation studies of vismodegib through dermatomed porcine ear skin were conducted using vertical Franz diffusion cells. Skin irritation potential of vismodegib formulation was assessed using an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis model. Results of the in vitro permeation studies revealed significant enhancement in permeation of vismodegib through microneedle-treated skin. As the needle length increased from 500 to 1100 and 1400 μm, drug delivery increased from 14.50 ± 2.35 to 32.38 ± 3.33 and 74.40 ± 15.86 μg/cm(2), respectively. Positive correlation between drug permeability and microneedle treatment duration was observed. The equilibration time was also found to affect the delivery of vismodegib. Thus, changes in microneedle length, equilibration time, and duration of treatment altered transdermal delivery of vismodegib.

  15. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image) (United States)

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  16. Actions of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone versus porcine bone only on osteointegration of dental implants. (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier; Marínez-González, José María; Barone, Antonio; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Paredes, Sergio D; Fuentes-Breto, Lorena


    This study evaluated the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone on the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received two parallel wall expanded platform implants with a DCD surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each mandible in the molar area and the gaps were filled with 5 mg lyophilized powdered melatonin and porcine bone and collagenized porcine bone alone. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin plus porcine bone significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P < 0.0001), bone density (P < 0.0001), and new bone formation (P < 0.0001) in comparison with porcine bone alone around the implants. Melatonin plus collagenized porcine bone on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone in implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with porcine bone alone treated area (67.17 +/- 1.2%).

  17. Interobserver reliability of teledermatology across all Fitzpatrick skin types. (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Hu, Jenny; Nguyen, Andrew; Cockburn, Myles; Chiu, Melvin; Cotliar, Jonathan; Kim, Jenny; Peng, David; Crew, Ashley


    Introduction Demand for dermatologic services in safety net hospitals, which disproportionately serve patients with darker coloured skin, is growing. Teledermatology has the potential to increase access and improve outcomes, but studies have yet to demonstrate the reliability of teledermatology for all Fitzpatrick skin types. Methods We assessed the reliability of teledermatologists' diagnoses and management recommendations for store-and-forward teledermatology in patients with lightly pigmented (Fitzpatrick skin types I-III) versus darkly pigmented (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) skin, when compared to in-person diagnosis and management decisions. This prospective study enrolled 232 adult patients, presenting with new, visible skin complaints in a Los Angeles county dermatology clinic. Forty-seven percent of patients were Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, and 53% were Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. Results Percent concordance for the identical primary diagnosis was 53.2% in lighter (Fitzpatrick I-III) skin types and 56.0% in darker (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) skin types. There was no statistically significant difference in concordance rates between lighter and darker skin types for primary diagnosis. Concordance rates for diagnostic testing, clinic-based therapy, and treatments were similar in both groups of Fitzpatrick skin types. Discussion These results suggest that teledermatology is reliable for the diagnosis and management of patients with all Fitzpatrick skin types.

  18. Dynamic microRNAome profiles in the developing porcine liver. (United States)

    Liu, Yihui; Jin, Long; Lou, Pengbo; Gu, Yiren; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei


    Increasing evidence suggests that micro (mi)RNAs play important roles in various biological process. To evaluate the roles of miRNA in the porcine liver, we investigated the dynamic profiles of microRNAomes using liver tissue from pigs during the embryonic period (embryonic day 90), weaning stage (postnatal day 30), and adult stage (7 years old). A total of 186 unique miRNAs were differentially expressed during liver development. We also identified that 17, 13, and 6 miRNAs were specifically abundant at embryonic day 90, postnatal day 30, and at 7 years, respectively. Besides regulating basic cellular roles in development, miRNAs expressed at the three developmental stages also participated in regulating "embryonic liver development," "early hepatic growth and generating a functioning liver," and "energy metabolic processes," respectively. Our study indicates that miRNAs are extensively involved in liver development, and provides a valuable resource for the further elucidation of miRNA regulatory roles during liver development.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy and microscopic imaging: novel approaches for comparing barrier physical properties in native and human skin equivalents (United States)

    Yu, Guo; Zhang, Guojin; Flach, Carol R.; Mendelsohn, Richard


    Vibrational spectroscopy and imaging have been used to compare barrier properties in human skin, porcine skin, and two human skin equivalents, Epiderm 200X with an enhanced barrier and Epiderm 200 with a normal barrier. Three structural characterizations were performed. First, chain packing and conformational order were compared in isolated human stratum corneum (SC), isolated porcine SC, and in the Epiderm 200X surface layers. The infrared (IR) spectrum of isolated human SC revealed a large proportion of orthorhombically packed lipid chains at physiological temperatures along with a thermotropic phase transition to a state with hexagonally packed chains. In contrast, the lipid phase at physiological temperatures in both porcine SC and in Epiderm 200X, although dominated by conformationally ordered chains, lacked significant levels of orthorhombic subcell packing. Second, confocal Raman imaging of cholesterol bands showed extensive formation of cholesterol-enriched pockets within the human skin equivalents (HSEs). Finally, IR imaging tracked lipid barrier dimensions as well as the spatial disposition of ordered lipids in human SC and Epiderm 200X. These approaches provide a useful set of experiments for exploring structural differences between excised human skin and HSEs, which in turn may provide a rationale for the functional differences observed among these preparations.

  20. A technique for pediatric total skin electron irradiation


    Bao Qinan; Hrycushko Brian A; Dugas Joseph P; Hager Frederick H; Solberg Timothy D


    Abstract Background Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special radiotherapy technique which has generally been used for treating adult patients with mycosis fungoides. Recently, two infants presented with leukemia cutis isolated to the skin requiring TSEI. This work discusses the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) methods for implementing a modified Stanford technique using a rotating harness system to position sedated pediatric patients treated with electrons to the total skin...

  1. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete


    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  2. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.


    the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post‐weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig‐to‐pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase...... Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  3. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  4. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.


    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  5. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.;


    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC...

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Buffalo Skin for Biomedical Applications


    Moustafa A. Rizk; Nasser Y. Mostafa


    Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM...

  7. Effect of vitamin D3 on production of progesterone in porcine granulosa cells by regulation of steroidogenic enzymes. (United States)

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kim, Hong Sung; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jae Ho; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo


    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in ovarian granulosa cells as the ovarian follicle develops. The functions of sex hormones include regulation of the estrus cycle and puberty as well as maintenance of pregnancy in females. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovaries and cultured them for experiments. To examine the effects of VD3 on ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Production of progesterone from granulosa cells was also measured by ELISA assay. As a result, transcriptional and translational regulation of progesterone biosynthesis-related genes in granulosa cells was significantly altered by VD3. Furthermore, progesterone concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media decreased in response to VD3. These results show that VD3 was a strong regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss.

  8. Cryo-preserved porcine kidneys are feasible for teaching and training renal biopsy: “the bento kidney”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno Kenjiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of patients as the primary teaching modality for learning procedures is being questioned. While there have been advancements in the technology used for performing needle biopsies in both native and transplanted kidneys, there has been little advancement in teaching and training tools. We have developed a portable ex-vivo kidney, the Bento Kidney, using cryo-preserved porcine kidneys for teaching this procedure. Methods The kidney is thawed, perfused by a pump, covered with skin for realistic haptic feedback, and then used with existing biopsy technology to teach the technique. Results Thirty porcine kidneys were used in this pilot research, and nine were shipped to physicians at a distant facility. Renal biopsy was then performed using a core biopsy needle and ultrasound guidance. There was some leakage of fluid from all kidneys noted. All trainees felt that the model was realistic, and judged at a mean score of 8.7 (SD 0.8 on a scale of 1 (not useful to 10 (very useful. Conclusions This feasibility study demonstrates that cryo-preserved porcine kidneys can be successfully used to teach and train renal biopsy techniques, and provides haptic feedback as well as realistic real-time ultrasound images. Further large scale studies are needed to demonstrate value from the educational point of view for nephrology and transplantation.

  9. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells. (United States)

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto


    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed.

  10. [Sarcoidosis of the skin]. (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H


    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  11. Advances in Skin Substitutes—Potential of Tissue Engineered Skin for Facilitating Anti-Fibrotic Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Varkey


    Full Text Available Skin protects the body from exogenous substances and functions as a barrier to fluid loss and trauma. The skin comprises of epidermal, dermal and hypodermal layers, which mainly contain keratinocytes, fibroblasts and adipocytes, respectively, typically embedded on extracellular matrix made up of glycosaminoglycans and fibrous proteins. When the integrity of skin is compromised due to injury as in burns the coverage of skin has to be restored to facilitate repair and regeneration. Skin substitutes are preferred for wound coverage when the loss of skin is extensive especially in the case of second or third degree burns. Different kinds of skin substitutes with different features are commercially available; they can be classified into acellular skin substitutes, those with cultured epidermal cells and no dermal components, those with only dermal components, and tissue engineered substitutes that contain both epidermal and dermal components. Typically, adult wounds heal by fibrosis. Most organs are affected by fibrosis, with chronic fibrotic diseases estimated to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the skin, fibroproliferative disorders such as hypertrophic scars and keloid formation cause cosmetic and functional problems. Dermal fibroblasts are understood to be heterogeneous; this may have implications on post-burn wound healing since studies have shown that superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts are anti-fibrotic and pro-fibrotic, respectively. Selective use of superficial dermal fibroblasts rather than the conventional heterogeneous dermal fibroblasts may prove beneficial for post-burn wound healing.

  12. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome hos voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Jensen, Thøger Gorm


    We describe a case of adult staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) in a 91-year-old woman. The patient had a Staphylococcus aureus infection in her right ear with redness and yellow secretion. A few days later she developed Nikolsky sign-positive tender enlarged flaccid bullae involving most...

  13. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging


    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.


    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  14. An ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tulinski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×10(8 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue.

  15. Amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions from porcine collagen. (United States)

    Ao, Jing; Li, Bo


    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of different hydrolysates from porcine collagen were analyzed. The gelatin was hydrolyzed for antioxidative peptides with various proteases, namely papain, protease from bovine pancreas, protease from Streptomyces, and cocktail mixture of protease from bovine pancreas and protease from Streptomyces. The hydrolysates were assessed using methods of DPPH radical-scavenging ability, metal-chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. It was found that the collagen hydrolysates by different protease treatments had different amino acid compositions and antioxidant properties. However, the contents of Hyp and Pro were improved and the content of Gly was decreased in each collagen hydrolysate compared with collagen. The hydrolysate prepared with the cocktail mixture of proteases, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, was separated into 6 fractions by gel filtration chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated by ion exchange chromatography. Fraction 2b with abundant basic amino acids and Fraction 2d which was slightly acidic fractions had higher radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities, and both Fraction 2b and 2d contained more hydrophobic amino acids. The results confirmed that the antioxidative peptides were rich in Hyp, Pro and Gly, which accounted for half of amino acid composition. This article added further support to the preparation of natural antioxidative peptides from porcine skin collagen.

  16. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht


    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  17. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  18. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  19. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin (United States)

    ... Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of your skin (TM) Public Resources Dermatologic Surgery Conditions Treatments and ... learn-more"> 3 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or ...

  20. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells. (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin


    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  1. Analysis of porcine MHC expression profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fanbo; CHEN Chen; DENG Yajun; YU Jun; HU Songnian


    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also named swine leukocyte antigen, SLA) is associated not only with immune responsibility and disease susceptibility, but also with some reproductive and productive traits such as growth rate and carcass composition. As yet systematical research on SLA expression profile is not reported. In order to illustrate SLA expression comprehensively and deepen our understanding of its function, we outlined the expression profile of SLA in 51 tissues of Landrace by analyzing a large amount of ESTs produced by "Sino-Danish Porcine Genome Project". In addition, we also compared the expression profile of SLA in several tissues from different development stages and from another breed (Erhualian). The result shows: (i) classical SLA genes are highly expressed in immune tissues and middle part of intestine; (ii) although SLA-3 is an SLA Ia gene, its expression abundance and pattern are quite different from those of the other two SLA Ia genes. The same phenomenon is seen in HLA-C expression, suggesting that the two genes may function similarly and undergo convergent evolution; (iii) except in jejunum, the antigen presenting genes are more highly expressed in breed Erhualian than in Landrace. The difference might associate with the higher resistance to bad conditions (including pathogens) of Erhualian and higher growth rates of Landrace.

  2. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation. (United States)

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S


    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  3. Tissue Remodelling following Resection of Porcine Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Engdal Nygård


    Full Text Available Aim. To study genes regulating the extracellular matrix (ECM and investigate the tissue remodelling following liver resection in porcine. Methods. Four pigs with 60% partial hepatectomy- (PHx- induced liver regeneration were studied over six weeks. Four pigs underwent sham surgery and another four pigs were used as controls of the normal liver growth. Liver biopsies were taken upon laparotomy, after three and six weeks. Gene expression profiles were obtained using porcine-specific oligonucleotide microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and a proliferative index was assessed. Results. More differentially expressed genes were associated with the regulation of ECM in the resection group compared to the sham and control groups. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and collagen 1, alpha 2 (COL1A2 were both upregulated in the early phase of liver regeneration, validated by immunopositive cells during the remodelling phase of liver regeneration. A broadened connective tissue was demonstrated by Masson’s Trichrome staining, and an immunohistochemical staining against pan-Cytokeratin (pan-CK demonstrated a distinct pattern of migrating cells, followed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA positive nuclei. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates both a distinct pattern of PCNA positive nuclei and a deposition of ECM proteins in the remodelling phase of liver regeneration.

  4. Acellular Hydrogels for Regenerative Burn Wound Healing: Translation from a Porcine Model. (United States)

    Shen, Yu-I; Song, Hyun-Ho G; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon


    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitutes for healing following third-degree burn injuries are fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative manner would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of a dextran-based hydrogel in a third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved re-epithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared with the dressing-treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients.

  5. Derivation and characterization of sleeping beauty transposon-mediated porcine induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kues, Wilfried A.; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte;


    the nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposon system to deliver the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. Successful reprogramming to a pluripotent state was indicated by changes in cell morphology and reactivation of the Oct4-EGFP reporter. The transposon-reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem (iPS...... of the 3 germ layers. Upon injection of putative iPS cells under the skin of immunodeficient mice, we observed teratomas in 3 of 6 cases. These results form the basis for in-depth studies toward the derivation of porcine iPS cells, which hold great promise for preclinical testing of novel cell therapies......The domestic pig is an important large animal model for preclinical testing of novel cell therapies. Recently, we produced pluripotency reporter pigs in which the Oct4 promoter drives expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Here, we reprogrammed Oct4-EGFP fibroblasts employing...

  6. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of Porcine T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈应华


    Porcine and other higher mammals express clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens on the surface of T lymphocytes, such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, etc. However, in porcine, a high percentage of the CD4+ CD8-T lymphocyte subpopulation exist in the peripheral blood and the ratio of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations is reversed. These differences bring new challenges to better understanding of the phenotype and function of porcine T lymphocytes in antigen recognition and immune response.

  7. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn


     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  8. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;


    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  9. Skin Cancer Trends (United States)

    ... Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A Base Tan Is Not a Safe Tan Tanned Skin Is Not Healthy Skin Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School ... Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links ...

  10. On skin expansion. (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N


    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  11. Skin self-exam (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  12. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  13. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  14. Ultrasound skin imaging. (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F


    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  15. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin. (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F


    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  16. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.


    Background While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect...... cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated...... with the presence of those agents. Methods We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Results Fillers...

  17. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin (United States)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin


    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  18. Three novel quantitative trait loci for skin thickness in swine identified by linkage and genome-wide association studies. (United States)

    Ai, Huashui; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Zhiyan; Yang, Bin; Li, Lin; Guo, Yuanmei; Lin, Guoshan; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng


    Skin is the largest organ in the pig body and plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Deciphering the genetic basis of swine skin thickness would enrich our knowledge about the skin. To identify the loci for porcine skin thickness, we first performed a genome scan with 194 microsatellite markers in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 intercross. We identified three genome-wide significant QTL on pig chromosomes (SSC) 4, 7 and 15 using linkage analysis. The most significant QTL was found on SSC7 with a small confidence interval of ~5 cM, explaining 23.9 percent of phenotypic variance. Further, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchips for the F2 pedigree and a population of Chinese Sutai pigs. We confirmed significant QTL in the F2 pedigree and replicated QTL on SSC15 in Chinese Sutai pigs. A meta-analysis of GWASs on both populations detected a genomic region associated with skin thickness on SSC4. GWAS results were generally consistent with QTL mapping. Identical-by-descent analysis defined QTL on SSC7 in a 683-kb region harboring an interesting candidate gene: HMGA1. On SSC15, the linkage disequilibrium analysis showed a haplotype block of 2.20 Mb that likely harbors the gene responsible for skin thickness. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic basis of swine skin thickness, which would benefit further understanding of porcine skin function.

  19. Activation of porcine cytomegalovirus, but not porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus, in pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation. (United States)

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Livingston, Christine; Knosalla, Christoph; Barth, Rolf N; Yamamoto, Shin; Gollackner, Bernd; Dor, Frank J M F; Buhler, Leo; Sachs, David H; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Cooper, David K C; Fishman, Jay A


    Tissue-invasive disease due to porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) has been demonstrated after pig-to-baboon solid-organ xenotransplantation. Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV)-1 is associated with B cell proliferation and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in swine but has not been observed in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Activation of PCMV and PLHV-1 was investigated in 22 pig-to-baboon xenotransplants by use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PCMV was found in all xenografts; increased viral replication occurred in 68% of xenografts during immunosuppression. PLHV-1 was found in 12 xenografts (55%); no increases in viral replication occurred during immunosuppression. Control immunosuppressed swine coinfected with PCMV and PLHV-1 had activation of PCMV but not PLHV-1. PCMV, but not PLHV-1, is activated in solid-organ xenotransplantation.

  20. A comparative study of the in vitro permeation of ibuprofen in mammalian skin, the PAMPA model and silicone membrane. (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Patel, Avnish; Sinko, Balint; Bell, Michael; Wibawa, Judata; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E


    Human skin remains the membrane of choice when conducting in vitro studies to determine dermal penetration of active pharmaceutical ingredients or xenobiotics. However there are ethical and safety issues associated with obtaining human tissue. For these reasons synthetic membranes, cell culture models or in silico predictive algorithms have been researched intensively as alternative approaches to predict dermal exposure in man. Porcine skin has also been recommended as an acceptable surrogate for topical or transdermal delivery research. Here we examine the in vitro permeation of a model active, ibuprofen, using human or porcine skin, as well as the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeation Assay (PAMPA) model and silicone membrane. Finite dose studies were conducted in all models using commercial ibuprofen formulations and simple volatile ibuprofen solutions. The dose applied in the PAMPA model was also varied in order to determine the amount of applied formulation which best simulates typical amounts of topical products applied by patients or consumers. Permeation studies were conducted up to 6h for PAMPA and silicone and up to 48h for human and porcine skin. Cumulative amounts permeated at 6h were comparable for PAMPA and silicone, ranging from 91 to 136μg/cm(2) across the range of formulations studied. At 48h, maximum ibuprofen permeation in human skin ranged from 11 to 38μg/cm(2) and corresponding values in porcine skin were 59-81μg/cm(2). A dose of 1μL was confirmed as appropriate for finite dose studies in the PAMPA model. The formulation which delivered the greatest amount of ibuprofen in human skin was also significantly more efficient than other formulations when evaluated in the PAMPA model. The PAMPA model also discriminated between different formulation types (i.e. gel versus solution) compared with other models. Overall, the results confirm the more permeable nature of the PAMPA, silicone membrane and porcine tissue models to ibuprofen compared with

  1. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)


    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  2. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan


    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  3. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life. (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta


    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  4. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure. (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio


    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells.

  5. 过敏原皮肤点刺试验在成人慢性咳嗽病因诊断中的应用价值%Applying allergen skin prick test to etiological diagnosis of chronic cough in adult patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧强; 王莹; 陈亮


    目的:了解我院就诊的成人慢性咳嗽患者变应原分布情况及评价SPT的应用价值。方法:回顾性分析132例慢性咳嗽患者皮肤点刺试验结果,并比较不同性别、不同年龄段慢性咳嗽患者SPT阳性率结果。结果:①132例慢性咳嗽患者SPT结果阳性率为75.76%。不同性别慢性咳嗽患者SPT阳性率,经比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.530,P=0.466)。②14种过敏原中,SPT阳性率最高的为粉尘螨,户尘螨、蟑螂、花粉(包括蒿属花粉、葎草花粉、梧桐花粉、白桦花粉、玉米花粉)、真菌(包括酵母菌、青霉菌)、棉絮、猫毛、狗毛依次降低,最少为羽毛。尘螨点刺试验阳性率与其他过敏原相比,差异有高度统计学意义(χ2=715.334,P=0.000)。③不同年龄段慢性咳嗽患者SPT阳性率结果差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.305,P<0.05)。除中年人(45~59岁)与老年人(60~75岁) SPT阳性率之间的差异有统计学意义外,其余两两之间的差异均无统计学意义,可认为中年人SPT阳性率高于老年人。结论:粉尘螨和户尘螨是我院就诊的成人慢性咳嗽患者最常见的变应原,慢性咳嗽患者应尽早行过敏原皮肤点刺试验,其对慢性咳嗽患者的病因诊断有重要意义,并为舌下脱敏治疗提供临床依据。%Objective:To investigate the distribution of allergens in adult patients with chronic cough in Yijishan Hospital ,and evaluate the application value of skin prick testing (SPT).Methods:SPT results were retrospectively summarized in 132 adult cases of chronic cough,and positive SPTs were com-pared in genders and ages.Results:①Positive SPT was found in 75.76% of the 132 patients,yet there was no statistical significance in ages(χ2 =0.530, P=0.466);②Fourteen allergens detected via SPT stood from the highest to the lowest by Dermatophagoides farinae,house dust mites

  6. Topical Delivery of siRNA into Skin using SPACE-peptide Carriers (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zakrewsky, Michael; Gupta, Vivek; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Slee, Deborah H.; Muraski, John A.; Mitragotri, Samir


    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offer a potential tool for the treatment of skin disorders. However, applications of siRNA for dermatological conditions are limited by their poor permeation across the stratum corneum of the skin and low penetration into skin’s viable cells. In this study, we report the use of SPACE-peptide in combination with a DOTAP-based ethosomal carrier system to enhance skin delivery of siRNA. A DOTAP-based SPACE Ethosomal System significantly enhanced siRNA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 6.3±1.7-fold (pformulation reported here may open new opportunities for cutaneous siRNA delivery. PMID:24434423

  7. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I


    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  8. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of the Porcine Developing Hypothalamus and Pituitary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Jiang


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our

  9. Stereological quantification of lymphocytes in skin biopsies from atopic dermatitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, A R; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Larsen, J O;


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is histologically characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the skin and quantitative assessment is required. This study introduces stereological techniques to quantify the number of lymphocytes in skin biopsies. Four-millimetre punch biopsies were taken from skin...... with active eczema in 8 adults with AD and from clinically normal skin from 4 of the patients. Five persons without allergy or skin disease served as controls. The mean number of lymphocytes in 4-mm skin biopsies was 469,000 and 124,000 in active eczema and in clinically normal skin, respectively. Compared...... with controls, the number of lymphocytes in biopsies increased by a factor of 6.8 in active eczema and a factor of 1.8 in clinically normal skin. If 20% of skin is affected by eczema the total number of lymphocytes located in the affected skin can be estimated to 1.27 x 10(10). A patient with clinically...

  10. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  11. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  12. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates. (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A


    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  13. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian


    to and protection from Parkinson’s disease. Here we report cloning, characterization, expression analysis and mapping of porcine UCHL1. The UCHL1 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine cDNA codes...... for a protein of 223 amino acids which shows a very high similarity to human (98%) and to mouse (97%) UCHL1. In addition, the genomic organization of the porcine UCHL1 gene was determined. The porcine UCHL1 gene was mapped to chromosome 8(½p21)–p23. Three SNPs were found in the porcine UCHL1 sequence....... Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR demonstrated that porcine UCHL1 mRNA is differentially expressed in various organs and tissues and similar to its human counterpart. UCHL1 transcript is most abundant in brain tissues and in the spinal cord. The UCHL1 mRNA expression was also investigated...

  14. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner


    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  15. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)? (United States)

    Denner, Joachim


    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  16. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the clearance of Haemophilus parasuis by porcine alveolar macrophages.


    Solano, G I; Bautista, E.; Molitor, T W; Segales, J.; Pijoan, C


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in young piglets is frequently associated with secondary infection due to various pathogens, especially those of the respiratory tract. One of the most important mechanisms in respiratory diseases is related to the alteration of function of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The objective of this study was to determine how PRRS virus infection affects the capabilities of PAMs in the phagocytosis and destruction of Haemoph...

  17. Assignment and expression patterns of porcine muscle-specific isoform of phosphoglycerate mutase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Qiu; Shuhong Zhao; Xuewen Xu; Martine Yerle; Bang Liu


    It has been reported that the muscle-specific isoform (type M, PGAM2) of phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) is a housekeeping en-zyme; it catalyzes the conversion of 3-phospboglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate in the glyeolysis process to release energy. It is encoded by the Pgam2 gene. In this study, the eDNA of the porcine Pgam2 was cloned. This gene contains an open reading frame of 765 bp en-coding a protein of 253 residues, and the predicted protein sequences share high similarity with other mammalians, 96% identity with humans, and 94% identity with mouse and rats. Pgam2 was mapped to SSC18q13-q21 by the RH panel. In this region, there are several QTLs, such as fat ratio, lean percentage, and diameter of muslce fiber, which affect meat production and quality. The reverse transcrip-tase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the porcine Pgam2 gene was mainly expressed in the muscle tissue (skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), and was expressed highly at skeletal muscle development stages (embryonic periods: 33, 65, and 90 days post-conception(dpe); postnatal pigs: 4 days and adult). This indicates that the Pgam2 gene plays an important role in muscle growth and development. In addition, it was demonstrated that PGAM2 locates both in cytoplasm and nuclei, and takes part in the glycometabolism process of cyto-plasm and nuclei.

  18. Depot specific differences during adipogenesis of porcine stromal-vascular cells. (United States)

    Samulin, Johanna; Lien, Sigbjørn; Grindflek, Eli; Berget, Ingunn; Ruyter, Bente; Sundvold, Hilde


    Recently a role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ secreting factors involved in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis has emerged. Preadipocytes in different fat depots have distinct adipogenic potential and the metabolic activity differs between mature adipocytes of different depot origins. Here we describe the proliferation and differentiation of stromal-vascular cells derived from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots of adult pigs. We demonstrate that subcutaneous porcine preadipocytes proliferate more actively and that individual subcutaneous adipocytes have a more rapid accumulation of triacylglycerols than visceral cells. During differentiation, subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes showed similar gene expression patterns with increased expression of adiponectin (APM1), adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (FABP4), catalase (CAT), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARG2). Furthermore, initial data showing depot-originated effects on the expression of CAT, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1B (CPT1B) and FABP4 suggest possible depot specific differences in the function and metabolism of mature porcine adipocytes.

  19. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  20. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania. (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang


    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  1. Basophils and skin disorders. (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni


    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  2. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  3. The Incompatibility of Living Systems: Characterizing Growth-Induced Incompatibilities in Expanded Skin. (United States)

    Tepole, Adrian Buganza; Gart, Michael; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen


    Skin expansion is a common surgical technique to correct large cutaneous defects. Selecting a successful expansion protocol is solely based on the experience and personal preference of the operating surgeon. Skin expansion could be improved by predictive computational simulations. Towards this goal, we model skin expansion using the continuum framework of finite growth. This approach crucially relies on the concept of incompatible configurations. However, aside from the classical opening angle experiment, our current understanding of growth-induced incompatibilities remains rather vague. Here we visualize and characterize incompatibilities in living systems using skin expansion in a porcine model: We implanted and inflated two expanders, crescent, and spherical, and filled them to 225 cc throughout a period of 21 days. To quantify the residual strains developed during this period, we excised the expanded skin patches and subdivided them into smaller pieces. Skin growth averaged 1.17 times the original area for the spherical and 1.10 for the crescent expander, and displayed significant regional variations. When subdivided into smaller pieces, the grown skin patches retracted heterogeneously and confirmed the existence of incompatibilities. Understanding skin growth through mechanical stretch will allow surgeons to improve-and ultimately personalize-preoperative treatment planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  4. A first vascularized skin equivalent for as an alternative to animal experimentation. (United States)

    Groeber, Florian; Engelhardt, Lisa; Lange, Julia; Kurdyn, Szymon; Schmid, Freia F; Rücker, Christoph; Mielke, Stephan; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan


    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents mimic key aspects of the human skin, and can thus be employed as wound coverage for large skin defects or as in vitro test systems as an alternative to animal models. However, current skin equivalents lack a functional vasculature limiting clinical and research applications. This study demonstrates the generation of a vascularized skin equivalent with a perfused vascular network by combining a biological vascularized scaffold (BioVaSc) based on a decellularized segment of a porcine jejunum and a tailored bioreactor system. Briefly, the BioVaSc was seeded with human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells. After 14 days at the air-liquid interface, hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistological staining revealed a specific histological architecture representative of the human dermis and epidermis including a papillary-like architecture at the dermal-epidermal-junction. The formation of the skin barrier was measured non-destructively using impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, endothelial cells lined the walls of the formed vessels that could be perfused with a physiological volume flow. Due to the presence of a complex in-vivo-like vasculature, the here shown skin equivalent has the potential for skin grafting and represents a sophisticated in vitro model for dermatological research.

  5. Topical Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid into Skin using SPACE-peptide Carriers (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Gupta, Vivek; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Muraski, John A.; Mitragotri, Samir


    Topical penetration of macromolecules into skin is limited by their low permeability. Here, we report the use of a skin penetrating peptide, SPACE peptide, to enhance topical delivery of a macromolecule, hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 200–325 kDa). The peptide was conjugated to phospholipids and used to prepare an ethosomal carrier system (~110 nm diameter), encapsulating HA. The SPACE-ethosomal system (SES) enhanced HA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 7.8+/−1.1-fold compared to PBS. The system also enhanced penetration of HA in human skin in vitro, penetrating deep into the epidermis and dermis in skin of both species. In vivo experiments performed using SKH1 hairless mice also confirmed increased dermal penetration of HA using the delivery system; a 5-fold enhancement in penetration was found compared to PBS control. Concentrations of HA in skin were about 1000-fold higher than those in blood; confirming the localized nature of HA delivery into skin. The SPACE-ethosomal delivery system provides a formulation for topical delivery of macromolecules that are otherwise difficult to deliver into skin. PMID:24129342

  6. Hepatic differentiation of porcine embryonic stem cells for translational research of hepatocyte transplantation. (United States)

    Park, K M; Hussein, K H; Ghim, J H; Ahn, C; Cha, S H; Lee, G S; Hong, S H; Yang, S; Woo, H M


    Porcine embryonic stem cells (ES) are considered attractive preclinical research tools for human liver diseases. Although several studies previously reported generation of porcine ES, none of these studies has described hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocytes from porcine ES and analyze their characteristics. We optimized conditions for definitive endoderm induction and developed a 4-step hepatic differentiation protocol. A brief serum-free condition with activin A efficiently induced definitive endoderm differentiation from porcine ES. The porcine ES-derived hepatocyte-like cells highly expressed hepatic markers including albumin and α-fetoprotein, and displayed liver characteristics such as glycogen storage, lipid production, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. For the first time, we describe a highly efficient protocol for hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. Our findings provide valuable information for translational liver research using porcine models, including hepatic regeneration and transplant studies, drug screening, and toxicology.

  7. Early outcome in renal transplantation from large donors to small and size-matched recipients - a porcine experimental model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravlo, Kristian; Chhoden, Tashi; Søndergaard, Peter


    Kidney transplantation from a large donor to a small recipient, as in pediatric transplantation, is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and DGF. We established a porcine model for renal transplantation from an adult donor to a small or size-matched recipient with a high risk of DGF...... and studied GFR, RPP using MRI, and markers of kidney injury within 10 h after transplantation. After induction of BD, kidneys were removed from ∼63-kg donors and kept in cold storage for ∼22 h until transplanted into small (∼15 kg, n = 8) or size-matched (n = 8) recipients. A reduction in GFR was observed...

  8. Outcome of experimental porcine circovirus type 1 infections in mid-gestational porcine foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatelle Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1 has been described as a non-cytopathic contaminant of the PK-15 cell line. Several experimental infections with PCV1 failed to reproduce disease in pigs. Therefore, PCV1 is generally accepted as non-pathogenic to pigs. To our knowledge, nothing is known about the outcome of PCV1 infections in porcine foetuses. This was examined in the present study. Results Nine foetuses from three sows were inoculated at 55 days of gestation: three with 104.3 TCID50 of the PCV1 cell culture strain ATCC-CCL33, three with 104.3 TCID50 of the PCV1 field strain 3384 and three with cell culture medium (mock-inoculated. At 21 days post-inoculation, all 6 PCV1-inoculated and all 3 mock-inoculated foetuses had a normal external appearance. Microscopic lesions characterized by severe haemorrhages were observed in the lungs of two foetuses inoculated with CCL33. High PCV1 titres (up to 104.7 TCID50/g tissue were found in the lungs of the CCL33-inoculated foetuses. All other organs of the CCL33-inoculated foetuses and all the organs of the 3384-inoculated foetuses were negative (1.7 TCID50/g tissue by virus titration. PCV1-positive cells (up to 121 cells/10 mm2 in CCL33-inoculated foetuses and up to 13 cells/10 mm2 in 3384-inoculated foetuses were found in the heart, lungs, spleen, liver, thymus and tonsils. PCR and DNA sequencing of Rep recovered CCL33 or 3384 sequences from CCL33- or 3384-inoculated foetuses, respectively. Conclusions From this study, it can be concluded that cell culture PCV1 can replicate efficiently and produce pathology in the lungs of porcine foetuses inoculated at 55 days of foetal life.

  9. Effect of Localized Mechanical Indentation on Skin Water Content Evaluated Using OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit A. Gurjarpadhye


    Full Text Available The highly disordered refractive index distribution in skin causes multiple scattering of incident light and limits optical imaging and therapeutic depth. We hypothesize that localized mechanical compression reduces scattering by expulsing unbound water from the dermal collagen matrix, increasing protein concentration and decreasing the number of index mismatch interfaces between tissue constituents. A swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT system was used to assess changes in thickness and group refractive index in ex vivo porcine skin, as well as changes in signal intensity profile when imaging in vivo human skin. Compression of ex vivo porcine skin resulted in an effective strain of −58.5%, an increase in refractive index from 1.39 to 1.50, and a decrease in water volume fraction from 0.66 to 0.20. In vivo OCT signal intensity increased by 1.5 dB at a depth of 1 mm, possibly due to transport of water away from the compressed regions. These finding suggest that local compression could be used to enhance light-based diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

  10. A defect in dystrophin causes a novel porcine stress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Losses of slaughter-weight pigs due to transport stress are both welfare and economic concerns to pork producers. Historically, the HAL-1843 mutation in ryanodine receptor 1 was considered responsible for most of the losses; however, DNA testing has effectively eliminated this mutation from commercial herds. We identified two sibling barrows in the USMARC swine herd that died from apparent symptoms of a stress syndrome after transport at 12 weeks of age. The symptoms included open-mouth breathing, skin discoloration, vocalization and loss of mobility. Results We repeated the original mating along with sire-daughter matings to produce additional offspring. At 8 weeks of age, heart rate and electrocardiographs (ECG were monitored during isoflurane anesthesia challenge (3% for 3 min. Four males from the original sire-dam mating and two males from a sire-daughter mating died after one minute of anesthesia. Animals from additional litters were identified as having a stress response, sometimes resulting in death, during regular processing and weighing. Affected animals had elevated plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels before and immediately after isoflurane challenge and cardiac arrhythmias. A pedigree containing 250 pigs, including 49 affected animals, was genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip and only one chromosomal region, SSCX at 25.1-27.7 Mb over the dystrophin gene (DMD, was significantly associated with the syndrome. An arginine to tryptophan (R1958W polymorphism in exon 41 of DMD was the most significant marker associated with stress susceptibility. Immunoblots of affected heart and skeletal muscle showed a dramatic reduction of dystrophin protein and histopathology of affected hearts indicated muscle fiber degeneration. Conclusions A novel stress syndrome was characterized in pigs and the causative genetic factor most likely resides within DMD that results in less dystrophin protein and cardiac

  11. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei


    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  12. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.


    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  13. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke


    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  14. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  15. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee


    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens.

  16. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D


    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  17. Sustained ex vivo skin antiseptic activity of chlorhexidine in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsule encapsulated form and as a digluconate. (United States)

    Lboutounne, Hassan; Chaulet, Jean-François; Ploton, Christine; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice


    In this work, the sustained bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine base loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL, nanocapsules against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated onto porcine ear skin was investigated. Drug loaded nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement method, then characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, electrophoretic measurements, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Antimicrobial activity of these colloidal carriers was evaluated (i) in vitro against eight strains of bacteria, and (ii) ex vivo against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated for 12 h onto porcine ear skin surface treated for 3 min either with 0.6% chlorhexidine base loaded or unloaded nanocapsules suspended in hydrogel, or 1% chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Chlorhexidine absorption into the stratum corneum (SC) was evaluated by the tape-stripping method. The results showed that chlorhexidine nanocapsules in aqueous suspension having a 200-300 nm size and a positive charge exhibited similar minimum inhibitory concentrations against several bacteria with chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Ex vivo, there was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units (CFUs) from 3-min treated skin with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension (5 to <1 log(10)) compared to chlorhexidine digluconate solution (5 to 2.02 log(10)) after a 8-h artificial contamination. After a 12-h artificial contamination, both formulations failed to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction. Furthermore, from a 3-min treatment with an identical applied dose and a subsequent 12-h artificial contamination, a residual chlorhexidine concentration in the SC was found to be three-fold higher with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension than with chlorhexidine digluconate solution. Interestingly, nanocapsules were shown in porcine skin follicles. Consequently, a topical application of chlorhexidine base-loaded positively charged

  18. Chondroitin-6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan: a new component of human skin dermoepidermal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Couchman, J R


    as 54 gestational days. Indirect immunoelectron microscopy and NaCl-split skin studies were performed to ultrastructurally localize the antigen; immune deposits were detectable within the lamina densa in chondroitinase-treated skin. These findings demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is present in adult, neonatal, and/or fetal skin, and if present, its ultrastructural localization. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on human adult, neonatal, and fetal skin. To detect the antigen, specimens were pretreated with chondroitinase ABC; absence of enzyme...... treatment served as negative control. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was detectable in linear homogeneous array along the dermoepidermal junction and within vascular (and when present, adnexal) basement membranes in both adult and neonatal skin. In fetal skin, basement membrane staining was noted as early...

  19. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita


    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  20. Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics (United States)


    single pedicle, axial pattern tubed flaps (Figure 1). In the stage 1 procedure, each female pig was premedicated with atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg IM...R.H., and Hadgraft, J. (1985). Pharmacokinetic interpretation of the plasma levels of clonidine following transdermal delivery. J. Pharm. Sci. 74...Pigs weighing 18 to 32 kg are premedicated with atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg I .m.) and xylazine hydrochloridee (0.2 mg/kg i.m.). Anesthesia is

  1. Physiochemical and Biological Properties of Modified Collagen Sponge from Porcine Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuanyuan; HUANG Shujie; WU Jimin; GUAN Jing; ZHANG Xizheng; LI Zhihong; WANG Pengfei; LI Ruixin; GUO Yong; NING Bo


    The aim of the present study was to compare one-step method to EDC/NHS crosslinking(EDC/NHS group)and one-step simultaneous method to EDC/NHS crosslinking and heparin immobilization(EDC/NHS-Heparin group)in improving physiochemical and biological properties of native collagen sponge(Control group).Modified collagen sponge overcome the disad-vantages of native collagen sponge.IR spectra suggest the change of the functional groups.DSC data indicate that the stability of caloric transformation in EDC/NHS group is slightly higher than that of EDC/NHS-Heparin group.The crosslinking degree,stability against enzymes,stability in morpho-logically and biomechanical properties of EDC/NHS-Heparin group are higher than those of EDC/NHS group,whereas,the water-binding capacity in EDC/NHS-Heparin group is lower than that of EDC/NHS group.HUVECs in EDC/NHS-Heparin group scaffold proliferate fast,migrate well and distribute uniformly.One-step simultaneous method gains the better effects in above aspects, heparinized collagen matrices increase in angiogenic potential and suit for defect repairing and tissue engineering.

  2. Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics (United States)


    itopiedo the vene comitantes iswhied ponsibe),andi prian eril, sred to the surte rgn prounding tupbred fla p sa.s fl wn a u othcadlsuperficial ei ti artery...and its pare tevenae comitantesis raised ponsbl) wandn prianfri~, sred to the ssltergnprroundiong tubedafapt shreseus.oio~nnlto *.11 a single-pedicle

  3. Cutaneous Toxicity of Mustard and Lewisite on the Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flap (United States)


    Fullerton, CA). Lactate was measured on a Multistat III Plus clinical chemistry analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory Lexington, MA) using a...spectrophotometric assay (Stat-Pack Rapid Lactate Test, Behring Diagnostics Inc., Somerville, NJ). LDH content was evaluated on a Monarch 2000 clinical chemistry ... analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory, Lexington, MA) which utilized a spectrophotometric assay (IL Test LD-L/LDH-L- Instrumentadon Laboratory). After 1

  4. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin (United States)

    ... skin is dry, stop using: Deodorant soaps Skin care products that contain alcohol, fragrance, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) Avoiding these products will help your skin retain its natural oils. 6. Wear gloves. Our hands are often ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  6. Expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in melanomas of Munich miniature swine (MMS) Troll. (United States)

    Dieckhoff, Britta; Puhlmann, Jenny; Büscher, Kristina; Hafner-Marx, Angela; Herbach, Nadja; Bannert, Norbert; Büttner, Mathias; Wanke, Rüdiger; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim


    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pig breeds. Since some of them are able to infect human cells, they might represent a risk for xenotransplantation using pig cells or organs. However, the expression and biological role of PERVs in healthy pigs as well as in porcine tumours is largely unknown. Since we and others have recently shown overexpression of a human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K, in human melanomas, we studied the expression of PERVs in melanomas of selectively bred Munich miniature swine (MMS) Troll. This breeding herd of MMS Troll is characterised by a high prevalence of melanomas, which histologically resemble various types of cutaneous melanomas in humans. Several genetic factors have been defined when studying inheritance of melanomas and melanocytic nevi in MMS Troll. Here we show that the polytropic PERV-A and PERV-B as well as the ecotropic PERV-C are present in the genome of all melanoma bearing MMS Troll investigated. Most interestingly, in the spleen, but not in other organs, recombinant PERV-A/C proviruses were found. PERV expression was found elevated in melanomas when compared to normal skin and viral proteins were expressed in melanomas and pulmonary metastasis-derived melanoma cell cultures. During passaging of these cells in vitro the expression of PERV mRNA and protein increased and virus particles were released as shown by RT activity in the supernatant and by electron microscopy. Genomic RNA of PERV-A, -B and -C were found in pelleted virus particles. Although PERV expression was elevated in melanomas and pulmonary metastasis-derived cell cultures, the function of the virus in tumour development is still unclear.

  7. Structure and Function of a Nonruminant Gut: A Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Aminov, Rustam


    In many aspects, the anatomical, physiological, and microbial diversity features of the ruminant gut are different from that of the monogastric animals. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to give a comparative overview of the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of a nonruminant...... monogastric animal, and here it is represented by a pig model. In this chapter, we describe and discuss (i) microbial diversity in different parts of the porcine gut; (ii) differences between the ruminant and nonruminant gut; (iii) main events during colonization and succession of microbiota in the porcine...... gut; (iv) effects of various feed additives including antibiotics, phages, probiotics, and prebiotics on pigs; and (v) the use of the porcine model in translational medicine....

  8. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  9. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.


    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  10. Porcine G₀/G₁ switch gene 2 (G0S2) expression is regulated during adipogenesis and short-term in-vivo nutritional interventions. (United States)

    Ahn, Jinsoo; Oh, Shin-Ae; Suh, Yeunsu; Moeller, Steven J; Lee, Kichoon


    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzing the initial step of hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipocytes, has been known to be inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2). In this study, we report the porcine G0S2 cDNA and amino acid sequences as well as the expression level of porcine G0S2. The porcine G0S2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and liver among various tissues. In adipose tissue, porcine G0S2 expression was 16-fold higher in the fat cell fraction than the stromal vascular fraction. The G0S2 level increased significantly during adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that G0S2 expression is closely associated with lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. Considering G0S2 as an inhibitor of cell proliferation, the relatively low levels of G0S2 in preadipocytes and adipose tissues of fetal and neonatal pigs compared to adipocytes and adipose tissues of adult pigs may allow the fast cell proliferation rates. Further studies showed that a short-term 24-h fast down-regulated G0S2 expression and increased ATGL expression in adipose tissue; however, a long-term calorie restriction for 8 days had no influence on the level of G0S2 but increased ATGL expression. Therefore, porcine G0S2, which is both a negative regulator of ATGL-mediated lipolysis and cell proliferation in adipose tissue, can be down-regulated in vivo by a short-term 24-h fast followed by increased ATGL-mediated lipolysis.

  11. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin


    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  12. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  13. Skin and antioxidants. (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar


    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  14. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Baier, G.; Landfester, K.; Frazier, L.; Gefeller, H.; Wunderlich, U.; Gross, I.; Rühl, E.; Knorr, F.


    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination.

  15. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis. (United States)

    Stratilo, Chad W; Crichton, Melissa K F; Sawyer, Thomas W


    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  16. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement. (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K


    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an

  17. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana do Nascimento França


    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  18. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes. (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B


    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  19. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  20. Leishmania Skin Test (United States)


    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  1. Ultrasound skin tightening. (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad


    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  2. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation. (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna


    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  3. Skin puckering an uncommon sign of underlying humeral neck fracture: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davarinos, N


    Skin puckering is a sign that is well associated with certain fractures such as supracondylar humeral fractures in children. To our knowledge, there has been only one clinical report of skin puckering associated with fractured neck of humerus of an adult. This is a second such case of fractured proximal humerus in an adult presenting with skin puckering and the first from the Republic of Ireland. Skin puckering is suggestive of soft tissue interposition and may be an important clinical sign indicating the need for internal fixation.

  4. Preparation of porcine hemoglobin microcapsules of chitosan-sodium alginate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; ZHANG Jijuan; ZHAO Xinjuan; YU Yan


    Using an emulsification-gelation method,chitosansodium alginate-porcine hemoglobin microcapsules were prepared.Results show that these microcapsules have better forms and small granules with 1 μm size of the mean particle size.They possess a relatively narrow and normal Gaussian distribution.The loading efficiency of porcine hemoglobin (pHb) in microcapsules is more than 90%.The pHb released from microcapsules is extended for more than one month.Chitosan-sodium alginate-hemoglobin microcapsules are expected to become an artificial oxygen-carrying therapeutic agent with sustained release for intravenous injection.

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    The presence of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) was studied in extracts of porcine pancreata. Gel filtration and high-pressure liquid chromatographic profiles of these extracts as monitored with both C-terminally and N-terminally directed radioimmunoassays against GRP showed pancreatic GRP...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  6. Detection of porcine rotavirus from tissue and faecal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Suji


    Full Text Available Porcine small intestinal sub-mucosa is a cell-free collagen matrix that has demonstrated its ability as a scaffold material. Transplantation poses special hazards because grafted tissues and organs transmit pathogens efficiently, especially viruses. Rotavirus is thought to be confined to the intestine, causing acute diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the porcine intestinal tissue scaffold for Rotavirus and to study the incidence of this virus among pig herds. Only one isolate was successfully adapted to grow in cell line MA 104 from faecal samples. This isolate was further confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis.

  7. 猪细小病毒的致病机制与防控策略%Porcine parvovirus: Pathogenic mechanims and preventive and control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇铮; 任晓峰; 崔尚金


    猪细小病毒(porcine parvovirus,PPV)是细小病毒科细小病毒属的成员,引起初孕母猪的繁殖障碍、仔猪的皮肤炎症和肠炎性腹泻.这些疾病在临床表现和病理特点上各不相同.近年来,PPV与其他病毒混合感染发生较多,是导致很多疾病综合征的病原之一.本文主要针对猪细小病毒的病原、致病机制和防控策略做一综述,以期对动物细小病毒病的防治提供的借鉴.%Porcine parvovirus, classified in the genus Parvovirus of the family Parvoviridae, is a major cause of reproductive failure in gilts and skin inflammation and inflammatory diarrhea in piglets. The disease caused by porcine parvovirus varies in clinical manifestations and pathological characteristics. In recent years, mixed infection by PPV and other viruses is common, and PPV is one of pathogens that cause many disease syndromes. In this paper, we review the pathogenic mechanisms of PPV and preventive and control strategies for the disease caused by PPV.

  8. Defining and classifying skin tears: need for a common language. (United States)

    Payne, R L; Martin, M L


    Very little has been written about skin tears. A common taxonomy and definition for each type of skin tear can organize teaching, practice, and research in the field. In 1990, Payne and Martin published the results of a descriptive clinical nursing research study on the epidemiology and management of skin tears in older adults. The Payne-Martin Classification System for Skin Tears, definitions, and characteristics of skin tears were presented. The purpose of this article is to critique their classification system and definitions. Criteria for evaluating taxonomies, internal validity, external validity, and utility, are used for the critique. A revision based upon continuing research and work with the classification system is presented. Further testing and modification will refine the classification and advance the science of wound care.

  9. Ichthyotic-appearing skin changes associated with childhood morphea, systemic sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus/scleroderma overlap. (United States)

    Williams, Christy M; Storm, Craig A; Burns, Christopher; Rigby, William; Dinulos, James G H


    Ichthyotic-appearing skin changes have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis in adults. We report three children with ichthyotic-appearing skin changes that may be an early feature reflecting underlying dermal sclerosis. Detection of these subtle skin changes may be predictive of more widespread cutaneous involvement, ultimately prompting earlier treatment.

  10. Aging changes in skin (United States)

    ... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) ...

  11. [Skin-picking disorder]. (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U


    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  12. Skin picking disorder. (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J


    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  13. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton;


    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  14. Skin or nail culture (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  15. Skin, Hair, and Nails (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of ...

  16. An elastic second skin (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert


    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  17. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  18. Allergy testing - skin (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  19. Scalded skin syndrome (United States)

    ... Severe bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) Spread to deeper skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of this disorder. Prevention ... Alternative Names Ritter disease; Staphylococcal ...

  20. Skin lesion biopsy (United States)

    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  1. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD


    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  2. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  3. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  4. Nicotinamide and the skin. (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L


    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  5. Nerve conduction studies in upper extremities: skin temperature corrections. (United States)

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L


    The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) temperature and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper extremities. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN temperature were determined at ambient temperature (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin temperature. Skin temperatures on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN temperature at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin temperature and NN temperature at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN temperatures correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin temperature showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin temperature change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist temperature for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin temperature at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin temperature in the temperature correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin temperature, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of temperature correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin temperature outside 29.6-36.4C temperature range.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar


    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  7. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao


    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  8. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  9. Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques (United States)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Tongue, Thomas; Schulkin, Brian; Peralta, Xomalin; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Haywood, Eric C.; Roach, William P.


    Terahertz (THz) radiation is increasingly being used in biomedical imaging and spectroscopy applications. These techniques show tremendous promise to provide new sophisticated tools for the improved detection of skin cancer. However, despite recent efforts to develop these applications, few studies have been conducted to characterize the optical properties of skin at THz frequencies. Such information is required to better understand THz-tissue interactions, and is critical for determining the feasibility of proposed applications. In this study, we have developed and tested a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. We used this system to acquire the optical properties for fresh and frozen/thawed excised porcine skin from 0.1 to 2.0 THz. Results show that the index of refraction (n) for both frozen and fresh skin decreases with frequency. For frozen skin, n equals 2.5 at 0.1 THz and 2.0 at 2.0 THz, and for fresh skin equals 2.0 at 0.1 THz and 1.7 at 2.0 THz. Values for the absorption coefficient (μa) increase with frequency for both frozen and fresh skin. Frozen skin exhibits μa values equal to 56 cm-1 at 0.1 THz and 550 cm-1 at 2.0 THz, whereas fresh skin exhibits values of 56 cm-1 at 0.1 THz and 300 cm-1 at 2.0 THz. Assuming the optical penetration depth (δ) is inversely proportional to μa (absorption-dominated interactions), THz radiation has limited δ in skin (200 μm at 0.1 THz to 40 μm at 2.0 THz). These results suggest that applications exploiting THz radiation show the most promise for investigating superficial tissues.

  10. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  11. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;


    mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...

  12. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication (United States)

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  13. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  14. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K


    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  15. Proteolysis of specific porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins by boar acrosin. (United States)

    Dunbar, B S; Dudkiewicz, A B; Bundman, D S


    The morphologic and biochemical effects on the structure and constituent glycoproteins of the zona pellucida (ZP) by a specific sperm enzyme, acrosin, and a nonsperm enzyme, trypsin, have been evaluated. Intact porcine ZP matricies, exposed to either acrosin or trypsin, were analyzed microscopically. Changes in specific glycoproteins were monitored by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and the silver-based color stain, GELCODE. Although these enzymes did not alter the macroscopic properties of the ZP matrix, the 2D-PAGE ZP protein patterns were markedly altered. The high molecular weight glycoprotein families (II and III) were sensitive to proteolytic digestion, whereas the major glycoprotein family (I) of the porcine zona was only partially proteolyzed by acrosin and trypsin. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that acrosin had unique substrate specificity compared to that of trypsin, since the ZP peptide patterns were found to be different. These studies are the first to demonstrate which integral glycoproteins of the native porcine ZP matrix are specifically proteolyzed by acrosin from the homologous species and that this proteolysis occurs without the dissolution of the native porcine matrix.

  16. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  17. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...

  18. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo


    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum.

  19. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang


    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  20. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin


    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin


    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are co...

  1. Skin aging and oxidative stress


    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.


    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  2. Skin involvement in Dupuytren's disease.


    Wade, R.; Igali, L; Figus, A


    Whether the palmar skin has a role in the development, propagation or recurrence of Dupuytren's disease remains unclear. Clinical assessment for skin involvement is difficult and its correlation with histology uncertain. We prospectively biopsied the palmar skin of consecutive patients undergoing single digit fasciectomy (for primary Dupuytren's disease without clinically involved skin) and dermofasciectomy (for clinically involved skin or recurrence) in order to investigate this relationship...

  3. Sperm capacitation in the porcine oviduct. (United States)

    Tienthai, P; Johannisson, A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H


    In vitro studies suggests that sperm capacitation occurs in the sperm reservoir (SR) of the pig, with spermatozoa progressing towards the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) around ovulation as a consequence of capacitation/hyperactivation. In contrast, in vivo studies are scarce. Consequently, we determined the degree of capacitation in boar spermatozoa that were retrieved from the SR of sows at well-defined periods of spontaneous standing oestrus, namely pre-, peri- and post-ovulation, using flow cytometry of Merocyanine-540/Yo-Pro-1-loaded spermatozoa. SR-spermatozoa retrieved and incubated in non-capacitating medium (bicarbonate-free mBO [mBO-]) were largely viable (70-85%) and uncapacitated (69-73%), irrespective of the stage of oestrus considered. Those undergoing capacitation were a minor proportion (1-5%) during pre- and peri-ovulation, but they significantly increased (14%) in post-ovulation oestrus. To clarify whether these SR-spermatozoa were able to undergo capacitation under stimuli, sperm aliquots were challenged in vitro either by incubation in a bicarbonate-rich medium (capacitation medium, mBO+), then further in mBO+ with 20% (v/v) of in vivo collected homologous pre-ovulatory isthmic oviductal fluid (IOF), or incubation with hyaluronan (HA, 500 microg/ml). Exposure to mBO+ significantly increased the sub-population of capacitated spermatozoa from the pre- and peri-ovulation SR, indicating that the uncapacitated SR-spermatozoa were responsive to the effector/inducer bicarbonate at levels recorded in peri-ovulatory AIJ/ampulla in vivo. While addition of IOF or HA to SR-spermatozoa incubated in capacitating medium (mBO+) maintained sperm viability without obviously inducing capacitation in pre- or peri-ovulatory SR-spermatozoa, they significantly increased these percentages during post-ovulation, when compared to baseline values of control incubations (mBO-). The results suggest that massive sperm capacitation does not occur in vivo in the porcine SR

  4. Neuroprotective Effect against Alzheimer's Disease of Porcine Brain Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Thukham-Mee


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite the increasing importance of Alzheimer’s disease, no effective therapeutic strategy is available. Therefore, neuroprotective strategy is still required. Recent findings show that numerous substances possessing antioxidant can improve neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Based on the antioxidant effect and its reputation to serve as brain tonic in traditional folklore, we hypothesized that porcine brain extract could mitigate neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Therefore, this study was set up to determine the effect of porcine brain extract on memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Approach: Male Wistar rats (180-220 g had been orally given porcine brain extract at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg kg-1 BW for a period of 4 weeks before and 1 week after the induction of cognitive deficit condition as those found in early phase of Alzheimer’s disease via the intraventricular injection of AF64A, a cholinotoxin. Rats were assessed the spatial memory using Morris water maze test. Then, they were determined neuron density in hippocampus using histological techniques. Moreover, the assessment of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in hippocampus were also performed. Results: It was found that both doses of porcine brain extract could enhance memory, neuron and cholinergic neuron density in all subregions of hippocampus. In addition, the decreased AChE and MDA were also observed. Therefore, our results suggested that the possible underlying mechanism of the extract might occur partly via the decrease in oxidative stress marker, MDA and AChE. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that porcine brain extract can protect against memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it should be serve as the potential food supplement or adjuvant therapy against Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive

  5. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A


    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  6. Age-dependent resistance to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Elida M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV causes a prolonged, economically devastating infection in pigs, and immune resistance to infection appears variable. Since the porcine adaptive immune system is not fully competent at birth, we hypothesized that age influences the dynamics of PRRSV infection. Thus, young piglets, growing 16-20-week-old finisher pigs, and mature third parity sows were infected with virulent or attenuated PRRSV, and the dynamics of viral infection, disease, and immune response were monitored over time. Results Virulent PRRSV infection and disease were markedly more severe and prolonged in young piglets than in finishers or sows. Attenuated PRRSV in piglets also produced a prolonged viremia that was delayed and reduced in magnitude, and in finishers and sows, about half the animals showed no viremia. Despite marked differences in infection, antibody responses were observed in all animals irrespective of age, with older pigs tending to seroconvert sooner and achieve higher antibody levels than 3-week-old animals. Interferon γ (IFN γ secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more abundant in sows but not specifically increased by PRRSV infection in any age group, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in blood were not correlated with PRRSV infection status. Conclusion These findings show that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the outcome of acute PRRSV infection, whereas an antibody response is triggered at a low threshold of infection that is independent of age. Prolonged infection was not due to IL-10-mediated immunosuppression, and PRRSV did not elicit a specific IFN γ response, especially in non-adult animals. Equivalent antibody responses were elicited in response to virulent and attenuated viruses, indicating that the antigenic mass necessary for an immune response is produced at a low level of infection, and is not predicted by

  7. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems. (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo


    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  8. Development and validation of a simple and rapid liquid chromatography method for the determination of genistein in skin permeation studies. (United States)

    Maione-Silva, Lorena; Rocha, Kamilla Amaral David; de Oliveira, Lidiane Correia; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Lima, Eliana Martins


    Genistein (GEN) has potential advantages for topical skin delivery, but no literature data are available for its quantitation in different skin layers, such as the stratum corneum (SC). Therefore, a simple, rapid, selective and sensitive bioanalytical method was developed and validated for GEN quantitation in porcine skin samples following in vitro permeation studies. GEN was assayed by HPLC with UV-Vis detection (270 nm) using 0.5% acetic acid in water-n-propanol-acetonitrile (50 : 2 : 48, v/v/v) as mobile phase (flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min). Specificity was demonstrated since endogenous skin components did not interfere with GEN peak. Standard analytical curve was linear over the concentration range (0.1-60 µg/mL) and the lower limit of quantitation was determined for different skin layers (100 ng/mL). GEN recovery from skin layers ranged from 95.57 to 97.57%. Permeation studies were carried out using an automated vertical diffusion cell apparatus. No fluctuation on the amount of GEN retained in the SC was observed over time, but increasing amounts of the drug were found in deeper layers of the skin. The method was reliable and reproducible for the quantitation GEN in skin samples enabling the determination of the cutaneous penetration profile of this drug in permeation experiments.

  9. In depth global analysis of gene expression levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Infection of the preferential target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not understood. Serial Analysis of Gene Ex...

  10. In depth global analysis of transcript abundance levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

  11. Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Nicuolo, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Andria, B.; Scuderi, V.; Scognamiglio, M.; Tammaro, A.; Mancini, A.; Cozzolino, S.; di Florio, E.; Bracco, A.; Calise, F.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.M.


    Background: Clinical use of porcine cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) support in acute liver failure as bridging therapy for liver transplantation exposes the patient to the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to human. This risk may be enhanced when patients receive l

  12. Sprayed skin turbine component (United States)

    Allen, David B


    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  13. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman


    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  14. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao


    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  15. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T


    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  16. Skin tears: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R


    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  17. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B


    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  18. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy


    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  19. The role of subcutaneous tissue stiffness on microneedle performance in a representative in vitro model of skin. (United States)

    Moronkeji, K; Todd, S; Dawidowska, I; Barrett, S D; Akhtar, R


    There has been growing interest in the mechanical behaviour of skin due to the rapid development of microneedle devices for drug delivery applications into skin. However, most in vitro experimentation studies that are used to evaluate microneedle performance do not consider the biomechanical properties of skin or that of the subcutaneous layers. In this study, a representative experimental model of skin was developed which was comprised of subcutaneous and muscle mimics. Neonatal porcine skin from the abdominal and back regions was used, with gelatine gels of differing water content (67, 80, 88 and 96%) to represent the subcutaneous tissue, and a type of ballistic gelatine, Perma-Gel®, as a muscle mimic. Dynamic nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of each of these layers. A custom-developed impact test rig was used to apply dense polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microneedles to the skin models in a controlled and repeatable way with quantification of the insertion force and velocity. Image analysis methods were used to measure penetration depth and area of the breach caused by microneedle penetration following staining and optical imaging. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that the tissue mimics matched expected values for subcutaneous and muscle tissue, and that the compliance of the subcutaneous mimics increased linearly with water content. The abdominal skin was thinner and less stiff as compared to back skin. The maximum force decreased with gel water content in the abdominal skin but not in the back skin. Overall, larger and deeper perforations were found in the skin models with increasing water content. These data demonstrate the importance of subcutaneous tissue on microneedle performance and the need for representative skin models in microneedle technology development.

  20. Comparison of Medical Adhesive Tapes in Patients at Risk of Facial Skin Trauma under Anesthesia


    Ling Antonia Zeng; Sui An Lie; Shin Yuet Chong


    Introduction. Adhesive tapes are used for taping eyelids closed and securing endotracheal tubes during general anesthesia. These tapes can cause facial skin injury. We compared the incidence of facial skin injury and patient satisfaction with different tapes used. Methods. A total of 60 adult patients at risk of skin trauma were randomized to use 3M™ Kind Removal Silicone Tape or standard acrylate tapes: 3M Durapore (endotracheal tube) and Medipore (eyelids). Patients were blinded to tape use...

  1. Atopic dermatitis. Findings of skin biopsies. (United States)

    Piloto Valdés, L; Gómez Echevarría, A H; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Ochoa Ochoa, C; Chong López, A; Mier Naranjo, G


    Twenty-eight adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (according to the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz) were studied at the Allergy Outpatient Service, the Dermatology Service and the Pathological Anatomy Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, from January to September 1986. The patients were submitted to a quantification of total serum IgE by means of the ELISA enzymatic ultramicromethod, developed at the Radioimmunoassay National Center, and skin biopsies were carried out by means of the paraffin and direct immunofluorescence methods. The most frequent histopathological findings were acanthosis, espongiosis, parakeratosis and exocitosis, as a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, mainly composed of lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. In the skin direct immunofluorescence method we found depots of IgE in all the patients, having no relation in intensity to total serum IgE values.

  2. Cold pressor pain in skin picking disorder. (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Chamberlain, Samuel R


    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, under-recognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. There has been no examination as to whether individuals with SPD have different pain thresholds or pain tolerances compared to healthy counterparts. Adults with SPD were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity and functioning. All participants underwent the cold pressor test. Heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported pain were compared between SPD participants (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14). Adults with SPD demonstrated significantly dampened autonomic response to cold pressor pain as exhibited by reduced heart rate compared to controls (group x time interaction using repeated ANOVA F=3.258, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of overall pain tolerance (measured in seconds), recovery time, or blood pressure. SPD symptom severity was not significantly associated with autonomic response in the patients. In this study, adults with SPD exhibited a dampened autonomic response to pain while reporting pain intensity similar to that reported by the controls. The lack of an autonomic response may explain why the SPD participants continue a behavior that they cognitively find painful and may offer options for future interventions.

  3. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor. (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul


    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs.

  4. Skin autofluorescence is increased in young people with type 1 diabetes exposed to secondhand smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenbrock, Charlotte E; Van Waateringe, Robert P; Veeze, Henk J; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R


    Highlights • Skin autofluorescence is increased in diabetes, rises with age, and predicts diabetes-related complications. • Exposure to secondhand smoke, because one or more family members are smokers, further increases skin auto- fluorescence in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes. • Eli

  5. Combined LC/MS-platform for analysis of all major stratum corneum lipids, and the profiling of skin substitutes. (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Boiten, Walter A; Hankemeier, Thomas; Rissmann, Robert; Bouwstra, Joke A; Vreeken, Rob J


    Ceramides (CERs), cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the main lipid classes in human stratum corneum (SC, outermost skin layer), but no studies report on the detailed analysis of these classes in a single platform. The primary aims of this study were to 1) develop an LC/MS method for (semi-)quantitative analysis of all main lipid classes present in human SC; and 2) use this method to study in detail the lipid profiles of human skin substitutes and compare them to human SC lipids. By applying two injections of 10μl, the developed method detects all major SC lipids using RPLC and negative ion mode APCI-MS for detection of FFAs, and NPLC using positive ion mode APCI-MS to analyze CERs and cholesterol. Validation showed this lipid platform to be robust, reproducible, sensitive, and fast. The method was successfully applied on ex vivo human SC, human SC obtained from tape strips and human skin substitutes (porcine SC and human skin equivalents). In conjunction with FFA profiles, clear differences in CER profiles were observed between these different SC sources. Human skin equivalents more closely mimic the lipid composition of human stratum corneum than porcine skin does, although noticeable differences are still present. These differences gave biologically relevant information on some of the enzymes that are probably involved in SC lipid processing. For future research, this provides an excellent method for (semi-)quantitative, 'high-throughput' profiling of SC lipids and can be used to advance the understanding of skin lipids and the biological processes involved.

  6. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues. (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin


    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products.

  7. Salvage of Failed Local and Regional Flaps with Porcine Urinary Bladder Extracellular Matrix Aided Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Kruper


    Full Text Available Local and regional flap failure can be a major complication in head and neck surgery, which continue to be prevalent for a number of reasons including poor flap design, improper surgical technique, and poor tissue vascularity. Dealing with these failures can be quite difficult. Surgical debridement, flap revisions, and complex wound regimens are necessitated to reestablish appropriate tissue coverage. Traditional use of wet to dry dressing to enable proper wound granulation and possible closure with additional flaps or skin grafts is a laborious process. Such treatments place great time burdens on the patient, physicians, and nurses. Because the face and neck possess a complex three-dimensional topography, wound dressings are inherently complex to design and change. Many patients also require postoperative treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy to treat aggressive malignancies, and delay in wound healing leads to a delay in adjuvant treatment. Recently, advances in regenerative medicine, specifically xenogeneic extracellular matrix compounds, have been shown to promote tissue growth while limiting scar tissue formation (Badylak 2004. To our knowledge, this paper is the first case series using the porcine extracellular matrix bioscaffold (MatriStem ACell, Columbia, MD, USA to salvage flaps with extensive wound breakdown on the face and neck.

  8. Ceramide analogue 14S24 ((S)-2-tetracosanoylamino-3-hydroxypropionic acid tetradecyl ester) is effective in skin barrier repair in vitro. (United States)

    Vávrová, Katerina; Zbytovská, Jarmila; Palát, Karel; Holas, Tomás; Klimentová, Jana; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Dolezal, Pavel


    Stratum corneum ceramides are fundamental for maintaining the skin barrier properties. Their content is decreased in some skin diseases, e.g. atopic dermatitis, and ceramide supplementation is one of the therapeutic approaches. In the present study we have designed novel ceramide analogue 14S24 ((S)-2-tetracosanoylamino-3-hydroxypropionic acid tetradecyl ester) as a potential barrier-repairing agent. We report a convenient two-step synthesis of this analogue with high yields. The ability of 14S24 to repair the disturbed skin barrier was evaluated in vitro on the porcine skin. After 2h application of 14S24 on the skin disrupted by lipid extraction, the permeability decreased significantly almost to the values of the native skin. The compound is effective in 0.1% aqueous suspension and its effect is comparable with physiological skin lipids under the same condition. The comparison of 14S24 and skin ceramides was made via computer modelling and the in silico physico-chemical parameters are reported. We suggest that allylic hydroxyl, that is essential for the apoptogenic activity of ceramides, is not a necessary component of the skin barrier-forming ceramides. The main result of this study is to demonstrate that simpler and easier-to-synthesise ceramide analogues could be effective in the skin barrier repair.

  9. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care) (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  10. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.


    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  11. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study. (United States)

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A


    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1.

  12. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury (United States)


    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Hind Limb Ischemia/reperfusion Injury CAPT Thomas J...porcine model of hind limb ischemia. Method: Swine (Sus Scrofa ; 76 +/-6kg) were randomly assigned to no fasciotomy or prophylactic fasciotomy after...of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus scrofa ) survival model of extremity vascular injury. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan;53(1):165

  13. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  14. Cryoglobulin induced skin ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Razvi


    Full Text Available Lupus Erythematosus (LE is a multi-organ auto-immune disease which results from complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The clinical spectrum ranges from minor cutaneous lesions to life threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The skin manifestations are variable and common and range from LE specific to LE non-specific cutaneous disease. Vasculitis is one of the most common non-specific skin lesion of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and appears as purpuric lesions, infarcts along lateral nail folds, peripheral gangrene, sub-cutaneous nodules and ulcers. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (type II is associated with connective tissue disorders including SLE. Skin manifestations are seen in 60-100% patients and are more common in females. The most common manifestation is palpable purpura of lower extremities seen in 30-100% which often is triggered in winter or on cold exposure. Skin infarction, hemorrhagic crusts and ulcers are seen in 25% of patients. Wide spread necrotic ulcers are seen in 10-25% of patients which are often exacerbated by cold.

  15. Tuberculin Skin Testing (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  16. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora


    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  17. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.


    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  18. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul


    therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...... from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui


    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  20. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems (United States)

    ... disorders that give rise to serious medical problems. Older skin is less oily, less elastic, and thinner. It ... of old age." Response Yes, it is true older skin is less oily and it is thinner than ...

  2. Skin - abnormally dark or light (United States)

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  3. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2 (United States)

    ... from seams or elastic binding. Check also for blisters, bumps, insect bites, dry flaky skin or pimples. ... always check your skin carefully after wearing new shoes or clothing. Too loose — Loose clothing can form ...

  4. The management of skin tears. (United States)

    Meuleneire, Frans

    During the ageing process the layers of the skin start to atrophy; the epidermis becomes thin and fragile, and dermal thickness decreases by 20 per cent (White et al, 1994). This makes skin tears a common problem among older people.

  5. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone. (United States)



    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  6. The Importance of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway in the Porcine Endometrial Stromal Stem/Progenitor Cells: Implications for Regeneration (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Ziecik, Adam Janusz; Laguna, Joanna; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara


    The regenerative ability of the endometrium is strongly associated with the presence of adult stem/progenitor cells. Purposes of the present study were (1) to establish the presence of stem/progenitor cells in porcine endometrial stroma using a clonogenic assay and (2) to investigate whether the canonical Wnt pathway affects the potential of stem/progenitor cells to undergo self-renewal or differentiation. The utility of endometrial stromal clones as a model for stem/progenitor studies was evaluated based on these cells' increased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker genes, including CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105, compared with primary cultured cells. Small molecules were introduced to activate (BIO) or inhibit (XAV939) the canonical Wnt pathway during stromal clone formation. Cloning efficiency assays revealed that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway promoted formation of more differentiated small clones. Moreover, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway decreased, whereas inhibition of the pathway increased MSC marker expression. Additionally, we confirmed the importance of canonical Wnt pathway stimulation in endometrial stromal cells through observing the appropriate changes in β-catenin cellular localization. These data indicate that modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway effects the process of regeneration in the porcine endometrium during the course of the estrous cycle. PMID:26414529

  7. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Arunas


    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  8. Histomorphometric analysis of collagen and elastic fibres in the cranial and caudal fold of the porcine glottis. (United States)

    Lang, A; Koch, R; Rohn, K; Gasse, H


    The porcine glottis differs from the human glottis in its cranial and caudal vocal folds (CraF, CauF). The fibre apparatus of these folds was studied histomorphometrically in adult minipigs. For object definition and quantification, the colour-selection tools of the Adobe-Photoshop program were used. Another key feature was the subdivision of the cross-sections of the folds into proportional subunits. This allowed a statistical analysis irrespective of differences in thickness of the folds. Both folds had a distinct, dense subepithelial layer equivalent to the basement membrane zone in humans. The subsequent, loose layer was interpreted - in principle - as being equivalent to Reinke's space of the human vocal fold. The next two layers were not clearly separated. Due to this, the concept of a true vocal ligament did not appear applicable to neither CauF nor CraF. Instead, the body-cover model was emphasized by our findings. The missing vocalis muscle in the CraF is substituted by large collagen fibre bundles in a proportional depth corresponding to the position of the muscle of the CauF. The distribution of elastic fibres made the CraF rather than the CauF more similar to the human vocal fold. We suggest that these data are useful for those wishing to use the porcine glottis as a model for studying oscillatory properties during phonation.

  9. Regional multiaxial mechanical properties of the porcine anterior lens capsule. (United States)

    David, G; Pedrigi, R M; Heistand, M R; Humphrey, J D


    The lens capsule of the eye plays fundamental biomechanical roles in both normal physiological processes and clinical interventions. There has been modest attention given to the mechanical properties of this important membrane, however, and prior studies have focused on 1-D analyses of the data. We present results that suggest that the porcine anterior lens capsule has a complex, regionally dependent, nonlinear, anisotropic behavior. Specifically, using a subdomain inverse finite element method to analyze data collected via a new biplane video-based test system, we found that the lens capsule is nearly isotropic (in-plane) near the pole but progressively stiffer in the circumferential compared to the meridional direction as one approaches the equator. Because the porcine capsule is a good model of the young human capsule, there is strong motivation to determine if similar regional variations exist in the human lens capsule for knowledge of such complexities may allow us to improve the design of surgical procedures and implants.

  10. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik;


    were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed...... microscopy and by immunohistochemical staining. In addition to these 30 eyes, two eyes underwent surgery with the purpose of subsequent scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination. RESULTS: In eyes enucleated immediately after surgery neuroretinas overlying the induced lesions were intact without...... apparent atrophy of cells regardless of the surgical technique applied. The process of RPE removal was found to induce breaks in Bruch's membrane and both the size and the number of breaks varied between eyes. CNV membranes were identified in 15 of 15 eyes enucleated after 14 days. CNV membranes induced...

  11. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Induces Autophagy to Benefit Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Guo


    Full Text Available The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference. Furthermore, autophagy might be associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and have a positive feedback loop with the NF-κB signaling pathway during PEDV infection. This work is the first attempt to explore the complex interplay between autophagy and PEDV infection. Our findings might accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  12. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule. (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J


    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  13. Skin infections among infants and parental awareness: Is there any relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Hossenbaccus


    Full Text Available Introduction: In Mauritius, studies on skin problem are limited to adults only and no reports are available on skin health of infants and toddlers. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of skin problem among infants and toddlers and to investigate whether there is an association between socioeconomic status and education level of parents on skin problem of infants and toddlers. Material and Methods: Survey data was collected from 500 parents that have children between the age of 1 month till 5 years. A questionnaire was distributed to elicit information on family history, socioeconomic and education details of parents, hygiene level and level of awareness of parents on skin problems and data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Skin problems were mostly nappy rashes, eczema and skin rashes. Itching has been noted to be the most prevalent among infants and toddlers with a prevalence of 22%. Socioeconomic status and education level of parents have an effect on prevalence of skin problem. A high percentage of parents possess good knowledge on hygiene, risks factors and concern towards the skin health of the child. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of skin problem noted among infants and toddlers. Children having parents with low socioeconomic status and low education level have a higher incidence of skin problem. The majority of parents show high concern on skin health of their children.

  14. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention. (United States)

    Damian, Diona L


    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.



    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V


    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  16. Notch1 functions as a tumor suppressor in mouse skin. (United States)

    Nicolas, Michael; Wolfer, Anita; Raj, Kenneth; Kummer, J Alain; Mill, Pleasantine; van Noort, Mascha; Hui, Chi-chung; Clevers, Hans; Dotto, G Paolo; Radtke, Freddy


    Notch proteins are important in binary cell-fate decisions and inhibiting differentiation in many developmental systems, and aberrant Notch signaling is associated with tumorigenesis. The role of Notch signaling in mammalian skin is less well characterized and is mainly based on in vitro studies, which suggest that Notch signaling induces differentiation in mammalian skin. Conventional gene targeting is not applicable to establishing the role of Notch receptors or ligands in the skin because Notch1-/- embryos die during gestation. Therefore, we used a tissue-specific inducible gene-targeting approach to study the physiological role of the Notch1 receptor in the mouse epidermis and the corneal epithelium of adult mice. Unexpectedly, ablation of Notch1 results in epidermal and corneal hyperplasia followed by the development of skin tumors and facilitated chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis. Notch1 deficiency in skin and in primary keratinocytes results in increased and sustained expression of Gli2, causing the development of basal-cell carcinoma-like tumors. Furthermore, Notch1 inactivation in the epidermis results in derepressed beta-catenin signaling in cells that should normally undergo differentiation. Enhanced beta-catenin signaling can be reversed by re-introduction of a dominant active form of the Notch1 receptor. This leads to a reduction in the signaling-competent pool of beta-catenin, indicating that Notch1 can inhibit beta-catenin-mediated signaling. Our results indicate that Notch1 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene in mammalian skin.

  17. [Myositis and the skin: cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis]. (United States)

    Jinnin, Masatoshi


    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Among them, cutaneous manifestations are observed most frequently in dermatomyositis. While dermatomyositis commonly affects the skin and muscles, it can also affect the lungs and other organs. Dermatomyositis presenting clinically and histopathologically with typical cutaneous lesions, but without myositis, is called amyopathic dermatomyositis. Given that the Bohan and Peter criteria cannot distinguish amyopathic dermatomyositis, understanding the characteristic skin manifestations may be essential for diagnosing this condition. The cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis are thought to be the result of the Koebner phenomenon, vasculopathy, or photosensitivity; manifestations include various eruptions, such as heliotrope rush, Gottron's sign, Gottron's papules, mechanic's hand, nail-fold bleeding, skin ulcer, vasculitis, flagellate erythema, V-sign, and Shawl sign. The presence of multiple types of eruptions can help diagnose the disease. Several skin diseases, including adult Still's disease, contact dermatitis, and sarcoidosis, can mimic the cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis. Skin biopsy is useful for differential diagnoses. Histopathologically, dermatomyositis of the skin is characterized by liquefaction degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, edema, and mucin deposition. Dermatologists, neurologists, and rheumatologists are responsible for the diagnosis and management of dermatomyositis, in cooperation with pulmonologists, pediatricians, and pathologists. This review aims to provide clinicians with recent findings regarding skin involvement in dermatomyositis.

  18. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2. (United States)

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan


    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings.

  19. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase



    Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater). Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1) were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a p...

  20. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids. (United States)

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C


    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  1. Skin cancer: Etiology and management. (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran


    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  2. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth


    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  3. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee


    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  4. Experimental porcine model of complex fistula-in-ano (United States)

    A Ba-Bai-Ke-Re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xue; Wang, Yun-Hai


    AIM To establish and evaluate an experimental porcine model of fistula-in-ano. METHODS Twelve healthy pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Under general anesthesia, the experimental group underwent rubber band ligation surgery, and the control group underwent an artificial damage technique. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological evaluation were performed on the 38th d and 48th d after surgery in both groups, respectively. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in general characteristics such as body weight, gender, and the number of fistula (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, 15 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 13 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 11 complex fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine complex fistula model establishment was 83.33%. Among the 18 fistulas in the control group, 5 fistulas were confirmed clinically, 4 complex fistulas were confirmed by MRI, and 3 fistulas were confirmed by histopathology. The success rate in the porcine fistula model establishment was 27.78%. Thus, the success rate of the rubber band ligation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Rubber band ligation is a stable and reliable method to establish complex fistula-in-ano models. Large animal models of complex anal fistulas can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of anal fistulas. PMID:28348488

  5. Characterization of a porcine enterocyte receptor for group A rotavirus. (United States)

    Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Rolsma, M D; Kuhlenschmidt, T B; Gelberg, H B


    We have identified, purified to apparent homogeneity and chemically characterized a biologically-relevant porcine enterocyte receptor for group A porcine rotavirus. Ceramide glycanase digestion followed by acid hydrolysis and monosaccharide compositional analyses indicated the receptor is a family of two GM, gangliosides, one containing N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid and the other N-acetylneuraminic acid. Both gangliosides displayed dose-dependent inhibition of rotavirus binding to, and infectivity of, host cells. Inhibition of infectivity in a focus-forming-unit-reduction assay was achieved with as little as 2 nmols of NeuGcGM3 (50% inhibition with 3.97 nmol) or NeuAcGM3 (50% inhibition with 9.84 nmol) per 10(4) FFU of virus. Preliminary data suggest specific porcine GM3 carbohydrate fine structure or spatial orientation of the sialyloligosaccharide epitopes of the holoGM3 gangliosides may be crucial to enterocyte receptor recognition by rotavirus. We have quantified both NeuGcGM3 and NeuAcGM3 in enterocytes of various-aged pigs from newborn through 16 weeks and have found with increasing age the amount of both GM3 derivatives, especially NeuGcGM3 per gram (dry weight) intestinal brush border decreases rapidly from newborn through 4 weeks of age. These results may help explain the age-sensitivity of piglets to severe rotavirus diarrhea.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics. (United States)

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J


    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis.

  7. Measurement of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the porcine cornea. (United States)

    Barton, Michael D; Trembly, B Stuart


    Accurate thermal models for the cornea of the eye support the development of thermal techniques for reshaping the cornea and other scientific purposes. Heat transfer in the cornea must be quantified accurately so that a thermal treatment does not destroy the endothelial layer, which cannot regenerate, and yet is responsible for maintaining corneal transparency. We developed a custom apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of ex vivo porcine corneas perpendicular to the surface and applied a commercial apparatus to measure thermal conductivity parallel to the surface. We found that corneal thermal conductivity is 14% anisotropic at the normal state of corneal hydration. Small numbers of ex vivo feline and human corneas had a thermal conductivity perpendicular to the surface that was indistinguishable from the porcine corneas. Aqueous humor from ex vivo porcine, feline, and human eyes had a thermal conductivity nearly equal to that of water. Including the anisotropy of corneal thermal conductivity will improve the predictive power of thermal models of the eye.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Tibetan Porcine STING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiwen Chen


    Full Text Available Tibetan pig is well known for its strong disease resistance. However, little is known about the molecular basis of its strong resistance to disease. Stimulator of interferon (IFN genes (STING, also known as MPYS/MITA/ERIS/TMEM173, is an adaptor that functions downstream of RIG-I and MAVS and upstream of TBK1 and plays a critical role in type I IFN induction. Here we report the first cloning and characterization of STING gene from Tibetan pig. The entire open reading frame (ORF of the Tibetan porcine STING is 1137 bp, with a higher degree of sequence similarity with Landrace pig (98% and cattle (88% than with chimpanzee (84%, human (83% or mouse (77%. The predicted protein is composed of 378 amino acids and has 4 putative transmembrane domains. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that Tibetan pig STING mRNA was most abundant in the lung and heart. Overexpression of Tibetan porcine STING led to upregulation of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 in porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cells. This is the first study investigating the biological role of STING in intestinal epithelial cells, which lays a foundation for the further study of STING in intestinal innate immunity.

  9. Development and validation of HPLC method for imiquimod determination in skin penetration studies. (United States)

    De Paula, Daniel; Martins, Carolina Azenha; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra


    A simple, rapid and sensitive analytical procedure for the measurement of imiquimod in skin samples after in vitro penetration studies has been developed and validated. In vitro penetration studies were carried out in Franz diffusion cells with porcine skin. Tape stripping technique was used to separate the stratum corneum (SC) from the viable epidermis and dermis. Imiquimod was extracted from skin samples using a 7:3 (v/v) methanol:acetate buffer (100 mM, pH 4.0) solution and ultrasonication. Imiquimod was analyzed by HPLC using C(8) column and UV detection at 242 nm. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:acetate buffer (pH 4.0, 100 mM):diethylamine (30:69.85:0.15, v/v) with flow rate 1 mL/min. Imiquimod eluted at 4.1 min and the running time was limited to 6.0 min. The procedure was linear across the following concentration ranges: 100-2500 ng/mL for both SC and tape-stripped skin and 20-800 ng/mL for receptor solution. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision values were lower than 20% at the limit of quantitation. The recovery values ranged from 80 to 100%. The method is adequate to assay imiquimod from skin samples, enabling the determination of the cutaneous penetration profile of imiquimod by in vitro studies.

  10. Influence of cleansing on stratum corneum tryptic enzyme in human skin. (United States)

    Schepky, A G; Holtzmann, U; Siegner, R; Zirpins, S; Schmucker, R; Wenck, H; Wittern, K P; Biel, S S


    Desquamation in human skin is a well-balanced process of de novo production of corneocytes and their shedding from the skin surface. The proteolysis of corneodesmosomes is an important step in the final desquamation process. In the degradation of these adhesion molecules, the stratum corneum tryptic enzyme (SCTE) plays a key role. In initial studies with extracts of porcine epidermis, SCTE was shown to be inactivated by low concentrations of sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES). These in vitro findings were supported by in situ results obtained by measuring the release of fluorescent dyes coupled to trypsin-specific substrates incubated on human skin cross-sections. Moreover, in further studies, it could be demonstrated that the SCTE activity in the human horny layer decreases after in vivo application of cleansing products containing SLES. After repeated washing of human volunteers with tap water, a standard market cleansing product (SLES/betaine system) or a new improved cleansing product (SLES/betaine/disodium cocoyl glutamate system), the specific SCTE activity was determined in extracts from the uppermost layers of the stratum corneum. It could be shown that after application of the new formula the remaining SCTE activity was significantly higher than after use of the standard market formula. This ex vivo approach has proven to be very helpful for measuring surfactant effects on human skin enzymes. Using this assay, we developed an improved shower gel formula, which leads to a significantly higher skin enzyme activity after application, compared to a standard market formula.

  11. Accurate Measurements of the Skin Surface Area of the Healthy Auricle and Skin Deficiency in Microtia Patients (United States)

    van Doremalen, Rob F. M.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Kolodzynski, Michail N.; Pouran, Behdad; Malda, Jos; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C.


    Background: The limited cranial skin covering auricular implants is an important yet underrated factor in auricular reconstruction for both reconstruction surgery and tissue engineering strategies. We report exact measurements on skin deficiency in microtia patients and propose an accessible preoperative method for these measurements. Methods: Plaster ear models (n = 11; male:female = 2:1) of lobular-type microtia patients admitted to the University Medical Center Utrecht in The Netherlands were scanned using a micro-computed tomographic scanner or a cone-beam computed tomographic scanner. The resulting images were converted into mesh models from which the surface area could be calculated. Results: The mean total skin area of an adult-size healthy ear was 47.3 cm2, with 49.0 cm2 in men and 44.3 cm2 in women. Microtia ears averaged 14.5 cm2, with 15.6 cm2 in men and 12.6 cm2 in women. The amount of skin deficiency was 25.4 cm2, with 26.7 cm2 in men and 23.1 cm2 in women. Conclusions: This study proposes a novel method to provide quantitative data on the skin surface area of the healthy adult auricle and the amount of skin deficiency in microtia patients. We demonstrate that the microtia ear has less than 50% of skin available compared with healthy ears. Limited skin availability in microtia patients can lead to healing problems after auricular reconstruction and poses a significant challenge in the development of tissue-engineered cartilage implants. The results of this study could be used to evaluate outcomes and investigate new techniques with regard to tissue-engineered auricular constructs. PMID:28293505

  12. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker


    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  13. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li


    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  14. Skin contamination dosimeter (United States)

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward


    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  15. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    difficulties experienced by scientists when attempting to model DSF thermal and energy performance were examined. In addition, the lack of experimental studies and empirical validation of models was realized, many numerical models have not been empirically validated and most of them require an expert knowledge...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model......Double-Skin Facades (DSF) are gaining popularity that, in fact, appears to be independent from sturdy critics of the concept in the past years. DSF buildings are being built in Europe and worldwide, DSF concept is being taught at schools of architecture and fully glazed office buildings are being...

  16. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  17. Emergence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus deletion mutants: Correlation with the porcine antibody response to a hypervariable site in the ORF 3 structural glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.;


    By using porcine immune sera to select a library of phage-displayed random peptides. we identified an antigenic sequence (RKASLSTS) in the C-terminus of the ORF 3 structural glycoprotein of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Through the use of overlapping....... These distinctions suggested that deletion mutants were a hitherto unrecognized subtype of European-type PRRSV. Currently, deletion mutants appear to be outcompeting nondeleted viruses in the field, highlighting the importance of the porcine antibody response against the minor structural glycoproteins of European...

  18. Adult Strabismus (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  19. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies. (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E


    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  20. Skin changes in menopause. (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Braverman, I M; Rousseau, M E; Sarrel, P M


    Skin signs and symptoms were examined in 46 menopausal women prior to estrogen replacement therapy. Several symptoms such as pruritus, bruising, dryness and thinning were seen more frequently in sun-exposed skin emphasizing the contribution of photoaging. At the end of a 6-mth treatment period, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence or severity of the cutaneous signs and symptoms when patients receiving transdermal 17 beta-estradiol (Estraderm) were compared with controls (the only exception was cutaneous flushing). Elastic fibers from sun-protected (buttock) skin of menopausal women were studied by light and electron microscopy. In 3 women (ages 30-37) with a history of premature menopause, the elastic fibers had several degenerative changes including coalescence of cystic spaces into lacunae, peripheral fragmentation, granular degeneration and splitting of the fibers into strands. Similar age-related ultrastructural changes are normally found in individuals that are at least 20 yrs older than these patients. These findings are suggestive of a relationship between premature aging of the dermal elastic fibers and estrogen deprivation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan


    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  2. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.


    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation p

  3. Novel Approach for Isolation and Identification of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Strain NJ Using Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Jia, Shuo; Zhao, Haiyuan; Yin, Jiyuan; Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Meiling; Ma, Sunting; Wu, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Wenlu; Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing


    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea in China and other countries, is responsible for serious economic losses in the pork industry. Inactivated PEDV vaccine plays a key role in controlling the prevalence of PEDV. However, consistently low viral titers are obtained during the propagation of PEDV in vitro; this represents a challenge to molecular analyses of the virus and vaccine development. In this study, we successfully isolated a PEDV isolate (strain NJ) from clinical samples collected during a recent outbreak of diarrhea in piglets in China, using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We found that the isolate was better adapted to growth in IECs than in Vero cells, and the titer of the IEC cultures was 104.5 TCID50/0.1 mL at passage 45. Mutations in the S protein increased with the viral passage and the mutations tended towards attenuation. Viral challenge showed that the survival of IEC-adapted cultures was higher at the 45th passage than at the 5th passage. The use of IECs to isolate and propagate PEDV provides an effective approach for laboratory-based diagnosis of PEDV, as well as studies of the epidemiological characteristics and molecular biology of this virus. PMID:28117718

  4. Effects of inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells and intestinal dendritic cells. (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Zhao, Shanshan; Qin, Tao; Yin, Yinyan; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian


    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a serious infection in neonatal piglets. As the causative agent of PED, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) results in acute diarrhea and dehydration with high mortality rates in swine. Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly effective antigen-presenting cells to uptake and present viral antigens to T cells, which then initiate a distinct immune response. In this study, our results show that the expression of Mo-DCs surface markers such as SWC3a(+)CD1a(+), SWC3a(+)CD80/86(+) and SWC3a(+)SLA-II-DR(+) is increased after incubation with UV-PEDV for 24h. Mo-DCs incubated with UV-PEDV produce higher levels of IL-12 and INF-γ compared to mock-infected Mo-DCs. Interactions between Mo-DCs and UV-PEDV significantly stimulate T-cell proliferation in vitro. Consistent with these results, there is an enhancement in the ability of porcine intestinal DCs to activate T-cell proliferation in vivo. We conclude that UV-PEDV may be a useful and safe vaccine to trigger adaptive immunity.

  5. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao


    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  6. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.


    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  7. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  8. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Christensen, Josef; Gao, Yu;


    (LIF, LIFR, GP130), FGF pathway (bFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2), BMP pathway (BMP4), and downstream-activated genes (STAT3, c-Myc, c-Fos, and SMAD4). We discovered two different expression profiles exist in the developing porcine embryo. The D6 porcine blastocyst (inner cell mass stage) is devoid...

  9. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.


    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt solut

  10. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J;


    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  11. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin


    Eweje, M.O.


    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of epidermal and SC features of AD skin and that AD epidermal features can be maintained in vitro when AD skin biopsies are used to generate explant-HSEs. The...

  12. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay


    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  13. Development of transgenic cloned pig models of skin inflammation by DNA transposon-directed ectopic expression of human β1 and α2 integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    Full Text Available Integrins constitute a superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors that play pivotal roles in cutaneous homeostasis by modulating cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses in the skin. Subrabasal expression of integrins α2 and/or β1 entails hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes and leads to dermal and epidermal influx of activated T-cells. The anatomical and physiological similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig a suitable model for human skin diseases. In efforts to generate a porcine model of cutaneous inflammation, we employed the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system for production of transgenic cloned Göttingen minipigs expressing human β1 or α2 integrin under the control of a promoter specific for subrabasal keratinocytes. Using pools of transgenic donor fibroblasts, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer was utilized to produce reconstructed embryos that were subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. The resulting pigs were all transgenic and harbored from one to six transgene integrants. Molecular analyses on skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes showed ectopic expression of the human integrins and localization within the keratinocyte plasma membrane. Markers of perturbed skin homeostasis, including activation of the MAPK pathway, increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and enhanced expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, were identified in keratinocytes from β1 and α2 integrin-transgenic minipigs, suggesting the induction of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in the skin. Notably, cellular dysregulation obtained by overexpression of either β1 or α2 integrin occurred through different cellular signaling pathways. Our findings mark the creation of the first cloned pig models with molecular markers of skin inflammation. Despite the absence of an overt psoriatic phenotype, these animals may possess increased susceptibility to

  14. Outgrowth of fibroblast cells from goat skin explants in three different culture media and the establishment of cell lines. (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Sharma, Anil K


    Three different commercially available media, known to support human and porcine-specific fibroblast cultures, were tested for their growth potential on goat skin explants. Although outgrowth of fibroblasts was observed in all media tested, irrespective of breed, porcine-specific media exhibited higher rate of growth. Using this media, three fibroblast cell lines (GSF289, GSF737, and GSF2010) from ear skin explants of normal healthy dairy goats of Kiko and Saanen breed were successfully established in culture. Liquid nitrogen stocks of these frozen cells had a viability rate of 96.2% in in vitro cultures. These cells were morphologically indistinguishable from the cell stocks prior to freezing. Analysis of the growth of a fifth passage culture revealed an 'S' shaped growth curve with a population doubling time of 25 h. The cell lines were found negative for microbial, fungal, and mycoplasma contaminations. These goat skin fibroblast lines and the simple method of their isolation and freezing with high rate of viability will provide additional tools to study molecular mechanisms that regulate fibroblast function and for genetic manipulation of small ruminants.

  15. Effects of EGF or bFGF on the development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji LIU; Shutang FENG; Dengke PAN; Liguo GONG; Li ZHANG; Yulian MU; Zirong WANG


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were added into the cul-ture medium in different culturing stages. The effects of EGF or bFGF on the development of porcine partheno-genetic embryos were studied in vitro. The results were as follows: The addition of EGF significantly enhanced the cleavage rate of porcine parthenogenetic embryos (P<0.05). The addition of EGF or bFGF also signifi-cantly enhanced the rate of blastocysts formation of 2-4-cell porcine parthenogenetic embryos (P<0.05). Additionally, the group of bFGF had more numbers of blastocysts and higher rates of blastocysts formation than the groups of EGF and the control. In conclusion, EGF and bFGF were found propitious to the development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos in vitro, and bFGF increased the quality of blastocysts by increasing the total cell number in porcine parthenogenetic embryos.

  16. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  17. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data. (United States)

    Bonté, F


    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials.

  18. Climate change and skin. (United States)

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C


    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  19. Epidemiology of skin cancer. (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus


    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  20. Skin and bones. I. (United States)

    Orlow, S J; Watsky, K L; Bolognia, J L


    Skin disorders in which a radiograph may detect associated bony changes or abnormalities of calcification are discussed. They are grouped into eight categories: (1) inherited diseases (e.g., alkaptonuria, neurofibromatosis); (2) congenital disorders (e.g., Sturge-Weber and Proteus syndromes); (3) inflammatory conditions (e.g., dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis); (4) infections (e.g., dental sinus, syphilis); (5) neoplasias (e.g., histiocytosis, mastocytosis); (6) drug- and environment-induced (e.g., acroosteolysis, retinoid toxicity); (7) calcinosis cutis; and (8) osteoma cutis. Part I of our review discusses the first two categories.