WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult participation starting

  1. Participation in adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...

  2. Participation in testing and start up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Testing and start up operations of a nuclear power plant require careful planning. A detailed program of tests and the responsibility of implementing them is discussed. Requirement of documentation covering the tests and operating procedures is explained. The performance of the system during normal and abnomal operating conditions is analysed and required are modifications carried out. Various phases of commissioning and their significance are explained. Preparation of maintenance documentation and training of operating and maintenance staff during this period are discussed. Necessity of close liaison between the regulatory body and the operating organization is explained. (orig.) [de

  3. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…

  4. Multigenerational Head Start Participation: An Unexpected Marker of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Elise

    2018-01-01

    One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large,…

  5. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  6. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...

  7. Participation patterns in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels...... problems that otherwise lead to underinvestment in skills and/or inequity in the distribution of access to education and training and hence skills. Hence, it is argued that institutional contexts and public policy measures condition participation patterns in adult education, and are thus worthwhile...

  8. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  9. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  10. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  11. 2 CFR 2424.1125 - How does a limited denial of participation start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a limited denial of participation start? 2424.1125 Section 2424.1125 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and... of Participation § 2424.1125 How does a limited denial of participation start? A limited denial of...

  12. Effects of secondary prophylaxis started in adolescent and adult haemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, A; Franchini, M; Coppola, A; Rivolta, G F; Santoro, C; Rossetti, G; Feola, G; Zanon, E; Dragani, A; Iannaccaro, P; Radossi, P; Mannucci, P M

    2008-09-01

    While primary prophylaxis is a well-established and recommended method of care delivery for children with severe haemophilia, fewer studies have documented the benefits of secondary prophylaxis started in adolescence or adulthood. To evaluate the role of secondary prophylaxis started in adolescent and adult severe haemophiliacs, a retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in 10 Italian Centres that investigated 84 haemophiliacs who had bled frequently and had thus switched from on-demand to prophylactic treatment during adolescence (n = 30) or adulthood (n = 54). The consumption of clotting factor concentrates, the orthopaedic and radiological scores, quality of life and disease-related morbidity were compared before and after starting secondary prophylaxis. Prophylaxis reduced the mean annual number of total and joint bleeds (35.8 vs. 4.2 and 32.4 vs. 3.3; P work/school (34.6 vs. 3.0, P life. With respect to on-demand treatment, higher factor consumption and cost of secondary prophylaxis were balanced by marked clinical benefits and greater well-being in this cohort of adolescent/adult haemophiliacs.

  13. Why do some older adults start drinking excessively late in life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:This is a pioneering qualitative phenomenological hermeneutical study investigating a so far under-investigated group of older adults with verylate onset alcohol use disorder. The number of older adults is increasing, and the number of older adults with alcohol problems is increasing...... accordingly. We investi- gated older adults with very late-onset alcohol use disorder to identify what causes some people to develop problems with alcohol after the age of 60. Method: We interviewed 12 Danish individuals (seven men) whose alcohol use disorder started after the age of 60. For our analysis, we...... was one of the main factors in very late-onset alcohol use disorder among our participants. We found that the participants experienced a marked loss of identity when they had no activities to fill up their time after retirement. Social activities involving alcohol were also closely related to very late...

  14. Keeping the Vision in Front of You: Results from Smart Start Key Participant Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Adkins, Amee

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. Interviews were conducted to ascertain the impressions, attitudes, and advice of 55 key participants in the 12 pioneer Smart Start counties. The interviews were…

  15. Entry correlates and motivations of older adults participating in organized exercise programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    This study reports entry correlates and motivations of older adults participating in organized exercise programs in the Netherlands, as determined in a descriptive explorative study (N = 2,350, response rate 86%). Participants were community-dwelling older adults (50+ years) who enrolled and started

  16. Starting participation in an employee fitness program: attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-11-01

    This article presents a study of the determinants of starting participation in an employee fitness program. Information from 488 employees, recruited from two worksites, was obtained. From these employees the determinants of participation were studied. A questionnaire based on two theoretical models was used. The Stages of Change model was used to measure the health behavior, consisting of precontemplation (no intention to participate), contemplation (considering participation), preparation (intending to participate within a short period), and action (participating in fitness). The possible determinants were measured according to the ASE model, including the attitude toward an employee fitness program, social influence, and self-efficacy expectations. Subjects in action stage were most convinced of the benefits of participation in the employee fitness program and of their own skills to participate in a fitness program. Subjects in precontemplation stage were least convinced of the advantages of participation and had the lowest self-efficacy scores. Subjects in action stage experienced the most social support to participate in the employee fitness program. Health education for employees within industrial fitness programs can be tailored toward their motivational stage. Promotional activities for industrial fitness programs should concentrate on persons in the precontemplation and contemplation stages, since people in these stages are insufficiently convinced of the advantages of a fitness program and expect many problems with regard to their ability to participate in the program.

  17. Malnutrition and associated factors among adults starting on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This calls for routine nutritional assessment at CTCs prior to initiation of ART so as to ... exacerbates reduced food intake through hyperpyrexia, anorexia and thus leading to malnutrition. (WHO, 2003). ... adults and 6,000 children monthly.

  18. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, J.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  19. Potential for misclassification of micronutrient status in children participating in a Head Start program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droke, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Hubbs-Tait, Laura

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate relations among measures of iron and zinc status, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes in low-income children participating in the Head Start program. Cross-sectional correlational study with samples collected at Head Start centers in May 2003. Forty-seven children (aged 3 to 5 years) attending Head Start centers in three rural communities. Zinc, ferritin, CRP, and complete blood count were analyzed in nonfasting blood samples. Correlations were computed among leukocyte levels, CRP levels, and measures of micronutrient status. Children having two abnormal measures (ie, leukocytes and CRP) were compared by univariate analysis of variance with children having zero or one abnormal measure. Most (72%) of the children had elevated CRP levels. Four percent were anemic (hemoglobinreference value that accounts for the presence of infection was used (serum ferritin

  20. The Perfect Pairing: The Adult Learner and the Boutique Winery in the Start-Up Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath-Simpson, Delta F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and describe the lived experiences of adult learners who are owners and managers of small winery businesses operating in the start-up phase of the organizational life cycle. The study explored and identified the meaning of adult learning in the entrepreneurial context and its affect on…

  1. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the

  2. Investigating the Determinants of Adults' Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of adult learners' participation in higher education in a lifelong learning environment. The author argues that the determinants of adult learners' participation in higher education include individual demands, state and institutional policy objectives and industry-driven demands rather than demographic…

  3. Occurrence of refeeding syndrome in adults started on artificial nutrition support: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Alan; Whelan, Kevin; Goff, Louise; Reidlinger, Dianne Patricia; Smeeton, Nigel

    2013-01-11

    Refeeding syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition characterised by severe intracellular electrolyte shifts, acute circulatory fluid overload and organ failure. The initial symptoms are non-specific but early clinical features are severely low-serum electrolyte concentrations of potassium, phosphate or magnesium. Risk factors for the syndrome include starvation, chronic alcoholism, anorexia nervosa and surgical interventions that require lengthy periods of fasting. The causes of the refeeding syndrome are excess or unbalanced enteral, parenteral or oral nutritional intake. Prevention of the syndrome includes identification of individuals at risk, controlled hypocaloric nutritional intake and supplementary electrolyte replacement. To determine the occurrence of refeeding syndrome in adults commenced on artificial nutrition support. Prospective cohort study. Large, single site university teaching hospital. Recruitment period 2007-2009. 243 adults started on artificial nutrition support for the first time during that admission recruited from wards and intensive care. occurrence of the refeeding syndrome. Secondary outcome: analysis of the risk factors which predict the refeeding syndrome. Tertiary outcome: mortality due to refeeding syndrome and all-cause mortality. 133 participants had one or more of the following risk factors: body mass index 15% in the preceding 3-6 months, very little or no nutritional intake >10 days, history of alcohol or drug abuse and low baseline levels of serum potassium, phosphate or magnesium prior to recruitment. Poor nutritional intake for more than 10 days, weight loss >15% prior to recruitment and low-serum magnesium level at baseline predicted the refeeding syndrome with a sensitivity of 66.7%: specificity was >80% apart from weight loss of >15% which was 59.1%. Baseline low-serum magnesium was an independent predictor of the refeeding syndrome (p=0.021). Three participants (2% 3/243) developed severe electrolyte shifts

  4. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work

  5. Getting the engine started: motivations for participation in a university outdoor recreation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L. Sharp; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the motivations of trip participants in the Georgia Outdoor Recreation Program at the University of Georgia during the fall semester of 2007, and to collect baseline data about their participation. Participants were asked to fill out a survey and return it to the trip leader at the conclusion of each trip. Participants'...

  6. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  7. High School Size, Participation in Activities, and Young Adult Social Participation: Some Enduring Effects of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Paul

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluates a model predicting that school size affects student participation in extracurricular activities and that these leisure interests will continue in young adult life. High school social participation, it is hypothesized, also is influenced by curriculum track placement and academic performance, which are affected by student…

  8. Tracing changes in families who participated in Home-Start parenting program: parental sense of competence as mechanism of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.; Reitz, E.; Prinzie, P.; van den Akker, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to (1) determine the long-term effectiveness of Home-Start, a preventive parenting program, and (2) test the hypothesis that changes in maternal sense of competence mediate the program's effects. Participants were 124 mothers (n = 66 intervention, n = 58 comparison). Four

  9. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, f...

  10. PARTICIPATION OF ADULTS IN EDUCATION, A FORCE-FIELD ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLER, HARRY L.

    VARIOUS SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES RELATING TO MOTIVATION ARE POTENTIALLY USEFUL TOOLS FOR PREDICTING AND INFLUENCING ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION. MASLOW'S NEED HIERARCHY IS BASED ON FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS (SURVIVAL, SAFETY, AND BELONGING), WHICH ARE NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY EGO NEEDS (RECOGNITION OR STATUS, ACHIEVEMENT, AND…

  11. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh F; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Garone, Daniela Belen; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults. Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2) at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8) at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7) and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3), respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0) if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0) if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations. South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh F Johnson

    Full Text Available Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2 at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8 at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7 and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3, respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0 if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0 if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations.South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-15

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.

  14. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  15. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.

  16. Serum phosphate predicts early mortality in adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C Heimburger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa have high rates of mortality in the initial weeks of treatment. We assessed the association of serum phosphate with early mortality among HIV-infected adults with severe malnutrition and/or advanced immunosuppression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia with body mass index (BMI <16 kg/m(2 or CD4(+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/microL, or both, was followed prospectively during the first 12 weeks of ART. Detailed health and dietary intake history, review of systems, physical examination, serum metabolic panel including phosphate, and serum ferritin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were monitored. The primary outcome was mortality. Baseline serum phosphate was a significant predictor of mortality; participants alive at 12 weeks had a median value of 1.30 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.04, 1.43, compared to 1.06 mmol/L (IQR: 0.89, 1.27 among those who died (p<0.01. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in baseline phosphate was associated with an incremental decrease in mortality (AHR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.95. The association was independent of other metabolic parameters and known risk factors for early ART-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. While participant attrition represented a limitation, it was consistent with local program experience. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low serum phosphate at ART initiation was an independent predictor of early mortality among HIV patients starting ART with severe malnutrition or advanced immunosuppression. This may represent a physiologic phenomenon similar to refeeding syndrome, and may lead to therapeutic interventions that could reduce mortality.

  17. Barriers towards participation in adult education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Milana, Marcella

    topics were asked what would be the most likely obstacles if they wanted to take part in education and training. The distribution of the different categories of barriers among different socio-economic groups is afterwards tested by use of logistic regression using Odds Ratios. As a result...... of the exploratory factor analysis, five categories of barriers towards participation in adult education and training is developed: Lack of time and energy; negative towards re-entering education; accessibility of learning activities; lack of support; and lack of confidence in own abilities. The factors have been......Based on exploratory factor analysis of data from a special Eurobarometer-survey dedicated to lifelong learning, different categories of reasons for not taking part in adult education and training is developed. 18.000 people living in the 15 old EU member countries in the survey were among other...

  18. A vocational rehabilitation intervention for young adults with physical disabilities: participants' perception of beneficial attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M I; Sattoe, J N T; van Schaardenburgh, N R; Floothuis, M C S G; Roebroeck, M E; Miedema, H S

    2017-01-01

    Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical disabilities. The study aims to explore their experienced barriers and facilitators for finding and maintaining employment after starting this program, the participant-perceived beneficial attributes of the program and participants' recommendations for additional intervention components. Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) were held with former intervention participations. Interviews were recorded and transcribed ad verbatim. Themes were derived using the phenomenological approach. Physical functions and capacities, supervisor's attitude, self-esteem and self-efficacy and openness and assertiveness were experienced barriers and facilitators for finding and maintaining employment. Improvement of self-promoting skills and disclosure skills through job interview-training, increased self-esteem or self-efficacy through peer-support, a suitable job through job placement, improvement of work ability through arrangement of adjusted work conditions and change of supervisor's attitude through education provided to the supervisor were perceived as beneficial attributes of the intervention. Respondents recommended to incorporate assertiveness and openness skills training into future intervention programs. The findings suggest that programs supporting work participation should be designed to provide challenging, real-world experiential opportunities that provide young adults with physical disabilities with new insights, self-efficacy and life skills. Also, such programs should facilitate context centered learning. Former intervention participants, therefore, evaluated job-interview training, sharing learning and social experiences with peers, job placement, arrangement of adjusted work conditions and

  19. Nutritional status of adults participating in ambulatory rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Miller, Michelle D; Halbert, Julie; Giles, Lynne C; Crotty, Maria

    2008-01-01

    To assess the overall nutritional status of older adults participating in ambulatory rehabilitation and determine its association with relevant outcomes including physical function and quality of life. Cross-sectional. Ambulatory rehabilitation service in the Southern region of Adelaide, Australia. A total of 229 participants recruited as part of a RCT between June 2005 and June 2006, stroke (n=83), elective orthopedic procedure (n=44) and other medical condition (n=102). Nutritional status was measured using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Simplified Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Body Mass Index. Functional performance was assessed using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and quality of life was measured using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Sixty-three percent of participants were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA and a third had a risk of >or= 5% weight loss in the subsequent six months, according to the SNAQ. Participants with a diagnosis other than stroke or elective orthopedic procedure were the most vulnerable, with 53% (n=74/140) classified as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished and a longer length of stay in hospital. Functional performance was no different for participants assessed as at risk of malnutrition or malnourished compared to the well nourished, but the SF-36 mental component score was significantly higher for those who were well nourished (p=0.003). Findings emphasise the magnitude of the malnutrition problem in ambulatory rehabilitation settings. Further research is required to evaluate the resource implications against expected benefits of providing nutrition interventions at this point.

  20. Participation and Social Inclusion in Adults with Aphasia: Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rodríguez Riaño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the scope and status of related research with the participation and social inclusion of adults with aphasia connected with the published literature. Materials and Methods: Descriptive analytic study on publications registered in Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and EMBASE from 2005 to 2013, 97 related documents were selected and classified into, eight common vari­ables for its study and were analyzed according to the article distribution by thematic core, year of publication and database. Results: The most represented core theme was inclusion, participa­tion, access and rights of persons with aphasia and their families and environments; production of these documents is increased between 2010 and 2011. Documents related to inclusive intern­ships for people with aphasia represented the second more representative thematic focus. Conclu­sions: Literature recognizes that elements related to family and their immediate environments are essential to ensure participation and independence of people with aphasia. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF should become the rehabilitation log for professionals to guide therapeutic actions, aimed at the inclusion and participation of people with aphasia in different contexts, and mainly to promote a successful return to a productive daily life. This rehabilitation opportunity toward independence and autonomy promotes self-esteem, identity and inclusion opportunities.

  1. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.

  2. Identifying Head Start and Public Pre-K Participation in NSECE Data on Center-Based ECE Programs. NSECE Technical Report Supplement. OPRE Report 2015-92b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerge, Robert; Datta, A. Rupa; Xia, Kanru; Witte, Ann D.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Milesi, Carolina; Brandon, Richard; Guzman, Lina; Zanoni, Wladimir

    2015-01-01

    The analyses presented in the Technical Report, "Which Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten" characterize centers that have at least one child whose enrollment is funded through Head Start or Public Pre-K funds. This supplement to the technical report provides interested readers with technical details of the…

  3. All-cause mortality in HIV-positive adults starting combination antiretroviral therapy: correcting for loss to follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Nanina; Johnson, Leigh F; Zaniewski, Elizabeth; Althoff, Keri N; Balestre, Eric; Law, Matthew; Nash, Denis; Shepherd, Bryan E; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Egger, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To estimate mortality in HIV-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to discuss different approaches to calculating correction factors to account for loss to follow-up. A total of 222 096 adult HIV-positive patients who started ART 2009-2014 in clinics participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS collaboration in 43 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America were included. To allow for underascertainment of deaths due to loss to follow-up, two correction factors (one for the period 0-6 months on ART and one for later periods) or 168 correction factors (combinations of two sexes, three time periods after ART initiation, four age groups, and seven CD4 groups) based on tracing patients lost in Kenya and data linkages in South Africa were applied. Corrected mortality rates were compared with a worst case scenario assuming all patients lost to follow-up had died. Loss to follow-up differed between regions; rates were lowest in central Africa and highest in east Africa. Compared with using two correction factors (1.64 for the initial ART period and 2.19 for later), applying 168 correction factors (range 1.03-4.75) more often resulted in implausible mortality rates that exceeded the worst case scenario. Corrected mortality rates varied widely, ranging from 0.2 per 100 person-years to 54 per 100 person-years depending on region and covariates. Implausible rates were less common with the simpler approach based on two correction factors. The corrected mortality rates will be useful to international agencies, national programmes, and modellers.

  4. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  5. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.; Higashi, Yoshitaka; Fukuya, Tatsuro

    1989-11-01

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  6. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  7. Clinical differences between younger and older adults with HIV/AIDS starting antiretroviral therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe: a secondary analysis of the DART trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal M Parikh

    Full Text Available Clinical and immunological data about HIV in older adults from low and middle income countries is scarce. We aimed to describe differences between younger and older adults with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy in two low-income African countries.HIV clinics in Uganda and Zimbabwe.Secondary exploratory cross-sectional analysis of the DART randomized controlled trial.Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between adults aged 18-49 years (younger and ≥ 50 years (older, using two exploratory multivariable logistic regression models, one with HIV viral load (measured in a subset pre-ART and one without.A total of 3316 eligible participants enrolled in DART were available for analysis; 219 (7% were ≥ 50 years and 1160 (35% were male. Across the two adjusted regression models, older adults had significantly higher systolic blood pressure, lower creatinine clearance and were consistently less likely to be females compared to younger adults with HIV. Paradoxically, the models separately suggested that older adults had statistically significant (but not clinically important higher CD4+ cell counts and higher plasma HIV-1 viral copies at initiation. Crude associations between older age and higher baseline hemoglobin, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and lower WHO clinical stage were not sustained in the adjusted analysis.Our study found clinical and immunological differences between younger and older adults, in a cohort of Africans starting antiretroviral therapy. Further investigations should explore how these differences could be used to ensure equity in service delivery and affect outcomes of antiretroviral therapy.

  8. An Investigation of the Factors Hindering Adults' Participation in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Zeynep Filiz

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the non-participation of adults in physical activity and the reasons that have been preventing them to participate. The study is carried out with 283 participants (116 men and 167 women) who live in Adana, Turkey. Their ages range from 18-66. The average age of the adult participants is 31.81 ± 10.12. The demographical…

  9. Opportunity or Obligation? Participation in Adult Vocational Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Humphreys, John

    1998-01-01

    British nurses (n=275), many of whom had to upgrade skills for conversion to registered nursing, participated in an upskilling exercise. Participants and a comparison group of nonparticipants were categorized as either opportunity-takers or conscripts (those who viewed retraining as obligatory). (SK)

  10. Determinants of Part-Time Adult Student Participation in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Thomas R.

    A study was conducted to identify the factors that influence adults to continue their education by taking formal course work on a part-time basis. Using May 1981 Current Population Survey data gathered by the Bureau of the Census, the study assessed the importance of price, socioeconomic characteristics, family income, and unemployment rates in…

  11. Participation and Well-Being among Older Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Jarus, Tal; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the unique contribution of participation (daily activities and social roles) in explaining well-being of older adults living with chronic conditions and examined which aspect of participation (accomplishment of participation or satisfaction with participation) was more important in describing their well-being. Two hundred older…

  12. Adult Enrichment Learners in St. Cloud, Minnesota: Motivational Reasons for Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Scott David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify reasons and motivation of adult stakeholders that influence participation in adult community education enrichment classes in the St. Cloud Public School District, St. Cloud, Minnesota. The study also examined the perceptions about adult learners held by leaders, planners, and facilitators of these programs,…

  13. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  14. A vocational rehabilitation intervention for young adults with physical disabilities: participants' perception of beneficial atributes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.I.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Schaardenburgh, N.R. van

    2017-01-01

    Background: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical

  15. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

  16. Tracing changes in families who participated in the home-start parenting program: parental sense of competence as mechanism of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Hermanns, Jo; Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; van den Akker, Alithe L

    2010-09-01

    The present study aimed to (1) determine the long-term effectiveness of Home-Start, a preventive parenting program, and (2) test the hypothesis that changes in maternal sense of competence mediate the program's effects. Participants were 124 mothers (n = 66 intervention, n = 58 comparison). Four assessments took place during a 1-year period. Latent growth modeling showed that Home-Start enhanced growth in maternal sense of competence and supportive parenting, and led to a decrease in the use of inept discipline. Results of mediational and cross-lagged analyses were consistent with the hypothesized model: Participation in Home-Start was related to the changes in maternal sense of competence, which in turn predicted changes in parenting. The results affirm the importance of directly targeting parental sense of competence in the context of prevention work with parents.

  17. Characteristics and survival of young adults who started renal replacement therapy during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S.; Tizard, Jane; Verrina, Enrico; Rönnholm, Kai; Pálsson, Runólfur; Maxwell, Heather; Jager, Kitty J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the group of children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) who reach the age of 18 years and are transferred from paediatric to adult nephrology services. The aim of this study was to describe patient demographics, primary renal diseases, treatment history and

  18. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  19. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  20. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51?74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants sel...

  1. Factors Affecting Participation by Adults in Community Educational Activities Concerned with the Cultural Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlum, Michael Frank

    The study seeks to determine and describe factors which are related to, and which may be responsible for, adult participation or lack of participation in a large-scale, community-wide, cultural arts project involving considerable volunteer effort. While serving as a participant observer, the researcher gathered data from sources directly related…

  2. Participation in the child and adult care food program is associated with more nutritious foods and beverages in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Boyle, Maria; Chandran, Kumar; Spector, Phil; Whaley, Shannon E; James, Paula; Samuels, Sarah; Hecht, Ken; Crawford, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    Nearly two million California children regularly spend time in child care. Surprisingly little is known about the nutrition environments of these settings. The aim of this study was to compare foods and beverages served to 2- to 5-year-olds by type of child care and participation in the federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). A statewide survey of child care providers (n = 429) was administered. Licensed child care was divided into six categories: Head Start centers, state preschools, centers that participate in CACFP, non-CACFP centers, homes that participate in CACFP, and non-CACFP homes. CACFP sites in general, and Head Start centers in particular, served more fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat/meat alternatives, and fewer sweetened beverages and other sweets and snack-type items than non-CACFP sites. Reported barriers to providing nutritious foods included high food costs and lack of training. CACFP participation may be one means by which reimbursement for food can be increased and food offerings improved. Further research should investigate whether promoting CACFP participation can be used to provide healthier nutrition environments in child care and prevent obesity in young children.

  3. Gender Differences in Survival among Adult Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Multicentre Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Garone, Daniela Belen; Giddy, Janet; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Lessells, Richard; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Wood, Robin; Johnson, Leigh F.; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, Landon

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART. Methods and Findings Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA). Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years), during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, p<0.001), were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p<0.001), and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p<0.001) and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22–1.41). After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28) but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86–1.25). Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing

  4. Gender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a multicentre cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morna Cornell

    Full Text Available Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA. Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF, virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years, during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, p<0.001, were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p<0.001, and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p<0.001 and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22-1.41. After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28 but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25. Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing data on baseline HIV disease

  5. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  6. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  7. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Joost; Engels, Josephine; Heerkens, Yvonne; van der Klink, Jac

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods: A systematic

  8. Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…

  9. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  10. A Qualitative Study of Interference with Communicative Participation across Communication Disorders in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Method: Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing 7 different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering,…

  11. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  12. Health and participation problems in older adults with long-term disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberink, Sander R; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Klem, Martijn

    2017-04-01

    More attention and understanding of the health and participation problems of adults with early and later onset disabilities in the Netherlands is needed. To explore health/participation problems and unmet needs in adults aged ≥40 years with long-term disabilities and their relationship with the time of onset. Participants were recruited in the Netherlands through newsletters and social media to participate in a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed background characteristics, (change in) health/participation problems, and unmet needs. Spearman's rho was used to examine the relationships with time of onset. Of the 163 survey respondents, 42% acquired their disability before age 25 years and reported fatigue (77%), walking problems (66%), and pain (59%). In 21% of the respondents with early-onset disability fatigue, pain and depressive feelings co-occurred. Early-onset disability correlated with joint deformities, pain and anxiety. Participation problems included loss of income and fewer social activities. Early-onset correlated with the need for more information about diagnosis and prognosis. People aged over 40 years with long-term disability have significant and increasing health and participation problems. Adults with early-onset disability are more likely to have health or participation problems than adults with late-onset disability. Early identification is needed for preventive care and access to specialized services that focus on improving and maintaining physical symptoms, energy management, and participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Management Education Participation Among US Adults With Arthritis: Who's Attending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise B; Brady, Teresa J; Boring, Michael A; Theis, Kristina A; Barbour, Kamil E; Qin, Jin; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-09-01

    Self-management education (SME) programs teach people with chronic conditions skills to manage their health conditions. We examined patterns in SME program participation among US adults with arthritis ages ≥18 years. Respondents with arthritis were those who reported ever being diagnosed with arthritis by a doctor or health care provider. We analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey data to estimate the percentage (unadjusted and age-standardized) who ever attended an SME program overall and for selected subgroups, representativeness of SME participants relative to all adults with arthritis, and trends in SME course participation. In 2014, 1 in 9 US adults with arthritis (11.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 10.4-12.3]; age-standardized 11.4% [95% CI 10.0-12.9]) had ever participated in an SME program. SME participation (age-standardized) was highest among those with ≥8 health care provider visits in the past 12 months (16.0% [95% CI 13.1-19.4]). Since 2002, the number of adults with arthritis who have ever participated in SME has increased by 1.7 million, but the percentage has remained constant. Despite its many benefits, SME participation among US adults with arthritis remains persistently low. By recommending that their patients attend SME programs, health care providers can increase the likelihood that their patients experience SME program benefits. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Herrera Ponce

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate.

  15. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-10-01

    To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents' participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate.

  16. Work participation among young adults with spina bifida in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with

  17. Predictors of work participation of young adults with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among

  18. Predictors of work participation in young adults with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among

  19. Back to School in Later Life: Older Chinese Adults' Perspectives on Learning Participation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; Shihua, Li; Honghui, Pan; Thomas, Valerie; Vanslambrouck, Silke; Lombaerts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Even though the beneficial effects of elderly learning are widely acknowledged, many older Chinese people are still not involved. This paper aims to examine the barriers that affect the level of educational participation of older adults in China. Methodology: Using a focus group methodology, 43 older participants (aged 55 years…

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Leisure Participation of Youth and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, M.; Orgaz, M. B.; Verdugo, M. A.; Ullan, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with developmental disabilities are at high risk for a limited participation in leisure activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation in, preference for and interest in leisure activities of young and adults with developmental disabilities, and to examine the factors associated with leisure activity.…

  1. Lagging behind or not? Four distinctive social participation patterns among young adults with chronic conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattoe, J.N.T.; Hilberink, S.R.; Staa, A. van; Bal, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Typical childhood and adolescent development and acquiring self-management skills are crucial for a satisfying adult life and autonomy in social participation. The aims of this study were to identify patterns of autonomy in social participation and to explore differences between these

  2. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Older Adult Participants of the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnake, Crystal Michelle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...

  3. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Immediate Versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-Positive Participants in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Sharma, Shweta; Achhra, Amit C

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV infection and certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, mediated, in part, through traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied cardiovascular disease risk factor changes in the START...... (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial, a randomized study of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among HIV-positive persons with CD4+ cell counts >500 cells/mm3. Mean change from baseline in risk factors and the incidence of comorbid conditions were compared between groups....... The characteristics among 4685 HIV-positive START trial participants include a median age of 36 years, a CD4 cell count of 651 cells/mm3, an HIV viral load of 12 759 copies/mL, a current smoking status of 32%, a median systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 120/76 mm Hg, and median levels of total cholesterol of 168 mg...

  4. Factors impacting the household and recreation participation of older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Elizabeth; Barker, Anna; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Brown, Ted; Haines, Terry

    2015-01-01

    To identify demographic, physical and psychosocial determinants associated with participation in daily activities of community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional design of older adults (≥70 years) from Victoria, Australia, residing in their homes was drawn from a convenience sample. The outcomes were recent participation in household and recreational activities as measured by the Phone-FITT. Explanatory variables included demographics, physical and mental health functioning (Short Form-12 version 2, Geriatric Depression Scale 15). Associations were analyzed through linear regression. There were 244 participants (60% female), with a mean age of 77.5 years (SD 5.7). Higher levels of depression and fewer falls (during the previous year) were independently associated with restrictions in household participation (p falls and restricted household participation were associated, but no association was observed between falls and recreational participation. Further studies are required to explore this association in more detail. Implications for Rehabilitation Depression is significantly correlated with the level of participation in daily activities for older adults. Health professionals need to screen for depression when working with older adults.

  5. Differences in health, participation and life satisfaction outcomes in adults following paediatric- versus adult-sustained spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, J. K.; Post, M. W. M.; Gorter, J. W.; Ginis, K. A. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Study design: Cross-sectional. Objectives: To compare differences in self-reported health status, participation and life satisfaction outcomes between adults with a spinal cord injury (SCI) sustained during paediatric (P) versus adulthood (A) years. Setting: Ontario, Canada. Methods: Secondary

  6. Transportation use in community-dwelling older adults: association with participation and leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Gélinas, Isabelle; Dobbs, Bonnie; Lefebvre, Hélène

    2010-12-01

    This article presents a study that compared participation by elderly individuals living in the community according to primary transportation mode used, and estimated the association between transportation, personal factors, and environmental factors. Participants included 90 adults aged 65 and older (M=76.3 years; SD=7.7). They were classified according to their primary transportation mode: driver, passenger, public transport user, walk, or adapted transport/taxi user. Participation was measured with the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) and the Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire (NLQ). Overall, results indicated that drivers, public transport users, and walkers had higher participation levels compared to passengers and adapted transport/taxi users. This study suggests that clinicians should consider older adults' use of transportation in an attempt to encourage and maximize their participation.

  7. Adult health study Hiroshima analysis of participation in examinations, July 1958-December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-07-19

    The participation data for Adult Health Study examinations conducted in Hiroshima during the period July 1958 to December 31, 1960, are presented. The continuing medical examination program includes approximately 13,700 individuals who form the Adult Health Study population of ABCC in Hiroshima. The Adult Health Study population is composed of four exposure groups of equal size, matched by age and sex. Participation scores are analyzed with respect to exposure, age, sex, and socioeconomic variables as well as history of previous contact with the ABCC programs. Significant differences were demonstrated between the participation scores by age, marital status, history of prior contact with ABCC, and occupation; this latter category was significant only for males. Although differences were observed for these variables, the significance was usually attributable to one category in each of the variables, often the least populated, such as separated or divorced for marital status; and previous history unknown for prior ABCC contact. A trend was apparent with respect to exposure, with the lowest participation noted in the nonexposed and the highest participation in the exposed group with symptoms. Sex differences were not significant. Although relatively minor differences were demonstrated for some variables, the outstanding features of this program are the remarkable high participation scores. Only 9 percent of the population were in the so-called refusal category and over 80 percent of the living Adult Health Study population, including non-Hiroshima residents, were examined during the period considered by this report. 6 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  8. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuya Yamakita

    Full Text Available Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults.Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups.Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors.Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate

  9. Self-regulation resources and physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Miquelon, Paule; Boudreau, François

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity plays a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand why so few adults with type 2 diabetes regularly engage in physical activity. The role of self-regulation in the context of health-related behavior adherence, especially in terms of physical activity engagement and adherence, has largely been reviewed based on the strength energy model. Building on this line of research, the aim of this theoretical work was to highlight how self-regulation and ego depletion can influence the lower rate of physical activity participation among adults with type 2 diabetes, compared to adults from the general population.

  10. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  11. Aquatic exercise for residential aged care adults with dementia: benefits and barriers to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Timothy; Neville, Christine; Baguley, Chantelle; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Pilot work by our group has demonstrated that aquatic exercise has valuable functional and psychosocial benefits for adults living in the residential aged care setting with dementia. The aim of the currents study was to advance this work by delivering the Watermemories Swimming Club aquatic exercise program to a more representative population of older, institutionalized adults with dementia. The benefits of 12 weeks of twice weekly participation in the Watermemories Swimming Club aquatic exercise program were assessed among an exercise and usual care control group of residential aged care adults with advanced dementia. A battery of physical and psychosocial measures were collected before and after the intervention period, and program implementation was also investigated. Seven residential aged care facilities of 24 approached, agreed to participate and 56 residents were purposefully allocated to exercise or control. Twenty-three participants per group were included in the final analysis. Both groups experienced decreases in skeletal muscle index and lean mass (p exercise stifled losses in muscle strength and transition into sarcopenic. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and activities of daily living approached significance (p = 0.06) with positive trends observed across other psychosocial measures. This study demonstrates the value of exercise participation, and specifically aquatic exercise in comparison to usual care for older, institutionalized adults with advanced dementia. However, it also highlights a number of barriers to participation. To overcome these barriers and ensure opportunity to residents increased provider and sector support is required.

  12. The impact of welfare state regimes on barriers to participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubenson, Kjell; Desjardins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative findings on barriers to participation in adult education are reviewed and some of the defining parameters that may explain observed national differences are considered. A theoretical perspective based on bounded agency is put forth to take account of the interaction...... targeted policy measures that are aimed at overcoming both structurally and individually based barriers. Features of the Nordic model of adult education and empirical results from the 2003 Eurobarometer are discussed in relation to this theoretical perspective....... between structurally and individually based barriers to participation. The model is premised on the assumption that the nature of welfare state regimes can affect a person's capability to participate. In particular, the state can foster broad structural conditions relevant to participation and construct...

  13. Leisure and religious activity participation and mental health: gender analysis of older adults in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored. Methods The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study. Results Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p Conclusion Specific activity participation was a significant correlate of lower levels of depression and higher levels of satisfaction with life among older adults in Nepal. The findings explore the need for further research on activity participation in developing countries so that it can be useful for health care practioners and those involved with the activities of aged populations in developing countries.

  14. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Chiasera, Janelle M.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed. PMID:23691292

  15. A longitudinal study of systemic inflammation and recovery of lean body mass among malnourished HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Blevins, M; Woodd, Susannah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The effects of inflammation on nutritional rehabilitation after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well understood. We assessed the relationship between inflammation and body composition among patients enrolled in the Nutritional Support for African Adults Starting...... gains. Further studies are warranted to determine whether interventions to reduce systemic inflammation will enhance gains in fat-free mass.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 20 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.221....

  16. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  17. Predicting older adults' maintenance in exercise participation using an integrated social psychological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Crone, M.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the predictors of maintenance in organized exercise programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral predictors of maintenance of exercise participation in older adults, using an integrated social psychological model. To this end, we carried out a prospective

  18. Modeling Participation Intention of Adults in Continuing Education--A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…

  19. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  20. Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and…

  1. Participation by US adults in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sandra A; Kruger, Judy; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2009-01-01

    Given the evidence that regular physical activity produces substantial health benefits, participation in sports, exercise, and recreation is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to describe participation in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities among US adults. Data from 2 national surveys of respondents age 18 years and older were analyzed. Respondents to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003 through 2005 (N=45,246) reported all activities on 1 randomly selected survey day. Respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2004 (N=17,061) reported leisure-time physical activities in the 30 days before the interview. One-quarter of adults participated in any sport, exercise, or recreational activity on a random day, and 60.9% of adults participated in any leisure-time activity in the previous 30 days. The most common types of activities were walking, gardening and yard work, and other forms of exercise. The sports and recreational activities had typical durations of 1/2 to 3 hours per session, and the exercise activities typically lasted 1 hour or less. The prevalence of sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities is generally low among US adults; exercise is the most commonly reported type of activity.

  2. Understanding unskilled work as a condition for participation in adult education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how to comprehend why people working unskilled jobs are less likely than other groups to position themselves as educable subjects and engage in adult education and training. This article outlines how different research traditions examining recruitment to and participation...... in adult education and training reveal and explain distinctive participation patterns. These traditions are critically reviewed in order to identify how they provide certain understandings and entail certain blind spots. The review reveals a striking absence of research into unskilled work and thus...... a tendency to overlook how engagement in specific kinds of work condition people’s perception of adult education and training. It is finally argued that future research must pay closer attention to people’s specific work-life and examine how engagement in specific historical, social and material (changing...

  3. [Prevalence of breastfeeding and factors associated with the start and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Community of Madrid among participants in the ELOIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro González, María D; Ortiz Marrón, Honorato; Arana Cañedo-Argüelles, Celina; Esparza Olcina, María Jesús; Cortés Rico, Olga; Terol Claramonte, María; Ordobás Gavín, María

    2017-11-02

    Breastfeeding has important benefits for population health. The aims of this study are: (i)to determine the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding; (ii)analyse the reasons for not starting or abandoning of breastfeeding, and (iii)describe the factors associated with the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cross sectional study using the baseline data of the ELOIN cohort, obtained using an epidemiological questionnaire. A sample of 2,627 children born in 2008-2009 from the Community of Madrid was studied. Logistic regression models were used. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding was 77.6% and 88% respectively; prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6months 25.4%, and prevalence of breastfeeding at 2years was 7.7%. The most common reasons for abandoning breastfeeding were insufficient milk (36%), and incorporation to work (25.9%). The variables associated with starting or maintaining of exclusive breastfeeding were: mother older than 35years, medium-high economic status, foreigner residing in Spain less than 10 years, and having participated in a breastfeeding workshop. Breastfeeding prevalence in the Community of Madrid did not reach the international recommendations in 2008-2009. It is necessary to intensify strategies for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support, including their periodic monitoring. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Koethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low body mass index (BMI at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L. Among the 145 participants with BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 28 (19% died within 12 weeks. Lower pretreatment serum phosphate was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio (OR 1.24 per 0.1 mmol/L decrement, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.47; P=0.01 after adjusting for sex, age, and CD4+ lymphocyte count. A similar relationship was not observed among participants with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.21; P=0.74. Conclusions. The association of low pretreatment serum phosphate level and early ART mortality among undernourished individuals may represent a variant of the refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.

  5. Social participation and risk of influenza infection in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobugawa, Yugo; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tashiro, Atsushi; Saito, Reiko; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-24

    Influenza infection can cause severe pneumonia, which is sometimes fatal, particularly in older adults. Influenza results in 3-5 million cases of severe illness and about 250 000 to 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Social participation in the context of influenza infection is controversial because, although social participation is beneficial in maintaining physical function and mental health, it also increases the risk of contact with infected people. This study examined the association between social participation and influenza infection in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older. Cross-sectional study. Japanese functionally independent adults aged 65 years or older. Among the respondents to the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2013 survey, which took place during the period from October to December 2013, 12 231 men and 14 091 women responded to questions on influenza vaccination and influenza infection. Using JAGES data for 12 231 men and 14 091 women aged ≥65 years, we examined the association between social participation and influenza infection. The association between influenza infection and number of groups in which respondents participated was investigated among adults aged≥65 years, stratified by vaccination status and sex. Unvaccinated women who participated in two or more social activities were 2.20 times (95% CI 1.47 to 3.29) as likely to report an influenza infection as those who reported no social participation. In contrast, vaccinated women who participated in two or more social groups had no additional risk of influenza infection as compared with female elders with no social participation. Among men, participation in social activities was not significantly associated with influenza infection, regardless of vaccination status. Social participation was associated with a higher risk of influenza infection among unvaccinated older women, which suggests a need for further efforts to promote influenza vaccination

  6. Activity and participation characteristics of adults with learning disabilities--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Learning disabilities' (LD refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts. METHODS: "PsychInfo", "Eric" and "PubMed" were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life, however literature concerning these domains is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs.

  7. Activity and Participation Characteristics of Adults with Learning Disabilities - A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Learning disabilities’ (LD) refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. Objective The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts. Methods “PsychInfo”, “Eric” and “PubMed” were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. Results Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life), however literature concerning these domains is scarce. Conclusions The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs. PMID:25184315

  8. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  9. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty-Rose Foley

    Full Text Available The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment.Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE. The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression.Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45 than in social roles (mean 5.17 (range 0 to 9. When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively. The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24 and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87 environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account.We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  10. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment. Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE). The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45) than in social roles (mean 5.17) (range 0 to 9). When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively). The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24) and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87) environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account. We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  11. Relevance of community structures and neighbourhood characteristics for participation of older adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Maier, Werner; Ludyga, Alicja; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Community and neighbourhood structures contribute not only to the health and well-being, but also to the participation of older adults. The degree of participation depends on both the living environment and the individual's personal characteristics, preferences and perception. However, there is still limited empirical evidence on how community and neighbourhood structures are linked to participation and health in the aged population. A qualitative exploratory approach was chosen with a series of problem-centred, semi-structured focus group discussions. Study participants were selected from within the city of Augsburg, Southern Germany, and from two municipalities in surrounding rural districts. The interviews took place in 2013. Structuring content analysis was used to identify key concepts. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 78 different study participants. The study participants (33 men and 45 women) had a mean age of 74 years (range 65-92 years). Only two study participants lived in an assisted living facility. Of all study participants, 77% lived in urban and 23% in rural areas. We extracted four metacodes ('Usual activities', 'Requirements for participation', 'Barriers to participation' and 'Facilitators for participation') and 15 subcodes. Health and poorly designed infrastructure were mentioned as important barriers to participation, and friendship and neighbourhood cohesion as important facilitators. This qualitative study revealed that poor design and accessibility of municipal infrastructure are major barriers to participation in old age in Germany. Community and neighbourhood structures can be part of the problem but also part of the solution when accessibility and social networks are taken into account.

  12. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantrell Antoine Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n=28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years. Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message or the control condition (an evening text message. Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p<0.05. Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9 compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98. Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults.

  13. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  14. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  15. Motives for adult participation in physical activity: type of activity, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanorouzi, Keyvan; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2015-01-31

    In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether motives for participation could accurately discriminate gender, age, and type of physical activity. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was used to assess motives for physical activity in 1,360 adults (703 males, 657 females) who had been exercising regularly for at least six months. The PALMS consists of 40 items that constitute eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, others' expectations, affiliation, competition/ego). Respondents were divided into two age groups (young adults aged 20 to 40 years and middle-aged adults 41 to 64 years) and five types of activity (individual racing sports plus bowls, team sports, racquet sports, martial arts, and exercise). The group discriminant function analyses revealed significant canonical functions correctly classifying the cases into gender (82%), age group (83%), team sport players 76%, individual racing sport plus bowls players 91%, racquet sport players 90%, exercisers 84%, and martial art players 91%. The competition/ego, appearance, physical condition, and mastery sub-scales contributed most to gender differences. Five sub-scales (mastery, psychological condition, others' expectations, affiliation, and enjoyment) contributed most to the discriminant function for age. For type of activity, different sub-scales were the strongest contributors to the discriminant function for each type of PA. The findings in this study suggest that strong and important motives for participation in physical activity are different across type of activity, age, and gender in adults. Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is critical for developing

  16. Psychological predictors of participation in screening for cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Anan, Yuya; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-08-01

    Detecting cognitive impairment in the earlier stages is important for preventing or delaying dementia. To develop intervention strategies that promote screening for cognitive impairment, it is essential to identify the modifiable predictors for participation in screening. The present study examined whether participation in screening for cognitive impairment was predicted by the constructs of the health belief model, dementia worry and behavioral intentions to undergo screening among older adults. The study used a prospective design. After a baseline questionnaire survey, participation in screening for cognitive impairment was followed for 6 months (n = 10 023). Participation in the screening, constructs of the health belief model (perceived susceptibility to dementia, perceived severity of dementia, perceived benefits of screening, perceived barriers to screening), dementia worry, behavioral intentions and demographic factors were measured. A path analysis showed that the behavioral intention to undergo screening (path coefficient = 0.29) directly predicted participation in screening for cognitive impairment, whereas other psychological and demographic factors did not directly predict participation. The behavioral intention was explained by the perceived benefits of screening (path coefficient = 0.51), perceived barriers to screening (path coefficient = -0.19) and perceived susceptibility to dementia (path coefficient = 0.16). Participation in screening for cognitive impairment was positively predicted by higher behavioral intention to undergo screening. In turn, this behavioral intention was mainly predicted by the perceived benefits of screening among older adults. These findings suggest that emphasizing the perceived benefits and encouraging behavioral intentions might promote participation in screening for cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1197-1204. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    de Beer, Joost; Engels, Josephine; Heerkens, Yvonne; van der Klink, Jac

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental factor...

  18. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    de Beer, Joost; Engels, Josephine; Heerkens, Yvonne; van der Klink, Jac

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods: A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental fact...

  19. Adult Participation in Higher Education and the "Knowledge Economy": A Cross-National Analysis of Patterns of Delayed Participation in Higher Education across 15 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Whitworth, Adam

    2017-01-01

    "Delayed participation" in higher education (HE) is an increasingly important feature of modern HE systems in many countries. Despite this, surprisingly little empirical research has been undertaken seeking to better understand levels of delayed adult participation in HE across Europe. The present article responds to this gap by…

  20. Environmental barriers and enablers to physical activity participation among rural adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Squibb, Kathryn; Venn, Alison; Ball, Kylie

    2015-08-01

    Social-ecological models of health behaviour acknowledge environmental influences, but research examining how the environment shapes physical activity in rural settings is limited. This study aimed to explore the environmental factors that act as barriers or facilitators to physical activity participation among rural adults. Forty-nine adults from three regions of rural Tasmania, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews that explored features of the environment that supported or hindered physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Four key themes emerged: functionality, diversity, spaces and places for all and realistic expectations. 'Functionality' included connectivity with other destinations, distance, safety, continuity, supporting infrastructure and surfacing. While there was limited 'diversity' of structured activities and recreational facilities, the importance of easy and convenient access to a natural environment that accommodated physical activity was highlighted. 'Spaces and places for all' highlighted the importance of shared-use areas, particularly those that were family- and dog-friendly. Despite desires for more physical activity opportunities, many participants had 'realistic expectations' of what was feasible in rural settings. Functionality, diversity, spaces and places for all and realistic expectations were identified as considerations important for physical activity among rural adults. Further research using quantitative approaches in larger samples is needed to confirm these findings. SO WHAT? Urban-centric views of environmental influences on physical activity are unlikely to be entirely appropriate for rural areas. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for creating new or modifying existing infrastructure to support active living in rural settings.

  1. The Economic Benefits of Adult Learning to Low-Qualified Young Adults: Do Participation and Qualification Decrease the Risk of Unemployment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide consider participation in adult learning beneficial for employability, in particular for specific target groups. However, still little is known about the effect of adult learning pursued by low-qualified young adults on their employment prospects. On the basis of a Flemish longitudinal database, we study the determinants and…

  2. Back to School: Racial and Gender Differences in Adults' Participation in Formal Schooling, 1978-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denice, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Trends and gaps in educational attainment by race and gender have received much attention in recent years, but reports of these trends have generally focused on traditional-age college students. Little is known about whether and how enrollment in formal schooling among older adults (between 29 and 61 years old) has changed over time. In this article, I draw on Current Population Survey data from 1978 to 2013 to provide the most comprehensive analysis of trends in adults' formal school enrollment by demographic group to date. Results indicate that adult black women in particular have seen relatively high growth rates in their enrollment. Black women were 85 % more likely to enroll in 2011 and 46 % more likely in 2013 than they were in 1978. Their growing advantage relative to other racial-gender groups owes largely to their increasing educational attainment rates overall, given the relationship between prior schooling and enrollment later in life. Taken together, this article's findings suggest that adult enrollment is at once equalizing and disequalizing. On the one hand, it has the potential to narrow the gaps between those with some college experience and those with a four-year degree. On the other hand, patterns of adults' participation in formal education are widening educational gaps between those with and without traditional-age college experience.

  3. What are the sociodemographic and health determinants for older adults continue to participate in work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Renata Gonçalves; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the sociodemographic and health factors that influence older adults who continue to participate in the workforce. Data were collected and evaluated for 1762 older adults aged 65 years and older who were living in the community and were enrolled in a population-based study (FIBRA Network Study). Older adults who participated in the workforce were compared with those who did not in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, physical and mental health, and physical functioning and performance in advanced and instrumental activities characteristic of daily living. A multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed. Factors associated with not participating in the workforce were aged (OR: 1.71, [95% CI: 1.26-2.30], ppoor visual perception (OR: 1.31, [95% CI: 1.00-1.72], p=0.046), using 4 or more medications regularly (OR: 1.41, [95% CI: 1.489-2.247], p=0.034), having 3 or more comorbidities (OR: 1.44, [95% CI: 1.01-2.04], p=0.040), and a handgrip strength below 24.6kg/f (18.1-24.6kg/f (2nd tertile): OR: 1.52, [95% CI: 1.06-2.18], p=0.022; 0-18kg/f (1st tertile): OR: 1.60, [95% CI: 1.08-2.38], p=0.019). The probability estimates of the final model explained 67.9% of the events related to not participating in the workforce, as observed by the area under the ROC curve. Our results highlight that work in later life is influenced by sociodemographic characteristics, intrinsic capacity, and multimorbidity. We suggest that strategies for optimizing healthy and active aging may help older people to continue participating in the workforce and contributing toward their communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Which Early Care and Education Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten? National Survey of Early Care & Education. Technical Report. OPRE Report 2015-92a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report draws on newly available data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) to describe early care and education (ECE) centers that participate in two prominent publicly-funded ECE initiatives: Head Start and publicly-funded pre-kindergarten. Although a great deal is known about Head Start programs, and there are sources…

  5. Sports participation and quality of life in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter N; Gillespie, Catherine W; Greene, Elizabeth Anne; Pearson, Gail D; Robb, Adelaide S; Berul, Charles I; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often restricted from physical activity and sports participation, which may have adverse effects. To determine the amount of physical activity, type of sports participation, and reasons for sports restrictions, and to evaluate the effect of sports participation on quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of patients with CHD. Individuals with CHD aged 13-30 years were recruited at outpatient visits or via mailings. They completed a questionnaire addressing physical activity, sports participation, sports restrictions, and QoL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory). We also reviewed the patient's medical record. Of the 177 patients who responded (mean age 20 years), 31% have mild CHD, 40% have moderate CHD, and 29% have severe CHD. In the cohort, 52% participate in competitive sports, 25% recreational sports, and 23% no sports. Among patients with severe CHD, 29% participate in competitive sports that would be restricted by published guidelines (36th Bethesda Conference). After controlling for age, sex, CHD severity, residual hemodynamic disease, and comorbidities, participation in competitive sports and increased frequency of physical activity are independently associated with a higher QoL (P = .003 and P = .001, respectively). In an identical model, competitive sports participation and frequency of physical activity are associated with higher maximum predicted oxygen consumption (VO2 ) (n = 40; P = .002 and .02) and slightly lower body mass index (BMI) (P = .02 and .01). All findings were similar when analyses were stratified by recruitment method. Patients with CHD commonly participate in competitive sports, and such participation is associated with higher QoL, improved exercise capacity, and lower BMI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cross-National Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Policy Trends in Korea, Norway, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Melo, Veriene; Lee, Jeongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Using comparative data, this article examines the level and distribution of participation in adult education (AE) opportunities among countries that participated in PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies). It considers observed cross-country patterns in relation to some mechanisms that drive unequal chances to…

  7. [Participative action research; self-care education for the mature adult, a dialogic and empowered process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Gomez, Sheila; Medina Moya, José Luis; Mendoza Pérez de Mendiguren, Beatriz; Ugarte Arena, Ana Isabel; Martínez de Albéniz Arriaran, Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    Explore and transform dialogic-reflexive learning processes oriented to self-care, capacitation, empowerment and health promotion for "mature-adult" collective. Participative action research on a qualitative and sociocritic approach. Data generation methods are SITE: Field work focuses on the development of the educational program "Care is in your hands" that takes place in two villages (Primary Care. Comarca Araba). Through a theoretical sampling involved people who are in a "mature-adult" life stage and three nurses with extensive experience in development health education programs. Participant observation where health education sessions are recorded in video and group reflection on action. To triangulate the data, have been made in-depth interviews with 4 participants. Carried out a content and discourse analysis. Participant and nurses' Previous Frameworks, and these last ones' discourses as well, reveal a current technical rationality (unidirectional, informative,.) yet in practice that perpetuates the role of passive recipient of care. Educational keys constructed from a viewpoint of Dialogic Learning emerge as elements that facilitate overcoming these previous frames limitations. Finally, Reflective Learning launched, has provided advance in professional knowledge and improve health education. Dialogical learning emerges as key to the training and empowerment, where we have seen how practical-reflexive, and not technical, rationality is meanly useful confronting ambiguous and complex situations of self-care practice and education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.

  10. Social participation and health over the adult life course: Does the association strengthen with age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    Studies have consistently found positive associations between social participation and health, but it is unclear if they vary across the life course. Younger individuals are likely to initiate and benefit from social participation in different ways from older individuals, which may in turn alter its overall influence on health outcomes. Age-varying associations, if present, may then attenuate or amplify the health consequences stemming from changes in social participation over the adult life course. To assess the strength of the association between social participation and health across the life course, and whether it increases with age. I use five waves of panel data (N = 11202 person-year observations) from the Americans' Changing Lives Survey, collected over 25 years (1986-2011), to examine the association of formal and informal social participation with (1) the number of chronic health conditions and (2) depressive symptoms, focusing on whether these associations become stronger with age. Growth curve models (stratified by gender) with an accelerated longitudinal design were used to construct age trajectories of the dependent variables. An interaction term was then included to test for age-varying effects for each health outcome. Results show that the association between formal social participation and depressive symptoms grew stronger with age, but only for men. For women, positive associations between social participation and health were found, but seemed to remain consistent over the life course. Findings suggest that the social participation and health association over the life course is likely to be contingent on gender, the type of social participation, and the specific health outcome being considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors With Immediate Versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-Positive Participants in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason V; Sharma, Shweta; Achhra, Amit C; Bernardino, Jose Ignacio; Bogner, Johannes R; Duprez, Daniel; Emery, Sean; Gazzard, Brian; Gordin, Jonathan; Grandits, Greg; Phillips, Andrew N; Schwarze, Siegfried; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Spector, Stephen A; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Lundgren, Jens

    2017-05-22

    HIV infection and certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, mediated, in part, through traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. We studied cardiovascular disease risk factor changes in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial, a randomized study of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among HIV-positive persons with CD4 + cell counts >500 cells/mm 3 . Mean change from baseline in risk factors and the incidence of comorbid conditions were compared between groups. The characteristics among 4685 HIV-positive START trial participants include a median age of 36 years, a CD4 cell count of 651 cells/mm 3 , an HIV viral load of 12 759 copies/mL, a current smoking status of 32%, a median systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 120/76 mm Hg, and median levels of total cholesterol of 168 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 102 mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 41 mg/dL. Mean follow-up was 3.0 years. The immediate and deferred ART groups spent 94% and 28% of follow-up time taking ART, respectively. Compared with patients in the deferral group, patients in the immediate ART group had increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher use of lipid-lowering therapy (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.1-2.2). Concurrent increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with immediate ART resulted in a 0.1 lower total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% CI, 0.1-0.2). Immediate ART resulted in 2.3% less BP-lowering therapy use (95% CI, 0.9-3.6), but there were no differences in new-onset hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Among HIV-positive persons with preserved immunity, immediate ART led to increases in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but also concurrent increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased use of blood pressure medications. These opposing effects suggest that, in

  12. Association between participation in social activity and physical fitness in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including

  13. The "participating victim" in the study of erotic experiences between children and adults: an historical analysis.

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    Malón, Agustín

    2011-02-01

    During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called "participating victims," i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships. The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm. Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences with adults.

  14. A quantitative study of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability: Do stakeholders agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S

    2017-12-13

    Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Pilot Study of Determinants of Ongoing Participation in EnhanceFitness: A Community-Based Group Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, David B; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Herting, Jerald R; Belza, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults, but adherence is often low. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify motivators and barriers for participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), a group-based exercise program; and (2) quantitatively examine the association between motivators, barriers and individual characteristics, and ongoing participation in the program. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. We mailed a pilot, investigator-developed survey to assess motivators and barriers to exercising to 340 adults who started a new EF class, regardless of their attendance rate. We precoded surveys on the basis of class attendance, with former participants defined as having no attendance a month or more before a 4-month fitness check. Of the 241 respondents (71% response rate), 61 (25%) were precoded as former participants and 180 (75%) as current participants. The mean age of respondents was 71 years and they were predominately female (89%). More than half of respondents were whites (58%), and almost half were married (46%). Former participants reported lower total motivation scores than current participants (P exercise," "Personal illness," and "Exercise caused pain") and 2 motivators ("I want to exercise" and "I plan exercise as part of my day") were significantly different between current and former participants. Discrete event history models show that dropout was related positively to ethnicity (whites were more likely to drop out) and health-related barriers. In newly formed EF classes, participants who drop out report more program, psychosocial, and health barriers, and fewer program and psychosocial motivators. Total barrier score and health barriers significantly predict a participant's dropping out, and white ethnicity is associated with a higher likelihood of dropping out. Employing strategies that address health barriers to participation could improve attendance rates for group-based exercise programs.

  16. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  17. Virtual Reality and Serious Games in Neurorehabilitation of Children and Adults: Prevention, Plasticity, and Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E; Westcott McCoy, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Use of virtual reality (VR) and serious games (SGs) interventions within rehabilitation as motivating tools for task specific training for individuals with neurological conditions are fast-developing. Within this perspective paper we use the framework of the IV STEP conference to summarize the literature on VR and SG for children and adults by three topics: Prevention; Outcomes: Body-Function-Structure, Activity and Participation; and Plasticity. Overall the literature in this area offers support for use of VR and SGs to improve body functions and to some extent activity domain outcomes. Critical analysis of clients' goals and selective evaluation of VR and SGs are necessary to appropriately take advantage of these tools within intervention. Further research on prevention, participation, and plasticity is warranted. We offer suggestions for bridging the gap between research and practice integrating VR and SGs into physical therapist education and practice.

  18. Napping Characteristics and Restricted Participation in Valued Activities Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Ramsey, Christine M; Tzuang, Marian; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Parisi, Jeanine M; Spira, Adam P

    2018-03-02

    Napping is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes among older adults. However, the association between particular napping characteristics (eg, frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional) and daytime function is unclear. Participants were 2,739 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study. Participants reported napping frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional versus unintentional. Restricted participation in valued activities was measured by self-report. After adjusting for potential confounders and nighttime sleep duration, those who took intentional and unintentional naps had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (ie, ≥1 valued activity restriction), compared to those who rarely/never napped (unintentional odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.79, intentional OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.09, 2.04). There was no difference between unintentional napping and intentional napping with respect to any valued activity restriction after adjustment for demographics. Compared to participants napping "some days," those napping most days/every day had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.30, 2.16). Moreover, each 30-minute increase in average nap duration was associated with a 25% greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.43). Older adults who took more frequent or longer naps were more likely to report activity restrictions, as were those who took intentional or unintentional naps. Additional longitudinal studies with objective measures of sleep are needed to further our understanding of associations between napping characteristics and daytime dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optimizing social participation in community-dwelling older adults through the use of behavioral coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Desrosiers, Johanne; Demers, Louise; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) determine the categories of behavioral coping strategies most strongly correlated with optimal seniors' social participation in different activity and role domains and (2) identify the demographic, health and environmental factors associated with the use of these coping strategies optimizing social participation. The sample consisted of 350 randomly recruited community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years). Coping strategies and social participation were measured, respectively, using the Inventory of Coping Strategies Used by the Elderly and Assessment of Life Habits questionnaires. Information about demographic, health and environmental factors was also collected during the interview. Regression analyses showed a strong relationship between the use of cooking- and transportation-related coping strategies and optimal participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation-related strategies. Our study helped to identify useful behavioral coping strategies that should be incorporated in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation. However, the appropriateness of these strategies depends on whether they are used in relevant contexts and tailored to specific needs. Our results support the relevance of including behavioral coping strategies related to cooking and transportation in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation

  1. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall-but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation-were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory.

  2. Developing Mentors: Adult participation, practices, and learning in an out-of-school time STEM program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Deana Aeolani

    This dissertation examines learning within an out-of-school time (OST) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) broadening participation program. The dissertation includes an introduction, three empirical chapters (written as individual articles), and a conclusion. The dissertation context is a chemical oceanography OST program for middle school students called Project COOL---Chemical Oceanography Outside the Lab. The program was a collaboration between middle school OST programming, a learning sciences research laboratory, and a chemical oceanography laboratory. Both labs were located at a research-based university in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Participants include 34 youth, 12 undergraduates, and five professional scientists. The dissertation data corpus includes six years of ethnographic field notes across three field sites, 400 hours of video and audio recordings, 40 hours of semi-structured interviews, and more than 100 participant generated artifacts. Analysis methods include comparative case analysis, cognitive mapping, semiotic cluster analysis, video interaction analysis, and discourse analysis. The first empirical article focuses on synthesizing productive programmatic features from four years of design-based research.. The second article is a comparative case study of three STEM mentors from non-dominant communities in the 2011 COOL OST Program. The third article is a comparative case study of undergraduates learning to be mentors in the 2014 COOL OST Program. Findings introduce Deep Hanging as a theory of learning in practice. Deep Hanging entails authentic tasks in rich contexts, providing access, capitalizing on opportunity, and building interpersonal relationships. Taken together, these three chapters illuminate the process of designing a rich OST learning environment and the kinds of learning in practice that occurred for adult learners learning to be mentors through their participation in the COOL OST program. In

  3. Participants' Reactions to and Suggestions for Conducting Intimate Partner Violence Research: A Study of Rural Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Greaney, Kayleigh; Palmer, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    To document rural young adults' reasons for emotional reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) research as well as to hear young adults' perspectives on how to most effectively conduct comprehensive IPV research in their rural communities. The data presented in this paper draw from 2 studies (ie, an online survey study and an in-person or telephone interview study) that included the same 16 US rural counties in New England and Appalachia. Participants, 47% of whom were in both studies, were young (age range 18-24), white (92%-94%), heterosexual (89%-90%), female (62%-68%), and mostly low to middle income. Nine percent of participants reported they were upset by the questions due to personal experiences with IPV or for other reasons not related to personal IPV experiences. Forty percent of participants reported they personally benefited from participating in the study, and they provided various reasons for this benefit. Regarding suggestions for conducting IPV research with rural young adults, participants believed that both online recruitment and online data collection methods were the best ways to engage young adults, although many participants suggested that more than 1 modality was ideal, which underscores the need for multimethod approaches when conducting research with rural young adults. These findings are reassuring to those committed to conducting research on sensitive topics with rural populations and also shed light on best practices for conducting this type of research from the voices of rural young adults themselves. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Near-adult height in male kidney transplant recipients started on growth hormone treatment in late puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Silvia; Aziz, Mariana; Adragna, Marta; Monteverde, Marta; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Growth retardation and its impact on adult height is considered to be one of the most common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been effective in improving growth in kidney transplantation (KTx) patients, but little data are available on adult height in patients who began rhGh treatment in late puberty. Near-adult height was evaluated in 13 KTx patients treated with rhGH [growth hormone group (GHGr); dose 9.33 mg/m 2 per week] for a period of at least 18 months. At initiation of rhGH treatment, testicular volume was >8 ml and serum testosterone was >1 ng/ml compared with the control group (CGr) of ten KTx patients who did not receive rHGH. All subjects were of similar chronological age and bone age and had similar creatinine clearance (CrCl) levels, cumulative corticoid dose, height standard deviation score (SDS), target height SDS, and target height:initial height at the beginning of the study. Near-adult height was significantly greater in the GHGr than in the CGr (-1.8 ± 0.8 vs. -2.9 ± 1.1; p = 0.018). The difference between initial height and near-adult height in the GHGr revealed a significant height gain (initial height -3.1 ± 1.1; near-adult height -1.8 ± 0.8 SDS, respectively; delta 1.2 ± 0.3; p = 0.021). The CrCl level was not significantly different between the GHGr and CGr at either at study initiation or when attaining near-adult height (p = 0.74 and p = 0.23, respectively). Treatment with rhGH was effective in improving adult height in KTx patients who began treatment in late puberty, without any effect on renal function.

  5. Effects of Adolescent Sport Practice on Health Outcomes of Adult Amateur Endurance Cyclists: Adulthood Is Not Too Late to Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Paris-Garcia, Federico; Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Oviedo-Caro, Miguel Angel; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of adolescent sport practice on the training, performance, and health outcomes of adult amateur endurance cyclists and compared health outcomes of 3 adult groups: amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence, amateur endurance cyclists who did not practice sports during adolescence, and inactive individuals. In 859 (751 men and 108 women) adult cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined adolescent sport practice, current training status, quality of life, quality of sleep, anxiety and depression, and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity, physical fitness, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Independent of gender, no significant differences in training, performance, or health outcomes were observed between amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not. Independent of gender, cyclists reported significantly better health outcomes than inactive individuals in all variables, except depression. Training, performance, and health outcomes did not differ between adult amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not, but their health outcomes were significantly improved compared with inactive individuals, except for depression.

  6. Correlates associated with participation in physical activity among adults: a systematic review of reviews and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review. Results Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9. Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity. Conclusions The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.

  7. Item Response Theory Modeling and Categorical Regression Analyses of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form: A Study on Italian Community-Dwelling Adolescent Participants and Adult Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Widiger, Thomas A; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To extend the evidence on the reliability and construct validity of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) in its self-report version, two independent samples of Italian participants, which were composed of 510 adolescent high school students and 457 community-dwelling adults, respectively, were administered the FFMRF in its Italian translation. Adolescent participants were also administered the Italian translation of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children-11 (BPFSC-11), whereas adult participants were administered the Italian translation of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM). Cronbach α values were consistent with previous findings; in both samples, average interitem r values indicated acceptable internal consistency for all FFMRF scales. A multidimensional graded item response theory model indicated that the majority of FFMRF items had adequate discrimination parameters; information indices supported the reliability of the FFMRF scales. Both categorical (i.e., item-level) and scale-level regression analyses suggested that the FFMRF scores may predict a nonnegligible amount of variance in the BPFSC-11 total score in adolescent participants, and in the TriPM scale scores in adult participants.

  8. Making It Visible: An Exploration of How Adult Education Participation Informs Parent Involvement in Education for School-Age Children

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    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…

  9. 'What do I know? Should I participate?' Considerations on participation in HIV related research among HIV infected adults in Bangalore, South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi J Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India has the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world after South Africa. Much HIV related behavioral, clinical and laboratory based research is ongoing in India. Yet little is known on Indian HIV patients' knowledge of research, their processes of decision making and motives for participation. We aimed to explore these areas among HIV infected individuals to understand their reasons for participating in research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a cross sectional survey among 173 HIV infected adults at a tertiary level hospital in Bangalore, India, done between October 2010 and January 2011. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the participants by trained research assistants to assess their knowledge regarding research, willingness to participate, decision making and determinants of participation. Participants were presented with five hypothetical HIV research studies. Each study had a different level of intervention and time commitment. Of respondents, 103(60%, said that research meant 'to discover something new' and 138(80% were willing to participate in research. A third of the respondents were unaware of their right to refuse participation. Willingness to participate in research varied with level of intervention. It was the lowest for the hypothetical study involving sensitive questions followed by the hypothetical drug trial; and was the highest for the hypothetical cross sectional questionnaire based study (p<0.0015. Individual health benefits and altruism were the primary motives for participation in research and indicate the presence of therapeutic misconception. Women were less likely to make autonomous decisions for participation in interventional studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite a majority willing to participate, over a third of respondents did not have any knowledge of research or the voluntary nature of participation. This has ethical implications. Researchers need to focus on

  10. RESSIGNIFICANDO THE TEACHING PRACTICE FOR YOUNG AND ADULTS EDUCATION BASED ON PARTICIPANT RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hoff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is make a brief report of the evolution of Young and Adults Education (EJA in the historical-educational context of Brazil, over all from century XX till the 90 decade, with the writing of the new LDBEN- Guidelines and Bases National Education Law and the guidelines concerning to EJA, focusing the situation of this modality of education post-LDBEN, specially in relation to teachers’s pedagogical formation. The text brings up the problematic of the necessity of permanent spaces of teachers continued formation of this modality and tells a practical experience of formation accomplished with teachers of the Education State System in the cities of Cidreira, Capivari and Palmares do Sul, of Rio Grande do Sul State. Approaching the participant research from the classroom, the meetings have happened from July to December, 2006, with UNESCO and Education State Secretaryship support according to UNISC – Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul.

  11. 'What do I know? Should I participate?' Considerations on participation in HIV related research among HIV infected adults in Bangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rashmi J; Antony, Jimmy; Krishnamurthy, Shubha; Shet, Anita; De Costa, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    India has the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world after South Africa. Much HIV related behavioral, clinical and laboratory based research is ongoing in India. Yet little is known on Indian HIV patients' knowledge of research, their processes of decision making and motives for participation. We aimed to explore these areas among HIV infected individuals to understand their reasons for participating in research. This is a cross sectional survey among 173 HIV infected adults at a tertiary level hospital in Bangalore, India, done between October 2010 and January 2011. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the participants by trained research assistants to assess their knowledge regarding research, willingness to participate, decision making and determinants of participation. Participants were presented with five hypothetical HIV research studies. Each study had a different level of intervention and time commitment. Of respondents, 103(60%), said that research meant 'to discover something new' and 138(80%) were willing to participate in research. A third of the respondents were unaware of their right to refuse participation. Willingness to participate in research varied with level of intervention. It was the lowest for the hypothetical study involving sensitive questions followed by the hypothetical drug trial; and was the highest for the hypothetical cross sectional questionnaire based study (pWomen were less likely to make autonomous decisions for participation in interventional studies. Despite a majority willing to participate, over a third of respondents did not have any knowledge of research or the voluntary nature of participation. This has ethical implications. Researchers need to focus on enabling potential research participants understand the concepts of research, promote autonomous decisions, especially by women and restrict therapeutic misconception.

  12. Participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith DaWalt, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2017-05-01

    As the number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) grows, the need to identify modifiable correlates of positive outcomes and quality of life (QoL) gains in importance. Research indicates that perceived stress is significantly correlated with QoL in adults with ASD. Studies in the general population of individuals without disabilities indicate that greater participation in social and recreational activities may lessen the negative impact of perceived stress on well-being, and this association may also hold among adults with ASD. We hypothesized that: (1) perceived stress would be negatively associated with QoL; and (2) higher frequency of participation in social activities and recreational activities would moderate the relationship between perceived stress and QoL. We used data collected from 60 adults with ASD aged 24-55 and their mothers to address our hypotheses. Findings indicate that adults with ASD with higher perceived stress are likely to have poorer QoL. Furthermore, greater participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on QoL, but no buffering effect was observed for participation in social activities. These findings suggest that interventions and services that provide supports and opportunities for participation in recreational activities may help adults with ASD manage their stress and lead to better QoL. Autism Res 2017, 10: 973-982. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors Related to Self-Rated Participation in Adolescents and Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability--A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…

  14. Adults Who Do Not Want to Participate in Learning: A Cross-National European Analysis of Their Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cross-national differences in the intensity of perceived barriers to adult learning in Europe focusing on the barriers recognised by those not participating and having no intention to do so. This relatively large subgroup has received scant scholarly attention, yet exploring their participation barriers is critical for…

  15. Later Life Impacts of Social Participation on Parents of Adult Offspring with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    Social participation is an important resource for parents in old age, and may be particularly important for parents living with adult offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To evaluate whether socializing with friends and family and participating in social organizations protects against depression in old age, this study…

  16. Do Exercise Interventions Improve Participation in Life Roles in Older Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Lee, Annemarie; Ward, Rachel F; Harrison, Samantha M; Bain, Paul A; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina; Bean, Jonathan F; Jette, Alan M

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes participation in meaningful life roles as a key component of health. However, the evidence base for interventions to improve participation remains inconclusive. In particular, whether exercise interventions improve participation in life roles is unclear. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise interventions on participation in life roles in older adults residing in the community. The PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, and PEDro databases were searched from inception through March 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of an exercise intervention to usual care on participation in life roles in adults who were 60 years of age or older were included in this review. Teams of 2 investigators independently extracted data on participation. Methodological quality was appraised using the Cochrane tool for assessing the risk of bias. The protocol was registered with Prospero (CRD42014014880). Eighteen randomized controlled trials with a total of 2,315 participants met the inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. A meta-analysis of 16 studies showed no overall effect of the exercise interventions on participation (SMD = 0.03; 95% CI = -0.10 to 0.16). Subgroup analysis showed that exercise interventions lasting 12 months or more had a small positive effect on participation (SMD = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.28). Limitations included variability in definitions and measures of participation. In general, exercise interventions do not improve participation in life roles in older adults. The results do not support the implicit assumption that exercise-based interventions associated with improved function/activity also result in improved participation. Investigation of complex interventions that go beyond exercise to address participation in life roles for older adults is warranted. © 2017 American Physical Therapy

  17. The meaningfulness of participating in Support Groups for informal caregives of older adults with dementia: A Systematic Review Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete Bender

    2013-01-01

    of the disease and the duration of care. The informal caregiver is mainly seen as a family member and care must be performed at home. The review will not differentiate between studies involving subsets of informal caregivers (e.g. based on specific ethnicity, gender and/or specific morbidities of dementia among......Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. More specifically, the review question is: How do informal caregivers of older adults...... with dementia, living in urban and rural settings, perceive the meaningfulness of participating in support groups? Inclusion Criteria Types of participant(s) This review will consider studies that include informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and older with dementia, regardless of the severity...

  18. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Joost; Engels, Josephine; Heerkens, Yvonne; van der Klink, Jac

    2014-01-24

    Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental factors more work-related and a subdivision of personal factors. For data extraction the method known as qualitative metasummary was used and the manifest frequency effect size (MFES) for each category in the ICF was calculated. From 33 included studies 318 factors have been extracted and classified in the ICF. In the classification the frequency of occurrences and the consistency in direction (i.e., hindering or facilitating) have been made visible. The ICF categories with the highest MFES were mental functions with factors like feelings and emotions about dyslexia; activities like reading or writing/spelling; participation with factors like acquiring and keeping a job; social relationships at work where the attitudes and support of the employer and co-workers are important; working conditions with factors like the availability of assistive technology and accommodations on the job; and personal factors like self-disclosure and coping strategies. In the context of work DD affects nearly all domains of functioning, mostly in a negative way. Within each domain the impact of DD increases over the course of life. To overcome that negative influence, many forms of adaptation, compensation, or coping are mentioned. Also notable is the lack of positive attitudes toward DD of the participants with DD-with the exception of the attitudes of teachers with DD-as well as on the part of colleagues, supervisors, and employers.

  19. Validation of Brief Multidimensional Spirituality/Religiousness Inventory (BMMRS) in Italian Adult Participants and in Participants with Medical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Anna; Giulietti, Maria Velia; Spatuzzi, Roberta; Fabbietti, Paolo; Meloni, Cristina; Gattafoni, Pisana; Ottaviani, Marica

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the reliability and construct validity of Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) on Italian sample. 353 Italian participants: 58.9% affected by different diseases and 41.1% healthy subjects. The results of descriptive statistics of internal consistency reliabilities (Chronbach's coefficient) of the BMMRS revealed a remarkable consistency and reliability of different scales DSE, SpC, SC, CSC, VB, SPY-WELL and a good Inter-Class Correlations ≥70 maintaining a good stability of the measures over the time. BMMRS is a useful inventory for the evaluation of the principal spiritual dimensions.

  20. Sport and ageing: a systematic review of the determinants and trends of participation in sport for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2017-12-22

    The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to

  1. Why START?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles

  2. Abnormal glomerular filtration rate in children, adolescents and young adults starts below 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottel, Hans; Hoste, Liesbeth; Delanaye, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification system for children is similar to that for adults, with both mainly based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) combined with fixed cut-off values. The main cut-off eGFR value used to define CKD is 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), a value that is also applied for children older than 2 years of age, adolescents and young adults. Based on a literature search, we evaluated inclusion criteria for eGFR in clinical trials or research studies on CKD for children. We also collected information on direct measurements of GFR (mGFR) in children and adolescents, with the aim to estimate the normal reference range for GFR. Using serum creatinine (Scr) normal reference values and Scr-based eGFR-equations, we also evaluated the correspondence between Scr normal reference values and (e)GFR normal reference values. Based on our literature search, the inclusion of children in published CKD studies has been based on cut-off values for eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The lower reference limits for mGFR far exceed this adult threshold. Using eGFR values calculated using Scr-based formulas, we found that abnormal Scr levels in children already correspond to eGFR values that are below a cut-off of 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Abnormal GFR in children, adolescents and young adults starts below 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and as abnormality is a sign of disease, we recommend referring children, adolescents and young adults with an (e)GFR of <75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for further clinical assessment.

  3. Participation in Types of Physical Activities Among US Adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifan; Carroll, Dianna D; Watson, Kathleen B; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Information on specific types of physical activities in which US adults participate is important for community and program development to promote physical activity. Prevalence of participation and average time spent for 33 leisure-time aerobic activities and 10 activity categories were calculated using self-reported data from 22,545 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, 38% of US adults reported no leisure-time physical activities, and 43% reported 1 or 2 activities in the past 30 days. Walking was the most frequently reported activity for both men (29%) and women (38%). Among walkers, the average time spent walking was 198 minutes/week for men and 152 minutes/week for women. The most reported activities for men after walking were bicycling and yard work, and for women were aerobics and dance. For most activity categories, participation was lower among adults aged ≥ 65 years than among younger adults, and among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites. Participation in most categories increased with increasing educational attainment. Participation in physical activity differs by types of activities and demographic characteristics. Physical activity promotion programs should take these differences into account when developing intervention strategies.

  4. Participation, Retention, and Utilization of a Web-Based Chronic Disease Self-Management Intervention Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; LaMendola, Walter F

    2018-05-21

    Web-based self-management (web-based SM) interventions provide a potential resource for older adults to engage in their own chronic disease management. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on participation, retention, and utilization of a web-based SM intervention. This study reports the results of a secondary data analysis of the effects of age in a randomized trial of a web-based diabetes SM intervention. Participation, reasons for nonenrollment, retention, reasons for disenrollment, and website utilization were examined by age using discriminant function, survival analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance as appropriate. Website utilization by all participants dropped after 6 months but did not vary significantly with age. Though older adults (>60 of age) were less likely to choose to participate (F = 57.20, p Web-based SM offers a feasible approach for older adults with chronic disease to engage in their health management, but it needs to be improved. Those older adults who passed the rigorous screens for this experiment and chose to participate may have been more likely than younger participants to utilize web-based SM intervention tools. They were more persistent in their use of the web-based SM to try to improve health outcomes and formed definitive opinions about its utility before termination.

  5. Testing and development of an instrument for self-report of participation and related environmental factors - Your Ideas about Participation and Environment (YIPE) among adults with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Rachael; Madden, Rosamond H; Brentnall, Jennie; Serratore, Deborah; Grant, Samantha; Luft, Inbal; Bundy, Anita

    2016-11-01

    To examine the usability of the self-report instrument, Your Ideas about Participation and Environment (YIPE), among adults with a brain injury by exploring the value and acceptability of the instrument. A qualitative descriptive research design was used for the purpose of testing and developing the YIPE for use among adults with a brain injury. The study involved administering the YIPE followed by in-depth interviewing about the experience of taking the instrument with seven adults with a brain injury, recruited through a community-based support service organization. A descriptive thematic approach was used to analyse the content of the interview data, categorize common ideas and identify areas for improvement within the instrument. Participants were generally positive about the importance of the participation and environment topics and willing to engage in self report. The YIPE (2012), resulting from changes made to the language and structure, was found to be more useable, valued and accepted by these participants than the previous version, YIPE (2011). The YIPE was found to be a useful tool among study participants. The YIPE topics were found to have importance and relevance when considering participants' satisfaction with areas of life and aspects of environment requiring change. More development of the tool is required in terms of the wording, format and method of administration to improve the overall usability of the instrument. Implications for Rehabilitation The preliminary results from this small sample study illustrated that people with brain injury were able to use an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-based tool, and confirmed the importance of considering both participation and the environment together. People with cognitive impairments associated with brain injury reported on areas of everyday life where they were satisfied or dissatisfied. They related their satisfaction to environmental factors that were facilitators

  6. Health worry, physical activity participation, and walking difficulty among older adults: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year follow-up design. Results of a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling showed that people with a high degree of health worry engaged in less physical activity (beta = -.24, p < .001), and people who participated in less physical activity were more likely to report walking difficulty at the 6-year follow-up (beta = -.22, p < .001). There was a significant indirect effect from health worry to walking difficulty through physical activity (beta = .05, p < .001), controlling for demographic, psychosocial, and health related factors. Results suggested that inducing threat and worry may not be effective for physical activity promotion in the older population. More promising coping and regulation strategies are discussed.

  7. Starting out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ans Merens; Freek Bucx

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Werken aan de start Women in the Netherlands have been outperforming men in education for many years now. However, this superior educational achievement does not translate into a better position on the labour market. More women work today than in the past, but still fewer than men.

  8. Robot-assisted therapy for improving social interactions and activity participation among institutionalized older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Shu-Min; Chin, Mau-Yu; Lee, Wen-Li

    2015-03-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is gaining popularity as part of therapeutic activities for older adults in many long-term care facilities. However, concerns about dog bites, allergic responses to pets, disease, and insufficient available resources to care for a real pet have led to many residential care facilities to ban this therapy. There are situations where a substitute artificial companion, such as robotic pet, may serve as a better alternative. This pilot study used a one-group pre- and posttest design to evaluate the effect of a robot-assisted therapy for older adults. Sixteen eligible participants participated in the study and received a group robot-assisted therapy using a seal-like robot pet for 30 minutes twice a week for 4 weeks. All participants received assessments of their communication and interaction skills using the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS-C) and activity participation using the Activity Participation Scale at baseline and at week 4. A total of 12 participants completed the study. Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that participants' communication and interaction skills (z = -2.94, P = 0.003) and activity participation (z = -2.66, P = 0.008) were significantly improved after receiving 4-week robot-assisted therapy. By interacting with a robot pet, such as Paro, the communication, interaction skills, and activity participation of the older adults can be improved. The robot-assisted therapy can be provided as a routine activity program and has the potential to improve social health of older adults in residential care facilities. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Influence of socio-demographic factors on physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y K

    2011-12-01

    Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang. Through convenience sampling, a total of 398 adults agreed to answer a prepared questionnaire on their socio-demographic background and physical activity participation. The data were analysed using the binary logit model. Frequent physical activity participation is defined as taking part more than 11 times in leisure-time physical activity such as swimming and jogging, each time lasting more than 15 minutes in a typical month, whereas participation that is less than the frequency and time duration specified above is referred to as infrequent physical activity. Age, male, being Chinese, high educational attainment, self-rated excellent health status and presence of family illnesses are positively associated with the likelihood of frequent participation in physical activity. On the contrary, being married, having low income and residing in rural areas are inversely related with the propensity of frequent physical activity participation. The majority in this sample of adults do not participate in physical activity frequently, and the reasons given include lack of health awareness, limited leisure time, budget constraints, and lack of sports amenities.

  10. The meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2015-01-01

    of participants: Informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and over with dementia. The informal caregiver was a family member, and care was performed at home. Phenomena of interest: How the informal caregivers perceived the meaningfulness of participating in support groups. The setting was all locations......BACKGROUND Informal caregivers who perform at-home care of older people with dementia might have feelings of a meaningless existence, burden, anxiety, stress and fatigue. Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers’ stress and burden......, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. OBJECTIVES To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. INCLUSION CRITERIA Types...

  11. Press Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  12. Participation in recreation and cognitive activities as a predictor of cognitive performance of adults with/without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba; Shnitzer, Shlomit; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    The Cognitive Activity Theory suggests an association between participation in cognitive activities during midlife and cognitive functioning in the short term. We examined the impact of participation in cognitively stimulating activities conveyed during leisure activities on crystallized and fluid tests' performance among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Adults (n = 32; chronological age = 25-55) with non-specific ID and with Down syndrome rated the frequency of their participation in leisure activities. Pursuits included more cognitively involving (reading, participating in academic courses) and less cognitively involving (cooking, dancing) activities. Three judges ranked activities according to their cognitive load on a 1 (few cognitive components) to 5 (many cognitive components) points scale. The findings indicate two new scales: cognitively stimulating activities and recreational stimulating activities. The crystallized battery included phonemic fluency, synonyms, idioms, and verbal metaphors. The fluid battery included the Homophone Meaning Generation Test, Metaphoric Triad Test, Novel Metaphors Test, and Trail Making Test. Hierarchal regression with chronological and mental age, recreational, and cognitively stimulating activities indicated that participation in recreational activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of word fluency. Participation in cognitive activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of most of the crystallized and fluid tests. The findings support the Cognitive Activity Theory in populations with ID. The findings also support the Compensation Age Theory: not only endogenous factors (age, etiology, IQ level), but also exogenous factors such as life style determining the cognitive functioning of adults with ID. However, frequency and the cognitive load of the activities influenced their cognitive functioning.

  13. Sports participation in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and its role in total physical activity behaviour and fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Buffart (Laurien); H.P. Ploeg (Hidde); A.E. Bauman (Adrian); F.W. van Asbeck (Floris); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess sports participation in young adults with myelomeningocele and its association with personal, disease-related and psychosocial factors, physical activity and fitness. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Fifty-one persons (26 males) with myelomeningocele, mean

  14. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  15. The exhausting dilemmas faced by home-care service providers when enhancing participation among older adults receiving home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Kjersti; Eide, Arne H

    2012-09-01

    Older adults wish to stay at home, participate in society and manage on their own as long as possible. Many older adults will, however, eventually become dependent on care and help to maintain their daily living. Thus, to enhance activity and participation also among older adults that receive home-based services, there is a strong need for development of knowledge-based practice regarding participation. The specific aim of this study is to explore how service providers perceive that their working conditions influence on their possibilities to promote participation among older adults, and more specifically, how they perceive the influence of their working conditions. A purposeful sampling strategy was applied, and six focus groups with professionals in two municipalities were conducted. The focus groups comprised four and six participants of varying ages, length of working experience and professions. A total of 30 service providers participated. The data were analysed by a constant comparative method following the guidelines from Grounded Theory. The analysis identified the categories 'encountering needs that cannot be met', 'expectations about participation', 'organisation of services' and 'professional standards' influencing the service delivery. During this analytical process, 'being on the verge' emerged as a core category that describes the service providers' experience of a stressful workday, i.e. when they had the feeling of working against their own professional standards and being pushed to their limits. The findings indicate how the professional standards of service providers on the whole are in line with health policy for in-home services. Policy objectives are, however, not always followed owing to different constraints at the level of service delivery. Along the path from political ideals to the practical execution of services, external circumstances related to the organisation of services are perceived as crucial. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian

  16. Effect of personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) on older adults' health and social participation: study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Filliatrault, Johanne; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Tourigny, André; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gabaude, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hélène; Berger, Valérie; Eymard, Chantal

    2018-03-31

    The challenges of global ageing and the growing burden of chronic diseases require innovative interventions acting on health determinants like social participation. Many older adults do not have equitable opportunities to achieve full social participation, and interventions might underempower their personal and environmental resources and only reach a minority. To optimise current practices, the Accompagnement-citoyen Personnalisé d'Intégration Communautaire (APIC), an intervention demonstrated as being feasible and having positive impacts, needs further evaluation. A pragmatic multicentre, prospective, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will evaluate: (1) the short-term and long-term effects of the APIC on older adults' health, social participation, life satisfaction and healthcare services utilisation and (2) its cost-effectiveness. A total of 376 participants restricted in at least one instrumental activity of daily living and living in three large cities in the province of Quebec, Canada, will be randomly assigned to the experimental or control group using a centralised computer-generated random number sequence procedure. The experimental group will receive weekly 3-hour personalised stimulation sessions given by a trained volunteer over the first 12 months. Sessions will encourage empowerment, gradual mobilisation of personal and environmental resources and community integration. The control group will receive the publicly funded universal healthcare services available to all Quebecers. Over 2 years (baseline and 12, 18 and 24 months later), self-administered questionnaires will assess physical and mental health (primary outcome; version 2 of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, converted to SF-6D utility scores for quality-adjusted life years), social participation (Social Participation Scale) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Index-Z). Healthcare services utilisation will be recorded and costs of each intervention calculated. The Research

  17. Loneliness and social isolation among young and late middle-age adults: Associations with personal networks and social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Stephanie T; Lawton, Leora

    2017-11-24

    Associations between social networks and loneliness or social isolation are well established among older adults. Yet, limited research examines personal networks and participation on perceived loneliness and social isolation as distinct experiences among younger adults. Accordingly, we explore relationships among objective and subjective measures of personal networks with loneliness and isolation, comparing a younger and older cohort. The UC Berkeley Social Networks Study offers unique cohort data on young (21-30 years old, n = 472) and late middle-age adults' (50-70 years old, n = 637) personal network characteristics, social participation, network satisfaction, relationship status, and days lonely and isolated via online survey or in-person interview. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between social network characteristics, loneliness, and isolation by age group. Young adults reported twice as many days lonely and isolated than late middle-age adults, despite, paradoxically, having larger networks. For young adults, informal social participation and weekly religious attendance were associated with fewer days isolated. Among late middle-age adults, number of close kin and relationship status were associated with loneliness. Network satisfaction was associated with fewer days lonely or isolated among both age groups. Distinct network characteristics were associated with either loneliness or isolation for each cohort, suggesting network factors are independently associated with each outcome, and may fluctuate over time. Network satisfaction was associated with either loneliness or isolation among both cohorts, suggesting perceptions of social networks may be equally important as objective measures, and remain salient for loneliness and isolation throughout the life course.

  18. to start

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click here to start. Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30.

  19. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  20. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  1. Video-mediated participation in virtual museum tours for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoska, G.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.; Gullström, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a virtual tour, Visit the Louvre, designed specifically to engage older adults in an immersive visit through part of the Louvre by a distant real-life guide. An initial diary study and a creative workshop were conducted to understand the needs and values of older adults and how

  2. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  4. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in regional adiposity, bone mineral density, and physical exercise participation based on exercise self-efficacy among senior adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Vincenzo, J L

    2015-10-01

    The impact of exercise self-efficacy levels (ESE) on exercise participation, levels of body fat (BF), and bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear in senior-aged adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ESE on exercise participation, regional distribution of BF, and BMD among seniors. Senior adults (N.=76; 36 males, 40 females) were separated into tertiles (T1, age=60.4±1.4; T2, age=61.3±1.4; T3, age=60.4±1.5) based on self-reported levels of ESE. BMD and regional BF were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and exercise participation levels were measured using the Rapid Physical-Activity Questionnaire. MANOVA revealed a significant Wilks Lambda (p exercise participation levels, android BF, gynoid BF, and spinal BMD. ANOVA revealed T3 was significantly lower for android BF (p=0.002) than T1 and T2 (30% and 26%, respectively) while gynoid BF was significantly lower (p=0.012) for T3 (24%) compared to T1. When evaluating exercise participation levels, T3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than T1 or T2. Spinal BMD was significantly higher (p=0.030) between T2 (10%) and T1. ESE is an important factor in senior adults ability to maintain longitudinal health.

  6. Modified automatic teller machine prototype for older adults: a case study of participative approach to inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Alex W K; Lee, Tatia M C; Chi, Iris

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this study was to enhance an existing automated teller machine (ATM) human-machine interface in order to accommodate the needs of older adults. Older adults were involved in the design and field test of the modified ATM prototype. The design of the user interface and functionality took the cognitive and physical abilities of older adults into account. The modified ATM system included only "cash withdrawal" and "transfer" functions based on the task demands and needs for services of older adults. One hundred and forty-one older adults (aged 60 or above) participated in the field test by operating modified or existing ATM systems. Those who operated the modified system were found to have significantly higher success rates than those who operated the existing system. The enhancement was most significant among older adults who had lower ATM-related abilities, a lower level of education, and no prior experience of using ATMs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of using a universal design and participatory approach to modify the existing ATM system for use by older adults. However, it also leads to a reduction in functionality of the enhanced system. Future studies should explore ways to develop a universal design ATM system which can satisfy the abilities and needs of all users in the entire population.

  7. A comparative approach to the economic participation of older adults: the case of the city of Monterrey and Mexico State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of economic participation of over 65 years in Mexico has attracted particular interest due mainly to high rates of participation that holds this age group. Most national and regional research agrees that the social protection system is a key determinant for the decision to participate or not in the labor market by older adults. However, the comparison of different scenarios is not yet widely used practice in this area and do not know deeply the dynamics of this phenomenon. Using two different data sources, this paper intends to compare the employment status of older adults in the state of Mexico and Monterrey, with the ultimate aim of inquiring about the specifics of the phenomenon.

  8. Recruitment Issues and Strategies for Adults Who Are Not Currently Participating in Literacy and Adult Basic Education (ABE) Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Aaron

    Adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs have used many different strategies and tools to recruit new students. A small sampling of Tennessee ABE programs shows the more effective recruitment strategies are word-of-mouth referrals; newspaper advertisements and articles; fliers; brochures; posters, radio messages, and public service…

  9. Motives of physically active adults to participate in the 5 PKO Wroclaw Night Half Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Stodółka

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Participation in a half marathon allows competitors to fight their weaknesses. Runners want to participate in sports events because of the atmosphere and opportunity to spend time with their loved ones.

  10. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0...

  11. The Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Participation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijia Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of gambling participation and problems among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the U.S. Based on a community-based participatory research approach, the study enrolled 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. Among the participants, 58.9% were women and the average age was 72.8 years. Overall, 467 older adults had engaged in gambling in the past twelve months and 65 older adults had experienced any risk of problem gambling. Visiting a casino was the most commonly reported type of gambling, whereas betting on Mahjong had the highest frequency. Being male, lower educational levels, higher income levels, having more children, living in the U.S. for a longer period of time, living in the community for a longer period of time, better health status, lower quality of life, and improved health over the past year were significantly correlated with any gambling in the past year. Younger age, being male, and living with more people were significantly correlated with experiencing any risk of problem gambling in the past year. Future studies should be conducted to better examine the health effects of gambling and problem gambling among Chinese older adults.

  12. Cooking Matters for Adults Improves Food Resource Management Skills and Self-confidence Among Low-Income Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Jennifer A; Morgan, Ruth E; Wong, Karen; Wilkin, Margaret K; Blitstein, Jonathan L

    Determine the impact of Cooking Matters for Adults (CM) on food resource management (FRM) skills and self-confidence 6 months after course completion. Quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent comparison group and 6-month follow-up. Cooking Matters for Adults programs in CA, CO, ME, MA, MI, and OR. Participants in CM attending classes in April to July, 2016 (n = 332); comparison group (n = 336). Cooking Matters for Adults educated low-income adults to shop for and prepare healthy meals economically using hands-on meal preparation, facilitated discussion, and an interactive grocery store tour. Classes met for 2 hours, once a week for 6 weeks. Food resource management practices; FRM self-confidence (ie, in shopping for and preparing healthy foods on a budget); worrying that food might run out. Pearson's chi-square test and t tests identified measures associated with outcomes of interest and between-group differences. Repeated-measures linear mixed models with fixed and random effects were used to examine differences in outcomes between participants in CM and nonequivalent comparison group and to estimate the treatment effect of the program at 3 and 6 months after course completion. Six months after course completion, CM participants demonstrated improvements in all outcome measures of interest: Use of FRM practices improved (P = .002) as did FRM confidence (P < .001). Participants also worried less that food would run out before they had money to buy more (P = .03). This study demonstrated a positive impact of including FRM skills and confidence building in a nutrition education program, the effects of which could be seen for 6 months after participation in the program. Equipping low-income families with FRM skills allowed them to access healthier foods even during times of hardship. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  13. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  14. Exploring the boundary of a specialist service for adults with intellectual disabilities using a Delphi study: a quantification of stakeholder participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempe, Eva-Maria; Morrison, Cecily; Holland, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    There are arguments that a specialist service for adults with intellectual disabilities is needed to address the health inequalities that this group experiences. The boundary of such a specialist service however is unclear, and definition is difficult, given the varying experiences of the multiple stakeholder groups. The study reported here quantitatively investigates divergence in stakeholders' views of what constitutes a good specialist service for people with intellectual disabilities. It is the first step of a larger project that aims to investigate the purpose, function and design of such a specialist service. The results are intended to support policy and service development. A Delphi study was carried out to elicit the requirements of this new specialist service from stakeholder groups. It consisted of three panels (carers, frontline health professionals, researchers and policymakers) and had three rounds. The quantification of stakeholder participation covers the number of unique ideas per panel, the value of these ideas as determined by the other panels and the level of agreement within and between panels. There is some overlap of ideas about of what should constitute this specialist service, but both carers and frontline health professionals contributed unique ideas. Many of these were valued by the researchers and policymakers. Interestingly, carers generated more ideas regarding how to deliver services than what services to deliver. Regarding whether ideas are considered appropriate, the variation both within and between groups is small. On the other hand, the feasibility of solutions is much more contested, with large variations among carers. This study provides a quantified representation of the diversity of ideas among stakeholder groups regarding where the boundary of a specialist service for adults with learning disabilities should sit. The results can be used as a starting point for the design process. The study also offers one way to measure the

  15. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  16. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  17. Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) work participation is a challenge, as shown by their low employment rates. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors predict work participation, finding work as well as maintaining

  18. Prevalence and correlates of participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activity by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merom, D.; Pye, V.; Macniven, R.; van der Ploeg, H.; Milat, A.; Sherrington, C.; Lord, S.; Bauman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine older people's participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activities. Methods: Participants comprised 5,681 randomly selected older people (≥ 65. years) who took part in the 2009 New South Wales (Australia) Fall Prevention telephone survey (61% response-rate). The

  19. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  20. The Effectiveness of Lower-Limb Wearable Technology for Improving Activity and Participation in Adult Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lauren; Parker, Jack; Martyn St-James, Marrissa; Mawson, Susan

    2016-10-07

    With advances in technology, the adoption of wearable devices has become a viable adjunct in poststroke rehabilitation. Regaining ambulation is a top priority for an increasing number of stroke survivors. However, despite an increase in research exploring these devices for lower limb rehabilitation, little is known of the effectiveness. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of lower limb wearable technology for improving activity and participation in adult stroke survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lower limb wearable technology for poststroke rehabilitation were included. Primary outcome measures were validated measures of activity and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Databases searched were MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core collection), CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. In the review, we included 11 RCTs with collectively 550 participants at baseline and 474 participants at final follow-up including control groups and participants post stroke. Participants' stroke type and severity varied. Only one study found significant between-group differences for systems functioning and activity. Across the included RCTs, the lowest number of participants was 12 and the highest was 151 with a mean of 49 participants. The lowest number of participants to drop out of an RCT was zero in two of the studies and 19 in one study. Significant between-group differences were found across three of the 11 included trials. Out of the activity and participation measures alone, P values ranged from P=.87 to P ≤.001. This review has highlighted a number of reasons for insignificant findings in this area including low sample sizes, appropriateness of the RCT methodology for complex interventions, a lack of appropriate analysis of outcome data, and participant stroke severity.

  1. Factors determining the social participation of older adults: A comparison between Japan and Korea using EASS 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Katagiri

    Full Text Available Japan and Korea are the world's most aged and most rapidly aging nations. They both have low fertility rates, thereby intensifying the importance of social structures to aid a large, dependent population of older adults. Common strategies involve improving their social participation, which enhances their physical and mental health, so they are supporting society rather than being supported. Since the social participation rates in both countries are not as high as those of Western countries, it is critical to shed light on the factors related to social participation of the elderly.A secondary analyses were performed using Japanese and Korean data from the 2012 East Asia Social Survey (EASS, which includes nationally representative samples through random sampling. The analyses only include data from those 65 and older (Japan: N = 683, Korea: N = 362.Social participation is classified into four types: 1 no affiliation; 2 inactive participation; 3 active recreational; and 4 active social. The Japanese respondents had a higher participation rate than Koreans, but more Japanese were inactive. Though the rates of active participations were similar in both countries. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine the related factors among the four types of social participation. Basic attributes (e.g., living alone and other factors (e.g., network size were included as independent variables. The results show that larger non-family networks were linked with increased social participation in both societies. Men were more vulnerable to engaging in no social activities and at a higher risk of social isolation in both countries. One difference between the two nations is that among the Japanese, people with higher social orientations engage in more active social type participation.This study reveals that non-kin social networks are important for social participation in Japan and Korea.

  2. Factors determining the social participation of older adults: A comparison between Japan and Korea using EASS 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Keiko; Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Japan and Korea are the world's most aged and most rapidly aging nations. They both have low fertility rates, thereby intensifying the importance of social structures to aid a large, dependent population of older adults. Common strategies involve improving their social participation, which enhances their physical and mental health, so they are supporting society rather than being supported. Since the social participation rates in both countries are not as high as those of Western countries, it is critical to shed light on the factors related to social participation of the elderly. A secondary analyses were performed using Japanese and Korean data from the 2012 East Asia Social Survey (EASS), which includes nationally representative samples through random sampling. The analyses only include data from those 65 and older (Japan: N = 683, Korea: N = 362). Social participation is classified into four types: 1) no affiliation; 2) inactive participation; 3) active recreational; and 4) active social. The Japanese respondents had a higher participation rate than Koreans, but more Japanese were inactive. Though the rates of active participations were similar in both countries. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine the related factors among the four types of social participation. Basic attributes (e.g., living alone) and other factors (e.g., network size) were included as independent variables. The results show that larger non-family networks were linked with increased social participation in both societies. Men were more vulnerable to engaging in no social activities and at a higher risk of social isolation in both countries. One difference between the two nations is that among the Japanese, people with higher social orientations engage in more active social type participation. This study reveals that non-kin social networks are important for social participation in Japan and Korea.

  3. African American Men, Identity, and Participation in Adult Basic Education and Literacy Programs. Research Brief #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Brendaly; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Although the national graduation rate for African American males is only 47% (Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010), few studies have explored their experiences in adult basic and literacy education (ABEL) programs. This study draws on prior research to explore the relationship between literacy and identity and its potential for…

  4. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  5. Relationships Between Sport Participation, Problem Alcohol Use, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Young Adults in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. WHY ADULTS LEARN: INTERPRETING ADULTS’ REASONS TO PARTICIPATE IN EDUCATION IN TERMS OF ECCLES’ SUBJECTIVE TASK VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological research shows that subjective task value, a basic component of expectancyvalue theory as outlined by Eccles, predicts task choice (e.g., going to graduate school. However, Eccles’ approach has not been used to investigate adult learning so far. Therefore, the present study investigated a specific form of subjective task value and task choice, namely adults’ subjective task value of participation in education. Based on expectancy-value theory, qualitative content analyses of 16 interviews with adult learners (aged between 21 and 67 from varying age groups and educational backgrounds show a differentiation of positive value according to points of reference and a revised conceptualisation of cost as an independent component of subjective task value with four subcomponents. Apparently people estimate positive value and cost separately at first and only later weigh these components against each other to arrive at an overall evaluation of subjective task value, which, in turn, predicts participation in education. Moreover, results suggest a distinction between anticipated subjective task value prior to participation and subjective task value based on experience (i.e., in hindsight. Benefits of using expectancy-value theory for future research on adults’ participation in education are discussed.

  9. A participatory study of teenagers and young adults views on access and participation in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Solanki, Anita; Aslam, Natasha; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit young people's views on access and participation in cancer research. Eight young people aged 18-25 years with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a one day workshop utilising participatory methodology. The workshop consisted of four exercises: role play/scene setting; focus group examining thoughts and opinions of research access and participation; individual reflection on access to different types of research; and creative interpretation of the workshop. Further consultation with 222 young people with cancer was conducted using an electronic survey. Three themes emerged: • Patient choice: Young people thought it was their right to know all options about available research. Without knowledge of all available studies they would be unable to make an informed choice about participation. • Role of healthcare professionals as facilitators/barriers: Young people suggested non-clinical healthcare professionals such as social workers and youth support coordinators may be more suited to approaching young people about participation in psychosocial and health services research. • Value of the research: The what, when and how information was delivered was key in relaying the value of the study and assisting young people in their decision to participate. Further consultation showed approximately 70% wanted to find out about all available research. However, one third trusted healthcare professionals to decide which research studies to inform them of. Effective ways to support healthcare professionals approaching vulnerable populations about research are needed to ensure young people are empowered to make informed choices about research participation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientific literacy of adult participants in an online citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles Aaron

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative astronomical citizen science project can be associated with the scientific literacy of its participants. Scientific literacy is measured through three elements: attitude towards science, belief in the nature of science and competencies associated with learning science. The first two elements are measured through a pre-test given to 1,385 participants when they join the project and a post-test given six months later to 125 participants. Attitude towards science was measured using nine Likert-items custom designed for this project and beliefs in the nature of science were measured using a modified version of the Nature of Science Knowledge scale. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Competencies are measured through analysis of discourse occurring in online asynchronous discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework, which describes three types of presence in the online forums: cognitive, social and teaching. Results show that overall attitudes did not change, p = .225. However, there was significant change towards attitudes about science in the news (positive) and scientific self efficacy (negative), p impact on some aspects of scientific literacy. Using the Rasch Model allowed us to uncover effects that may have otherwise been hidden. Future projects may want to include social interactivity between participants and also make participants specifically aware of how they are contributing to the entire scientific process.

  11. Social participation, willingness and quality of life: A population-based study among older adults in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Cui, Yanjie; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Li, Jie; Li, Yuancheng; Lv, Xiaofeng; Huang, Fen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to reflect the current situation of social participation in rural areas of China, willingness to participate in social activities, association between health-related quality of life and social participation, and factors related to social participation. A total of 2644 rural adults aged 60 years and older were randomly selected and surveyed with a self-rating questionnaire. We used the unified definition of social participation in our study. The Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey was used to measure health-related quality of life. The overall engagement of social activities was 26%. Those who participated in social activities were more likely to have high scores of health-related quality of life. Older men with a high educational level (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12), high objective social support (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17) and high support utilization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) were inclined to engage in social participation. Older women with high individual income (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.43), single marital status (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), normal weight (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.34), overweight (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.24-4.19), living alone or with a spouse (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), objective social support (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18) and subjective social support (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) were more willing to engage in social participation. Engagement in social activities is relatively low in rural areas, and associations of willingness and health-related quality of life with social participation were found. Policy-makers and government workers should make appropriate types of encouragement policies around social participation for older adults in rural areas. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1593-1602. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  13. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-05

    Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens' clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens' clubs among males. Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  14. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  15. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  16. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  17. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: Does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  18. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  19. Differences between participants and nonparticipants in an exercise trial for adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Jansen, L.M.; Ronday, K.; Schaardenburg, D.J. van; Brand, R.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Zuijderduin, W.M.; Hazes, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the generalizability of the results of a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of long-term, high-intensity exercises in the rheumatoid arthritis patients in training (RAPIT) trial by comparing the characteristics of the participants with the nonparticipants.

  20. Relationship between increase in flexibility and improvement in the execution of daily actions by adults participating in supervised exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to relate flexibility improvements from a supervised exercise program (SEP attendance, to possible improvements in the execution of daily actions by adults. The sample consisted of 20 subjects, the majority of them cardiac patients, with an average age of 58 ± 9 years, actively participating in an SEP, selected intentionally. The Flexitest, was used to determine flexibility. In addition, the subjects answered an 11-question questionnaire, aiming to assess relative difficulty in daily actions. The questionnaire was completed between three and 18 months after beginning the program and assessed the subjects’ opinion on their improvements in daily actions since starting on the SEP. After the SEP, improvements were observed in the execution of 11 daily actions, global flexibility, and six individual movements on the Flexitest (p RESUMO Este estudo objetivou relacionar ganhos de flexibilidade decorrentes da participa��ão em programa de exercício supervisionado (PES com eventuais facilitações na execução de ações cotidianas em adultos. Vinte indivíduos, a maioria coronariopatas, com idade de 58 ± 9 anos, que estavam freqüentando um PES, foram selecionados intencionalmente. Para a avaliação da flexibilidade utilizou-se o Flexiteste. Em adendo, os indivíduos responderam um questionário com 11 perguntas para avaliar subjetivamente, a facilidade e/ou dificuldade de realizar ações cotidianas, no início do PES e no momento em que estavam respondendo o questionário. Após o PES, houve ganhos na facilidade de execução das 11 ações, na flexibilidade global passiva e em seis movimentos individuais do Flexiteste (p<0,05. Há correlação significativa entre as diferenças das respostas ao questionário e as variações na flexibilidade global (r=0,45; p<0,04. Existe relação inversa entre as variações de peso e de flexibilidade (r=-0,66; p<0,05. Concluiu-se que a facilitação na realização de a

  1. Enablers and constrainers to participation: Has policy in Nordic countries reached its limit for raising participation in adult learning among certain groups? Paper presented (with R. Desjardins) at the II Nordic conference on Adult Learning, Linköping, Sweden, 17-19 April

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Desjardins, Richard

    barriers to participation, and ensure that disadvantaged groups have equal opportunity to take up adult learning. Together, observations indicate that policy matters in promoting adult learning, especially among adults that would otherwise not participate. At the same time the observations indicate......Despite comparatively high and equal participation in adult learning in Nordic countries, a distinct pattern of non-participation persists. Moreover, the pattern of adults who tend to participate comparatively less often is similar to the non-Nordic countries considered, although it is less...... accentuated. The Nordic countries have a long shared history of supporting and fostering a rich adult learning culture. Although various historical, social and cultural factors are behind this, Nordic countries also share a strong record of public policy that aims to: promote adult learning, target various...

  2. When an adult female seeks ritual genital alteration: ethics, law, and the parameters of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Julie D

    2006-04-01

    Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adult female patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed.

  3. Healthy Choices for Every Body Adult Curriculum Improves Participants' Food Resource Management Skills and Food Safety Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Friendships and social participation as markers of quality of life of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaWalt, Leann Smith; Usher, Lauren V; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2017-12-01

    Friendships and social participation are key domains of quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study examined the friendships, social and recreational activities, and family social networks of individuals with intellectual disabilities from two distinct diagnostic groups: individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (n = 81) compared with those diagnosed with autistic disorder (n = 226). Within each diagnostic group, individuals in two developmental stages were compared: adolescence and adulthood. Quality of life in friendships and social participation domains was notably low for individuals with fragile X and those with autism. Individuals with fragile X had more friendships and a less negative social impact on the family than individuals with autism. Across both groups, adolescents spent less time with friends and neighbors, and more time in exercising, than did adults.

  5. The meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    Introduction: Support groups are considered an effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but there are no significant improvements in feelings of stress...... and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful and optimal outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review...... that through comparison and sharing positive and negative emotions, the members of the support group are able to take on and maintain the role as caregiver....

  6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR SCREENING OF ADULTS PARTICIPATING IN LEISURE-TIME SPORT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Ažman Juvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in regular moderate aerobic physical activity and increased physical fitness is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, which is after the age of 35 most often due to coronary events. On the other hand, moderate and vigorous physical exertion is associated with an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death in individuals harbouring cardiovascular disease. The risk-benefit ratio may differ in relation to the individual's age, fitness level and the presence and type of cardiovascular disease.The latest position stand of the European association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation on cardiovascular evaluation in middle aged/senior individuals, who are contemplating exercise or who are already engaged in nonprofessional competitive or recreational leisure sporting activity, is presented in the article. The aim of recommendations is to evaluate and encourage as many individuals as possible to participate in regular physical activity while minimizing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Recommendations are based on the individual's risk profile and the intended level of physical activity. Because of the large size of the population, an initial self assessment through health questionaire is proposed, relating to symptoms, risk factors for coronary artery disease and habitual exercise level. For those with positive self-assessed risk profile and those willing to perform high-intensity activities, a further risk stratification/evaluation should be performed by a qualified physician. In individuals with an increased risk for coronary events, maximal exerise is advocated and then further (cardiological evaluation when needed.

  7. ICT-based applications to improve social health and social participation in older adults with dementia. A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bruno, Ángel C; García-Casal, J Antonio; Csipke, Emese; Jenaro-Río, Cristina; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) developers, together with dementia experts have created several technological solutions to improve and facilitate social health and social participation and quality of life of older adults living with dementia. However, there is a need to carry out a systematic literature review that focuses on the validity and efficacy of these new technologies assessing their utility to promote 'social health' and 'active ageing' in people with dementia. Searches in electronic databases identified 3824 articles of which 6 met the inclusion criteria and were coded according to their methodological approach, sample sizes, type of outcomes and results. Six papers were identified reporting the use of 10 different interventions with people with dementia. Qualitative studies (four) showed a benefit of the use of technologies to foster social participation in people with dementia. At the same time, barriers to a widespread use of these technologies in this population were identified. A quantitative study and a mixed-method study with quantitative outcomes showed that ICT-based interventions promote more social behaviours than non-technology-based interventions. In the last years, several technological devices for living independently and fostering social health and social participation in people with dementia have been developed. However, specific outcome measures to assess social health and social participation are needed. Even though the analysed studies provided some evidence-base for the use of technology in this field, there is an urge to develop high quality studies and specific outcome measures.

  8. Differences in psychosocial determinants of physical activity in older adults participating in organised versus non-organised activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforche, B; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2000-12-01

    With the introduction of the new consensus on 30 minutes of moderate physical activity preferably on all days of the week, exercise implemented into daily activities is promoted whereas structured activity programs lose importance. Activity levels of most older people don't come up with current recommendations. Therefore strategies to enhance attendance of older adults in physical activities should be developed. Group programs may be more effective in changing exercise behaviour of older adults than non-supervised physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in level of activity and psychosocial determinants of physical activity between seniors involved in an exercise class and seniors not engaged in any organised physical activity. Seventy-five elderly who were currently involved in structured exercise classes and 75 elderly who did not participate in any organised physical activity during the previous year were recruited in senior citizens' centres and were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Subjects involved in an exercise program had higher levels of activity and reported more social influences and higher self-efficacy compared to the respondents practising on an individual basis. No differences were found in perceived barriers or benefits. Exercising in a group program gives the opportunity to accumulate some extra physical activity and positively affects the level of activity outside the program. Stimulating older adults to join a structured activity program in the company of family or friends in order to enhance supporting social influences and perceived competence could be an important intervention strategy.

  9. Wheeled-mobility correlates of life-space and social participation in adult manual wheelchair users aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Routhier, François; Miller, William C

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the life-space mobility and social participation of manual wheelchair users using objective measures of wheeled mobility. Individuals (n = 49) were included in this cross-sectional study if they were aged 50 or older, community-dwelling and used their wheelchair on a daily basis for the past 6 months. Life-space mobility and social participation were measured using the life-space assessment and late-life disability instrument. The wheeled mobility variables (distance travelled, occupancy time, number of bouts) were captured using a custom-built data logger. After controlling for age and sex, multivariate regression analyses revealed that the wheeled mobility variables accounted for 24% of the life-space variance. The number of bouts variable, however, did not account for any appreciable variance above and beyond the occupancy time and distance travelled. Occupancy time and number of bouts were significant predictors of social participation and accounted for 23% of the variance after controlling for age and sex. Occupancy time and distance travelled are statistically significant predictors of life-space mobility. Lower occupancy time may be an indicative of travel to more distant life-spaces, whereas the distance travelled is likely a better reflection of mobility within each life-space. Occupancy time and number of bouts are significant predictors of participation frequency. Implications for rehabilitation Component measures of wheelchair mobility, such as distance travelled, occupancy time and number of bouts, are important predictors of life-space mobility and social participation in adult manual wheelchair users. Lower occupancy time is an indication of travel to more distant life-spaces, whereas distance travelled is likely a better reflection of mobility within each life-space. That lower occupancy time and greater number of bouts are associated with more frequent participation raises accessibility and safety issues for manual wheelchair

  10. Association Between Social Participation and 3-Year Change in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether social participation (SP) in older adults is associated with ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Prospective cohort study. Two local municipalities of Nara, Japan. Individuals aged 65 to 96 (n = 2,774 male, n = 3,586 female) free of IADL disability at baseline. SP and IADLs were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. SP was categorized into five types and assessed using the number and type of social activities. IADLs were evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression analysis stratified according to sex was used to examine change in IADLs according to SP, with nonparticipation as a reference. During the 3-year follow-up, 13.6% of men and 9.0% of women reported IADL decline. After adjusting for age, family structure, body mass index, pension, occupation, medical treatment, self-rated health, drinking, smoking, depression, cognitive function, and activities of daily living, participation in various social activities was inversely associated with change in IADLs in women but not men. Participation in the following types of social activities had significant inverse associations with IADL disability: hobby clubs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.94) for men and local events (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.95), hobby clubs (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), senior citizen clubs (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.97), and volunteer groups (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99) for women. Participation in a variety of different types of social activities was associated with change in IADLs over the 3 years of this study in women, and participation in hobby clubs was associated with change in IADLs in men and women. Recommending that community-dwelling elderly adults participate in social activities appropriate for their sex may promote successful aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics

  11. Educational, employment, and social participation of young adult graduates from the paediatric Southern Cochlear Implant Programme, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Terence; Bird, Philip; Pearson, John; Mustard, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the education and vocational achievements and social participation of cochlear implant recipients as they graduate from a paediatric cochlear implant programme and identify any significant associations that might exist. This study identified 56 patients from the Southern Cochlear Implant Programme (SCIP) who received cochlear implants before the age of 19 (paediatric) and are now over the age of 19 (adult). A questionnaire investigated their education, employment, and identity with the hearing and deaf communities. Also included were the satisfaction with life scale and Hearing Participation Scale (HPS). Subjects ranged in age from 19 to 32. Twenty-six patients responded to the questionnaire, including one non-user. Twenty identified strongly or very strongly with the hearing community. There was weak evidence of a linear association between strong identity with the hearing community and a higher HPS score. No other statistically significant associations were detected. Interestingly, 12 out of 26 participants found employment through family. Positive outcome trends in education and employment were seen in this study although no statistical significance was achieved. There is a strong bias for those who use their cochlear implants regularly, and there are no data available for those who do not use their cochlear implants for comparison as only one non-user completed the survey, despite efforts to include this group. This study shows that there is perceived benefit in implantation for patients who use it regularly but further research is needed with a more diverse group of cochlear implant recipients.

  12. Longitudinal Changes in Emerging Adults' Attachment Preferences for Their Mother, Father, Friends, and Romantic Partner: Focusing on the Start and End of Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…

  13. Longitudinal changes in emerging adults' attachment preferences for their mother, father, friends, and romantic partner : Focusing on the start and end of romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called attachment preferences), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on

  14. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p ART, or ART motivation. The use of situationally specific strategies to enhance adherence in young people who take their

  15. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work as a compensation for the absence of work or partnership? Evidence from two German samples of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2012-07-01

    We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults.

  17. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Older Adults and College Students Participating in Recycling Mentors, a Service-Learning, Environmental Health Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth; Fiala, Kelly Ann; Covan, Eleanor Krassen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of both students and older adults that participated in a service-learning, environmental health education program called Recycling Mentors (RM). Methods: Surveys were conducted before and after participation in RM. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS.…

  19. Men Want Equality, but Women Don't Expect It: Young Adults' Expectations for Participation in Household and Child Care Chores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Sabrina F.; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Axelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored whether there was a discrepancy between young adults' ideal and expected participation in household and child care chores as well as what variables predicted expectations for future chore division. Three-hundred fifty-eight unmarried, heterosexual participants with no children completed an online questionnaire assessing the…

  20. Social participation among older adults not engaged in full- or part-time work is associated with more physical activity and less sedentary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Takamiya, Tomoko; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Amagasa, Shiho; Oka, Koichiro; Owen, Neville

    2017-11-01

    Social participation provides health benefits for older adults. However, there is the need to identify whether higher social participation is associated with older adults being more physically active and less sedentary (sitting time). We examined the associations of social participation with physical activity, and sedentary time, in a population-based sample of older Japanese adults. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey carried out in 2010 was used to collect data on social participation, physical activity, sedentary time and sociodemographic characteristics. Data were examined from 1146 community-dwelling, unemployed older adults (mean age 70.1 years, 43% men). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for associations of social participation with physical activity and total sedentary time; and, for associations with passive and mentally-active sedentary (sitting) time. For both men and women, those with higher social participation were more physically active (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.44-3.06 among men; OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.39-2.68 among women). Total sedentary time had significant associations among men (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.90), but not among women (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58-1.11). Social participation was associated with less passive sedentary time (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81 for men; OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.51-0.99 for women). Promoting social participation among older adults could contribute to increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time, with potential benefits for chronic disease. Further research is required to elucidate the deleterious and beneficial roles of passive and mentally-active sedentary time for older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1921-1927. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Advantages of asynchronous online focus groups and face-to-face focus groups as perceived by child, adolescent and adult participants: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-24

    Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantage of OFGs was the possibility to participate from home (69.1%). The most important advantage of FTFs was respondents' perception that it is easier to have a discussion with the whole group when there is personal contact with others (48.5%). This advantage was mentioned significantly more often by adults (78.4%) than by children and adolescents (4.8% and 17.7%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive

  2. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecluse Christophe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that

  3. Pilot study to determine interest of adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Asma; Roberts, Susan B; Young, Andrew J; McGraw, Susan; Dallal, Gerard E; Das, Sai Krupa

    2014-03-01

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weight control programs. We conducted a survey to determine the level of interest of adult civilian dependents of ADMP in participating in a group weight control program. Subjects were a convenience sample of 191 adult civilian dependents of ADMP (94% women, 6% men) based in Massachusetts and aged 33.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass index 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2). Overall, there was a significant effect of body mass index on interest in program participation (p = 0.004). Eighty five percent of overweight participants and 100% of obese participants reported being Moderately Likely or Very Likely to participate in a provided weight control program. In overweight and obese survey respondents there was no significant effect of ADMP rank on interest in program participation (p = 0.34). These findings suggest that overweight and obese adult civilian dependents of ADMP may be very receptive targets for programs to control overweight and obesity in military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial

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    Mikael Fogelholm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 diabetes (T2D is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6 years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018.

  5. PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Poppitt, Sally; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Stratton, Gareth; Sundvall, Jouko; Lam, Tony; Jalo, Elli; Christensen, Pia; Drummen, Mathijs; Simpson, Elizabeth; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Muirhead, Roslyn; Silvestre, Marta P.; Kahlert, Daniela; Pastor-Sanz, Laura; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018. PMID:28632180

  6. ParticipACTION: Awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults - Examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model

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    Faulkner Guy EJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM, this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. Methods A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%. The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM. Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424. Results Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were

  7. ParticipACTION: awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults--examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Brawley, Lawrence R; Craig, Cora Lynn; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Tremblay, Mark S; Bauman, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy Ej; Chad, Karen; Clark, Marianne I

    2009-12-09

    ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM), this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b) confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c) to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted), outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%). The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM). Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy), intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424). Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were greater if they were more educated and reported

  8. Self-Reported Participation in Sport/Exercise Among Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Janet Margaret; Emerson, Eric Broughton; Baines, Susannah May Johnston; Hatton, Christopher Rowan

    2018-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Methods: Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence int...

  9. Participation needs of older adults having disabilities and receiving home care: met needs mainly concern daily activities, while unmet needs mostly involve social activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Pier-Luc; Larivière, Nadine; Desrosiers, Johanne; Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Hélène; Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2015-08-01

    Participation is a key determinant of successful aging and enables older adults to stay in their homes and be integrated into the community. Assessing participation needs involves identifying restrictions in the accomplishment of daily and social activities. Although meeting participation needs involves older adults, their caregivers and healthcare providers, little is known about their respective viewpoints. This study thus explored the participation needs of older adults having disabilities as perceived by the older adults themselves, their caregivers and healthcare providers. A qualitative multiple case study consisted of conducting 33 semi-structured interviews in eleven triads, each composed of an older adult, his/her caregiver and a healthcare provider recruited in a Health and Social Services Centre (HSSC) in Québec, Canada. Interview transcripts and reviews of clinical records were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics based on thematic saliency analysis methods. Aged 66 to 88 years, five older adults had physical disabilities, five had mild cognitive impairment and one had psychological problems, leading to moderate to severe functional decline. Caregivers and healthcare providers were mainly women, respectively retired spouses and various professionals with four to 32 years of clinical experience. Participation needs reported by each triad included all domains of participation. Needs related to daily activities, such as personal care, nutrition, and housing, were generally met. Regarding social activities, few needs were met by various resources in the community and were generally limited to personal responsibilities, including making decisions and managing budgets, and some community life activities, such as going shopping. Unmet needs were mainly related to social activities, involving leisure, other community life activities and interpersonal relationships, and some daily activities, including fitness and mobility. This study

  10. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dog and Cat Allergies and Allergen Avoidance Measures in Korean Adult Pet Owners Who Participated in a Pet Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  12. Relationships between adults` participation in leisure time physical activity and demographic factors. Part I: gender and age – review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA are well documented, and include reduced morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, and other pervasive conditions. Despite these benefits, adults` participation in regular LTPA is still low. Many previous studies showed associations between adults` participation in LTPA and demographic factors but the results of these researches are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between adults` participation in LTPA and two demographic variables: gender and age. Method: The systematic review was limited to four factors: leisure-time physical activity, adults, gender and age. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key database. A total of 46 potential papers was identified. Of these 46 papers, 25 passed the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Results: In most of the analyzed studies  showed no significant differences in the percentage of inactive men and women. Among sufficient active individuals there were more men than women. In all analyzed studies found significant association between the level of LTPA and age of men and women. However, the directions of these connections were different in individual countries, and age and gender groups. Conclusion: Relationships between adults` participation in LTPA and gender, and age are specific for men and women in individual countries, and age groups, therefore there is necessity to monitor the level of LTPA in these subgroups. The results of these studies should be useful in the creation of the strategies supported adults` participation in LTPA.

  13. Health or harm? A cohort study of the importance of job quality in extended workforce participation by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jennifer; Strazdins, Lyndall; Charlesworth, Sara; Kulik, Carol T; Butterworth, Peter

    2016-08-25

    As people are living longer, they are being encouraged to work longer. While it is assumed that extended employment will be good for health, the evidence has been mixed. This study considers whether employment and job quality exert an influence on four indicators of health status in older workers. Data for this study came from 836 older workers (440 men and 396 women) aged 50-59 years at baseline who participated in the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using linear regression, we examine within-person change in self-rated, physical and mental health and one health behaviour (physical activity) at two time points over a nine year follow-up period. There were minimal differences in the way health changed for older adults who continued working compared to those who retired voluntarily. However, when we decomposed employment in terms of job quality, health outcomes diverged. Compared to voluntary retirees, older workers who had worked in good quality jobs reported marginally better self-rated health (0.14,-0.02-0.29); but did not differ in their physical (2.31,-1.09-5.72) or mental health (0.51,-1.84-2.87). In contrast, older workers who held poor quality jobs for most of the follow-up period declined in their self-rated (-1.13,-0.28 - -0.02), physical (-4.90, 8.52- - 1.29) and mental health (-4.67, 7.69- - 1.66) relative to voluntary retirees. Older workers who held poor quality jobs for just some of the follow-up period did not differ from voluntary retirees in terms of their health. However there was evidence of a linear relationship between length of exposure to poor quality jobs and decline in health outcomes. Extended working lives mean that people will be 'exposed' to work for longer, and this exposure will occur at a life stage characterised by declining health for many. Our findings show that ensuring older workers have access to secure jobs which allow for control over work time, skill use and fair rewards will be

  14. Health or harm? A cohort study of the importance of job quality in extended workforce participation by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Welsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As people are living longer, they are being encouraged to work longer. While it is assumed that extended employment will be good for health, the evidence has been mixed. This study considers whether employment and job quality exert an influence on four indicators of health status in older workers. Methods Data for this study came from 836 older workers (440 men and 396 women aged 50–59 years at baseline who participated in the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey. Using linear regression, we examine within-person change in self-rated, physical and mental health and one health behaviour (physical activity at two time points over a nine year follow-up period. Results There were minimal differences in the way health changed for older adults who continued working compared to those who retired voluntarily. However, when we decomposed employment in terms of job quality, health outcomes diverged. Compared to voluntary retirees, older workers who had worked in good quality jobs reported marginally better self-rated health (0.14,−0.02–0.29; but did not differ in their physical (2.31,−1.09–5.72 or mental health (0.51,−1.84–2.87. In contrast, older workers who held poor quality jobs for most of the follow-up period declined in their self-rated (−1.13,−0.28 − –0.02, physical (−4.90, 8.52– − 1.29 and mental health (−4.67, 7.69– − 1.66 relative to voluntary retirees. Older workers who held poor quality jobs for just some of the follow-up period did not differ from voluntary retirees in terms of their health. However there was evidence of a linear relationship between length of exposure to poor quality jobs and decline in health outcomes. Conclusion Extended working lives mean that people will be ‘exposed’ to work for longer, and this exposure will occur at a life stage characterised by declining health for many. Our findings show that ensuring older workers have

  15. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work... SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.90 How many hours per week...

  17. Inequality in Participation in Adult Learning and Education (ALE): Effects of Micro- and Macro-Level Factors through a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this dissertation include describing and analyzing the patterns of inequality in ALE participation at both the micro and macro levels. Special attention is paid to social origins of individual adults and their association with two groups of macro-level factors, social inequality (income, education, and skill inequality) and…

  18. Financing Adult Education: How Adequate Are Current Sources in Facilitating Access and Participation in Centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Ndonga James; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The thrust of this study was to examine the level of adequacy of current sources in facilitating access and participation in adult education centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Combinations of purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 82…

  19. Gender Issues in Older Adults' Participation in Learning: Viewpoints and Experiences of Learners in the University of the Third Age (U3A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of 41 female and 15 male older adults participating in Universities of the Third Age found the genders approach retirement differently. Women want to experience freedom and make up for lost opportunities; men prefer to "sit." However, men with active interests before retirement continued activity in the Third Age. (SK)

  20. The Influences of Socio-Demographic Factors, and Non-Formal and Informal Learning Participation on Adult Environmental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…

  1. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Stam, H.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP,

  2. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Sornpaisarn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively “youth” in Thailand (a middle-income country. Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n = 87,176 Thai youth, 15–24 years of age to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  3. Feasibility of the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) with a visual impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus

    2017-05-11

    Having a visual impairment affects quality of life, daily functioning and participation. To assess rehabilitation needs of visually impaired children and young adults, the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) were developed. The PAI-CY comprises four questionnaires for different age categories: 0-2 years, 3-6 years, 7-12 years and 13-17 years. This pilot study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the PAI-CY and PAI-YA, and the relevance of the content of the questionnaires. In addition to the regular admission procedure, the PAI-CY and PAI-YA were completed by 30 participants (six per questionnaire). For the PAI-CY, parents completed the questionnaire online prior to admission. From age 7 years onwards, children completed the questionnaire face-to-face with a rehabilitation professional during the admission procedure. Young adults completed the PAI-YA online. Subsequently, participants and professionals administered an evaluation form. Overall, 85% of the parents rated all aspects of the PAI-CY neutral to positive, whereas 100% of all children and young adults were neutral to positive on all aspects, except for the duration to complete. The main criticism of professionals was that they were unable to identify actual rehabilitation needs using the questionnaires. Minor adjustments were recommended for the content of questions. Parents, children and young adults were mostly satisfied with the questionnaires, however, professionals suggested some changes. The adaptations made should improve satisfaction with content, clarification of questions, and satisfaction with the questionnaires in compiling a rehabilitation plan. Although face and content validity has been optimized, a larger field study is taking place to further develop and evaluate the questionnaires.

  4. Self-Reported Participation in Sport/Exercise Among Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence into adulthood. Participants with mild to moderate intellectual disability were identified through data linkage with educational records. Sport/exercise participation rates were consistently lower for adolescents and young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability than for their peers without intellectual disability. Matching participants on between-group differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors did not impact on these between-group differences in participation in sport/exercise. The results support limited existing evidence regarding the low level of participation of children and young people with intellectual disability in sport/exercise compared with their peers. Future work on promoting sport/exercise and physical activity in children and young people with intellectual disability may play a role in helping to reduce the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability.

  5. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Hook

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  6. Young adults, social networks, and addiction recovery: post treatment changes in social ties and their role as a mediator of 12-step participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Kelly

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations.Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends, and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking. Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk.High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome.Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit from 12-step MHOs.

  7. Young adults, social networks, and addiction recovery: post treatment changes in social ties and their role as a mediator of 12-step participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Greene, M Claire; Slaymaker, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations. Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White) enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends), and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking). Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk. High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome. Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit from 12-step MHOs.

  8. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  10. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households that Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Ammerman, Alice S; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-07-08

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 ( n = 41) and February 2016 ( n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t -tests ( p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes.

  13. Successful After-School Physical Activity Clubs in Urban High Schools: Perspectives of Adult Leaders and Student Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel L.; Kaseta, Michele; Maljak, Kim; Whalen, Laurel; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n= 278) and adult leaders (n= 126). Results…

  14. Creating a Village: The Impact of the Opportunity to Participate in Synchronous Web Conferencing on Adult Learner Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Community is a place where people go to feel comfortable. It is important to develop strategies for enhancing a sense of community in the online learning environment designed for adult learners. The purpose of this study was to determine if adding a synchronous conferencing experience to an asynchronous course impacted overall sense of community,…

  15. Examining Learner Perceptions of Adult Participants Using a Self-Assessment Tool in a Driver Improvement Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Driving behavior is a contributing factor in 85% of all traffic crashes; therefore, driver reeducation must be centered on increasing safe driving behavior. Because self-reflection strategies have been shown to change behavior, a study using a self-assessment tool was conducted with Virginia adult drivers mandated to complete a driver improvement…

  16. Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W.N.; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Kooij, J. J.Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. Methods N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. METHODS: N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  19. The importance of age composition of 12-step meetings as a moderating factor in the relation between young adults' 12-step participation and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Allison K; Greene, Claire; Bergman, Brandon G; Hoeppner, Bettina; Kelly, John F

    2013-12-01

    Participation in 12-step mutual help organizations (MHO) is a common continuing care recommendation for adults; however, little is known about the effects of MHO participation among young adults (i.e., ages 18-25 years) for whom the typically older age composition at meetings may serve as a barrier to engagement and benefits. This study examined whether the age composition of 12-step meetings moderated the recovery benefits derived from attending MHOs. Young adults (n=302; 18-24 years; 26% female; 94% White) enrolled in a naturalistic study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months later on 12-step attendance, age composition of attended 12-step groups, and treatment outcome (Percent Days Abstinent [PDA]). Hierarchical linear models (HLM) tested the moderating effect of age composition on PDA concurrently and in lagged models controlling for confounds. A significant three-way interaction between attendance, age composition, and time was detected in the concurrent (p=0.002), but not lagged, model (b=0.38, p=0.46). Specifically, a similar age composition was helpful early post-treatment among low 12-step attendees, but became detrimental over time. Treatment and other referral agencies might enhance the likelihood of successful remission and recovery among young adults by locating and initially linking such individuals to age appropriate groups. Once engaged, however, it may be prudent to encourage gradual integration into the broader mixed-age range of 12-step meetings, wherein it is possible that older members may provide the depth and length of sober experience needed to carry young adults forward into long-term recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The ma...... and the final business model. In other words: The start-up must first nail the problem together with the customers, then develop the solution and test, and then in the end scale it to a full-grown business model.......The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...

  1. In It Together: A Qualitative Evaluation of Participant Experiences of a 10-Week, Group-Based, Workplace HIIT Program for Insufficiently Active Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2018-02-01

    Using guidance from the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance evaluation framework, we aimed to qualitatively evaluate the participant experiences of a workplace high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention. Twelve previously insufficiently active individuals (four males and eight females) were interviewed once as part of three focus groups. Perceptions of program satisfaction, barriers to and facilitators of adherence, and persistence to exercise were explored. HIIT initiates interest because of its novelty, provides a sense of accomplishment, and overcomes the barriers of perceived lack of time. The feeling of relatedness between the participants can attenuate negative unpleasant responses during the HIIT sessions. HIIT, in this workplace setting, is an acceptable intervention for physically inactive adults. However, participants were reluctant to maintain the same mode of exercise, believing that HIIT sessions were for the very fit.

  2. Nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Malpeli, Giorgio; Dolci, Sissi; Lavarini, Valentina; Pretto, Silvia; Vasquez, Sandra; Sciancalepore, Marina; Montalbano, Alberto; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Adult spinal cord has little regenerative potential, thus limiting patient recovery following injury. In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin. Furthermore, from dissociated meningeal tissue a neural stem cell population was cultured in vitro and subsequently shown to differentiate into functional neurons or mature oligodendrocytes. Proliferation rate and number of nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells increased in vivo in meninges following spinal cord injury. By using a lentivirus-labeling approach, we show that meningeal cells, including nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells, migrate in the spinal cord parenchyma and contribute to the glial scar formation. Our data emphasize the multiple roles of meninges in the reaction of the parenchyma to trauma and indicate for the first time that spinal cord meninges are potential niches harboring stem/precursor cells that can be activated by injury. Meninges may be considered as a new source of adult stem/precursor cells to be further tested for use in regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders, including repair from spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Dietary Guidelines for Adults Starting on Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health. Eat a high protein food (meat, fish, poultry, fresh pork, or eggs) at every meal, or ... cucumber, radishes, peppers, with olive oil and vinegar dressing Lemonade, 8 ounces Aim for at least 2- ...

  4. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2014-08-01

    This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13-24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Starting an aphasia center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Green Care Farms: An Innovative Type of Adult Day Service to Stimulate Social Participation of People With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.R.; Stoop, A.; Molema, C.C.M.; Vaandrager, L.; Hop, P.J.W.M.; Baan, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for

  7. Why do not more prisoners participate in adult education? An analysis of barriers to education in Norwegian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole Johan; Asbjørnsen, Arve

    2018-06-01

    From a lifelong learning perspective, education during incarceration is crucial for prisoners' rehabilitation. This article describes the authors' development of their Perceived Barriers to Prison Education Scale (PBPES) and examines what deters prisoners from participating in education during their incarceration, how their perceptions differ depending on gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties, length of prison sentence, and whether the prisoners express a desire to participate in education or not. Within a larger survey conducted in all Norwegian prisons among all prisoners with Norwegian citizenship, the authors focused on those who did not participate in education (n = 838). To reveal the underlying constructs that comprise perceived barriers, they hypothesised a three-factor model to which they applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The analysis confirmed the model, which comprised institutional barriers (e.g. insufficient practical arrangements; lack of access to computers and to the Internet), situational barriers (e.g. education is not considered to be of help in the current situation) and dispositional barriers (e.g. having difficulties in mathematics, reading, writing and concentrating), with good fit to the data. The authors used mixed-model analyses of variance to examine differences between subgroups of prisoners. Gender, age, educational level, learning difficulties and length of prison sentence were found to influence perceived barriers. The authors also observed that prisoners who wished to participate in education were more likely than others to perceive institutional barriers and less likely to perceive situational barriers.

  8. National stereotypes of older people's competence are related to older adults' participation in paid and volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-11-01

    Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.

  9. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  10. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  11. Families & the North Carolina Smart Start Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Betsy; Bryant, Donna; Zolotor, Adam

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families. This study examined characteristics of families participating in Smart Start, their child care arrangements and family activities, and their need for and use of community…

  12. The differences in self-esteem, function, and participation between adults with low cervical motor tetraplegia who use power or manual wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jennifer; Robins, Hillary; Griffiths, Yvette; Hamilton, Christina

    2011-11-01

    To explore the differences between manual and power wheelchair users in terms of self-esteem, function, and participation in persons with a similar motor level of spinal cord injury (SCI). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a single data collection. General community. Participants (N=30) were a convenience sample of adults with self-reported C6 and C7 tetraplegia caused by SCI who are 1 or more years postinjury. Eighteen were manual chair users, and 12 were power chair users. Not applicable. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III) as a measure of function, and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) as a measure of participation. There were no significant differences between manual and power chair users regarding age, time since injury, or length of initial rehabilitation stay. A significant difference was seen between wheelchair groups (F=2.677, P=.038). Multivariate analysis showed the differences to be in the SCIM III (F=11.088, P=.003) and the CHART subcategories Physical (F=7.402, P=.011), Mobility (F=12.894, P=.001), and Occupation (F=5.174, P=.031). Manual wheelchair users demonstrated better physical function, mobility, and had a higher employment rate than power wheelchair users based on the SCIM III and CHART in this sample of adults with C6 or C7 motor level tetraplegia. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  14. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  15. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  16. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  17. Seeing How Far I've Come: The Impact of the Digital Sexual Life History Calendar on Young Adult Research Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2017-01-01

    The Digital Sexual Life History Calendar (d/SLHC) is a Web-based platform for collecting young adults' sexual histories. In addition to collecting diverse data, the d/SLHC was designed to benefit participants by enabling reflection on their sexual and relationship experiences in the context of other life events and circumstances. In a pilot study of the d/SLHC, survey data were collected to test whether creating a d/SLHC timeline had any impact on sexual well-being. A sample of 18- to 25-year-old participants recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) completed an online survey about sexuality and relationships. Of those, 113 also completed d/SLHC timelines and 262 served as a comparison group. Six months later, participants from both groups were invited to complete a follow-up survey (total N = 249). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that participants who completed d/SLHC timelines exhibited higher sexual esteem immediately following d/SLHC completion and at follow-up. No changes in sexual esteem were observed in the comparison group, and there were no differences between the groups with regard to sexual health behaviors and outcomes. These findings suggest that sexuality studies may have the potential to yield not only rich data for researchers but also rich experiences for participants.

  18. A Four-Session Sleep Intervention Program Improves Sleep for Older Adult Day Health Care Participants: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Song, Yeonsu; Hughes, Jaime; Jouldjian, Stella; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A

    2017-08-01

    To test the effectiveness of a 4-week behavioral Sleep Intervention Program (SIP: sleep compression, modified stimulus control, and sleep hygiene) compared to a 4-week information-only control (IC) among older adults attending a VA Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-two individuals (mean age: 77 years, 93% male) enrolled in a VA ADHC program were randomized to receive SIP or IC. All completed in-person sleep and health assessments at baseline, post-treatment and 4-months follow-up that included 3 days/nights of wrist actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Mixed repeated measures analysis was used to compare sleep outcomes at post-treatment and 4-months follow-up, with baseline values as covariates. SIP participants (n = 21) showed significant improvement on actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = .007), number of nighttime awakenings (p = .016), and minutes awake at night (p = .001) at post-treatment, compared to IC participants (n = 21). Benefits were slightly attenuated but remained significant at 4-month follow-up (all p's sleep time between groups. There was significant improvement on PSQI factor 3 (daily disturbances) at 4-month follow-up (p = .016), but no differences were observed between SIP and IC on other PSQI components or ISI scores at post-treatment or 4-month follow-up. A short behavioral sleep intervention may have important benefits in improving objectively measured sleep in older adults participating in ADHC. Future studies are needed to study implementation of this intervention into routine clinical care within ADHC. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Exploring older and younger adults' preferences for health information and participation in decision making using the Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Mo; Feldman, Robert; Zhou, Le

    2014-12-01

    Existing measurements of patient preferences cover only a limited range of health information and participation in decision making. A broader approach is necessary to understand the breadth and variations in patient preferences. To explore the breadth and variances in patient preferences for health information and participation in decision making and to understand the relationship between age and each type of preference. The Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was administered during May-December 2010 to gather data about the information and corresponding decision-making autonomy participants would want in seven areas: diagnosis, treatment, laboratory tests, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), psychosocial factors and health-care providers. A large state university, public libraries and senior centres in Maryland, USA. A convenience sample of 438 individuals, including 226 undergraduates (mean age = 20; SD = 2.15) and 212 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 72; SD = 9.00). Ratings on the information and decision-making items of the HIWQ. Participants expressed higher levels of preference for information than for participation in decision making on six of seven subscales. On the psychosocial subscale, they expressed stronger desire for participation in decision making than for information. Age had no predictive effect on the overall preferences or specific preferences for information and participation in decision making about standard treatments and CAM. The predictive effect of age on the other types of preferences varied significantly. Physicians should take into account the breadth and variations in patient preferences. The predictive effect of age on patient preferences varied depending on the specific area of preferences. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Red Flags for Maltese Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Poorer Dental Care and Less Sports Participation Compared to Other European Patients-An APPROACH-IS Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Maryanne; Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Thomet, Corina; Budts, Werner; Sluman, Maayke; Eriksen, Katrine; Dellborg, Mikael; Berghammer, Malin; Johansson, Bengt; Soufi, Alexandra; Callus, Edward; Moons, Philip; Grech, Victor

    2017-06-01

    Studies in recent years have explored lifestyle habits and health-risk behaviours in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients when compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in lifestyle habits between Maltese and other European ACHD patients. Data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, substance misuse, dental care and physical activity collected in 2013-2015 during "Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease-International Study" (APPROACH-IS) were analysed. Responses from 119 Maltese participants were compared to those of 1616 participants from Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Significantly fewer Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 84.1% vs. European 97.5%, p < 0.001) and moderately complex CHD (Maltese 83.6% vs. European 97.4%, p < 0.001) brushed their teeth daily. Only 67.2% of Maltese with moderately complex disease had dental reviews in the previous year compared to 80.3% of Europeans (p = 0.02). Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 31.8% vs. European 56.1%, p = 0.002) and moderately complex lesions (Maltese 30.0% vs. European 59.2%, p < 0.001) performed less regular sport activities. Comparison by country showed Maltese patients to have significantly poorer tooth brushing and sports participation than patients from any other participating country. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and substance misuse were not significantly different. This study highlights lifestyle aspects that Maltese ACHD patients need to improve on, which might not be evident upon comparing patients to non-CHD controls. These findings should also caution researchers against considering behaviours among patients in one country as necessarily representative of patients on the larger scale.

  1. An additive effect of leading role in the organization between social participation and dementia onset among Japanese older adults: the AGES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Yuta; Saito, Tami; Kanamori, Satoru; Tsuji, Taishi; Shirai, Kokoro; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Maruo, Kazushi; Arao, Takashi; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-12-29

    Several previous studies reported social participation may reduce the incident of dementia; therefore, the type of positions held in the organization may relate to dementia onset. However, this hypothesis remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the additive effect of a leadership position in the organization on dementia onset and social participation among elderly people in a local community, according to data from a Japanese older adults cohort study. Of 29,374 community-dwelling elderly, a total of 15,313 subjects responded to the baseline survey and were followed-up from November 2003 to March 2013. To evaluate the association between dementia onset and social participation as well as the role in the organization, we conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with multiple imputation by age group (aged 75 years older or younger). The dependent variable was dementia onset, which was obtained from long-term care insurance data in Japan; independent variables were social participation and the role in the organization to which they belonged (head, manager, or treasurer). Covariates were sex, age, educational level, marriage status, job status, residence status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and walking time, instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 708 young-old elderly people (7.7%) and 1289 old-old elderly people (27.9%) developed dementia. In young-old elderly, relative to social non-participants, adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for dementia onset for participants (regular members + leadership positions) was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.88). Relative to regular members, adjusted HR for dementia onset for non-participants was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46), for leadership positions 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-0.99). The results for old-old elderly participants did not show that any significantly adjusted HR between dementia onset and social participation

  2. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories explored for self-rated participation in Swedish adolescents and adults with a mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    To explore internal consistency and correlations between perceived ability, performance and perceived importance in a preliminary selection of self-reported items representing the activity/participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Structured interview study. Fifty-five Swedish adolescents and adults with a mild intellectual disability. Questions about perceived ability, performance and perceived importance were asked on the basis of a 3-grade Likert-scale regarding each of 68 items representing the 9 ICF domains of activity/participation. Internal consistency for perceived ability (Cronbach's alpha for all 68 items): 0.95 (values for each domain varied between 0.57 and 0.85), for performance: 0.86 (between 0.27 and 0.66), for perceived importance: 0.84 (between 0.27 and 0.68). Seventy-two percent of the items showed correlations >0.5 (mean=0.59) for performance vs perceived importance, 41% >0.5 (mean=0.47) for perceived ability vs performance and 12% >0.5 (mean=0.28) for perceived ability vs perceived importance. Measures of performance and perceived importance may have to be based primarily on their estimated clinical relevance for describing aspects of the ICF participation concept. With a clinimetric approach, parts of the studied items and domains may be used to investigate factors related to different patterns and levels of participation, and outcomes of rehabilitation.

  3. The role of serious mental illness in motivation, participation and adoption of health behavior change among obese/sedentary Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Thomas, Lauren; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-11-10

    Serious mental illness (SMI; e.g. schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, severe major depressive disorder, and psychotic disorders) and Latino ethnicity can produce a compounded health disparity, placing individuals at particularly high risk for excess morbidity and premature mortality. In this study we sought to identify the role of SMI in motivation, participation, and adoption of health behavior change among overweight Latino adults. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 overweight Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI, In SHAPE. The interviews explored the complicated role having an SMI had in the lives of the Latino participants. SMI had both positive and negative impact on Latino participants' health behaviors. The nature of their mental illness along with medication side effects (e.g. lethargy, weight gain, etc.) negatively impacted their ability to making lasting health behavior change. However, the regular appointments with various specialists provided them with structure that they otherwise would have lacked and gave them a reason to get out of the house. This exploratory research provides insight into the experience of overweight Latinos with SMI and the ways in which SMI impacts their participation in health behavior change. An understanding of the positive and negative effects of SMI on health behavior change will inform the development of health promotion interventions targeted at Latinos with SMI.

  4. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Assessment of the use of xerogenic medications for chronic medical and dental conditions among adult day health participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Annie; Kiyak, Asuman; Gossett, Allison M; McCormick, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    To describe the health conditions, dental problems, and use of xerogenic medications among dental patients in adult day health (ADH) centers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. ADH centers in King County, Washington. ADH clients who were patients of a mobile dental service. Pharmacist-conducted chart reviews and in-person medication reviews with patients. Demographic description, mean numbers of medical and dental problems, medications, xerogenic medications used per subject, and identification of xerogenic medications by therapeutic class. At five sites, 97 patients were interviewed (average age 73.8 +/- 11.8 years, 61% female); ethnicities included: Asian-American (37.1%), Caucasian (30.9%), Russian (29%), and African-American (3%). Mean numbers of chronic health problems, medications, and xerogenic medications per patient were 5.2 +/- 2.7, 10.9 +/- 4.4, and 3.3 +/- 1.8, respectively. Antidepressants were the most commonly used xerogenic medication, followed by antipsychotics, antiemetics, analgesics, and antihistamines. Among 74 patients who received dental treatment, 33 (44.6%) wore dentures. Among 58 patients with teeth, a mean number of 2.8 dental problems per patient was identified. Dental caries (51.7%) was the most prevalent problem, followed by periodontitis (29.3%), soft tissue lesions (10.3%), gingivitis (5.2%), and candidiasis (3.4%). Multiple systemic diseases, use of multiple xerogenic medications, and poor oral health were prevalent among the ADH clients in this study. However, self-reports of dry mouth were unrelated to number of xerogenic medications or oral conditions. Further research is needed to determine the association between self-reported dry mouth, chronic health conditions, use of xerogenic medications, tooth loss, and/or denture use.

  6. Getting started with Go

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    No, not the Chinese boardgame, the programming language that ironically Google made difficult to google for. You may have heard of Golang, and are wondering whether you should learn it. The answer is that of course you should, and this talk should explain why and point you at the best resources to get started.

  7. The renaissance starts here

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    The Asian Pacific Basin region has the highest rate of growth of anywhere in the world and its need for electricity is staggering. This is leading, noted a senior Korean official speaking at the 10th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, to a ''renaissance of nuclear power'' in Asia. Judging by the optimism in evidence at the conference, perhaps it has already started. (Author)

  8. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  9. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  10. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  11. Starting up the upstarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J

    1997-12-20

    Venture capitalists pour $1 billion a year into health care--and that investment may be the most overlooked indicator of new business opportunities. Signs show that companies focused on consolidation and cost-cutting are off the A list for risk capital. Instead, venture capitalists are targeting start-ups that save money on the front lines by truly managing care.

  12. Dietary intake modification in response to a participation in a resistance training program for sedentary older adults with prediabetes: findings from the Resist Diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M; Davy, Brenda M; Clark, Adrienne G; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Hedrick, Valisa E; Marinik, Elaina L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, J; Winett, Sheila; Winett, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Engagement in one type of health behavior change may exert a "spillover" effect resulting in other behavior changes. Few studies have examined dietary intake following prolonged training, and none have evaluated spontaneous dietary changes beyond alterations in energy or macronutrient intake following initiation of strength/resistance training (RT). The purpose of this observational investigation was to determine if spontaneous dietary intake modifications occur in response to initiation of an RT program, among older adults. Previously sedentary adults with prediabetes (n=134, age=59±1 years) were enrolled in a supervised 12-week RT program. Participants were not given dietary advice or encouraged to change eating behaviors. Three non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of RT. Reductions in intake of energy (1914±40 kcal vs. 1834±427 kcal, p=0.010), carbohydrate (211.6±4.9 g vs. 201.7±5.2 g, p=0.015), total sugar (87.4±2.7 g vs. 81.5±3.1 g, p=0.030), glycemic load (113.4±3.0 vs. 108.1±3.2, p=0.031), fruits and vegetables (4.6±0.2 servings vs. 4.1±0.2 servings, p=0.018), and sweets and desserts (1.1±0.07 servings vs. 0.89±0.07 servings, p=0.023) were detected over time. No changes in other dietary intake variables were observed. Mode of exercise and disease state may be important factors in determining whether dietary modifications occur with exercise initiation, among previously sedentary adults. Successful initiation of RT may represent an opportunity for health care professionals to promote beneficial changes in dietary habits, among older adults with prediabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocol for a systematic review of evaluation research for adults who have participated in the 'SMART recovery' mutual support programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Hunt, David; Forbes, Erin; Kelly, John F

    2016-05-23

    Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery) offers an alternative to predominant 12-step approaches to mutual aid (eg, alcoholics anonymous). Although the principles (eg, self-efficacy) and therapeutic approaches (eg, motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy) of SMART Recovery are evidence based, further clarity regarding the direct evidence of its effectiveness as a mutual aid package is needed. Relative to methodologically rigorous reviews supporting the efficacy of 12-step approaches, to date, reviews of SMART Recovery have been descriptive. We aim to address this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of the evidence for SMART Recovery in adults with problematic alcohol, substance and/or behavioural addiction, including a commentary on outcomes assessed, potential mediators, feasibility (including economic outcomes) and a critical evaluation of the methods used. Methods are informed by the Cochrane Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. 6 electronic peer-reviewed and 4 grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for SMART Recovery literature (liberal inclusion criteria, not restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs), qualitative-only designs excluded). Eligible 'evaluation' articles will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis of the findings will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics, and outcomes. Where possible, 'summary of findings' tables will be generated for each comparison. When data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula (continuous outcomes) for the primary outcome of each trial. No

  14. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improving self-management in insulin-treated adults participating in diabetes education. The role of overprotection by the partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, M; Keers, J C; Links, T P; Bouma, J; Ter Maaten, J C; Sanderman, R

    2006-03-01

    To examine the role of overprotection by the partner--i.e. excessive protection, unnecessary help, excessive praise for accomplishments, or attempts to restrict activities as a consequence of underestimating the patient's capabilities--in changes in patient self-management in the context of diabetes education. Sixty-seven insulin-treated patients with a partner completed questionnaires on admission to a Multidisciplinary Intensive Education Programme (MIEP) and 3 months after completing the core module of MIEP. Factors assessed were overprotection by their partner and three aspects of diabetes self-management, namely internal locus of control, diabetes-related distress and HbA1c. Regression analyses were used to test the independent associations of patient sex, baseline overprotection and the interaction between sex and overprotection with diabetes self-management at the follow-up stage, controlling for the baseline value of the dependent variable. The increase in internal locus of control and decrease in HbA1c were both significantly less for female patients who perceived their partner to be rather overprotective than for female patients who did not perceive their partner to be overprotective. The more patients, both male and female, perceived their partner to be overprotective, the less their diabetes-related distress decreased. Overprotection by the partner showed a negative association with improvement in diabetes self-management, especially for female patients. Thus, an intervention programme with the aim of reducing overprotection by the partner, or the perception of this, may enhance self-management in patients participating in diabetes education.

  16. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  17. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  18. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  19. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  20. Start-up procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchl, A.; Krebs, W.D.; Aleite, W.

    1975-01-01

    The start-up procedure will be shown on a pressurized water reactor, although most of the activities will occur similarly in other reactor types. The commissioning time can be divided into 5 sections, the phases A to E together lasting 26 months. Subsequently there are a test run of one month and the handling-over of the plant to the operator. A survey of the commissioning sections with several important main events is shown. (orig./TK) [de

  1. Jump Starting Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars

    How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming an entrep......How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming...... an entrepreneur emerges before the discovery of a profitable opportunity. We empirically examine this question on the unique setting of a corporate entrepreneurship program. In the midst of a corporate crisis, Nokia supported laid-off employees to start their own ventures under favorable conditions. We...... persevered in their endeavors and eventually became comfortable with their new career prospects. We discuss the psychological factors that impact career transition after organizational closure and theorize weather they encourage or discourage entrepreneurship....

  2. Calibration of Mg2SiO4(Tb) thermoluminescent dosimeters for use in determining diagnostic X-ray doses to Adult Health Study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    Characteristics of Mg 2 SiO 4 (Tb) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were ascertained preparatory to measuring dose from diagnostic X-ray examinations received by Adult Health Study participants. These detectors are small, relatively sensitive to low-dose X rays, and are appropriate for precise dosimetry. Extensive calibration is necessary for precisely determining doses according to their thermoluminescent intensities. Their sensitivities were investigated, by dose according to X-ray tube voltage, and by exposure direction, to obtain directional dependence. Dosimeter sensitivity lessened due to the fading effect and diminution of the planchet. However, these adverse effects can be avoided by storing the dosimeters at least 1.5 hours and by using fresh silver-plated planchets. Thus, the TLDs, for which sensitivities were determined in this study, will be useful in subsequent diagnostic X-ray dosimetry. (author)

  3. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  4. The Design of New Technology Supporting Wellbeing, Independence and Social Participation, for Older Adults Domiciled in Residential Homes and/or Assisted Living Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cahill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify and validate the requirements for new technology supporting wellness, independence and social participation for older people domiciled in residential homes and/or assisted-living communities. Method: This research adopts a stakeholder evaluation approach to requirements elicitation and user interface design. Specifically, the study design combines several qualitative human–machine interaction (HMI design frameworks/methods, including realist ethnography, scenario-based design, persona-based design, and participatory design. Findings: New technology should reflect positive values around ageing and link to psychosocial models of successful ageing, and biopsychosocial models of health and wellbeing. Resident autonomy, wellness and social participation cannot be conceptualized outside an understanding of the relationships older adults have with others. The design remit for this technology is to enable a resident experience that is similar to living at home. New technologies should facilitate wellness and communication/connection, and not simply risk assessment. New technology provides an opportunity to bridge existing information gaps between care planning, care assessments and daily care. Overall this technology needs to be intuitive and uphold the resident’s dignity and rights. Person-to-person interaction is central to care delivery. The introduction of new technology should enhance this interaction, and not threaten it. Conclusions: Future assisted-living (AL technology should be premised by biopsychosocial models of wellness and support relationships between older adults and members of the personal and professional community. New assisted-living technology affords the possibility for improved social relationships, enhanced wellbeing, better quality of care, and independence. Such technologies require careful consideration in relation to adapting to age/condition and managing issues

  5. Active ageing and quality of life: factors associated with participation in leisure activities among institutionalized older adults, with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Pérez, Fermina; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Martín-García, Salomé; Rojo-Abuín, José-Manuel; Forjaz, Maria-Joao

    2015-01-01

    Active ageing, considered from the perspective of participation in leisure activities, promotes life satisfaction and personal well-being. The aims of this work are to define and explain leisure activity profiles among institutionalized older adults, considering their sociodemographic characteristics and objective and subjective conditions in relation to their quality of life. Two samples of institutionalized people aged 60 and over were analysed together: 234 older adults without dementia and 525 with dementia. Sociodemographic, economic, family and social network, and health and functioning variables were selected. Cluster analysis was applied to obtain activity profiles according to the leisure activities, and ordinal regression models were performed to analyse factors associated to activity level. The sample was clustered into three groups of people: active (27%), moderately active (35%) and inactive people (38%). In the final regression model (Nagelkerke pseudo R(2) = 0.500), a higher level of activity was associated with better cognitive function (Pfeiffer scale), self-perceived health status and functional ability, as well as with a higher frequency of gathering with family and friends, and higher educational level. The decline in physical and mental health, the loss of functional capabilities and the weakening of family and social ties represent a significant barrier to active ageing in a context of institutionalization.

  6. Insomnia in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A comparison with borderline personality disorder population in a clinical setting and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Jermann, Françoise; Weiner, Luisa; Nicastro, Rosetta; Ardu, Stefano; Pham, Eleonore; Hasler, Roland; Dayer, Alexandre; Prada, Paco; Perroud, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report sleeping difficulties. The relationship between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood, and shows discrepancies between subjective and objective measures. In order to determine the specificity of sleep-associated symptoms in ADHD, subjective sleep assessments among ADHD adult patients were compared with control subjects and with individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). 129 outpatients with ADHD, 70 with BPD (including 17 patients with BPD and ADHD comorbidity), and 65 control participants were assessed for sleep quality, insomnia, and sleepiness, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). ADHD- and BPD-sufferers achieved higher insomnia and lower sleep quality scores than control subjects. Clinical groups did not differ in terms of sleep quality, although insomnia was more severe among BPD patients. Depression scores explained most of sleep symptoms, but even when controlling for depression, ADHD sufferers showed higher sleep latency. Inattentive symptoms were associated with somnolence, while hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with insomnia and lower sleep efficiency. Sleep-related symptoms associated with ADHD were partly explained by non-specific factors, especially depression symptoms. In a dimensional perspective, hyperactive and inattentive symptoms were associated with specific sleep symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  8. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  9. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  10. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  11. Impact of Provider Participation in ACO Programs on Preventive Care Services, Patient Experiences, and Health Care Expenditures in US Adults Aged 18-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Rock; Sonawane, Kalyani; Larson, Samantha; Mainous, Arch G; Marlow, Nicole M

    2018-05-15

    Little is known about the impact of accountable care organization (ACO) on US adults aged 18-64. To examine whether having a usual source of care (USC) provider participating in an ACO affects receipt of preventive care services, patient experiences, and health care expenditures among nonelderly Americans. A cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 Medical Organizations Survey linked with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Survey respondents aged 18-64 with an identified USC and continuous health insurance coverage during 2015. Preventative care services (routine checkup, flu vaccination, and cancer screening), patient experiences with health care (access to care, interaction quality with providers, and global satisfaction), and health care expenditures (total and out-of-pocket expenditures) for respondents with USC by ACO and non-ACO provider groups. Among 1563, nonelderly Americans having a USC, we found that nearly 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.6%-66.7%; representing 15,722,208 Americans] were cared for by ACO providers. Our analysis showed no significant differences in preventive care services or patient experiences between ACO and non-ACO groups. Adjusted mean total health expenditures were slightly higher for the ACO than non-ACO group [$7016 (95% CI, $4949-$9914) vs. $6796 (95% CI, $4724-$9892)]; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.250). Our findings suggest that having a USC provider participating in an ACO is not associated with preventive care services use, patient experiences, or health care expenditures among a nonelderly population.

  12. Adult daughters providing post-stroke care to a parent: a qualitative study of the impact that role overload has on lifestyle, participation and family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Marina; Gignac, Monique A; Kapral, Moira K; Cameron, Jill I

    2015-06-01

    To qualitatively explore daughters' experiences with and response to holding multiple roles while providing post-stroke care to a parent. Qualitative study using a descriptive approach. Semi-structured interviewing was used. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed to develop themes. General community of a metropolitan city. Twenty-three adult daughters caring for a community-dwelling parent who had suffered a stroke. Not applicable. Not applicable. Role overload is a salient issue for daughter caregivers. This overload is best captured by the analogy of "juggling" multiple role demands and responsibilities. Two key themes suggest that role overload resulting from parent care affects daughters': 1) valued relationships (e.g. challenges develop in their relationship with children and partner); and 2) ability to participate in valued activities (e.g. reduced involvement in leisure activities and restricted employment). Future support efforts should help daughters manage the caregiving role in light of other responsibilities. This can mitigate overload-related strain in valued relationships and decreased participation in valued activities, thereby contributing to better health and well-being for daughter caregivers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults.We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18. Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up, there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking.Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  14. Does self-efficacy mediate functional change in older adults participating in an exercise program after hip fracture? A randomized control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Nancy K.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture, and whether the mediation effect was different between different gender and age groups. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Setting Community Participants Two hundred and thirty two participants aged 79±9.4 years with hip fracture were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120) or attention control (n=112) groups. Interventions The 6-month intervention, the HIP Rehab, is a functionally-oriented, home-based exercise program. Data was collected at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and follow-up (9 months). Main outcome measure Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Results The mediation effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.21). Similarly, the mediation effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediation effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (≤79 years old) in comparison to the older group, and was significant in females in comparison to males. Conclusion Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role for the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the HIP Rehab intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in the future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and gender of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. PMID:25701101

  15. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, David; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Gao, Pei; Sun, Qi; Walldius, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Verschuren, WM Monique; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engström, Gunnar; Ridker, Paul M; Njølstad, Inger; Iso, Hiroyasu; Holme, Ingar; Giampaoli, Simona; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Gaziano, J Michael; Brunner, Eric; Kee, Frank; Tosetto, Alberto; Meisinger, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Whincup, Peter H; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Ian; Cremer, Peter; Hofman, Albert; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Clarke, Robert; de Boer, Ian H; Jukema, J Wouter; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Lawlor, Debbie A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Casiglia, Edoardo; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Simons, Leon A; Nietert, Paul J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Björkelund, Cecilia; Strandberg, Timo E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Blazer, Dan G; Meade, Tom W; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Woodward, Mark; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan; Jørgensen, Torben; Tilvis, Reijo S; Guralnik, Jack M; Rosengren, Annika; Taylor, James O; Kiechl, Stefan; Dagenais, Gilles R; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Wallace, Robert B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Visser, Marjolein; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sundström, Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Daimon, Makoto; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Cooper, Jackie A; Onat, Altan; Devereux, Richard; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Dankner, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew W; Crespo, Carlos J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Goldbourt, Uri; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shaw, Jonathan E; Mussolino, Michael; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Fletcher, Astrid; Kuller, Lewis H; Gillum, Richard F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Assmann, Gerd; Wald, Nicholas; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Greenland, Philip; Trevisan, Maurizio; Ulmer, Hanno; Butterworth, Adam S; Folsom, Aaron R; Davey-Smith, George; Hu, Frank B; Danesh, John; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Charles E; Simpson, Lara M; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Folsom, Aaron R; Demerath, Ellen W; Franceschini, Nora; Lutsey, Pamela L; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Shaw, Jonathan E; Atkins, Robert; Zimmet, Paul Z; Barr, Elizabeth LM; Knuiman, Matthew W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Morris, Richard W; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Weger, Siegfried; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Wald, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Yarnell, John WG; Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Greenland, Philip; Shay, Christina M; Garside, Daniel B; Nietert, Paul J; Sutherland, Susan E; Bachman, David L; Keil, Julian E; de Boer, Ian H; Kizer, Jorge R; Psaty, Bruce M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Schnohr, Peter; Giampaoli, Simona; Palmieri, Luigi; Panico, Salvatore; Pilotto, Lorenza; Vanuzzo, Diego; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Simons, Leon A; Simons, Judith; McCallum, John; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Price, Jackie F; Lee, Amanda J; Taylor, James O; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Wallace, Robert B; Kohout, Frank J; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C; Guralnik, Jack M; Blazer, Dan G; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Phillips, Caroline L; Guralnik, Jack M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Wennberg, Patrik; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Giampaoli, Simona; Woodward, Mark; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Møller, Lars; Jespersen, Jørgen; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Welin, Lennart; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Lappas, Georgios; Bengtsson, Calle; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Cremer, Peter; Nagel, Dorothea; Strandberg, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Tilvis, Reijo S; Miettinen, Tatu A; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Noda, Hiroyuki; Goldbourt, Uri; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Poppelaars, Jan L; Deeg, Dorly JH; Visser, Marjolein; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; de Boer, Ian H; Shea, Steven J; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Döring, Angela; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Fletcher, Astrid; Nitsch, Dorothea; Kuller, Lewis H; Grandits, Greg; Tverdal, Aage; Selmer, Randi; Nystad, Wenche; Mussolino, Michael; Gillum, Richard F; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Manson, JoAnn E; Rimm, Eric B; Hankinson, Susan E; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Cooper, Jackie A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Davidson, Karina W; Kirkland, Susan; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Shimbo, Daichi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Holme, Ingar; Selmer, Randi; Tverdal, Aage; Nystad, Wenche; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Jouven, Xavier; Bakker, Stephan JL; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L; Crespo, Carlos J; Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R; Kee, Frank; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrières, Jean; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Jukema, J Wouter; de Craen, Anton JM; Sattar, Naveed; Stott, David J; Cantin, Bernard; Lamarche, Benoît; Després, Jean-Pierre; Dagenais, Gilles R; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bettencourt, Richele R; Buisson, Catherine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Bolli; Trevisan, Maurizio; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Tiemeier, Henning; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Tavendale, Roger; Lowe, Gordon DO; Woodward, Mark; Devereux, Richard; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Ali, Tauqeer; Calhoun, Darren; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey-Smith, George; Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Sundström, Johan; Ingelsson, Erik; Michaëlsson, Karl; Cederholm, Tommy; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M; Gaziano, J Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Ulmer, Hanno; Diem, Günter; Concin, Hans; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Tosetto, Alberto; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Manson, JoAnn E; Marmot, Michael; Clarke, Robert; Fletcher, Astrid; Brunner, Eric; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie; Ford, Ian; Robertson, Michele; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Feskens, Edith; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kromhout, Daan; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; Alexander, Myriam; Butterworth, Adam S; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Franco, Oscar H; Gao, Pei; Gobin, Reeta; Haycock, Philip; Kaptoge, Stephen; Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally; Lewington, Sarah; Pennells, Lisa; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Sarwar, Nadeem; Thompson, Alexander; Thompson, Simon G; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Wormser, David; Zhao, Xiaohui; Danesh, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases. PMID:22825588

  16. Participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities for health and well-being in adults: a review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husk, Kerryn; Lovell, Rebecca; Cooper, Chris; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Garside, Ruth

    2016-05-21

    There is growing research and policy interest in the potential for using the natural environment to enhance human health and well-being. This resource may be underused as a health promotion tool to address the increasing burden of common health problems such as increased chronic diseases and mental health concerns. Outdoor environmental enhancement and conservation activities (EECA) (for instance unpaid litter picking, tree planting or path maintenance) offer opportunities for physical activity alongside greater connectedness with local environments, enhanced social connections within communities and improved self-esteem through activities that improve the locality which may, in turn, further improve well-being. To assess the health and well-being impacts on adults following participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities. We contacted or searched the websites of more than 250 EECA organisations to identify grey literature. Resource limitations meant the majority of the websites were from UK, USA, Canada and Australia. We searched the following databases (initially in October 2012, updated October 2014, except CAB Direct, OpenGrey, SPORTDiscus, and TRIP Database), using a search strategy developed with our project advisory groups (predominantly leaders of EECA-type activities and methodological experts): ASSIA; BIOSIS; British Education Index; British Nursing Index; CAB Abstracts; Campbell Collaboration; Cochrane Public Health Specialized Register; DOPHER; EMBASE; ERIC; Global Health; GreenFILE; HMIC; MEDLINE-in-Process; MEDLINE; OpenGrey; PsychINFO; Social Policy and Practice; SPORTDiscus; TRoPHI; Social Services Abstracts; Sociological Abstracts; The Cochrane Library; TRIP database; and Web of Science. Citation and related article chasing was used. Searches were limited to studies in English published after 1990. Two review authors independently screened studies. Included studies examined the impact of EECA on adult health and well

  17. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  18. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  19. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  20. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  1. Does self-efficacy mediate functional change in older adults participating in an exercise program after hip fracture? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Latham, Nancy K; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    To examine whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture and whether the mediating effect was different between sex and age groups. Randomized controlled trial. Community. Participants with hip fracture (N=232; mean age ± SD, 79±9.4y) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120, 51.7%) and attention control (n=112, 48.3%) groups. The 6-month intervention, the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation, is a functionally oriented, home-based exercise program. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6mo), and follow-up (9mo). Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care. The mediating effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.21). Similarly, the mediating effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediating effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (age, ≤79y) in comparison to the older group and was significant in women in comparison to men. Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role in the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and sex of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  3. Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne K.; McFarlane, Elizabeth C.; Windham, Amy M.; Rohde, Charles A.; Salkever, David S.; Fuddy, Loretta; Rosenberg, Leon A.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Sia, Calvin C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HST), its ongoing evaluation study, and evaluation findings at the end of two of a planned three years of family-program participation and follow-up. HST uses home visitors to help prevent abusive and neglectful parenting. Found significant differences in program implementation among the three…

  4. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.

  5. Social Learning in the Real-World: 'Over-Imitation' Occurs in Both Children and Adults Unaware of Participation in an Experiment and Independently of Social Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whiten

    Full Text Available The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation-the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions-occurs in a real-world context in which participants are unaware of being in an experiment. We disguised a puzzle-box task as an interactive item available to the public within a science engagement zone of Edinburgh Zoo. As a member of the public approached, a confederate acting as a zoo visitor retrieved a reward from the box using a sequence of actions containing both causally relevant and irrelevant elements. Despite the absence of intentional demonstration, or social pressure to copy, a majority of both child and even adult observers included all causally irrelevant actions in their reproduction. This occurred even though causal irrelevance appeared manifest because of the transparency of the puzzle-box. That over-imitation occurred so readily in a naturalistic context, devoid of social interaction and pressure, suggests that humans are opportunistic social learners throughout the lifespan, copying the actions of other individuals even when these actions are not intentionally demonstrated, and their causal significance is not readily apparent. The disposition to copy comprehensively, even when a mere onlooker, likely provides humans, irrespective of their age, with a powerful mechanism to extract maximal information from the social environment.

  6. An Adult Education Model of Resident Participation: Building Community Capacity and Strengthening Neighborhood-Based Activities in a Comprehensive Community Initiative (CCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brisson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive Community Initiatives (CCIs are of growing interest to social work and the social services field as they are an effort to move away from remediation of individual problems within neighborhoods to a comprehensive change effort that builds resident and institutional capacity for long term sustainability of healthy communities. Built on ongoing lessons learned from the community development field, CCIs are largely foundation supported projects that engage low-income neighborhood residents in a holistic change effort. However, based on what is known about community organizing, CCIs will likely face challenges as long as they involve a top-down approach with an outside funder entering a community to make change. This manuscript frames an adult education model of resident participation that can be used in CCIs and provides a case example illustrating the model in action. A discussion of how the model can be an effective means for communities to take advantage of outside resources while maintaining their power and voice for change is offered in conclusion.

  7. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  8. Temporal Dietary Patterns Derived among the Adult Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 Are Associated with Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J; Gelfand, Saul B; Delp, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal dietary patterns, the distribution of energy or nutrient intakes observed over a period of time, is an emerging area of dietary patterns research that incorporates time of dietary intake with frequency and amount of intake to determine population clusters that may have similar characteristics or outcomes related to diet quality. We examined whether differences in diet quality were present between clusters of individuals with similar daily temporal dietary patterns. The first-day 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004, were used to determine proportional energy intake, time of intake, frequency of intake occasions, and mean diet quality. Data from 9,326 US adults aged 20 to 65 years were included. The mean diet quality, classified by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, of participant clusters with similar temporal dietary patterns derived on the basis of individual proportional energy intake, time of intake, and frequency of intake, were inferentially compared using multiple linear regression that controlled for potential confounders and other covariates (PDiet quality differences were present between US population clusters exhibiting similar daily temporal dietary patterns (Pdiet quality, demonstrating that elements beyond food and nutrient intake, such as time, can be incorporated with dietary patterns to determine links to diet quality that enhance knowledge of the complicated interplay of time and dietary patterns. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adiponectin levels and its association with hyperglycaemia in adult Filipino participants in the 2003--04 National Nutrition and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth; Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne; Sy, Rosa Allyn G; Jasul, Gabriel V; Sison, Cherrie Mae C; Laurel, Aurora F

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the association of serum adiponectin levels with the presence of IFG or DM in Filipinos. This case control study used sera of adult participants in the Philippines' NNHeS: 2003-04. Subjects were divided into: normoglycaemic control, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-seven prediabetic and 83 diabetic subjects were included in the prediabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in adiponectin values between control and prediabetic subjects. Diabetic subjects had significantly lower mean serum adiponectin levels (10.7 versus 14.2 microg/ml, p=0.0198) compared with age- and BMI-matched control subjects. Diabetic subjects were found most frequently (43.53%) in the lowest tertile (1.6-7.2 microg/ml) and least frequently (20%) in the highest tertile (14-84 microg/ml) of adiponectin values. We conclude that Filipinos with diabetes mellitus had significantly lower adiponectin levels compared with normoglycaemic subjects.

  10. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Paljärvi

    Full Text Available Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood.We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years. We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking.Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population.These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.

  11. From Head Start to Sure Start: Reflections on Policy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, John

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the history of debates over the US Head Start programme (1965), Early Head Start (1994) and the UK Sure Start initiative (1998), as a window on to policy transfer. In all the three, the aim was that early intervention could offer a means of boosting children's educational attainment and of countering the wider effects of poverty…

  12. Changes in serum phosphate and potassium and their effects on mortality in malnourished African HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy and given vitamins and minerals in lipid-based nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea Mary; Woodd, Susannah Louise; Heimburger, Douglas Corbett

    2017-01-01

    Malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of early mortality, some of which may be attributed to altered electrolyte metabolism. We used data from a randomised controlled trial of electrolyte-enriched lipid-based nutritional supplements to assess...... that changes in serum electrolytes, largely irrespective of the starting point and the direction of change, were more strongly associated with mortality than were absolute electrolyte levels. Although K and phosphate are required for tissue deposition during recovery from malnutrition, further studies...... are needed to determine whether specific supplements exacerbate physiologically adverse shifts in electrolyte levels during nutritional rehabilitation of ill malnourished HIV patients....

  13. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with a recent diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study of participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes (EXTOD) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Amy; Narendran, Parth; Andrews, Robert C; Daley, Amanda; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To explore attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Qualitative methodology using focus group (n=1), individual face-to-face (n=4) and telephone interviews (n=8). Thematic analysis using the Framework Method. Setting Nineteen UK hospital sites. Participants Fifteen participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes study. We explored current and past levels of exercise, understanding of exercise and exercise guidelines, barri...

  14. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  15. Circulating early biomarkers of atherogenesis in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Barreto, Sandhi; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the distribution of selected biomarkers according to age and sex, adjusted for HOMA-IR and adiposity, in a subset of middle-aged individuals of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA without diabetes mellitus or CVD. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 998 participants of the ELSA-Brasil without diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors, several biomarkers concentrations were compared according to sex, age groups (35-44; 45-54 yrs) and HOMA-IR tertiles. Linear regression was used to examine independent associations of sex and age with selected novel biomarkers, adjusted for body adiposity and HOMA-IR. Fifty-five percent were women. Men had higher mean values of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, worse lipid profile and higher E-selectin and lower leptin concentrations than women; while women had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and leptin than men. Mean values of waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) increased with age in both sexes. Leptin and E-selectin concentrations increased across HOMA-IR tertiles. Independent associations of Apo B with age were found only in male sex, while of leptin with body mass index and HOMA-IR, and of E-selectin with HOMA-IR in both sexes. In conclusion, our data indicate age, sex, adiposity and, consequently, insulin resistance, influence circulating levels of Apo B, leptin and E-selectin, suggesting that those aspects should be taken into consideration when assessing these parameters for research or clinical purposes in individuals at relatively low cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  17. Later Start, Longer Sleep: Implications of Middle School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Princiotta, Daniel; Ryberg, Renee; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although adolescents generally get less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep per night, research and effort to delay school start times have generally focused on high schools. This study assesses the relation between school start times and sleep in middle school students while accounting for potentially confounding demographic…

  18. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  19. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m 2 , p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  20. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....

  1. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  2. Association between adiposity outcomes and residential density: a full-data, cross-sectional analysis of 419 562 UK Biobank adult participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Webster, Chris; Gallacher, John

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is a major health issue and an important public health target for urban design. However, the evidence for identifying the optimum residential density in relation to obesity has been far from compelling. We examined the association of obesity with residential density in a large and diverse population sample drawn from the UK Biobank to identify healthy-weight-sustaining density environments. For this full-data, cross-sectional analysis, we used UK Biobank data for adult men and women aged 37-73 years from 22 cities across the UK. Baseline examinations were done between 2006 and 2010. Residential unit density was objectively assessed within a 1 km street catchment of a participant's residence. Other activity-influencing built environment factors were measured in terms of density of retail, public transport, and street-level movement density, which were modelled from network analyses of through movement of street links within the defined catchment. We regressed adiposity indicators of body-mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ), waist circumference (cm), whole body fat (kg), and obesity (WHO criteria of BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) on residential density (units per km 2 ), adjusting for activity-influencing built environment factors and individual covariates. We also investigated effect modification by age, sex, employment status, and physical activity. We used a series of linear continuous and logistic regression models and non-linear restricted cubic spline models as appropriate. Of 502 649 adults in the prospective cohort, 419 562 (83·5%) participants across 22 UK Biobank assessment centres met baseline data requirements and were included in the analytic sample. The fitted restricted cubic spline adiposity-residential density dose-response curve identified a turning point at a residential density of 1800 residential units per km 2 . Below a residential density of 1800 units per km 2 , an increment of 1000 units per km 2 was positively related with adiposity, being associated

  3. Preparing participants for intergenerational interaction training for success

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Melissa; Mcguire, Francis A

    2013-01-01

    Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction: Training for Success examines established intergenerational programs and provides the training methods necessary for activity directors or practitioners to start a similar program. This book contains exercises that will help you train colleagues and volunteers for these specific programs and includes criteria for activity evaluations. Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction will help you implement programs that enable older adults to build friendships, pass down their skills and knowledge to adolescents, and provide youths with positive role models. Discussing the factors that often limit the interaction of older adults with youths, this text stresses the importance of conveying information and history to younger generations. You will learn why the exchange between different generations is crucial to society and to the improvement of the community in which you live. Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction provides you ...

  4. Impact of vertigo and dizziness on self-perceived participation and autonomy in older adults: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Strobl, Ralf; Jahn, Klaus; Linkohr, Birgit; Ladwig, Karl Heinz; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2014-10-01

    The impact of vertigo and dizziness on healthy ageing, and especially on participation, is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of vertigo and dizziness with self-perceived participation and autonomy in older non-institutionalised individuals, adjusted for the presence of other health conditions. Specifically, we wanted to investigate the different effects of vertigo and dizziness on specific components of participation, i.e. restrictions in indoor and outdoor autonomy, family role, social life and relationships, and work and education. Data originate from the second wave of the German KORA-Age cohort study collected in 2012. Participation and autonomy was investigated with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire. We used robust regression to analyse the association of vertigo and dizziness with self-perceived participation and autonomy adjusted for covariates. A total of 822 participants (49.6% female) had a mean age of 78.1 years (SD 6.39). Participation and autonomy were significantly lower in participants with vertigo and dizziness across all domains. Adjusted for age, sex, and chronic conditions, vertigo and dizziness were significantly associated with participation restrictions in all domains except social life and relationships. The results of our study indicate that vertigo and dizziness contribute to restrictions in participation and autonomy in individuals of older age. Recognising vertigo and dizziness as independent contributors to loss of autonomy and decreased chances for independent living may create new options for patient care and population health, such as the designing of complex interventions to maintain participation and autonomy.

  5. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  6. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  7. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  8. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults : A cross-sectional mega-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P.; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Schweren, Lizanne S. J.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Shumskaya, Elena; Jahanshad, Neda; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo; Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, Alberdingk M. H.; Dammers, Janneke T.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Kohls, Gregor; Oberwelland, Eileen; Seitz, Jochen; Schulte-Ruether, Martin; Ambrosino, Sara; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hovik, Marie F.; Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Tamm, Leanne; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Dale, Anders; Schork, Andrew; Conzelmann, Annette; Zierhut, Kathrin; Baur, Ramona; McCarthy, Hazel; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Cubillo, Ana; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Mehta, Mitul A.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Hohmann, Sarah; Baumeister, Sarah; Bramati, Ivanei; Mattos, Paulo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Douglas, Pamela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Rubia, Katya; Kelly, Clare; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Frodl, Thomas; Zentis, Mariam; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Jernigan, Terry L.; Haavik, Jan; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; von Polier, Georg; Konrad, Kerstin; Vilarroya, Oscar; Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Josep; Carles Soliva, Joan; Durston, Sarah; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Shaw, Philip; Thompson, Paul M.; Franke, Barbara

    Background Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and

  9. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  10. STARTing Again: What Happens After START I Expires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Eastman, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a seminal arms control agreement that substantially reduced the levels of deployed strategic nuclear arms in the United States and Russia, will expire in December 2009. At this time, it is unclear what - if anything - will replace it. While the treaty remains relevant, more than a simple extension is appropriate. Instead the authors advocate for a successor regime that builds on the START I legacy but does not rely on the traditional tools of arms control. This paper examines the strategic context in which a successor regime would be developed and proposes several recommendations for future action

  11. First Stages of Adult Students' Relationship to Scientific Knowing and Research in the Open University's Web-Based Methodology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosomppi, Leena; Maunula, Minna

    2016-01-01

    The adult students who participate in the web-based studies of the open university have in many ways heterogeneous starting points for studying and learning, for example, the educational backgrounds, the acquired work experience, the general academic skills and the objectives of the future can vary considerably. The adult students striving from…

  12. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Self-management tasks to improve mobility and reduce fall risk are not leading to lower research participation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Kim T J; Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2018-05-31

    The first aim is to evaluate, in a sub-study, the recruitment process of the Senior Step Study, which was an intervention study on the self-management of mobility and fall risk; the second aim is to explore the reasons mentioned by older people, from three different settings, for (not) participating. Subjects were community-dwelling older persons, residents of homes for the elderly, and older persons regularly visiting community centres. The effectiveness of different recruitment procedures was analysed for each setting separately. We also analysed reasons for accepting and declining participation between the settings. The total inclusion rate was 27.9%. A personal initial approach (i.e., first contact was face-to-face or in a group meeting) did not improve the inclusion rate. More subjects consented to participate after an introductory meeting (which was planned after the first face-to-face contact) compared to persons not having one (p < 0.01). At different settings, subjects gave different reasons for participation. No differences were found in the reasons for refusing participation. Especially in homes for the elderly, people refused to participate because the research was too burdensome. The inclusion rates in this study are comparable to other self-management studies with older people. An introductory meeting during which the study design and benefits of participating are explained and formal interim evaluations of the recruitment process may benefit recruitment. Recruiting older persons for self-management tasks is possible with the appropriate recruitment process, enabling more research on this increasingly important research topic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...

  15. 34 CFR 200.80 - Migrant Education Even Start Program definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. 200.80... DISADVANTAGED Even Start Family Literacy Program § 200.80 Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. Eligible participants under the Migrant Education Even Start Program (MEES) must meet the definitions of a...

  16. ‘I dare’: experiences of young adults at risk participating in a one-year inclusive-theatre project in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Andvig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Norway one of three young people drop out of high school. For young people to be on the outside of education or work may develop feelings of isolation and lack of control, resulting in alienation from both authority and community that may further marginalize them. Some develop mental-health problems.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and interpret the experiences of young persons neither in school nor working who participated in a one-year inclusive-theatre project. The research questions were as follows: How do the participants describe their experiences with inclusive theatre related to self-image? How does participating in inclusive theatre affect their social belonging and participation? Method: Three multi-stage focus-group interviews with participants were carried out. The data material was analysed with thematic content analysis.Findings: The main theme was ‘a changed self-image’ and four sub-themes emerged: ‘increased self-confidence’, ‘increased ability to cope’, ‘responsibility’, and ‘connectedness to others and society’.Conclusion: Through increased self-esteem, the participants explored opportunities to form their own development and to find a way to pursue their goals as part of society. They dared to meet the challenges which had provided them with good experiences and a more meaningful life. They went through a social process of empowerment where there was the recognition, promotion, and strengthening of their ability to satisfy their own needs, involving a mobilization of the necessary resources in order to feel in control of their own lives. They began to believe in a future with education, work, and friends.

  17. Start Where Your Students Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robyn R.

    2010-01-01

    Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…

  18. Start-up of Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, R.

    1967-01-01

    After giving a general description of Rapsodie this report presents the conditions in which the start-up occurred and in which the tests were carried out. A chronological account is given of the operations and of the main events which occurred. The modifications made to the reactor during this period are described and a synthesis of the results obtained is presented. (author) [fr

  19. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illnesses and coinfections Recent HIV infection Pregnancy All pregnant women with HIV should take HIV medicines to prevent mother-to- ... protect the health of the pregnant woman. All pregnant women with HIV should start taking HIV medicines as soon as ...

  20. Head Start Center Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…

  1. Job strain and tobacco smoking: An individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 european studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkilä, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bacquer, D. de; Bjorner, J.B.; Bonenfant, S.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Clays, E.; Casini, A.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.; Goldberg, M.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Joensuu, M.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Kittel, F.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Koskinen, A.; Kouvonen, A.; Leineweber, C.; Lunau, T.; Madsen, I.E.H.; Hanson, L.L.M.; Marmot, M.G.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Pentti, J.; Salo, P.; Rugulies, R.; Steptoe, A.; Siegrist, J.; Suominen, S.; Vahtera, J.; Virtanen, M.; Väänänen, A.; Westerholm, P.; Westerlund, H.; Zins, M.; Theorell, T.; Hamer, M.; Ferrie, J.E.; Singh-Manoux, A.; David Batty, G.; Kivimäki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress,

  2. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  3. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention.

  4. Thyroid hormone participates in the regulation of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Pirondi, S; Manservigi, M; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are under thyroid hormone control. In this study we analysed the effects of chronic manipulation of thyroid status on the expression of a wide spectrum of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) markers and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb and optic nerve, and on neural stem cell (NSC) lineage in adult rats. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in male rats, by propyl-thio-uracil (PTU) and L-thyroxin (T4) treatment, respectively. Hypothyroidism increased and hyperthyroidism downregulated proliferation in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (Ki67 immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, bromodeoxyuridine uptake). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFalpha-R) and MBP mRNA levels decreased in the optic nerve of hypothyroid rats; the same also occurred at the level of MBP protein. Hyperthyroidism slightly upregulates selected markers such as NG2 in the olfactory bulb. The lineage of cells derived from primary cultures of NSC prepared from the forebrain of adult hypo- and hyperthyroid also differs from those derived from control animals. Although no difference of in vitro proliferation of NSCs was observed in the presence of epidermal growth factor, maturation of oligodendrocytes (defined by process number and length) was enhanced in hyperthyroidism, suggesting a more mature state than in control animals. This difference was even greater when compared with the hypothyroid group, the morphology of which suggested a delay in differentiation. These results indicate that thyroid hormone affects NSC and OPC proliferation and maturation also in adulthood.

  5. Education plays a greater role than age in cognitive test performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Passos, Valéria Maria; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-10-09

    Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, offers a great opportunity to assess cognitive decline in this aging population through time-sequential analyses drawn from the same battery of tests over time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of sex, age and education on cognitive tests performance of the participants at baseline. Analyses pertain to 14,594 participants with aged 35 to 74 years, who were functionally independent and had no history of stroke or use of neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors or antiparkinsonian agents. Mean age was 52.0 ± 9.0 years and 54.2% of participants were women. Cognitive tests included the word memory tests (retention, recall and recognition), verbal fluency tests (VFT, animals and letter F) and Trail Making Test B. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the distribution of the final score of each test. Women had significant and slightly higher scores than men in all memory tests and VFT, but took more time to perform Trail B. Reduced performance in all tests was seen with an increase age and, more importantly, with decrease level of education. The word list and VFT scores decreased at about one word for every 10 years of age; whereas higher-educated participants scored four words more on the word list test, and six or seven more correct words on VFT, when compared to lower-educated participants. Additionally, the oldest and less educated participants showed significant lower response rates in all tests. The higher influence of education than age in this Brazilian population reinforce the need for caution in analyzing and diagnosing cognitive impairments based

  6. Is sports choice and participation related to 2D:4D? A study among adult male students in Wrocław, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Kociuba, Marek; Ignasiak, Zofia; Chakraborty, Raja

    2016-06-01

    Psychology and personality of individuals may have implications for choice of, and performance in sports disciplines. Individual- and group sports differ in psychological requirements, such as, competitiveness, sensation seeking and risk taking attitude, often required in sports. There is sex difference in human in these qualities, which also show association with prenatal testosterone exposures. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosteron exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females. This study cross-sectional study investigated the relationship of 2D:4D with team based- or individual sports. The participants were 421 Polish male students with a mean (+SD) age of 19.78 (+0.79) years. Among them, 139 were engaged in sports and 282 were not. Mean 2D:4D in each hand of individual sporting group was significantly lower than the team sports- and no sports groups. Participants not involved in any sports had the highest mean 2D:4D value. However, the team sportsmen’s 2D:4D did not differ from the non sporting group. Prenatal testosterone exposure might have implication in sports choice and participation.

  7. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37–73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Findings: Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1% participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93–0·99; p=0·0044. Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and

  8. Delayed Instructional Control of Head Start Children's Free Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.

    The free play of 5 black preschool Head Start children was observed. The variables manipulated in the study were delayed instructions and reinforcement for play with selected toys, and specific versus general instructions; the correspondence between the adult's instructions and reinforcement to the children's play was assessed. The data indicated…

  9. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  10. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  11. School start times for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Motivation to physical activity among adults with high risk of type 2 diabetes who participated in the Oulu substudy of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Taanila, Anja M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by lifestyle changes such as sufficient level of physical activity. The number of persons at high risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing all over the world. In order to prevent type 2 diabetes and develop exercise counselling, more studies on motivators and barriers to physical activity are needed. Thus, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the motivators and barriers to physical activity among individuals with high risk of type 2 diabetes who participated in a substudy of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study in Oulu and to consider whether the motivators or barriers changed during the follow-up from 2003 to 2008. Questionnaires with open-ended questions were conducted twice: in the first follow-up in 2003 altogether 63 participants answered the questionnaire (n = 93), and in the second follow-up in 2008 altogether 71 participants answered the questionnaire (n = 82). Thus, response rate was 68% in 2003 and 87% in 2008. The study was conducted in the city of Oulu in Finland. Qualitative data were analysed by inductive content analysis using the QSR NVivo 8 software. The results of this study showed that motivators to physical activity included weight management, feelings of physical and mental well being. In addition, social relationships associated with exercise were also motivators. In conclusion, we present that regular counselling is important in order to promote exercise among older people, and that motivators to exercise are strengthened by positive experiences of exercise as one grows older. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Social participation and psychosocial outcomes of young adults with chronic physical conditions: Comparing recipients and non-recipients of disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Marjolijn I; Sattoe, Jane N T; Miedema, Harald S; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about any differences between young people with chronic physical conditions who do and do not apply for disability benefits in young adulthood for providing insights for future policy and rehabilitation care. We aimed to identify predictors during adolescence of receiving disability benefits in young adulthood and to compare recipients and non-recipients of benefits in social participation and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Follow-up study of 18 to 25 year olds with various chronic conditions who at adolescent age completed a web-based survey (n=518; T0). The outcome was receiving disability benefits (yes or no). Associations with background characteristics, social participation, and impact of the chronic condition were explored with stepwise multivariate modelling, using T0 variables. Differences between recipients and non-recipients were explored using chi-square tests and t-tests. Receiving disability benefits in young adulthood was associated with greater extent of physical disability, receiving less special education, absenteeism at school/work, and low health-related quality of life during adolescence. In young adulthood, recipients of benefits reported higher perceived impact of the chronic condition on their school/work career and lower quality of life than non-recipients. Social participation varied across domains. This study provides important insights into the characteristics of a vulnerable subgroup of young people with chronic physical conditions. Disability benefit recipients experienced more impact of their chronic condition and reported a lower health-related quality of life over time than non-recipients. Rehabilitation professionals are encouraged to use patient-reported outcomes to address the lived experiences and screen the need for psychosocial support of this vulnerable subgroup of young people with chronic physical conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. The Start2Bike program is effective in increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Linda; Veenhof, Cindy; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2017-06-29

    The sports club is seen as a new relevant setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) among inactive population groups. Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies and activities implemented in the sports club setting on increasing HEPA levels. This study investigated the effects of Start2Bike, a six-week training program for inactive adults and adult novice cyclers, on HEPA levels of participants in the Netherlands. To measure physical activity, the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity was used (SQUASH). Start2Bike participants were measured at baseline, six weeks and six months. A matched control group was measured at baseline and six months. The main outcome measure was whether participants met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity (DNHPA: 30 min of moderate-intensity activity on five days a week); Fit-norm (20 min of vigorous-intensity activity on three days a week); and Combi-norm (meeting the DNHPA and/or Fit-norm). Other outcome measures included: total minutes of physical activity per week; and minutes of physical activity per week per domain and intensity category. Statistical analyses consisted of McNemar tests and paired t-tests (within-group changes); and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses (between-group changes). In the Start2Bike group, compliance with Dutch physical activity norms increased significantly, both after six weeks and six months. Control group members did not alter their physical activity behavior. Between-group analyses showed that participants in the Start2Bike group were more likely to meet the Fit-norm at the six-month measurement compared to the control group (odds ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.8, p = 0.03). This was due to the Start2Bike participants spending on average 193 min/week more in vigorous-intensity activities (b = 193; 95% CI = 94-293, p Bike positively influences HEPA levels of participants by increasing

  15. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group.

  16. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes Participate in the IFN-γ Response to Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in Infants, Children, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Dirix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8+ T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8+ T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in IFN-γ production. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that both cell types synthesized antigen-specific IFN-γ, although CD4+ lymphocytes were the major source of this cytokine. IFN-γ synthesis by CD8+ cells was CD4+ T cell dependent, as evidenced by selective depletion experiments. Furthermore, IFN-γ synthesis by CD4+ cells was sometimes inhibited by CD8+ lymphocytes, suggesting the presence of CD8+ regulatory T cells. The role of this dual IFN-γ secretion by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in pertussis remains to be investigated.

  17. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with a recent diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study of participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes (EXTOD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy; Narendran, Parth; Andrews, Robert C; Daley, Amanda; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2018-01-24

    To explore attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Qualitative methodology using focus group (n=1), individual face-to-face (n=4) and telephone interviews (n=8). Thematic analysis using the Framework Method. Nineteen UK hospital sites. Fifteen participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes study. We explored current and past levels of exercise, understanding of exercise and exercise guidelines, barriers to increasing exercise levels and preferences for monitoring of activity in a trial. Five main themes were identified: existing attitudes to exercise, feelings about diagnosis, perceptions about exercise consequences, barriers to increasing exercise and confidence in managing blood glucose. An important finding was that around half the participants reported a reduction in activity levels around diagnosis. Although exercise was felt to positively impact on health, some participants were not sure about the benefits or concerned about potential harms such as hypoglycaemia. Some participants reported being advised by healthcare practitioners (HCPs) not to exercise. Exercise should be encouraged (not discouraged) from diagnosis, as patients may be more amenable to lifestyle change. Standard advice on exercise and T1DM needs to be made available to HCPs and patients with T1DM to improve patients' confidence in managing their diabetes around exercise. ISRCTN91388505; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Variations in Recruitment Yield and Characteristics of Participants Recruited Across Diverse Internet Platforms in an HIV Testing Study of Young Adult Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Romanoff, Justin; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-01

    The Internet is a commonly used medium for recruiting geographically dispersed, smaller populations quickly, such as young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM). One approach to improve reach and representativeness is to employ multiple Internet platforms to recruit this hard-to-reach population. The utility of this approach has not been studied adequately, and its impact on the study sample recruited is not yet known. Using data from a study of 18- to 24-year-old HIV-uninfected, Black, Hispanic, and White United States (US) YMSM, this investigation compared advertising and enrollment metrics and participant characteristics of those recruited across Internet platforms. Of the 2,444 participants, their median age was 22 years old; 21% were Black, 37% Hispanic, and 42% White; 90% had been tested for HIV at least once in their life; and 87% reported prior condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with another man. There were noticeable differences across platforms in the number of people accessing the study website, meeting study eligibility requirements, consenting to participate, consenting to participate per day of advertising and per click, as well as costs of advertising per consented participant. Participants recruited also varied across platform by race/ethnicity, geographic area of residence in the US, health-care insurance status, years of formal education, history of HIV testing, and CAI by partner type and sexual positioning. The investigation results indicate that the Internet platforms used for recruitment significantly impact not only enrollment but also diversity and characteristics of the sample obtained and consequently, the observations and conclusions rendered.

  19. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  20. Starting of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyza, V.

    1988-01-01

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  1. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  2. Predicting emergency diesel starting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBey, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy effort to extend the operational lives of commercial nuclear power plants has examined methods for predicting the performance of specific equipment. This effort focuses on performance prediction as a means for reducing equipment surveillance, maintenance, and outages. Realizing these goals will result in nuclear plants that are more reliable, have lower maintenance costs, and have longer lives. This paper describes a monitoring system that has been developed to predict starting performance in emergency diesels. A prototype system has been built and tested on an engine at Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs

  3. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity.

  4. The relationship between computer gaming hours and depression or social phobia in adults. An international online survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Radeke

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past decades, there was a worldwide increase in people playing video games. Researchers have started to conduct studies and identified positive and negative associations with video gaming. Comparable studies have been done.   Aim: The aim is to analyse, if there is an association between the average hours an adult participant has played computer games per day and depression or social phobia.   Methods: Data from 4,936 adults who voluntarily participated in an online survey ...

  5. Foods Served in Child Care Facilities Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu Match and Agreement with the New Meal Patterns and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-02-20

    To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu coding. Nine early care and education centers. Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. Data were compiled for each meal (breakfast, lunch, and snacks). Frequencies and percentages of agreement with the posted menu (coded matches, substitutions, additions, and omissions) were calculated for each food component in the CACFP menu guidelines. Menu total match was created by summing the menu match plus acceptable substitutions. Menus were compared with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. The match between the posted menus and foods actually served to children at breakfast, lunch, and snack was high when the acceptable menu substitutions were considered (approximately 94% to 100% total match). Comparing the menus with the new meal guidelines and best practices, the 1 guideline that was fully implemented was serving only unflavored, low-fat, or 1% milk; fruit and vegetable guidelines were partially met; fruit juice was not served often, nor were legumes; the guideline for 1 whole grain-rich serving/d was not met; and regular beef and full-fat cheese products were commonly served. Early care and education centers enrolled in CACFP provided meals that met the current CACFP guidelines. Some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct Participation in and Indirect Exposure to the Occupy Central Movement and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Hong Kong Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Pang, Herbert; Chan, Brandford H Y; Yuan, Betty Y; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schooling, C Mary; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extensive history of social movements around the world, the evolution of population mental health before, during, and after a social movement remains sparsely documented. We sought to assess over time the prevalence of depressive symptoms during and after the Occupy Central movement in Hong Kong and to examine the associations of direct and indirect exposures to Occupy Central with depressive symptoms. We longitudinally administered interviews to 909 adults who were randomly sampled from the population-representative FAMILY Cohort at 6 time points from March 2009 to March 2015: twice each before, during, and after the Occupy Central protests. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10). The absolute prevalence of probable major depression increased by 7% after Occupy Central, regardless of personal involvement in the protests. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with online and social media exposure to protest-related news (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.55) and more frequent Facebook use (IRR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.71). Higher levels of intrafamilial sociopolitical conflict was associated with more depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09). The Occupy Central protests resulted in substantial and sustained psychological distress in the community. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Listening to victims: use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

    2013-09-01

    Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Politicising participation

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of local communities in public space planning and design processes is widely promoted as an essential element of landscape architecture and urban design practice. Despite this, there has been little theorisation of this topic within these fields. Furthermore, the implementation of ideals and principles commonly found in theory are far from becoming mainstream practice, indicating a significant gap between the theory and practice of participation. This thesis aims to contri...

  9. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.

  10. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  11. Validation of a short, qualitative food frequency questionnaire in French adults participating in the MONA LISA-NUT study 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Jonathan; Dallongeville, Jean; Wagner, Aline; Bongard, Vanina; Laillet, Brigitte; Marecaux, Nadine; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Haas, Bernadette; Ferrieres, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Simon, Chantal; Dauchet, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to evaluate individuals' food intakes in epidemiologic studies because of their simplicity and low cost. To assess the validity of a short (24 items), qualitative FFQ used in the MONA LISA-NUT study. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample in three French counties. The sample included 2,630 participants aged 35 to 65 years from the MONA LISA-NUT study. Food consumption was measured with the FFQ and via food records for 3 consecutive days. Plasma fatty acids were measured from a subset of participants. The FFQ items' validity was assessed by calculating crude and deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients between frequencies reported by the FFQ and average weights reported by the food records. Furthermore, the validity of some items of the FFQ measuring the consumption of fatty foods was assessed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients between frequencies of consumption of these foods and dosages of the corresponding plasma fatty acids: fish and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), olive oil and oleic acid, margarine and elaidic acid, and dairy products and pentadecanoic and heptadecanoic acids. The mean of the deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for all items was 0.46, with values ranging from 0.22 (fried food) to 0.77 (breakfast cereal). The correlation coefficient was ≤ 0.4 for one third of the 24 items. Moderate correlations were found between fish and EPA/DHA (EPA: r=0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.51; DHA: r=0.39, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.47), but not for other food items. One third of the 24 items in the short, qualitative FFQ evaluated here were not sufficiently valid. However, for the food groups most commonly studied in the literature, this FFQ had the same degree of validity as other questionnaires designed to classify subjects according to their level of intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tips for Starting Yoga in Adults with Migraines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impact during MHAM What is Migraine and Headache Awareness Month? June is Migraine and Headache Awareness Month, ... approved last week, which is called erenumab, the brand name of which is Aimovig, is a monoclonal ...

  13. opinion when to start antiretroviral therapy in adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-02

    Sep 2, 2011 ... level, and the costs of the different options for initiating ART. While there is ... Clinical trials have shown definitively that a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/ .... be made highly cost-effective, and analyses of the costs and benefits of.

  14. The Italian START-Register on Anticoagulation with Focus on Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    START-Register – Survey on anTicoagulated pAtients RegisTer – is an independent, inception-cohort, observational, collaborative database aimed at recording prospectively the clinical history of adult patients starting anticoagulant treatment for any reason and using whatever drug. In this article we present the START-Register and give cross section baseline data focusing on non valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Participants are asked to insert prospectively consecutive patients recorded as electronic file on the web-site of the registry. Required data are: demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, associated risk factors for stroke and bleeding, laboratory routine data, clinical indication for treatment, expected therapeutic range (in cases of treatment with vitamin K antagonists -VKAs). The follow-up is carried out to record: quality of treatment (for patients on VKAs), bleeding complications, thrombotic events, and the onset of any type of associated disease. To date 5252 patients have been enrolled; 97.6% were on VKAs because direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been available in Italy only recently. The median age was 74 years [interquartile range (IQR) 64-80]; males 53.7%. This analysis is focused on the 3209 (61.1%) NVAF patients. Mean CHADS2 score was 2.1±1.1, CHADSVASc score was 3.1±1.3;median age was 76 years (IQR 70-81); 168 patients (5.3%) had severe renal failure [Creatinine clearance (CrCl) START-Register data shows that two-third of patients who started chronic anticoagulant treatment had NVAF, one-third of them was > 80 years with high prevalence of renal failure. PMID:26001109

  15. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The article discuss the conflicts, potentials and possible alliances of do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism when it takes the form of spontaneous place appropriations, when it is performed as participatory urban design and when it is integrated strategically in planning. DIY urbanism and experimentation...... with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  16. Modification of the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-Hm) to consider personalized satisfaction with participation in activities and roles: results from a construct validity study with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Bouthot, Kathleen; Filiatrault, Patrick; Caron, Cyndi; Gagnon, Maxime; Prémont, Stéphanie; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Participation, defined as a person's involvement in activities and roles, is a primary intervention goal in rehabilitation. To achieve client-centered practice, rehabilitation professionals need to go beyond objective accomplishment criteria and consider satisfaction with and the importance of participation in activities and roles. To our knowledge, no instrument considers accomplishment, satisfaction and importance of activities and roles, and allows numerical scoring and comparison. The objectives of this study were to modify the Assessment of Life Habits questionnaire (LIFE-Hm) to consider personalized satisfaction (satisfaction weighted by importance) with participation in activities and roles, and to: (1) examine its convergent validity with quality of life (QOL) and (2) compare the associations between QOL on the one hand and, satisfaction (LIFE-H) and personalized satisfaction (LIFE-Hm) with participation on the other. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 84 older adults, average age 76 years, with different functional autonomy levels. Quality of life was associated with personalized satisfaction for all categories of activities and roles (r = 0.45 to 0.75; p study found good construct validity of the LIFE-Hm with QOL. Personalization can add value in achieving client-centered practice. Implications for Rehabilitation The LIFE-Hm becomes the first instrument available in English and French that allows comparison between individuals and informs rehabilitation professionals about the level of accomplishment, satisfaction and personalized satisfaction with participation in activities and roles. Personalized satisfaction can add value in achieving client-centered practice as it considers not only how satisfying activities and roles are for the person, but also the importance that these activities and roles have for her/him. The LIFE-Hm offers the advantage of systematically identifying activities and roles which are not satisfactory but

  17. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  18. Weight maintenance over 12 months after weight loss resulting from participation in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing all meal provision to self-directed diet in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, C; Mellor, D D; Goodwin, S; Reid, M; Atkin, S L

    2014-08-01

    The results of weight maintenance after initial weight loss are reported infrequently, although, when they have been reported, the outcomes are generally poor and weight regain is common. After an initial 12-week randomised intervention comparing all meal provision against a self-directed energy restriction, participants re-consented to participate in a follow-on study. Participants were given the option to choose to continue with the same dietary intervention (either all meal provision (provided free of charge) or self-directed diet) or change to the other diet for a further 12 weeks. Participants were followed up at 4-weekly intervals during both intervention periods (a total of 24 weeks), with a final follow up at 12 months. Eighty-five out of 86 individuals who completed the original 12-week randomised phase chose to continue on to the follow-up study. No significant differences in further weight loss between groups (P = 0.138) [mean (SEM): -3.4% (1.1%) for all meal provision only; -3.4% (0.6%) self-directed then all meal provision; -1.1% (1.2%) all meal provision then self-directed] were seen after a further 12 weeks. Meal provision for a total of 24 weeks resulted in 67% of individuals losing at least 10% body weight. The groups switching from self-directed dieting to meal provision (or vice versa) were the only groups to have a lower mean weight at 12 months than at the start of the follow-on study. Structured support for 24 weeks followed by 28 weeks of self-care can result in weight maintenance, with initial weight loss maintained at 12 months from enrolling on a 12-week weight loss intervention, with a 12-week follow-on period. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Association between Duration of Predialysis Care and Mortality after Dialysis Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Quinn, Robert R; Oliver, Matthew J; Ronksley, Paul E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Quan, Hude; Hiremath, Swapnil; Bello, Aminu K; Blake, Peter G; Garg, Amit X; Johnson, John; Verrelli, Mauro; Zacharias, James M; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Tonelli, Marcello; Ravani, Pietro

    2018-03-05

    Early nephrology referral is recommended for people with CKD on the basis of observational studies showing that longer nephrology care before dialysis start (predialysis care) is associated with lower mortality after dialysis start. This association may be observed because predialysis care truly reduces mortality or because healthier people with an uncomplicated course of disease will have both longer predialysis care and lower risk for death. We examined whether the survival benefit of longer predialysis care exists after accounting for the potential confounding effect of disease course that may also be affected by predialysis care. We performed a retrospective cohort study and used data from 3152 adults with end stage kidney failure starting dialysis between 2004 and 2014 in five Canadian dialysis programs. We obtained duration of predialysis care from the earliest nephrology outpatient visit to dialysis start; markers of disease course, including inpatient or outpatient dialysis start and residual kidney function around dialysis start; and all-cause mortality after dialysis start. The percentages of participants with 0, 1-119, 120-364, and ≥365 days of predialysis care were 23%, 8%, 10%, and 59%, respectively. When we ignored markers of disease course as in previous studies, longer predialysis care was associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio 120-364 versus 0-119 days , 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.78]; hazard ratio ≥365 versus 0-119 days , 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.71; standard Cox model adjusted for demographics and laboratory and clinical characteristics). When we additionally accounted for markers of disease course using the inverse probability of treatment weighted Cox model, this association was weaker and no longer significant (hazard ratio 120-364 versus 0-119 days , 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 1.18; hazard ratio ≥365 versus 0-119 days , 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.13). The association between

  20. Fatores determinantes para a continuidade da participação de idosos em programas de atividade física: a experiência dos participantes do projeto "Sem Fronteiras" Adherence factors to physical activity programs for older adults: the experience of the participants of the "Without Borders" project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Lange de Souza

    2010-03-01

    of the study were 10 older adults who had been in the project for at least two years. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with open-ended questions. The leading interview questions were: What led you to start the program? What motivates you to continue attending the program? What are the main difficulties you find in continuing to attend the program? What motivates you to overcome these difficulties? The coding categories emerged from the data. Initially, we analyzed the data for each of the research participants, raising and coding the main themes that emerged from their responses. Next, we did a cross-analysis of the data of all participants looking for similarities and differences between the themes. Our main finding was that the participants adhere to the project not only because of the benefits that they perceive in terms of their physical, mental and emotional health, but also because it offers them opportunities for their personal development, socialization, and exchange of experiences, information, support, and affection. The main barriers that the interviewees found to keep participating in the project were health problems and family commitments.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...

  2. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1958-02-01

    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  3. Empowerment and its implementation in the process of counteracting the phenomenon of youth and adult social exclusion – report on participation in an international project under the 2014-2016 Erasmus + Strategic Partnership project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jarczyńska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the empowerment process and its implementation in social work in the context of counteracting social exclusion in youth and adults based on the example of the project carried out in the years 2014-2016, titled: “Development of the empowerment of educators and beneficiaries in the field of youth at risk and social exclusion”, co-financed from European Union funds within the Erasmus + programme, Action 2: Strategic partnership of professional teaching and training, Grant No. 2014-1-FR01-KA2026-008728. The English language concept category of empowerment, which does not have a satisfactory equivalent term in the Polish language, was operationalised in this article. The essence of empowerment in the context of social work was described in the article, pointing to its significance mainly in the scope of counteracting the process of youth and adult social exclusion. Furthermore, the main assumptions of the implemented international project were set out in the ambit of the development of the empowerment of educators as well as of beneficiaries working with persons at risk of social exclusion, and the relationship and reflections of one of the project participants were also shown. An attempt was made in the article on the basis of the experiences gathered within the performance of the international research project to assess the course of the empowerment process and its usefulness in searching for solutions for educational practices in the domain of the social exclusion phenomenon.

  4. Getting started with Review Board

    CERN Document Server

    Rawat, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise, to-the-point guide with a practical walkthrough of the code review workflow using the features present in Reviewboard. The various concepts and features are explained through screenshots so that even if you do not have a running installation of Reviewboard in front of you, you can still gain practical knowledge.This book is intended for web programmers or quality control staff who perform or participate in code reviews and who are using (or planning to use) Reviewboard for conducting code reviews. No prior knowledge of Reviewboard is assumed.

  5. A multicenter prospective quasi-experimental study on the impact of a transition-oriented generic patient education program on health service participation and quality of life in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Herrmann-Garitz, Carsten; Bomba, Franziska; Thyen, Ute

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effects of a generic transition-oriented patient education program on adolescents' health service participation and quality of life (QoL). We conducted a controlled trial comparing participants of 29 transition workshops with treatment as usual in 274 adolescents (16.8 mean age, SD=1.76) diagnosed with type I diabetes (DM), cystic fibrosis (CF) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A two-day transition workshop was carried out at 12 sites in Germany, focusing in standardized modules on adjustment to adult care settings, organization of future disease management, career choices and partnership. Study outcomes were health-related transition competence, self-efficacy, satisfaction with care, patient activation and QoL. Measures were assessed at baseline and six-month follow-up. Repeated-measurement covariance analysis using age as a covariate showed that the transition workshop significantly affected transition competence, self-efficacy and satisfaction with school care six months post intervention. The intervention did not significantly affect patient activation and QoL. However, post-hoc analysis suggested different effects across conditions. The program has a positive effect on the competence of adolescents in the transition phase. The study demonstrates that an intervention can be effective in preparing adolescents with chronic conditions for transitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parent Involvement in Head Start Programs: The Role of Parent, Teacher and Classroom Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D.C.; Bryant, D.M.; Peisner-Feinberg, E.S.; Skinner, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the extent and types of parent involvement in Head Start programs, and to examine the relations between parent participation and family, teacher and classroom characteristics. Parents (n = 1131) and teachers (n = 59) from four Head Start programs participated. Data were gathered through volunteer logs,…

  7. Promoting School Success: Developing Social Skills and Early Literacy in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002-03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using…

  8. A Comparison of Developmental Sentence Scores from Head Start Children Collected in Four Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; File, Judy J.

    1977-01-01

    In a comparison of expressive language in different settings, 20 economically disadvantaged students in a Head Start program were divided into four groups: single-object picture, toy, multi-object picture, and adult-child conversation. (CL)

  9. Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Y. L. S.; Van Goozen, Stephanie Helena Maria; Kuiper, A. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background. We prospectively studied outcomes of sex reassignment, potential differences between subgroups of transsexuals, and predictors of treatment course and outcome.\\ud \\ud Method. Altogether 325 consecutive adolescent and adult applicants for sex reassignment participated: 222 started hormone treatment, 103 did not; 188 completed and 34 dropped out of treatment. Only data of the 162 adults were used to evaluate treatment. Results between subgroups were compared to determine post-operat...

  10. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  11. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  12. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  13. FON: From Start to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Ivanov, G. A.; Yatsenko, A. I.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    Almost 40-year history of FON project ended with the creation of the whole northern sky catalog of objects down to B ≤ 16.5m. The idea of 4-fold overlapping of the northern sky with 6 wide-field astrographs has not been realized in full. For historical reasons it has been transformed into the 2-fold overlapping observational program of MAO NAS of Ukraine, resulted in three versions of the multimillion catalog of positions, proper motions, and B-magnitudes of stars. The first version of 1.2 million stars had been finished before the 2000s and is based on the AC object list. The measurements of plates were made by automatic measuring complex PARSEC, specially developed for massive photographic reviews. As the input list was limited by AC objects, the most part of stars on the FON plates remained unmeasured. Principles of workflow organization of such works formed the basis for the further development of the project using the latest IT-technologies. For the creation of the second and the third versions of the catalog, the list of objects was obtained as a result of total digitizing of plates and their image processing. The final third version contains 19.5 million stars and galaxies with the maximum possible for the photographic astrometry accuracy. The collection of plates, obtained in other observatories - participants of the project, are partially safe and can be used for the same astrometric tasks.

  14. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  15. Health Coordination Manual. Head Start Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…

  16. Teaching iSTART to Understand Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…

  17. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a U.S Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Delaney, Kristin; Rundell, Sean D; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-04-03

    To examine the predictive validity of the Subgrouping for Targeted Treatment (STarT Back) tool for classifying people with back pain into categories of low, medium, and high risk of persistent disabling back pain in U.S. primary care. Secondary analysis of data from participants receiving usual care in a randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics. Adults (N = 1109) ≥18 years of age with back pain. Those with specific causes of back pain (pregnancy, disc herniation, vertebral fracture, spinal stenosis) and work-related injuries were not included. Not applicable. The original 9-item version of the STarT Back tool, administered at baseline, stratified patients by their risk (low, medium, high) of persistent disabling back pain (STarT Back risk group). Persistent disabling back pain was defined as Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of ≥7 at 6-month follow-up. The STarT Back risk group was a significant predictor of persistent disabling back pain (PSTarT Back risk groups successfully separated people with back pain into distinct categories of risk for persistent disabling back pain at 6-month follow-up in U.S. primary care. These results were very similar to those in the original STarT Back validation study. This validation study is a necessary first step toward identifying whether the entire STarT Back approach, including matched/targeted treatment, can be effectively used for primary care in the United States. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Systemic Inflammation, Coagulation, and Clinical Risk in the START Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Sharma, Shweta; Grund, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial demonstrated that immediate (at CD4+ >500 cells/µL) vs deferred (to CD4+ ... available for 4299 START participants (92%). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Higher levels of IL-6 and D-dimer were the only biomarkers associated with risk for AIDS, SNA or death, as well as the individual components of SNA and AIDS events (HRs ranged 1.37-1.41 per 2-fold higher level), even after adjustment...

  19. Participation for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De La Harpe, Retha; Korpela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is more and more promoted as a driver and facilitator of economic growth and development in low and middle income countries. ICT for Development (ICT4D) though has mixed successes. Sustainability of solutions and usability respectively usefulness...... is rare. The workshop aims at bringing together the PD researchers working with under-privileged communities and attracting researchers from the ICT4D communities to the PD conference. The goal is to share experiences and start a discussion on how participation, ICT and development might relate....... for the intended beneficiaries have been reported as causes. Participatory approaches to development have been proposed to address these causes. Participatory Design (PD) seems like a perfect fit. However, at the Participatory Design Conferences, research that addresses PD in low and middle income countries...

  20. Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

    This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

  1. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  2. Representing Participation in ICT4D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. P.; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    How do the discourses of participation inform deployment of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D)? Discourses here mean narratives that assign roles to actors, and specify causes and outcomes for events. Based on the theory and practice of international development we......, depending on the context of their implementation, are permeated by multiple discourses about participation. Our four ideal types of participation discourses are, therefore, useful starting points to discuss the intricate dynamics of participation in ICT4D projects....

  3. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty

  4. Starting a business through a franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Mahaček; Maja Martinko Lihtar

    2013-01-01

    A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may ...

  5. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament; Von START zu NEW START. Das Dilemma und die Zukunft der Nuklearen Abruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-07-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  6. The Start2Bike program is effective in increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ooms

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sports club is seen as a new relevant setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA among inactive population groups. Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies and activities implemented in the sports club setting on increasing HEPA levels. This study investigated the effects of Start2Bike, a six-week training program for inactive adults and adult novice cyclers, on HEPA levels of participants in the Netherlands. Methods To measure physical activity, the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity was used (SQUASH. Start2Bike participants were measured at baseline, six weeks and six months. A matched control group was measured at baseline and six months. The main outcome measure was whether participants met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity (DNHPA: 30 min of moderate-intensity activity on five days a week; Fit-norm (20 min of vigorous-intensity activity on three days a week; and Combi-norm (meeting the DNHPA and/or Fit-norm. Other outcome measures included: total minutes of physical activity per week; and minutes of physical activity per week per domain and intensity category. Statistical analyses consisted of McNemar tests and paired t-tests (within-group changes; and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses (between-group changes. Results In the Start2Bike group, compliance with Dutch physical activity norms increased significantly, both after six weeks and six months. Control group members did not alter their physical activity behavior. Between-group analyses showed that participants in the Start2Bike group were more likely to meet the Fit-norm at the six-month measurement compared to the control group (odds ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.1–5.8, p = 0.03. This was due to the Start2Bike participants spending on average 193 min/week more in vigorous-intensity activities (b = 193; 95% CI = 94–293, p < 0.001 and 130

  7. Dynamic factors and electromyographic activity in a sprint start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Čoh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the major dynamic parameters as well as the EMG activation of muscles in a sprint start as the first derivative of sprint velocity. The subject of the analysis was block velocity, the production of force in the front and rear starting blocks, the block acceleration in the first two steps and the electromyographic activity (EMG of the following muscles: the erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, vastus medialis muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. One international-class female sprinter participated in the experiment. She performed eight starts in constant laboratory conditions. The 3-D kinematic analysis was made using a system of nine Smart-e 600 cameras operating at a frame rate of 60 Hz. Dynamic parameters were established by means of two separate force platforms to which the starting blocks were fixed. A 16-channel electromyograph was used to analyse electromyographic activity (EMG. It was established that the block velocity depended on the absolute force produced in the front and rear starting blocks and that it was 2.84±0.21 m.s-1. The maximal force on the rear and front blocks was 628±34 N and 1023±30 N, respectively. In view of the total impulse (210±11 Ns the force production/time ratio in the rear and front blocks was 34%:66%. The erector spinae muscle, vastus lateralis muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle generate the efficiency of the start. The block acceleration in the first two steps primarily depends on the activation of the gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. A sprint start is a complex motor stereotype requiring a high degree of integration of the processes of central movement regulation and an optimal level of biomotor abilities.

  8. Effects on mortality of a nutritional intervention for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filteau, Suzanne; PrayGod, George; Kasonka, Lackson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnourished HIV-infected African adults are at high risk of early mortality after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that short-course, high-dose vitamin and mineral supplementation in lipid nutritional supplements would decrease mortality. METHODS: The study...... was an individually-randomised phase III trial conducted in ART clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. Participants were 1,815 ART-naïve non-pregnant adults with body mass index (BMI)

  9. Youth Motivations for Program Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer K. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.

  10. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shiti

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  11. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  12. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  13. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  14. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  15. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  16. How Much of a "Running Start" Do Dual Enrollment Programs Provide Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We study a popular dual enrollment program in Washington State, "Running Start" using a new administrative database that links high school and postsecondary data. Conditional on prior high school performance, we find that students participating in Running Start are more likely to attend any college but less likely to attend four-year…

  17. Immigrant-Background Australians' Recollections of Justice, Injustice and Agency in Stories about Starting School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the recollections of justice, injustice and agency in the autobiographical narratives of a group of Australian immigrants who shared their experiences of starting school. The data consists of 24 autobiographical narrative interviews with participants who started school either overseas and then in Australia, or in…

  18. Leadership toward Creativity in Virtual Work in a Start-Up Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humala, Iris Annukka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to better understand how to lead toward creativity in virtual work in a start-up context. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates the participants' experiences about the learning challenges in leadership toward creativity in virtual work in a start-up company and the meanings attributed to their experiences,…

  19. A Healthy Start Can Begin Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.

  20. The physics of tokamak start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current

  1. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  2. Lean Start-up in Established Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester

    2018-01-01

    Lean start-up is an emergent perspective on how entrepreneurs can bring new products and services to the market. This approach challenges the dominant role of lengthy business plans, linear product development processes, and seeking complete overview of the potential of the new products....../services before market launch. Instead it suggests that start-ups could benefit from a ‘minimum-viable product’ approach where products and services are launched when they contain critical features. The emphasis in the lean start-up approach is on business models rather than the elaborate business plan...... at the companies (strategy meetings, development workshops etc.). The aim is to shed light on the implications for companies that seek to employ lean start-up. These implications will be aimed at aspects like innovation management, organizational structure, customer relations etc....

  3. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts... apportionment of the FY 2011 Capital Investment (New Starts and Small Starts) program funds. The funds will be... FY 2011, $1,596,800,000 was appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes...

  4. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  5. Enablers and constrainers to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of evidence on participation patterns in Nordic countries and some of the defining parameters that may explain the observations. This is done in a comparative perspective by contrasting results from the 2003 Eurobarometer data between Nordic countries and a handful...... as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation....

  6. Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 4F2, vitamin E level and histological response in adults and children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who participated in PIVENS and TONIC clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaminie Athinarayanan

    Full Text Available Vitamin E improved liver histology in children and adults with NAFLD who participated in TONIC and PIVENS clinical trials, but with significant inter-individual variability in its efficacy. Cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2 is the major enzyme metabolizing Vit E, with two common genetic variants (V433M, rs2108622 and W12G, rs3093105 found to alter its activity. We investigated the relationship between CYP4F2 genotypes, α-tocopherol levels and histological improvement in these two trials. V433M and W12G variants were genotyped in TONIC (n = 155 and PIVENS (n = 213 DNA samples. The relationships between CYP4F2 genotypes, plasma α-tocopherol levels at baseline and weeks 48 (w48 and 96 (w96 and histological end points (overall improvement in liver histology and resolution of NASH were investigated. As a result, the V433M genotype was significantly associated with baseline plasma α-tocopherol in the TONIC trial (p = 0.004, but not in PIVENS. Among those receiving Vit E treatment, CYP4F2 V433M genotype was associated with significantly decreased plasma α-tocopherol levels at w48 (p = 0.003 for PIVENS and p = 0.026 for TONIC but not at w96. The w96 α-tocopherol level was significantly associated with resolution of NASH (p = 0.006 and overall histology improvement (p = 0.021in the PIVENS, but not in the TONIC trial. There was no significant association between CYP4F2 genotypes and histological end points in either trial. Our study suggested the a moderate role of CYP4F2 polymorphisms in affecting the pharmacokinetics of Vit E as a therapeutic agent. In addition, there may be age-dependent relationship between CYP4F2 genetic variability and Vit E pharmacokinetics in NAFLD.

  7. Democracy and shareholder's participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and participation of shareholders or the demand for their active participation in the meetings of the Assemblyhas increasingly gained in importance in modern conditions. This is because, negative trends of passivation, the limitations of democratic potential of shareholders and shareholders' rights abuse by the management body, especially in the work control and compensation policy of shareholders, have been observed in a detailed analysis of the application and results of the Shareholder Rights Directive. The passivity of shareholders, as one of the most striking features of their position in the joint stock company today, is the biggest problem and threat to democratic processes within the company. If we bear in mind that the most common definition of shareholder democracy is 'ability of shareholders to influence the management of the company', we can notice a clear picture of the seriousness and importance of the lack of shareholder participation. This is the reason why the author of this paper gradually examines the causes and consequences of the passivity of shareholders, the proposed changes in this context in the Law of the European Union and the practical implications of such solutions in practice. In addition, the author examines contemporary forms and conditions for shareholder democracy and the legal framework in the European Union and the Republic of Serbia. In this way, we analyze the situation in this area and point out shortcomings of certain solutions, as well as the implications they cause in practice. The main thesis from which starts the scientific work and which will be gradually proven through theoretical and practical analysis is that the wider social processes directly reflect on the state of the joint-stock companies, or the state of corporate governance. This means that the negative trends of modern democracy (in the constitutional sense are almost mirrored in economic capital (EC and our attempt in this paper

  8. The impact of dry-land sprint start training on the short track speed skating start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cicero, Nicholas J; Barthell, J Anthony; Chapman, Dale W

    2017-05-05

    This investigation sought to determine the effects of dry-land sprint start training on short track speed skating (STSS) start performance. Nine highly trained short track athletes completed a control period of normal STSS training followed by a four-week training intervention. Before and after the control and intervention periods, athletes performed three electronically timed dry-land and on-ice 14.43 m maximal sprint start efforts. The intervention consisted of two sprint sessions per week consisting of nine electronically timed 14.43 m dry-land sprint starts in addition to normal STSS training. The control period resulted in no substantial change in on-ice start performance (Mean Δ: -0.01 s, 95% Confidence Limits (CL): -0.08 to 0.05 s; Effect Size (ES): -0.05; Trivial) however, a small change was observed in dry-land start performance (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.02 s; ES: -0.49). Following brief specific dry-land sprint start training a small improvement was observed in both on-ice (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.01 s; ES: -0.33) and dry-land (Mean Δ: -0.04 s, 95% CL: -0.09 to 0.00 s; ES: -0.29) start performance. This investigation suggests STSS start performance can be improved through a brief dry-land sprint start training program.

  9. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  10. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  11. Research nuclear reactor start-up simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo Haro, M.; Cantero, P.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the design and FPGA implementation of a research nuclear reactor start-up simulator. Its aim is to generate a set of signals that allow replacing the neutron detector for stimulated signals, to feed the measurement electronic of the start-up channels, to check its operation, together with the start-up security logic. The simulator presented can be configured on three independent channels and adjust the shape of the output pulses. Furthermore, each channel can be configured in 'rate' mode, where you can specify the growth rate of the pulse frequency in %/s. Result and details of the implementation on FPGA of the different functional blocks are given. (author)

  12. Smart or Diverse Start-up Teams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between cognitive abilities and team performance in a start-up setting. We argue that performance in this setting hinges on three tasks: opportunity recognition, problem solving, and implementation. We theorize that cognitive ability at the individual level has...... others can be assigned to tasks that impose a greater cognitive load (problem solving or opportunity recognition). We present the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams started up and managed real companies. We ensured exogenous variation in—otherwise random—team composition...... by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performed a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of start-up teams first increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. Strikingly, average...

  13. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; Van Son, Willem J.; De Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. Method. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory

  14. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  15. Spanish courses for older adults at the University of the third age and Adult day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Zavrl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical starting points regarding older adults and learning Spanish language in late adulthood. The starting points are based on the assumption that in order to effectively learn a foreign language in late adulthood; the definitions of the cognitive characteristics of the elderly and the characteristics of learning in this period have to be defined first. I continuation the paper explains various characteristics of learning with older adults. The main emphasis is on analyzing the ability of older people to learn a foreign language and their motivation to learn. The empirical part of the paper presents the results of the survey conducted among participants in the initial and intermediate Spanish courses at the University of the Third Age and day center activities for the elderly in Ljubljana; during the academic year 2013/14. The results showed that the most important reason for attending the course were the love of language and the chance to attend trips to Spanish-speaking countries. As the most important activities in the course the participants highlighted listening to the instructor and making notes; exercises in pronunciation and learning new words. The participants valued relaxed atmosphere of mutual understanding as well as cooperation within the learning group. The most important features of a good instructor; according to the participants; are coherent explanation; positive attitude towards the participants; and learning support.

  16. Starting a Health Professions Education Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.

  17. The Healthy Weights Initiative: the first 1,000 participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1,2 Jeff Fox,3 Randy Klassen,4 Dean Dodge5 1Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Moose Jaw, 2Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Regina, 3YMCA of Moose Jaw, 4YMCA of Regina, 5YMCA of Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: According to Statistics Canada, the number of adults who are overweight or obese rises every year in Canada. As such, it is obvious that various public policies are not working. After extensive community consultation, the Healthy Weights Initiative (HWI started in Moose Jaw and expanded to Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Objectives: This study aimed to determine adherence, factors affecting adherence and their impact on various health outcomes. Methods: From January 2014 to March 2015, 229 participants started the comprehensive 6-month HWI program. It was determined that having a “buddy” and signing a social support contract with three additional family members or friends were important to program adherence. As such, both policies went from being recommended to becoming mandatory. From April 2015 to August 2016, 771 additional participants started the program, allowing evaluation of the two new policies. Moreover, HWI participant adherence was compared to that of 100 new YMCA members. Results: Among the first 229 HWI participants, 79.9% completed the 6-month program. After the two new policy changes among the 771 participants, 96.1% completed the HWI program (risk ratio =1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.49. In comparison, among the new YMCA regular members without supervision or assistance, 14.0% were still fully adhering to their fitness program after 6 months (RR =6.85; 95% CI: 3.88–12.10. After logistic regression, the only variable with an independent effect for not completing the HWI program was not having a spouse/partner supporting the program (odds ratio =2.31; 95% CI: 1.13–3.67. Although weight loss reductions were obtained (mean: 4.3 kg, the more significant benefits observed were health outcomes

  18. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  19. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredlund, Lars [Swedish State Power Board, Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, S-430 22, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  20. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Lars

    1986-01-01

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  1. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    For several decades researchers have studied start-up companies with a focus on international markets, suppliers and networks from their inception and on companies that are establishing new, agile business models. This has resulted in two streams of research: The Born Global and International New...... Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  2. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug

  3. Report on WHO meeting on immunization in older adults: Geneva, Switzerland, 22-23 March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Aguado, M; Barratt, Jane; Beard, John R; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Chen, Wilbur H; Hickling, Julian; Hyde, Terri B; Jit, Mark; Jones, Rebecca; Poland, Gregory A; Friede, Martin; Ortiz, Justin R

    2018-02-08

    Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs. These experts reviewed vaccine performance in older adults, the anticipated impact of adult vaccination programs, and the challenges and opportunities of building or strengthening an adult and older adult immunization platforms. Key conclusions of the meeting were that there is a need for discussion of new opportunities for vaccination of all adults as well as for vaccination of older adults, as reflected in the recent shift by WHO to a life-course approach to immunization; that immunization in adults should be viewed in the context of a much broader model based on an individual's abilities rather than chronological age; and that immunization beyond infancy is a global priority that can be successfully integrated with other interventions to promote healthy ageing. As WHO is looking ahead to a global Decade of Healthy Ageing starting in 2020, it will seek to define a roadmap for interdisciplinary collaborations to integrate immunization with improving access to preventive and other healthcare interventions for adults worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on WHO meeting on immunization in older adults: Geneva, Switzerland, 22–23 March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, M. Teresa; Barratt, Jane; Beard, John R.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Chen, Wilbur H.; Hickling, Julian; Hyde, Terri B.; Jit, Mark; Jones, Rebecca; Poland, Gregory A.; Ortiz, Justin R.

    2018-01-01

    Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs. These experts reviewed vaccine performance in older adults, the anticipated impact of adult vaccination programs, and the challenges and opportunities of building or strengthening an adult and older adult immunization platforms. Key conclusions of the meeting were that there is a need for discussion of new opportunities for vaccination of all adults as well as for vaccination of older adults, as reflected in the recent shift by WHO to a life-course approach to immunization; that immunization in adults should be viewed in the context of a much broader model based on an individual’s abilities rather than chronological age; and that immunization beyond infancy is a global priority that can be successfully integrated with other interventions to promote healthy ageing. As WHO is looking ahead to a global Decade of Healthy Ageing starting in 2020, it will seek to define a roadmap for interdisciplinary collaborations to integrate immunization with improving access to preventive and other healthcare interventions for adults worldwide. PMID:29336923

  5. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  6. Investigation of Starting Romantic Intimacy in Emerging Adulthood in Terms of Self-Esteem, Gender and Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…

  7. Radioactive starting aids for electrodeless light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proud, J.M.; Regan, R.J.; Haugsjaa, P.O.; Baird, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive sources of α particles, β particles or γ rays as aids in starting a discharge in an electrodeless light source is discussed. The advantages of siting the sources at various positions in the device are discussed. Preferred materials are 85 Kr and 241 Am. (U.K.)

  8. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  9. START to Get Ready for Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding is a great way to give your baby the nutrients he or she needs to grow and develop. Breastfeeding also can help you and your baby form a special bond. Breastfeeding can be good for both of you if you know where to S-T-A-R-T.

  10. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop automobile starting and lighting system maintenance training manual for technical college students. Research and Development (R and D) design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 348, comprising of 76 auto-mechanics teachers, 36 automobile supervisors and ...

  11. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  12. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  14. An Overview of Head Start Program Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jeanne Morris

    2017-01-01

    Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…

  15. Getting started with Magento module development

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzele, Branko

    2013-01-01

    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  16. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  17. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  18. Starting Up after 50. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    Researchers are finding that older entrepreneurs are an increasing population in many Western countries. It is important to distinguish between entrepreneurs who have simply reached the age of 50 versus those who start up businesses after this age. The latter group is of particular interest because these people have presumably never faced the…

  19. Starting Small, Thinking Big - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Thinking Big Stories NREL Helps Agencies Target New Federal Sustainability Goals Student Engagements Help solar power in the territory. Photo by Don Buchanan, VIEO Starting Small, Thinking Big NREL helps have used these actions to optimize that energy use.'" NREL's cross-organizational work supports

  20. 76 FR 70009 - Head Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... importance of the early years of a child's growth and development. On December 12, 2007, the Improving Head... education, serving nearly one million of our nation's most vulnerable young children and their families. It... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Part 1307 Head Start Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...