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Sample records for adult obesity risk

  1. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

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    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

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    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  3. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

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    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  4. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

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    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  5. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

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    Benjamin W Domingue

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303. Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI, waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. RESULTS: White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. CONCLUSION: Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  6. A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait

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    Stalo Karageorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012. The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in Kuwait.

  7. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

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    Cathy E Elks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have identified several common genetic variants that are robustly associated with adult obesity risk. Exploration of these genotype associations in children may provide insights into the timing of weight changes leading to adult obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort were genotyped for ten genetic variants previously associated with adult BMI. Eight variants that showed individual associations with childhood BMI (in/near: FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, and ETV5 were used to derive an "obesity-risk-allele score" comprising the total number of risk alleles (range: 2-15 alleles in each child with complete genotype data (n = 7,146. Repeated measurements of weight, length/height, and body mass index from birth to age 11 years were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS. Early infancy was defined as birth to age 6 weeks, and early infancy failure to thrive was defined as weight gain between below the 5th centile, adjusted for birth weight. The obesity-risk-allele score showed little association with birth weight (regression coefficient: 0.01 SDS per allele; 95% CI 0.00-0.02, but had an apparently much larger positive effect on early infancy weight gain (0.119 SDS/allele/year; 0.023-0.216 than on subsequent childhood weight gain (0.004 SDS/allele/year; 0.004-0.005. The obesity-risk-allele score was also positively associated with early infancy length gain (0.158 SDS/allele/year; 0.032-0.284 and with reduced risk of early infancy failure to thrive (odds ratio = 0.92 per allele; 0.86-0.98; p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The use of robust genetic markers identified greater early infancy gains in weight and length as being on the pathway to adult obesity risk in a contemporary birth cohort.

  8. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

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    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour.

  9. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

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    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  10. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity. This effect appears to be partially independent of childhood BMI. Earlier pubertal development appears to also be inversely correlated with risk of other cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular mortality. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and the level at which interventions may be targeted.

  11. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

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    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  12. The Combined Effect of Hyperuricaemia and Overweight/Obesity on Risk of Hypertension in Adults

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    Z Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: While hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity can act alone to increase the prevalence of hypertension, few studies have examined their combined effect. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 42 332 Han Chinese from southwestern China investigated the combined effect of hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity on risk of hypertension in the entire sample as well as in different genders and age groups. Results: Hypertension was significantly more prevalent among individuals with both hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity (45.5% than among those with hyperuricaemia alone (28.1% or overweight/obesity alone (31.3%. Similarly, the increase in hypertension risk in the presence of both hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity (OR = 6.777, 95%CI 6.133, 7.489 was significantly greater than the increase in the presence of hyperuricaemia alone (OR = 3.168, 95%CI 2.705, 3.711 or overweight/obesity alone (OR = 3.693, 95% CI 3.503, 3.893. These results were similar across each age group. The same trend was also observed when comparing men and women, though the odds ratios were greater for women. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity increases risk of hypertension more than either morbidity on its own, and this risk differential is significantly greater in women than men. These findings should be confirmed in other ethnic groups and in longitudinal studies.

  13. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults

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    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    , and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. RESULTS: In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only......BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D...... observational studies were identified; there were 3 studies with moderate, 9 studies with serious, and one study with critical risk of bias. The association between potatoes (not including french fries) and adiposity was neutral in 2 studies and was positive in 2 studies. French fries were positively associated...

  14. [Yogurt consumption and reduced risk of overweight and obesity in adults].

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    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Keshabyants, E E; Mikhaylov, N A

    2016-01-01

    Fermented dairy products comprise a large food group in Russia and are an important source of dietary nutrients like protein, calcium, fat. Obesity is a rising public health issue in Russia. Observing the role of fermented dairy in the maintenance of healthy weights is important. Current study objective was to explore the association between obesity/overweight prevalence and yogurt consumption in Russian adults. Data from RLMS-HSE 1994-2012 was used. Primary materials are available on http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse, http://www. hse.ru/org/hse/rlms. Data collected included dietary intake by single 24h recalls and anthropometric measures for 72.400 adults (≥ 19 y.o.). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationships between yogurt consumption and obesity prevalence (BMI > 30.0 compared with. 18.5-25.0), controlling for age and gender. Daily average intake (g/day) of yogurt significantly increased from 1994 to 2012. Yogurt consumption decreased over 40 y.o. in both gender. Women yogurt consumption is inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BMI: the consumption of yogurt in women with normal BMI values (> 18.5-25.0) was significantly higher than in women who are overweight and/or obese (BMI > 25.0; or > 30.0). The mean values of BMI in women who ate yogurt, were significantly lower than in women not consuming yogurt. In men, the relationship between consumption of yogurt and BMI is not revealed. Thus, among women, a significant inverse association was observed between yogurt consumption and obesity (OR 0.582, CI 95% 0.497, 0.680; p obesity is dependent on gender: yogurt is associated with lower obesity prevalence only in women.

  15. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

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    ... resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... type 2 diabetes. [ Top ] How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  16. Determining the Relationship between U.S. County-Level Adult Obesity Rate and Multiple Risk Factors by PLS Regression and SVM Modeling Approaches

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    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC has shown that the obesity rate doubled among adults within the past two decades. This upsurge was the result of changes in human behavior and environment. Partial least squares (PLS regression and support vector machine (SVM models were conducted to determine the relationship between U.S. county-level adult obesity rate and multiple risk factors. The outcome variable was the adult obesity rate. The 23 risk factors were categorized into four domains of the social ecological model including biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment. Of the 23 risk factors related to adult obesity, the top eight significant risk factors with high normalized importance were identified including physical inactivity, natural amenity, percent of households receiving SNAP benefits, and percent of all restaurants being fast food. The study results were consistent with those in the literature. The study showed that adult obesity rate was influenced by biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment embedded in the social ecological theory. By analyzing multiple risk factors of obesity in the communities, may lead to the proposal of more comprehensive and integrated policies and intervention programs to solve the population-based problem.

  17. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

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    Luz Stella Álvarez Castaño

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia.Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5,556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved.Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of   obesity,  and risk of metabolic complications.Conclusion: These  results are not only from  individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore,  policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins  before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood.

  18. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

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    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. METHOD: Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. RESULTS: Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural

  19. Obesity and Cancer Risk

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    ... GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual Review of Immunology 2011; 29:415-445. [PubMed Abstract] Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. International Journal ...

  20. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

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    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  1. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults

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    Jing Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  2. Prevalência de obesidade em adultos e seus fatores de risco Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in adults

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    Denise P. Gigante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Foi realizado estudo transversal em uma amostra representativa da população adulta de Pelotas para determinar a prevalência de obesidade e os fatores a ela associados, tendo em vista o acentuado aumento de excesso de peso no Brasil, entre 1974 e 1989. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 1.035 pessoas com idade entre 20 e 69 anos, residentes na zona urbana do município. A obesidade foi definida a partir do índice de massa corporal (IMC igual ou superior a 30 kg/m². A análise multivariada foi realizada considerando um modelo hierárquico das variáveis associadas com obesidade em ambos os sexos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de obesidade foi de 21% (IC95% 18 - 23, sendo de 25% (IC95% 22 - 29 entre as mulheres e 15% (IC95% 12 - 18 entre os homens. A relação entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e a obesidade foi inversa entre as mulheres e direta entre os homens. Entre as mulheres, as variáveis que se mantiveram associadas significativamente com obesidade foram: obesidade dos pais, ocorrência de diabete ou hipertensão, não fumar, menor número de refeições diárias e não ter realizado exercício físico no lazer durante o último ano. Para os homens somente a ocorrência de obesidade nos pais e a hipertensão arterial sistêmica estiveram significativamente associadas, enquanto a proteção do maior número de refeições apresentou uma associação quase significativa (p = 0,07. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que os determinantes de obesidade são diferentes entre os sexos, ocorrendo em maior freqüência entre as mulheres e com o aumento da idade.INTRODUCTION: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with the objective of determining the prevalence of obesity and identify associated, variables as this condition increased markedly in the country between 1974 and 1989. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One thousand and thirty-five adults between 20 and 69 years of age were studied. Obesity

  3. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

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    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice ...

  4. Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.

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    Tuomas O Kilpeläinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166 and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268.All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2>0.8] and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A- allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26, but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction  = 0.001. More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25 than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36. No such interaction was found in children and adolescents.The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.

  5. Perilipin Gene 1237 T>C Polymorphism is not Associated with Obesity Risk in Northern Chinese Han Adults

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    DONG-SHENG HU; JING XIE; DA-HAI YU; GUO-HENG XU; JIE LU; JIN-XIU YANG; CHUN-YANG LI; YAN-YAN LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the association between PLIN 1237 polymorphism and obesity in Chinese Han adults. Methods A total of 994 adults (157 obese subjects, 322 overweight subjects, and 515 normal controls) were recruited from two rural communities. PLIN 1237 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Association between PLIN polymorphisms and obesity status was estimated by ordinal logistic regression. Results The three genotypes of PLIN 1237 were detected with a percentage of 54.3%, 37.1%, and 8.6% in TT, TC, and CC genotypes, respectively. For the PLIN 1237 polymorphism locus, the frequency of alleles T and C was 0.73 and 0.27, respectively. The PLIN 1237 polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. PLIN 1237 polymorphism was not associated with obesity. The odds ratio for overweight or obesity for the CC+TC genotype was 0.8 (0.4, 1.4) in women (P=0.4) and 0.6 (0.3, 1.3) in men (P=0.2) after adjustment for age, education, household income and alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. Conclusion Chinese Han adults have a lower frequency of variant-allele C in PLIN 1237. PLIN 1237 T>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  6. Prevalence and Related Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among the Adult Population in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region

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    Josep L. Coll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW and obesity (OB by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010. A random sample (n = 1,081 of young (18-35 years and middle-aged adults (36-55 years were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. Results: The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 26.9-32.3%, 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2% and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%, respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5% and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5% than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%. Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1% in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5% in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Conclusions: Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role.

  7. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  8. Disease Risks of Childhood Obesity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; XIAO-GUANG YANG; FENG-YING ZHAI; JIAN-HUA PIAO; WEN-HUA ZHAO; JIAN ZHANG; GUAN-SHENG MA

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relative risks of dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndromes among overweight and obese Chinese children compared with their normal weight counterparts. Methods Overweight and obesity were defined by age- and sex-specific BMI classification reference for Chinese children and adolescents. Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each risk factor for MetS were defined using the criteria for US adolescents. Definition of hyper-TC, LDL, and dyslipidemia for adults was applied as well. General linear model factor analysis and chi-square test were used to compare the difference in metabolic indicators among normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio of metabolic abnormalities between obesity, overweight, and normal weight children, after adjustment for living area, family economic level, age, sex, and daily exercise time and TV watching time, as well as different dietary indices in the model. Results Significant increases in blood lipids, glucose, and blood pressure were found among overweight and obese children as compared with their counterparts with normal weight. By applying WGOC-recommended BMI classification, the risks for hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL and dyslipidemia among overweight children were 1.9, 1.4, and 1.5 times, and was 3.3, 1.5, and 1.8 times among obese groups compared to their counterparts with normal weight after adjustment for age, sex, region, socioeconomic status, physical activity, and dietary intakes. The overweight and obese children (15-17.9 years) had a high-risk of developing hypertension, which was 2.3 and 2.9times higher than their counterparts with normal weight. Above 90% obese adolescents had abdominal obesity, while less than1% normal weight ones had abdominal obesity. No obese adolescents were free from any risk factors for MetS, while 36.9% of normal weight adolescents were from the risk factors. 83

  9. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  10. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  11. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26474157

  12. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Santos Gondim

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,, Overweight Group (OVG and Obese Group (OBG. We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength, cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  13. Obesity and risk of infection

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    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire...... on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  14. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chee W.; Shardell, Michelle; Tanaka, Toshiko; Liu, David D.; Gravenstein, Kristofer S.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity. Participants and Methods We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0–28 years). At baseline, 785 were low-calorie sweetener non-users (51.7% men) and 669 participants were low-calorie sweetener users (50.1% men). Time-varying low-calorie sweetener use was operationalized as the proportion of visits since baseline at which low-calorie sweetener use was reported. We used marginal structural models to determine the association between baseline and time-varying low-calorie sweetener use with longitudinal outcomes—body mass index, waist circumference, obesity and abdominal obesity—with outcome status assessed at the visit following low-calorie sweetener ascertainment to minimize the potential for reverse causality. All models were adjusted for year of visit, age, sex, age by sex interaction, race, current smoking status, dietary intake (caffeine, fructose, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), physical activity, diabetes status, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score as confounders. Results With median follow-up of 10 years, low-calorie sweetener users had 0.80 kg/m2 higher body mass index (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–1.44), 2.6 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.71–4.39), 36.7% higher prevalence (prevalence ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10–1.69) and 53% higher incidence (hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI 1.10–2.12) of abdominal obesity than low-calorie sweetener non-users. Conclusions Low

  15. Health risks of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease and type 2 diabetes. People with "apple-shaped" bodies (waist is bigger than the hips) ... Obesity Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  16. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  17. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

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    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  18. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  19. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  20. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...

  1. Optimal waist circumference cutoff points for the determination of abdominal obesity and detection of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H Assaad-Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the best anthropometric measurement of obesity, and its optimal cutoff, that best predicts the presence of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including a representative randomly chosen sample of the adult Egyptian population from all Alexandria Districts (the second largest governorate in Egypt based on the multistage random technique. It included 3209 subjects (1567 men, 1642 women aged 18–80 years from urban and rural areas. The response rate was 80.2%. History, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Laboratory investigations included fasting lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, and serum uric acid. Different criteria of metabolic syndrome were used and compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve and Youden index were used to determine predictability and cutoffs. Results: Waist circumference (WC is the best to predict at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. The optimal WC cutoffs were 100.5 and 96.25 cm for Egyptian men and women, respectively. The Joint Interim Statement definition (JIS of metabolic syndrome was the best to predict cardiovascular disease in both genders and diabetes mellitus in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity was 42.5%, 61%, respectively (ATPIII definition; 43.8%, 61% (American Heart Association definition; 44.3%, 76.4% (IDF definition; 33.8%, 51.7% (IDF definition with Egyptian cutoffs; and 41.5%, 51.7% (JIS with Egyptian cutoffs. Conclusion: WC cutoffs in Egyptians differ from those currently recommended. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity is high in Egypt, despite being lower on using the Egyptian cutoffs.

  2. Regular Exercise Is Associated with a Reduction in the Risk of NAFLD and Decreased Liver Enzymes in Individuals with NAFLD Independent of Obesity in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Sun Woo; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Won-Young

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month) were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI) and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921) were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53–0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7–21.6 kg/m2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.99, for AST) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67–0.81, for ALT) than did subjects in non-exercise group. Conclusions/Significance Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity. PMID:23110056

  3. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921 were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT than did subjects in non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  4. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Kim D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95 if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0 in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above. These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  5. Effect of brown rice consumption on inflammatory marker and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese non-menopausal female adults

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    Mahdieh Kazemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.

  6. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  7. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J. Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has many experts concerned about the worsening health of a large proportion of the population. It is well recognized that obesity is associated with a higher mortality, an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and possibly some cancers. Currently it is estimated that over two thirds of adults in the United States are overweight and nearly one third are clinically obese.1 Of special concern is the rapid increase in obesity among children. Other countries both developed and developing are experiencing similar trends.

  8. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  9. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  10. The relationship of serum triglycerides, serum HDL, and obesity to the risk of wheezing in 85,555 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Linneberg, A

    2013-01-01

    Asthma has been linked to obesity and the presence of the metabolic syndrome. Objective: To explore which components of the metabolic syndrome that were associated with wheezing, a main symptom of asthma. Further, to explore whether these associations were different in individuals with and withou...

  11. Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Whye Lian Cheah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity, measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI, body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups—Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate. The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69. Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  13. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  14. Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163198.html Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults? Study adds ... training is less beneficial for older adults with obesity, but we really don't know why," said ...

  15. Relationship between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, obesity and the risk of heart failure in middle-aged German adults.

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    Janine Wirth

    Full Text Available Both high concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and obesity are related to higher heart failure risk. However, inverse relationships between NT-proBNP and obesity have been reported. Therefore, it was investigated whether the association between NT-proBNP and the risk of heart failure differed according to obesity status.A case-cohort study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam, comprising a random sub-cohort (non-cases = 1,150, cases = 13, mean age: 50.5±9.0 years and heart failure cases outside the sub-cohort (n = 197. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between NT-proBNP and heart failure risk during a mean follow-up time of 8 years. Stratified analyses were performed according to obesity status as defined by body mass index (<30 kg/m2 versus ≥30 kg/m2.Overall, NT-proBNP was associated with higher risk of heart failure after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.56 (1.49-4.41 for the top versus bottom tertile of NT-proBNP, ptrend:<0.01. In stratified analyses, the shape of association was linear in non-obese and U-shaped in obese participants: HRs (95%CI from the first to the third tertile of NT-proBNP for non-obese: reference, 1.72 (0.85-3.49, 2.72 (1.42-5.22, and for obese: 3.29 (1.04-10.40, reference, 3.74 (1.52-9.21.Although high circulating concentrations of NT-proBNP were positively associated with incident heart failure in the entire sample, the association differed according to obesity status. In obese, an increased risk of heart failure was also observed in those with low NT-proBNP concentrations. If confirmed, this observation warrants further investigation to understand underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  16. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  17. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT.

  19. Vascular risks and management of obesity in children and adolescents

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    Courtney J Jolliffe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Courtney J Jolliffe1, Ian Janssen1,21School of Physical and Health Education, 2Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. Pediatric obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. It is also associated with an increased risk of CV disease (CVD in adulthood. Moreover, obesity and CVD risk factors in obese youth tend to track into adulthood, further increasing the risk of adult CVD. Consequently, the treatment and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health priority. Proper nutrition and increased physical activity are the main focus of these efforts; however, few studies have shown positive results. Treatment options for obesity in youth also include pharmacotherapy and surgery. While pharmacotherapy appears promising, additional evidence is needed, especially with respect to the long-term impact, before it becomes a widespread treatment option in the pediatric population.Keywords: childhood, obesity, overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, prevention, treatment

  20. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  1. Adult obesity, disease and longevity in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Palloni, A.; Beltrán-Sánchez, H; B. Novak; G. Pinto; Wong, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To obtain estimates of the effects of overweight and obesity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adult mortality. Materials and methods: We use three waves (2000, 2002, 2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS). We employ parametric hazard models to estimate mortality and conventional logistic models to estimate incidence of T2D. Results: Obesity and overweight have a strong effect on the incidence of T2D; this, combined with the large impact of diabetes on adul...

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  3. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

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    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  4. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

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    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  5. Pregnancy risks associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida.

  6. Changing trends in the prevalence and disparities of obesity and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of USA adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camila X; Romero, Tomas E; Shlay, Judith C; Ogden, Lorraine G; Dabelea, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and Mexican Americans (MAs). Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25-84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988-1994 (n = 14,341) and 1999-2004 (n = 12,360). Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased significantly in NHW and NHB, both in men and women; NHB had the highest prevalence of obesity and hypertension in each time period. Diabetes prevalence showed a nonsignificant increasing trend in all groups and was higher in MA in both periods. Smoking significantly decreased in NHW men and NHB, the latter with the largest decline although the highest prevalence in each period; no changes were noted in MA, who had the lowest prevalence in both periods. Race/ethnic CVD risk factors disparities widened for obesity and hypercholesterolemia, remained unchanged for diabetes and hypertension, and narrowed for smoking. Conclusions. The increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension underscores the need for better preventive measures, particularly in the NHB group that exhibits the worst trends. The decline in smoking rates may offset some of these unfavorable trends.

  7. Changing Trends in the Prevalence and Disparities of Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of USA Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila X. Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs, and Mexican Americans (MAs. Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25–84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988–1994 (n=14,341 and 1999–2004 (n=12,360. Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased significantly in NHW and NHB, both in men and women; NHB had the highest prevalence of obesity and hypertension in each time period. Diabetes prevalence showed a nonsignificant increasing trend in all groups and was higher in MA in both periods. Smoking significantly decreased in NHW men and NHB, the latter with the largest decline although the highest prevalence in each period; no changes were noted in MA, who had the lowest prevalence in both periods. Race/ethnic CVD risk factors disparities widened for obesity and hypercholesterolemia, remained unchanged for diabetes and hypertension, and narrowed for smoking. Conclusions. The increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension underscores the need for better preventive measures, particularly in the NHB group that exhibits the worst trends. The decline in smoking rates may offset some of these unfavorable trends.

  8. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity.

  9. Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias BARTON*

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians,parents,and health agencies around the world.Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life,including diabetes,arterial hypertension,coronary artery disease,and fatty liver disease.Importantly,obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults.With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature,the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes “premature” vascular aging.This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity.It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases.The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life,and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed.

  10. Candidate Genes from Molecular Pathways Related to Appetite Regulatory Neural Network and Adipocyte Homeostasis and Obesity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Yechiel; Li, Guo; Fornage, Myriam; Williams, O. Dale; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela; Pletcher, Mark J.; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Williams, Michelle; Siscovick, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Appetite regulatory neural network and adipocyte homeostasis molecular pathways are critical to long-term weight maintenance. Genetic variation in these pathways may explain variability of obesity in the general population. Aims The associations of four genes in these pathways (leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) and peptide YY (PYY)) with obesity-related phenotypes were examined among participants in the CARDIA Study. Participants were 18-30 years old upon recruitment (1985-86). Weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured at baseline and at years 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Genotyping was conducted using tag SNPs that characterize the common pattern of genetic variation in these genes. Race-specific linear regression models were used to examine associations of the various SNPs with obesity-related measurements, controlling for sex and age. The overall association based on the 7 repeated anthropometric measurements was tested with GEE. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results In African-Americans, SNPs across the LEP gene demonstrated significant overall associations with obesity-related phenotypes. The associations between rs17151919 in LEP gene with weight tended to increase with time (SNP × time interaction p=0.0193). The difference in weight levels associated with each additional minor allele ranged from 2.6 kg at entry to 4.8 kg at year 20. Among African-American men, the global tests indicated that SNPs across the NPY2R gene were also associated with waist circumference measurements (p=0.0462). In Caucasians, SNPs across the LEP gene also tended to be associated with weight measurements (p=0.0471) and rs11684664 in PYY gene was associated with obesity-related phenotypes (p= 0.010-0.026) in women only. Conclusions Several SNPs in the LEP, NPY2R and PYY but not the LEPR genes were associated with obesity-related phenotypes in young adults. The associations were more prominent for the

  11. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Navas

    Full Text Available The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions. The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity.Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ.Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance, independently of reward sensitivity.Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices.

  12. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Juan F.; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, José C.; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions). The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity. Methods Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT) and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance), independently of reward sensitivity. Conclusions Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices. PMID:27257888

  13. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  14. Changing Trends in the Prevalence and Disparities of Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of USA Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Camila X.; Tomas E. Romero; Shlay, Judith C.; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Dana Dabelea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine trends in the prevalence and disparities of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the major race/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and Mexican Americans (MAs). Methods. We used cross-sectional trend analysis in women and men aged 25–84 years participating in the NHANES surveys, years 1988–1994 (n = 14,341) and 1999–2004 (n = 12,360). Results. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased signif...

  15. General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Ben; Langhammer, Arnulf; Romundstad, Pål; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference define general obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. While high BMI has been established as a risk factor for asthma in adults, waist circumference has seldom been investigated. To determine the association between BMI, waist circumference and incident asthma in adults, we conducted a prospective study (n=23,245) in a population living in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway in 1995-2008. Baseline BMI and waist circumference were measured and categorised as general obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg·m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥88 cm in females and ≥102 cm in males). Incident asthma was self-reported new-onset cases during an 11-yr follow-up period. Odds ratios for asthma associated with obesity were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. General obesity was a risk factor for asthma in females (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.52) and males (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59). In females, after additional adjustment for BMI, abdominal obesity remained a risk factor for asthma development (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05). Abdominal obesity seems to increase the risk of incident asthma in females in addition to BMI, indicating that using both measures of BMI and waist circumference in females may be a superior clinical assessment for asthma risk than any measure alone.

  16. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  17. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 anddiet and physical activity intervention with or without sodium restriction on vascular health. Body weight, serum aldosterone, 24-h sodium and potassium excretion and obesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pmetabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline (MetS × weight loss, P=0.04; MetS × change in IMAT, P=0.04). Favorable changes in obesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  18. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  19. Heart failure and obesity in adults: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Martin A; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul; Kumar, Senthil A; Kumar, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is both a risk factor and a direct cause of heart failure (HF) in adults. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in left ventricular morphology and function, which, over time, may lend to the development of HF (obesity cardiomyopathy). Certain neurohormonal and metabolic abnormalities as well as cardiovascular co-morbidities may facilitate this process. Substantial purposeful weight loss is capable of reversing most of the alterations in cardiac performance and morphology and may improve functional capacity and quality of life in patents with obesity cardiomyopathy.

  20. Treatment of Adult Obesity with Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Robin; Harrison, T Daniel; McGraw, Shaniqua L

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately 179,000 bariatric surgery procedures were performed in the United States, including the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (42.1%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (34.2%), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (14.0%). Choice of procedure depends on the medical conditions of the patient, patient preference, and expertise of the surgeon. On average, weight loss of 60% to 70% of excess body weight is achieved in the short term, and up to 50% at 10 years. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs in 60% to 80% of patients two years after surgery and persists in about 30% of patients 15 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other obesity-related comorbidities are greatly reduced, and health-related quality of life improves. The Roux-en-Y procedure carries an increased risk of malabsorption sequelae, which can be minimized with nutritional supplementation and surveillance. Overall, these procedures have a mortality risk of less than 0.5%. Cohort studies show that bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality by 30% to 50% at seven to 15 years postsurgery compared with patients with obesity who did not have surgery. Dietary changes, such as consuming protein first at every meal, and regular physical activity are critical for patient success after bariatric surgery. The family physician is well positioned to counsel patients about bariatric surgical options, the risks and benefits of surgery, and to provide long-term support and medical management postsurgery.

  1. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  2. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neil Carol E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  3. Common nonsynonymous variants in PCSK1 confer risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzinou, Michael; Creemers, John W M; Choquet, Helene;

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in PCSK1 cause monogenic obesity. To assess the contribution of PCSK1 to polygenic obesity risk, we genotyped tag SNPs in a total of 13,659 individuals of European ancestry from eight independent case-control or family-based cohorts. The nonsynonymous variants rs6232, encoding N221D......, and rs6234-rs6235, encoding the Q665E-S690T pair, were consistently associated with obesity in adults and children (P = 7.27 x 10(-8) and P = 2.31 x 10(-12), respectively). Functional analysis showed a significant impairment of the N221D-mutant PC1/3 protein catalytic activity....

  4. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.

  5. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  6. Obesity in the intensive care unit: risks and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU.

  7. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  8. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing...... increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal...

  9. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years. PMID:27627756

  10. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...... of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services...

  11. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...

  12. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural facto...

  13. Obesity as an effect modifier of the risk of death in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Holly; Dugas, Lara; Shoham, David

    2013-11-01

    In the general population, obesity is associated with increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), especially if obesity occurs during young adulthood. Obesity is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in the general population. However, observational studies which focused on populations with ESRD have demonstrated a more indirect association between body mass index and mortality, and this association has been termed paradoxical. Some have questioned whether the association between obesity and mortality is modified by ESRD. In this review, we discuss effect modification and interaction and factors that may lead to an assumption of effect modification when we observe decreased mortality among obese adults with ESRD. We show that assumptions of the existence of effect modification may be incorrect when the analysis is conditioned on a particular disease state that is influenced by obesity.

  14. The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Chris; Graham, Hilary; Due, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US.......Our objective was to investigate the contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult obesity and smoking behaviour, in particular to establish the role of childhood circumstances across different studies in Europe and the US....

  15. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ratna Dewi; I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body ...

  16. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, E. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D.; Betts, J A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ...

  17. An analysis of adult obesity and hypertension in appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath Bandara, Saman Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-02-22

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obesity in Appalachia. The study uses simultaneous equations and Logit analysis for estimations. Data are from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Systems (BRFSS) surveys of 2001 and 2009. Results for simultaneous analysis show that hypertension decreases with decreasing obesity, increasing employment growth, and increasing income. Logit analysis highlights the importance of controlling obesity, income growth, employment growth, education, and exercises in mitigating hypertension in Appalachia. Ageing indicates a high potential of getting hypertension. Total economic cost of hypertension linked to obesity is $9.35 billion, significantly a high cost to Appalachia. Overall, results reveal the impacts of obesity on hypertension and some possible ways of mitigation. Thus, results suggest a comprehensive set of policies to Appalachia which sufficiently improve employment opportunities, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities with adequately addressed to obesity and hypertension.

  18. Abdominal obesity, cardiometabolic risk and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittolo Bon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is of central importance in the definition of global cardiometabolic risk. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators, which influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular events and of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. However for patients at higher risk, who cannot achieve an appreciable reduction in weight and in global cardiometabolic risk with lifestyle modification alone, an adjunctive long term pharmacotherapy should be considered. The endocannabinoid system activity regulates food intake and metabolic factors through cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor located in multiple sites, including hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence suggests that CB1 receptor blockade offers a novel therapeutic strategy. Data from four phase III trials suggest that rimonabant, the first cannabinoid receptor inhibitor, modulates cardiometabolic risk factors, both through its impact on body weight and metabolic parameters such as HDL-cholesterol, tryglicerides, Hb1Ac, through direct pathways that are not related to weight loss.

  19. Associations of Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity-Related Genes With BMI and Risk of Obesity in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Sun, Dandan; Ott, Jurg; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-related genes FAIM2, NPC1, FTO, MC4R, BDNF, and GNPDA2, respectively) because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with BMI and obesity in Chinese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the associations of these SNPs with BMI and obesity in school-aged children. A total of 3,503 children participated in the study, including 1,229 obese, 655 overweight, and 1,619 normal-weight children (diagnosed by the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs). RESULTS After age and sex adjustment and correction for multiple testing, the SNPs rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397 were associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10−5, 0.038, and 0.00093, respectively) and also obesity (P = 5.0 × 10−6, 0.043, and 0.00085, respectively) in the Chinese children. The SNPs rs17782313 and rs10938397 were also significantly associated with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study support obesity-related genes in adults as important genes for BMI variation in children and suggest that some SNPs identified by GWA studies in Caucasians also confer risk for obesity in Chinese children. PMID:20843981

  20. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Catherine Giles; Amber Hsiao; Y Claire Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods: Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National He...

  1. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; McCullough, Marjorie L; Jacobs, Eric J; Patel, Alpa V; Mayo, Tinisha; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether obesity and diabetes are related to risk of Parkinson's disease. We prospectively followed 147,096 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Participants provided information on anthropometric variables and medical history at baseline and on waist circumference in 1997. Incident cases of Parkinson's disease (n = 656) were confirmed by treating neurologists and medical record review. Relative risks were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Neither body mass index nor waist circumference significantly predicted Parkinson's disease risk. Relative risk comparing individuals with a baseline body mass index of ≥ 30 to those with a body mass index Parkinson's disease risk (combined relative risks = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.25; P heterogeneity = 0.96). In addition, neither body mass index at age 18 nor changes in weight between age 18 and baseline were significantly associated with Parkinson's disease risk. The results did not differ significantly by gender. Our results do not provide evidence for a relationship between body mass index, weight change, waist circumference, or baseline diabetes and risk of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  3. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood.

  4. The Epidemic of Extreme Obesity Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults With Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Wilson, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN adults with diabetes and to examine the temporal trends for class I, II, and III obesity in this high-risk group during a 10-year period.MethodsWe used data on body mass index (BMI from the annual Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit to estimate the prevalence of class I, II, and III obesity (class I = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, class II = 35.0–39.9 kg/m2, and class III ≥40.0 kg/m2 in each year from 1995 through 2004. We also investigated trends in mean BMI during the 10-year period and the role of treatment in these trends using multivariable linear regression models.ResultsObesity was highly prevalent in this population in 2004 (class I, 28.9%; class II, 20.4%; class III, 20.3%. From 1995 through 2004, the percentage of obese adults increased from 16.7% to 20.4% in class II and 11.5% to 20.3% in class III (P <.001, and the mean BMI increased from 32.1 kg/m2 to 34.4 kg/m2. The increase in BMI was greater in the younger age groups. Adjusted mean BMI increased significantly over 10 years for each of three treatment categories.ConclusionExtreme degrees of obesity are a common and increasing problem among AI/AN adults with diabetes. We did not find an association between the type of diabetes treatment and the trend toward extreme degrees of obesity. The increase in extreme obesity could potentially affect the burden of morbidity and mortality among AI/AN adults with diabetes. Effective and culturally appropriate weight management interventions are needed.

  5. School difficulties in childhood and risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1993-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. I...... either having speech handicap or having received speech or hearing training exceeded the 90th percentile of the body mass index distribution in young adulthood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood....... In 1974, body weight, height and social background were ascertained in 987 randomly-selected Copenhagen third graders. For each child, information about learning difficulties, scholastic proficiency, special education received, scholarly difficulties, reduced hearing, speech handicap, and speech...

  6. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowe, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.

  7. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  8. Association between obesity and suicide in woman, but not in man: a population-based study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Motta, Janaína; Wiener, Carolina; Oses, Jean Pierre; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Spessato, Barbara; Dias, Luciano; da Silva, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and suicide risk is still unclear with controversial research results. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and suicide risk for men and women in a population-based study of young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study that identified young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was investigated through the structured clinical interview Mini. Weight and height were assessed, and participants were classified as normal-weight body mass index (BMI  30). The prevalence of obesity was of 19.9% of the total sample (n = 1953). Obesity was more prevalent among women and participants between 27 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was present in 13.0% of the sample and more prevalent among women. In our study we found an association between obesity and suicide risk for women, but not for men. Obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suicide risk in women. Given the strength of the relationship between BMI and suicide, identifying the mechanisms associated with obesity, especially for women, can lead to new insights into the prevention of suicide risk.

  9. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  11. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  12. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Phenotypes of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Adults with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Real de Asua; Pedro Parra; Ramón Costa; Fernando Moldenhauer; Carmen Suarez

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the confluence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerotic damage and cardiovascular events remain extremely rare in adults with Down syndrome (DS). We aim to determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders in an adult cohort with DS and to compare our findings with adults without DS. Methods Cross-sectional study of 51 consecutively selected adults with DS living in the community and 51 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tert...

  14. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1,3 Gary P Van Guilder,2,3 Tara B Richardson,1 Donald L Bredle,3 Jeffrey M Janot31Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USABackground: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1 whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2 whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2 adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO. After community exercise, 27/68 (40% MAO individuals (P<0.05 transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64. Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05 and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05 times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively.Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the

  15. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine if, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 and <...

  16. Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Oji, Jude O

    2010-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18-66 years participated in the study. Anthropometric indices were measured, and subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75-85% maximum heart rate. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last minute of exercise and in the first minute of post-exercise recovery. A partial correlation test and a multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and peak oxygen uptake indicated that the best predictors of HRR were BMI in males and WHR in females. The present data suggest that, HRR is independently related to indices of obesity-BMI, WC, and WHR and strengthen the usefulness of these anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risks. In addition, the findings suggest that BMI in men and WHR in women best express the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risks.

  17. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  18. [Obesity as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, Iwona; Broncel, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is a growing problem of public health both in Poland and in the whole world. AF risk factors may be summarized as elderliness, male sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiac surgery. Once obesity is an independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for AF. The connection between obesity and atrial fibrillation is very up-to-date because of incremental prevalence, almost epidemic of obesity in the whole world. The probability of AF among obese patients increases with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea. Regardless many researches it hasn't been assessed yet how obesity itself predisposes to AF. It could be an effect of change in the atrial anatomy, the rise of atrial pressure, mechanical stretch, interstitial atrial fibrosis and disruption of atrial electric integrity. A great role is ascribed to inflammation, especially proinflammatory cytokines increased by adipocites of left atrial epicardial adiposity.

  19. Large heterogeneity of the obesity epidemic in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Strøger, Ulla; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    were irregular, different among men and women, and different in the different age and birth cohorts. The obesity problem in middle-aged and older men of certain birth cohorts poses a specific public health challenge. Future studies of determinants behind the heterogeneity in the development......OBJECTIVE: To examine to what extent the obesity epidemic is a general phenomenon in adults by assessing the secular change, by birth cohort and age, in the prevalence of obesity and median body mass index (BMI) in Danish men and women measured between 1964 and 1994. DESIGN: Multiple cross......-sectional population surveys. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen area of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study included 17,065 men (30 336 observations) and 13,417 women (24,065 observations), aged 20-84 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in median BMI and prevalence of obesity estimated from measured height and weight in 10...

  20. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indi...

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  2. Which Food Patterns Are Predictors of Obesity in Tehranian Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Djazaieri, Seyed-Abolghasem; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults. Design: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001 and 2005-2007). Setting: Participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.…

  3. Maternal obesity: implications for pregnancy outcome and long-term risks-a link to maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Amir; Hod, Moshe; Yogev, Yariv

    2011-11-01

    As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, its prevalence during reproductive age is also increased. Alarming reports state that two-thirds of adults in the USA are overweight or obese, with half of them in the latter category, and the rate of obese pregnant women is estimated at 18-38%. These women are of major concern to women's health providers because they encounter numerous pregnancy-related complications. Obesity-related reproductive health complications range from infertility to a wide spectrum of diseases such as hypertensive disorders, coagulopathies, gestational diabetes mellitus, respiratory complications, and fetal complications such as large-for-gestational-age infants, congenital malformations, stillbirth, and shoulder dystocia. Recent reports suggest that obesity during pregnancy can be a risk factor for developing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases in the newborn later in life. This review will address the implication of obesity on pregnancy and child health, and explore recent literature on obesity during pregnancy.

  4. Obesity and premature coronary artery disease with myocardial infarction in Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, José M; Altieri, Pablo I

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined adults aged 21 to 35 years who underwent left cardiac catheterization in the Cardiovascular Center for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean during 2008-2012 due to myocardial infarction. Demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors, and the extent of CAD were documented. Chi-square statistic or Fisher's exact test was used to compare the distribution of demographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics across CAD extent. Polytomous logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the prevalence odds ratios (POR) with 95% confidence intervals (Cl) for non-obstructive and obstructive coronary disease (OCD) compared with normal coronary anatomy. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.0. Sixty-three (n = 63) adults were evaluated (81% were men). The mean age was 31 ± 4 years. The most frequent clinical risk factors were history of tobacco use, hyper tension, and dyslipidemia. Obesity was present in 45.9% of subjects and OCD was present in 52.38% of subjects. Obesity and family history of CAD were significantly associated with OCD when adjusted by age. Obese patients had 5.94 times the possibility of having OCD than normal weight patients. Obesity was the most important treatable predictor of premature obstructive CAD in our young adult population.

  5. Associations between U.S. Adult Obesity and State and County Economic Conditions in the Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between state and county unemployment rates and individuals’ body weight status during the latest recession in the U.S. We used the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data in 2007, 2009 and 2011, which were collected from 722,692 American adults aged 18 or older. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI ≥25, and ≥30, respectively. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were applied to assess the association between BMI, risks of overweight and obesity, and state and county unemployment rates. State unemployment rates were negatively associated with individual BMI across years, while county unemployment rates were significantly positively associated with BMI and obesity rates in all years (p < 0.05. However, the scale of the positive relationship was reduced in 2009 and 2011. Stratified analyses were conducted among adults with employment and without employment. The unemployed group’s body weight status was not related to state- and county-level economic conditions in most times. In the pooled analyses with all three years’ data, the relationship between unemployment rates and body weight status were consistently reduced after the recession of 2008–2009. Our results indicated that macroeconomic conditions at different levels can have different associations with individuals’ obesity risk across time.

  6. Improved maternal nutrition decreases children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... been recognized for decades, the report offers a systematized review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition and obesity and NCD prevention. The findings confirm that a mother's nutritional status – including overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes...... – affects not only her child's health as an infant but also the child's risk of obesity and related chronic diseases as an adult. In short, maternal nutrition can truly have an intergenerational impact. Fighting NCDs and obesity through measures to improve maternal nutrition: NCDs are the leading cause...

  7. Modelling obesity outcomes : reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have greater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S. K.; Nusselder, W. J.; Lobstein, T. J.; Smit, H. A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M. C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  8. Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S.K.; Nusselder, W.J.; Lobstein, T.J.; Smit, H.A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M.C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  9. An EASO Position Statement on Multidisciplinary Obesity Management in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yumuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females, the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  10. An EASO position statement on multidisciplinary obesity management in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumuk, Volkan; Frühbeck, Gema; Oppert, Jean Michel; Woodward, Euan; Toplak, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI) reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females), the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis) which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  11. Obesity in pregnancy: addressing risks to improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebs, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing rates of obesity among women of childbearing age, not only in the United States but also across the globe, contribute to increased risks during pregnancy and childbirth. Overweight and obesity are quantified by body mass index (BMI) for clinical purposes. In 2010, 31.9% of U.S. women aged 20 to 39 years met the definition of obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m or greater. Across the life span, obesity is associated with increased risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, and other diseases. During pregnancy, increasing levels of prepregnancy BMI are associated with increases in both maternal and fetal/neonatal risks. This article reviews current knowledge about obesity in pregnancy and health risks related to increased maternal BMI, addresses weight stigma as a barrier to care and interventions that have evidence of benefit, and discusses the development of policies and guidelines to improve care.

  12. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  13. Diet and obesity among Chamorro and Filipino adults on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Rachael T Leon; Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body mass index (BMI) and dietary intakes of Chamorro (n=66) and Filipino (n=61) adults, ages 25–65 years, living in Guam. Participants were recruited via community-based sampling; however, recruitment was targeted to ensure approximately equal numbers from each ethnic group, equal numbers of men and women within each ethnic group, and proportional representation of the main geographic areas of the island. In addition, subjects were recruited and stratified based on the 2000 Guam Census Data to assure proportional distribution by age. Dietary energy density (ED) was calculated as kcal/g and compared by gender, ethnicity, and obesity status. Mean BMI for Chamorros was significantly higher than for Filipinos, and a significantly higher proportion of Chamorros (49%) were obese compared to Filipinos (20%). Chamorros reported higher ED than Filipinos (1.9 kcal/g versus 1.6 kcal/g), although the difference was significant among males only. Non-obese subjects had a lower ED than obese subjects (1.9 versus 2.3 kcal/g). Overweight and obese subjects both reported a significantly higher % energy consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages than healthy weight subjects (8% and 9% versus 3%). Differences in ED may contribute to differences in obesity rates between Chamorros and Filipinos in Guam, particularly among men, and lowering ED may be an appropriate goal for nutrition interventions. PMID:18586639

  14. Trends in Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Older Adult Population of Spain (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Fisac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA conducted in 2008-2010. Results: In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there was a reduction in both mean BMI - from 29.3 to 28.8 kg/m2 - and the prevalence of obesity - from 40.8 to 36.3%. This decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years. In men, no significant changes were observed in mean waist circumference (WC or in the prevalence of abdominal obesity. In contrast, WC decreased by 3.6 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 12.7% in women. The decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years, in whom mean WC decreased by 5.1 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 18.6%. Conclusion: These findings show that the frequency of obesity has begun to decline in Spanish women aged 60 and over. The causes of this decline are unclear.

  15. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Bartuli, Andrea; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  16. Short sleep is a questionable risk factor for obesity and related disorders: statistical versus clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Habitually insufficient sleep could contribute towards obesity, metabolic syndrome, etc., via sleepiness-related inactivity and excess energy intake; more controversially, through more direct physiological changes. Epidemiological studies in adult/children point to small clinical risk only in very short (around 5h in adults), or long sleepers, developing over many years, involving hundreds of hours of 'too little' or 'too much' sleep. Although acute 4h/day sleep restriction leads to glucose intolerance and incipient metabolic syndrome, this is too little sleep and cannot be sustained beyond a few days. Few obese adults/children are short sleepers, and few short sleeping adults/children are obese or suffer obesity-related disorders. For adults, about 7h uninterrupted daily sleep is 'healthy'. Extending sleep, even with hypnotics, to lose weight, may take years, compared with the rapidity of utilising extra sleep time to exercise and evaluate one's diet. The real health risk of inadequate sleep comes from a sleepiness-related accident.

  17. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  18. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  19. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  20. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and risks of childhood obesity in Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li N; Yu, Qing; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Lin F; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xue N; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Bei

    2011-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to many adult diseases. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia, and polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid's metabolism. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of LPL and serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of childhood obesity. We genotyped +495T > G and PvuII T > C in an LPL gene and measured the serum lipid levels in a case-control study of 124 obese children and 346 frequency-matched normal controls in preschool Chinese children. The variant genotypes of LPL + 495GG and PvuII CC were associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.23 for +495 GG; adjusted OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.83 for PvuII CC], compared with their wild-type genotypes, respectively. In addition, compared with the lower serum level cut off by the control median, the higher level of serum triglyceride (TG) (>0.59 mmol/L) was associated with a 1.32-fold increased risk of childhood obesity, and the higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (>1.14 mmol/L) was associated with a 36% decrease in risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, the median levels of TG were higher in obese children carrying LPL +495TT/TG and PvuII TT/CT genotypes than those in controls, the HDLC levels were lower in obese children carrying LPL +495TG and PvuII CT/CC genotypes than those in controls. In conclusion, the LPL gene +495T > G and PvuII T > C polymorphisms may modulate the magnitude of dyslipidemia in Chinese early-onset obesity.

  1. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Germain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL, ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment.

  2. Prepregnancy obesity and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phupong Vorapong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepregnancy obesity is associated with increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcome such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, fetal macrosomia and the need for cesarean delivery. The objectives of this study assessed whether Thai women classified as obese according to WHO's recommended body mass index (BMI for Asians were at risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and other complications such as preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and fetal macrosomia. Methods Two hundred and forty women participated in this study and followed prospectively until delivery. Half of the women (n = 120 were obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 and the other half (n = 120 had normal weight (BMI > 18.5-23 kg/m2. Maternal demographic data, obstetric and neonatal outcomes from both groups were compared to each other. Relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results Compared to normal weight women, obese Thai women were not at increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.9 [95% CI 0.6-1.4]. Relative risk of preeclampsia and fetal macrosomia in obese women were 0.7 [95% CI 0.2-3.3] and 1.4 [95% CI 0.5-4.3], respectively. Relative risk of gestational hypertension in obese women was 12 [95% CI 1.6-90.8]. Conclusion When WHO's classification of obesity was used for Asian populations, prepregnancy obesity without metabolic problems did not increase the risk for GDM, preeclampsia and fetal macrosomia in Thai women. But, prepregnancy obesity continued to increase the risk for developing gestational hypertension.

  3. Obesity - a risk factor for postoperative complications in general surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.M. Tjeertes (Elke); S.S.E. Hoeks (Sanne S.E.); S.S.B.J.C. Beks (Sabine S.B.J.C.); T.M. Valentijn (Tabita); A.A.G.M. Hoofwijk (Anton A.G.M.); R.J. Stolker (Robert J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is generally believed to be a risk factor for the development of postoperative complications. Although being obese is associated with medical hazards, recent literature shows no convincing data to support this assumption. Moreover a paradox between body mass index and

  4. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old c

  5. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canqing Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC; the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03–1.08 and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08. The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09 and 1.17 (1.25–1.18, respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships.

  6. Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm......Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence...

  7. Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

  8. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  Pooja Goyal, R.K. Sachar, R.K. Soni Deptt. of Community medicine, DMC.& Hospital, Ludhiana  Introduction :Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out.Material & Methods :It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana.Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  9. Guiding young adults at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...

  10. Challenges in the Management of Geriatric Obesity in High Risk Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn N. Porter Starr

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults.

  11. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  12. Are the obese at greater risk for depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R E; Kaplan, G A; Shema, S J; Strawbridge, W J

    2000-07-15

    Two waves of data from a community-based study (Alameda County Study, 1994-1995) were used to investigate the association between obesity and depression. Depression was measured with 12 items covering Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode. Following US Public Health Service criteria, obese subjects were defined as those with body mass index scores at the 85th percentile or higher. Covariates were age, sex, education, marital status, social isolation and social support, chronic medical conditions, functional impairment, life events, and financial strain. Results were mixed. In cross-sectional analyses, greater odds for depression in 1994 were observed for the obese, with and without adjustment for covariates. When obesity and depression were examined prospectively, controlling for other variables, obesity in 1994 predicted depression in 1995 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.87). When the data were analyzed with obesity defined as a body mass index of > or = 30, cross-sectional results were the same. However, the prospective multivariate analyses were not significant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.43). Although these data do not resolve the role of obesity as a risk factor for depression, overall the results suggest an association between obesity and depression. The authors found no support for the "jolly fat" hypothesis (obesity reduces risk of depression). However, there has been sufficient disparity of results thus far to justify continued research.

  13. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  14. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil;

    2015-01-01

    with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...... the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut...... previously found to associate among Indian children did not associate with risk of obesity or obesity-related quantitative measures among Caucasian children and juvenile men from Denmark....

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mansour

    2016-03-01

    CONCLUSION:  Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  16. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident ...

  17. Risk Factors and Impulsivity in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Burcak Annagur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to genetic tendency, social, cultural, emotional and diet-related factors play important role in the development of obesity. Impulsivity is the possible predictor of relapse in obesity treatment. Impulsivity is also considered as a predicting factor among patients who quit the treatment. Research has shown that obese people are more impulsive than other people. Impulsive features are especially found to be higher with those who have binge eating disorder. Impulsive people appears to have no control over their behaviors on eating and they have more interest towards food with higher calories. Another issue that strengthens the assocaition between obesity and impulsivity is the obesity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dopaminergic deficiency in the reward centre of the brain can be a common pathway for both attention deficit and obesity. Several approaches have been searched and put forward to sustain the patients’ lost weights after diet. Specific cognitive behavioral approaches developed for the treatment of impulsive behavior could contribute much into obesity treatment . Obesity is a chronic disease that requires long term treatment and follow up.

  18. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    second leading cause of cancer death.1 Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.2 Green tea consumption has been...by which green tea may decrease breast cancer risk. This study evaluates the effects of green tea consumption with high EGCG concentrations on...Obesity 2009; 17(2):310-317. 5. Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Phenotypes of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Real de Asua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the confluence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerotic damage and cardiovascular events remain extremely rare in adults with Down syndrome (DS. We aim to determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders in an adult cohort with DS and to compare our findings with adults without DS.MethodsCross-sectional study of 51 consecutively selected adults with DS living in the community and 51 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Epidemiological data (age and gender, anthropometric data (body mass index and waist-to-height ratio, coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, vitamins, and lipid profile were measured and compared between the groups.ResultsAdults with DS were significantly younger and more often men with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Their waist-to-height ratio was higher, and they more frequently had abdominal obesity. The results of an analysis adjusted for age and gender revealed no differences in fasting insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment indexes, or lipid profile between adults with DS and controls.ConclusionAdults with DS presented a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, we found no differences in lipid profile, prevalence of insulin resistance, or metabolic syndrome between adults with DS and controls.

  20. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  1. Obesity as a risk factor in the development of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.; Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.; Fernández-Pomares, Cynthia; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E.; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.; Manzo Denes, Jorge; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.; Hernández, María Elena; Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales. Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz, México.

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, every year about 3.4 million adults die of consequences related to overweightor obesity. People with a Body Mass Index above 30 are more likely to express certain diseases, including some typesof cancer. In this narrative review, we assess the role of adipose tissue as a modulator of the endocrine system andfacilitator of chronic subclinical inflammation. We discuss how obesity can induce a suitable micro environment for thedevelopment of tumors, ma...

  2. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  3. New Guidelines for Assessment of Malnutrition in Adults: Obese Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Kasuen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    Recently released recommendations for detection and documentation of malnutrition in adults in clinical practice define 3 types of malnutrition: starvation related, acute disease or injury related, and chronic disease related. The first 2 are more easily recognized, but the third may be more often unnoticed, particularly in obese patients. Critical care patients tend to be at high risk for malnutrition and thus require a thorough nutritional assessment. Compared with patients of earlier times, intensive care unit patients today tend to be older, have more complex medical and comorbid conditions, and often are obese. Missed or delayed detection of malnutrition in these patients may contribute to increases in hospital morbidity and longer hospital stays. Critical care nurses are in a prime position to screen patients at risk for malnutrition and to work with members of the interprofessional team in implementing nutritional intervention plans.

  4. Obesity and Malnutrition: Impact of Habitat and Living Conditions in Adult Urban Population in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Temporelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: malnutrition refers to imbalances (either deficit or excess in energy intake, protein and / or nutrients including underweight and obesity. The aim of this work is identify the contribution of individual factors, habits and life conditions in nutritional status. Material and methods: estimates of relative risk ratios are obtained from a multinomial logistic model using microdata from the National Survey of Risk Factors conducted in 2005 and 2009 in Argentinean‘ cities among adult population. Results: malnutrition is associated with constitutive and socioeconomic variables, while habits are also important in the obesity case. Discussion: both types of problems coexist in Argentine due to high heterogeneity in life styles, turning difficult the design of public interventions aimed to solve them. This complexity highlights the importance of a careful and specific multidimensional approach (medical, social, economical.

  5. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Unwin Nigel C; Hayes Louise; Weaver Nicola F; Murtagh Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore ...

  6. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  7. Obesity Interacts with Cerebral Hypoperfusion to Exacerbate Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Alosco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion accompanies heart failure (HF and is associated with reduced cognitive performance. Obesity is prevalent in persons with HF and is also a likely contributor to cognitive function, as it has been independently linked to cognitive impairment in healthy individuals. The current study examined the association between obesity and cognitive performance among older adults with HF and whether obesity interacts with cerebral hypoperfusion to exacerbate cognitive impairment. Methods: Patients with HF (n = 99, 67.46 ± 11.36 years of age completed neuropsychological testing and impedance cardiography. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF-V measured by transcranial Doppler sonography quantified cerebral perfusion and body mass index (BMI operationalized obesity. Results: A hierarchical regression analysis showed that lower CBF-V was associated with reduced performance on tests of attention/executive function and memory. Elevated BMI was independently associated with reduced attention/executive function and language test performance. Notably, a significant interaction between CBF-V and BMI indicated that a combination of hypoperfusion and high BMI has an especially adverse influence on attention/executive function in HF patients. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion and obesity interact to impair cognitive performance in persons with HF. These results may have important clinical implications, as HF patients who are at high risk for cerebral hypoperfusion may benefit from weight reduction.

  8. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  9. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  10. [Obesity as an obstetric risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadys, W M; Oleszczuk, J

    1999-06-01

    Obesity-related metabolic and functional disorders may disturb adaptation process taking place in pregnant women body. Insufficient adaptation may lead to development of several medical complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and puerperium. Maternal obesity is associated with increased frequencies of hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal macrosomia, congenital malformations, labor abnormalities (including prolonged second stage of labor, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, FHR abnormalities and shoulder dystocia), postdatism, and cesarean delivery. Operative complications among obese women undergoing cesarean delivery include increased blood loss, prolonged operative time, and increased rates of postoperative infection, thrombophlebitis. Treatment of these complications increases hospital stays and costs. Obese women should be carefully examined by dietetician before conception and cared for dietetically and medically during gestation.

  11. Central Obesity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.

  12. Development of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire for obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Feren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire for assessing nutritional knowledge among overweight adults. The questionnaire should reveal knowledge about current dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, everyday food choices, and conditions related to overweight.The first draft of the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (113 items was based on literature review. To ensure content validity and expert-assessed face validity, an expert panel examined the questionnaire. Thereafter, the questionnaire was tested for user friendliness and ambiguity by five students. The questionnaire was pilot tested in a group of obese adults, similar to the target group. The results were analyzed for item difficulty and internal consistency and comments made by respondents were taken into account. Two student groups, differing in nutritional expertise, answered the questionnaire on two occasions to test construct validity and test–retest reliability. After the retest, a total overview of the questionnaire was made by the expert panel. The final questionnaire consisted of 91 items.The pilot study was conducted in obese adults waiting for a gastric bypass operation (n=33. Construct validity (n=34 and test–retest reliability (n=27 was tested in two student groups: public health nutrition students and construction students.Results from the pilot study showed that internal consistency of the three first sections together was 0.84, measured by Cronbach's α. Test of construct validity showed that public health nutrition students scored significantly better than construction students (p<0.001 for all sections, and test–retest reliability for all sections together was 0.82 (Pearson's r.The knowledge questionnaire had reasonable content-, face-, and construct validities and overall good reliability. The questionnaire can be a useful tool for measuring nutrition knowledge among obese adults.

  13. Comparison of Novel Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors between Obese and Normal Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Kouzehgaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease is considered as the most common cause of death in all societies including Iran. This study seeks to compare the new risk factors of coronary-artery diseases in obese adolescents and control group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, amongst the obese adolescents registered in the nutrition clinic of Ghaem Hospital, 80 individuals were selected. As the control group, additional 80 adolescent students having the same gender and age as the obese group, but with normal weight were selected. These two groups were selected randomly and their serum level of vitamin D, anti-heat shock protein27 (HSP27, balance of oxidants and antioxidants, and homocysteine were determined and compared. Results: In this study, 42 (53.2% and 37 (46.8% of the obese and normal weight groups were male, respectively. The mean value of triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL in the obese group was higher than the normal group, but the mean value for HDL, vitamin D, homocysteine, PAB (Preoxidant and Antioxidants Balance, and anti-HSP27 was not significantly different between the groups. In the base of homocysteine >15 µmol/l, 26.6% of the obese group had hyperhomocysteinemia, therefore homocysteine may be a new risk factor for coronary artery disease in obese adolescents (χ2=4.072; P value=0.091. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that despite the presence of obesity in adolescence and adolescents, new risk factors are not present among them more than the control group. This was in contrast to what was seen in adults.

  14. Overweight and Obesity before, during and after Pregnancy: Part 2: Evidence-based Risk Factors and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabin, B; Stupin, J H

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity have become a global health problem. Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy have a serious impact on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Pre-conceptional obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with weight gain in women following childbirth leading to associated risks such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Long-term risks for the offspring are an increased risk for early cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and decreased life expectancy as adults. German health care has not yet adequately responded to this development. There are no clinical guidelines for obesity before, during or after pregnancy, there are no concerted actions amongst midwives, obstetricians, health advisors, politicians and the media. Research projects on effective interventions are lacking although health care concepts would be urgently needed to reduce future metabolic and cardiovascular risks for women and children as well as to minimize the associated costs for the society.

  15. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adu...

  16. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    , psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  17. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebe D’Adamo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  18. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  19. Change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabour, S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Prokop, M.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Bots, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prospective follow-up study was conducted to examine the relationship between 9 year change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS: Data on coronary risk factors for 573 postmenopausal women were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow

  20. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0%, total cholesterol (33.5%, and systolic blood pressure (30.0%. Of all participants, 96.3% (77/80 had at least one impaired cardiometabolic risk factor as well as obesity. Prevalence of MetS was 21.3% according to the International Diabetes Federation definition and 30% using the Third Adult Treatment Panel definition. Conclusion: The present study suggests that obese Kuwaiti adolescents have multiple cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities. Future studies are needed to test the benefits of intervention in this high-risk group. They also suggest that prevention of obesity in children and adults should be a major public health goal in Kuwait. Keywords: obesity, adolescents, prevalence, cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome

  1. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, bleeding on probing (BOP, periodontal probing depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45, 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42, 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1 kg/m 2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases.

  2. Obesity - a social and physical risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Krömker, Dörthe

    2008-01-01

    of success of programs developed so far for prevention and therapy of obesity suggests the existence of poorly-understood regulatory mechanisms leading to the imbalance between energy uptake and energy expenditure. Besides physiological factors,such as dysregulated levels of hunger-controlling or satiation...

  3. Obesity - a social and physical risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Krömker, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are an accepted cause of numerous metabolic disorders. The obvious strategies for prevention and therapy of increased fat body mass (reduction of energy intake, increase of physical activity) fail in most cases, especially with respect to their sustainability. The lack...

  4. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zienczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001. Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.

  5. Self-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teatske M Altenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.

  6. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  7. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 5-10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥5.7 and cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in overweight/obese subjects with prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all pcytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13, seemed to be elevated in the prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D.

  8. Diet, risk of obesity and socioeconomic circumstances of individuals in the UK: A seemingly unrelated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Olajide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Understanding the link between diet, risk of obesity and the underlying socioeconomic circumstances of the individual is useful for health promotion and improvement interventions. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic factors that jointly affect food consumption choices and risk of obesity. We analyse the National Dietary and Nutrition Survey (2000/01 of adults aged 19-64 years living in private households in the UK, using a health production framework. We used information on the complete food history on individuals in the previous week to create eight common food groups. We estimated a system of linear risk of obesity (as measured by Body Mass Index and eight diet equations with error terms that are correlated across equations for a given individual, but are uncorrelated across individuals, using the seemingly unrelated regression method. Our findings indicate that the socioeconomic factors (e.g. income and education associated with sources of healthy eating differ. While increasing household purchasing power may be more effective for increasing consumption of healthier foods such as fruit and vegetables, more knowledge and information about healthy eating may be more effective for cutting down on consumption of less healthy foods (e.g. preserves and savoury foods. An understanding of these different healthy eating contexts is essential for the development of effective targeted food based policies aimed at reducing the risk of obesity. Link to Appendix

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a potential resource for etiological and treatment research. GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes have been especially successful. To translate this success into a research tool, we developed and tested a “genetic risk score” (GRS) that summarizes an individual’s genetic predisposition to obesity. Methods Different GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes report different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the best genomic markers of obesity risk. Therefore, we applied a 3-stage approach that pooled results from multiple GWAS to select SNPs to include in our GRS: The 3 stages are (1) Extraction. SNPs with evidence of association are compiled from published GWAS; (2) Clustering. SNPs are grouped according to patterns of linkage disequilibrium; (3) Selection. Tag SNPs are selected from clusters that meet specific criteria. We applied this 3-stage approach to results from 16 GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes in European-descent samples to create a GRS. We then tested the GRS in the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study cohort (N=10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Results Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites (for BMI, r=0.13, p<1×10−30; for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.57 [95% CI 0.55–0.58]). The GRS improved prediction of obesity (as measured by delta-AUC and integrated discrimination index) when added to models that included demographic and geographic information. FTO- and MC4R-linked SNPs, and a non-genetic risk assessment consisting of a socioeconomic index (p<0.01 for all comparisons). The GRS also predicted increased mortality risk over 17 years of follow-up. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. Conclusions The obesity GRS derived using our 3-stage approach is not useful for clinical risk prediction, but

  10. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute......>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were.......20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1...

  11. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes.

  12. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Kankaanranta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2, and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes.

  13. Mechanical efficiency improvement in relation to metabolic changes in sedentary obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Georges; Iancu, Horia-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical efficiency (ME) refers to the ability of an individual to transfer energy consumed by external work. This performance indicator is impaired by obesity and is associated with decreased high-intensity exercise performance. However, it is unclear if ME may be improved in response to high intensity training (HIT). This study aimed to determine if ME increases in response to HIT in obese adults and to identify the factors associated with these changes. Methods 24 obese adults (b...

  14. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

  15. [Sleep deprivation as a risk factor for obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Rodrigo A; Durán, Samuel A; Reyes, Sussanne C; Ponce, Rosemarie; Algarín, Cecilia R; Peirano, Patricio D

    2011-07-01

    Nocturnal sleep patterns may be a contributing factor for the epidemic of obesity. Epidemiologic ana experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction is an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Moreover, sleep restriction is significantly associated with incidence and prevalence of obesity and several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Experimental sleep restriction is related to altered plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Both hormones are directly related to appetite and satiety mechanisms. Also, a higher activity of the orexin/hypocretin system has been reported, as well as changes in glucose metabolism and autonomic nervous system. Some studies indicate that these endocrine changes could be associated with a higher diurnal food intake and preference for energy- dense foods. All these changes could result in a positive energy balance, leading to weight gain and a higher obesity risk in the long-term. The present article summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence related to sleep deprivation and higher obesity risk. The possible mechanisms are highlighted.

  16. Screening for and Management of Obesity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity means having a high amount of extra body fat. Facts About Obesity Obesity is a serious problem ... are used to calculate your body mass index (BMI). BMI indicates whether you are at a healthy ...

  17. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  18. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  19. The association between obesity, cardiometabolic disease biomarkers, and innate immunity-related inflammation in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Costa LA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Da Costa,1,2,*Paul Arora,2,3,* Bibiana García-Bailo,1,2 Mohamed Karmali,1,2 Ahmed El-Sohemy,1 Alaa Badawi2 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto; 2Office of Biotechnology and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada; 3Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this article Introduction: Obesity is associated with a state of chronic inflammation, and increased cardiometabolic disease risk. The present study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers among normal weight, overweight, and obese Canadian adults.Methods: Subjects (n = 1805, aged 18 to 79 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS were examined for associations between BMI, cardiometabolic markers (apolipoprotein [Apo] A1, ApoB, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], total cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio [total:HDL-C ratio], triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and homocysteine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Bootstrap weights for variance and sampling weights for point estimates were applied to account for the complex survey design. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, smoking status, and ethnicity (in addition to season of clinic visit, for vitamin D analyses only were used to examine the association between cardiometabolic markers, inflammatory factors, and BMI in Canadian adults.Results: All biomarkers were significantly associated with BMI (P ≤ 0.001. ApoA1 (β = −0.31, P < 0.0001, HDL-C (β = −0.61, P < 0.0001, and 25(OHD (β = −0.25, P < 0.0001 were inversely associated with BMI, while all other biomarkers showed positive linear associations. Distinct patterns of association were noted among normal weight, overweight

  20. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk for pediatric obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedoussis, George V; Vidra, Nikoleta; Butler, Johannah; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Yannakoulia, Mary; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lyon, Helen N; Vidra, Nikoletta

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene has been reported to alter the risk for adiposity in adults. METHODS: We investigated the gender related association between the Pro12Ala variant (rs1801282) in obesity and insulin resistance traits in 794

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  3. Prevalence of obesity and affecting factors in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkir, Çiğdem; Özer, Ali; Pehlivan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, and the risk factors associated with it, in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya, Turkey. Method This research was designed as a cross-sectional study conducted on physically disabled people aged 20–65 years living in the city centre of Malatya. The prevalence of obesity in disabled people was within 95% CIs, the power was calculated as 80%, and the sample size of our population was calculated as 258 individuals. Results The prevalence of obesity was found to be 13.2%. The relationship between disability type and obesity status was found to be significant. The prevalence of obesity was 21.3% in visually impaired people, 17.9% in speech-impaired people, 17.8% in hearing-impaired people and 6.5% in orthopaedically disabled people. Conclusions Educational interventions on nutrition and lifestyle can be effective considering the high prevalence of obesity in visually impaired people, the prevalence of weakness in orthopaedically disabled people and the risk related to the area in which body fat is localised even when body mass index is within the normal range. Training disabled people in sports appropriate to their disability type and building appropriate facilities for those sports might have a positive effect. PMID:27609842

  4. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Its Associates in Mongolian Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Tong, Weijun; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Not all obese individuals show cardiometabolic abnormalities. We examined metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and its associates in 2530 Mongolian Chinese adults. Methods: MHO was defined by waist circumference, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and glucose. Results: Only 3.0% of the participants had MHO, with 0.8% of men and 4.5% of women having this condition (Pobesity measures, MHO individuals had a comparable cardiometabolic profile to that for metabolically healthy, nonobese individuals (MHNO) and an improved cardiometabolic profile, i.e., lower levels of blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-C, TGs, and higher levels of HDL-C compared to metabolically abnormal individuals (all Pobese individuals (overall P<0.001). Conclusions: We conclude that MHO is associated with a low inflammation state, and family history of hypertension may play a role in the MHO phenotype. PMID:24460218

  5. Vitamin D concentration, obesity, and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Bojesen, Stig E

    2014-01-01

    with low plasma 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with type 2 diabetes and low plasma 25(OH)D concentrations might be a modest mediator between obesity and increased risk of diabetes. Genetic variants associated with endogenous production of 25(OH)D might partially explain this increased risk; however......, as findings for DHCR7 were not statistically significant, our results require independent confirmation. FUNDING: Danish Heart Foundation, Copenhagen University Hospital....

  6. Incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years: a prospective cohort study%我国35~74岁成人肥胖发病率及其可控危险因素的前瞻性队列随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 樊森; 李莹; 陈纪春; 曹杰; 黄建凤; 赵连成; 刘小清; 俞玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解我国成人肥胖的发病率,并探讨肥胖相关可控危险因素.方法 以1998年中国心血管流行病学多中心协作研究和2000年中国心血管健康多中心合作研究的27 020名35 ~ 74岁成人的调查作为基线,进行平均7.9年的前瞻性随访,收集肥胖及其相关危险因素指标;以BMI (kg/m2) 24.0~27.9作为超重,≥28.0作为肥胖,分别计算超重和肥胖的发病率;采用多因素logistic回归分析,调整性别、年龄、南北方、城乡等基线相关因素后,计算各危险因素对于肥胖发病的相对危险度.结果 我国35 ~ 74岁成人肥胖年发病率为6.97‰,女性(7.74‰)高于男性(6.10‰),北方(9.29‰)高于南方(5.10‰),农村(7.28‰)高于城市(6.52‰),超重年发病率为24.83‰.多因素调整后,与高中(12年教育)以下学历人群相比,高中及以上学历人群肥胖发病风险降低18%;中等收入人群肥胖发病相对风险是低收入人群的1.28倍;与从事中-重度体力工作人员相比,从事轻度体力工作和非在岗(家务劳动和退休)人员发病风险分别增加32%和63%;常饮牛奶和食用中等量水果,分别可以降低38%和19%的肥胖发病,而食用较多红肉可增加肥胖发病风险,常饮花茶者肥胖发病相对风险是不饮茶者的1.34倍.结论 我国35~ 74岁成人肥胖发病率达6.97‰.为了预防与控制肥胖流行,应提倡健康的生活方式,适当增加体力活动,鼓励喝牛奶,适量食用水果,减少红肉的摄入和花茶的饮用,尤其是在低学历和中等收入人群中.%Objective To examine the incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years.Methods A total of 27 020 participants aged 35 to 74 years from two prospective cohort studies in China were followed up in the years of 2007 and 2008.Obesity and overweight were defined as body mass index ≥28.0,and 24.0-27.9 kg/m2,respectively.Relative risks of obesity for risk

  7. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among USadolescents with disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah E Messiah; Denise C Vidot; Gabriel Somarriba; Kanathy Haney; Semra Aytur; Ruby A Natale; Jeffrey P Brosco; Kristopher L Arheart

    2015-01-01

    AIM To generate prevalence estimates of weightstatus and cardiometabolic disease risk factors amongadolescents with and without disabilities.METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Healthand Nutrition Examination Survey data was conductedamong 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and withoutdisabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference,fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol,triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure andmetabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) wereexamined by the following standardized body mass index(BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities;overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - 〈 95th percentile for age andsex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity(BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit witheach cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently ascontinuous outcomes to show relationships with disabilitystatus.RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%)and severely obese (12%) vs their peers withoutdisabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight,obese and severely obese children with disabilities hadabnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well asMetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% ofseverely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%,16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents withdisabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS(OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs theirpeers with no disabilities.CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents withdisabilities are disproportionately affected by obesityand poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers withno disabilities. Health care professionals shouldmonitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents withdisabilities.

  8. Obesity paradox in amputation risk among nonelderly diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min-Woong; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Oh, Elissa H; Park, Michael S; Stuck, Rodney M; Stone, Neil J; Pearce, William B

    2012-02-01

    The association between BMI and amputation risk is not currently well known. We used data for a cohort of diabetic patients treated in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in 2003. Men aged amputation risk and amputation-free survival during the next 5 years (2004-2008). Compared to overweight individuals (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), the risks of amputation and treatment failure (amputation or death) were higher for patients with BMI amputations (HR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39-0.73) during follow-up as overweight individuals. While the amputation risk continued to decrease for higher BMI, amputation-free survival showed a slight upturn at BMI >40 kg/m(2). The association between obesity and amputation risk in our data shows a pattern consistent with "obesity paradox" observed in many health conditions. More research is needed to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain the paradoxical association between obesity and lower-extremity amputation (LEA) risk.

  9. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  10. Glycated hemoglobin and associated risk factors in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Raul A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between HbA1c and other risk factors like obesity, functional fitness, lipid profile, and inflammatory status in older adults. Epidemiological evidence suggests that HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular and ischemic heart disease risk. Excess of body weight and obesity are considered to play a central role in the development of these conditions. Age is associated with several risk factors as increased body fat and abdominal fat, deterioration of the lipid profile, diabetes, raising in inflammatory activity, or decreased functional fitness. Methods Data were available from 118 participants aged 65-95 years, including 72 women and 46 men. Anthropometric variables were taken, as was functional fitness, blood pressure and heart rate. Blood samples were collected after 12 h fasting, and HbA1c, hs-CRP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and glycaemia were calculated. Bivariate and partial correlations were performed to explore associations amongst the variables of interest. Differences between groups were explored by performing factorial analysis of variance. Results HbA1c levels ranged from 4.6%-9.4% with 93% of the cases below 6.5%. Women had higher HbA1c, glycaemia, TC, BMI, and lower and upper flexibility than men. Men had higher BW, WC, 6-min walking distance, and VO2peak than women. Age, SBP, DBP, HRrest, HRpeak, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, TG/HDL-C ratio, Log10 hs-CRP, upper and lower strength, and agility and dynamic balance were similar in men and women. HbA1c had positive associations with glycaemia, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, BW, WC, BMI, but not with functional fitness, TC, LDL-C, Log10 hs-CRP, PAD, or PAS. Obese participants had higher HbA1c than non-obese only when IDF and not USDHHS criteria were applied. Conclusions Older women had higher HbA1c than men, even after controlling for BMI. HbA1c associates equally with BW, BMI or WC. Population-based criteria are recommended to classify

  11. Polymorphisms in Endothelin System Genes, Arsenic Levels and Obesity Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; de Marco, Griselda; Martínez-Hervas, Sergio; Rentero, Pilar; Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Blesa, Sebastian; Morchon, David; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Rojo, Gemma; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Obesity has been linked to morbidity and mortality through increased risk for many chronic diseases. Endothelin (EDN) system has been related to endothelial function but it can be involved in lipid metabolism regulation: Receptor type A (EDNRA) activates lipolysis in adipocytes, the two endothelin receptors mediate arsenic-stimulated adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelin system can regulate adiposity by modulating adiponectin activity in different situations and, therefore, influence obesity development. The aim of the present study was to analyze if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EDN system could be associated with human obesity. Subjects/Methods We analyzed two samples of general-population-based studies from two different regions of Spain: the VALCAR Study, 468 subjects from the area of Valencia, and the Hortega Study, 1502 subjects from the area of Valladolid. Eighteen SNPs throughout five genes were analyzed using SNPlex. Results We found associations for two polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene which codifies for EDN receptor type B. Genotypes AG and AA of the rs5351 were associated with a lower risk for obesity in the VALCAR sample (p=0.048, OR=0.63) and in the Hortega sample (p=0.001, OR=0.62). Moreover, in the rs3759475 polymorphism, genotypes CT and TT were also associated with lower risk for obesity in the Hortega sample (p=0.0037, OR=0.66) and in the VALCAR sample we found the same tendency (p=0.12, OR=0.70). Furthermore, upon studying the pooled population, we found a stronger association with obesity (p=0.0001, OR=0.61 and p=0.0008, OR=0.66 for rs5351 and rs3759475, respectively). Regarding plasma arsenic levels, we have found a positive association for the two SNPs studied with obesity risk in individuals with higher arsenic levels in plasma: rs5351 (p=0.0054, OR=0.51) and rs3759475 (p=0.009, OR=0.53) Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene may influence the susceptibility to

  12. Polymorphisms in endothelin system genes, arsenic levels and obesity risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Martínez-Barquero

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to morbidity and mortality through increased risk for many chronic diseases. Endothelin (EDN system has been related to endothelial function but it can be involved in lipid metabolism regulation: Receptor type A (EDNRA activates lipolysis in adipocytes, the two endothelin receptors mediate arsenic-stimulated adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelin system can regulate adiposity by modulating adiponectin activity in different situations and, therefore, influence obesity development. The aim of the present study was to analyze if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the EDN system could be associated with human obesity.We analyzed two samples of general-population-based studies from two different regions of Spain: the VALCAR Study, 468 subjects from the area of Valencia, and the Hortega Study, 1502 subjects from the area of Valladolid. Eighteen SNPs throughout five genes were analyzed using SNPlex.We found associations for two polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene which codifies for EDN receptor type B. Genotypes AG and AA of the rs5351 were associated with a lower risk for obesity in the VALCAR sample (p=0.048, OR=0.63 and in the Hortega sample (p=0.001, OR=0.62. Moreover, in the rs3759475 polymorphism, genotypes CT and TT were also associated with lower risk for obesity in the Hortega sample (p=0.0037, OR=0.66 and in the VALCAR sample we found the same tendency (p=0.12, OR=0.70. Furthermore, upon studying the pooled population, we found a stronger association with obesity (p=0.0001, OR=0.61 and p=0.0008, OR=0.66 for rs5351 and rs3759475, respectively. Regarding plasma arsenic levels, we have found a positive association for the two SNPs studied with obesity risk in individuals with higher arsenic levels in plasma: rs5351 (p=0.0054, OR=0.51 and rs3759475 (p=0.009, OR=0.53.Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene may influence the susceptibility to obesity and can interact with plasma arsenic

  13. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence

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    Eleni-Maria Papatesta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

  14. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  15. Combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults in Korea.

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    Sue Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is known to be an important correlate for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is suggested to be an effective contributor for reducing this risk. This study was conducted to determine the combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity, otherwise known as fitness and fatness, on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: A total of 232 overweight and obese individuals were grouped into four subtypes according to their fitness level. This was measured by recovery heart rate from a step test in addition to visceral adiposity defined as the visceral adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VAT/SAT ratio. Associations of fitness and visceral fatness were analyzed in comparison with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The high visceral fat and low fitness group had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome [Odds Ratio (OR 5.02; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.85-13.61] compared with the reference group, which was the low visceral adiposity and high fitness group, after adjustments for confounding factors. Viscerally lean but unfit subjects were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than more viscerally obese but fit subjects (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.27-9.19, and OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.01-7.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that visceral obesity and fitness levels are cumulatively associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in healthy overweight and obese adults. This suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant modifier in the relation of visceral adiposity to adverse metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese individuals.

  16. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    relates to changes in nutrition and diet, but variation in factors such as infectious disease burden and physical activity patterns, as well as social influences, need to be investigated. As obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes, this combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity may be an explosive combination.

  17. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  18. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

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    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  19. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Sadaf Farooqi, I; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits.

  20. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

  1. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjia Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. METHOD: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35-74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. RESULT: The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35-44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05. The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold. Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action.

  2. Association of Unhealthy Exercise Patterns with Overweight and Obesity in Kuwaiti Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    R ALLAFI, Ahmad; WASLIEN, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the frequency of the behaviors that are most often associated with excess weight gain in Kuwaitis and to determine which gender and age groups are at highest risk for each behavior. Methods A questionnaire developed to identify barriers to exercise in western populations was modified for use with Kuwaitis and posted online during September through December 2012. Data from 1370 adults 18 to 59 years old with BMIs ranging from 15.1–70.8 was collected. The prevalence of seven behavior patterns was examined for age, BMI, and gender groups as well as the odds ratio of each behavior for each BMI group. Results Both individual unhealthy exercise behaviors and the sum of all such behaviors were more frequent in over-weight and obese individuals. For all behaviors the odds ratio was significantly greater for those with BMIs of 30-39 than for those with BMIs below 25 (P< 0.05). Some exercise avoidance behaviors were more frequent in older age groups and in overweight females. Conclusion Unhealthy exercise behavior patterns were highly prevalent in obese individuals. Tailoring programs and counseling to the most common of these patterns in Kuwaiti obese should facilitate greater success in weight management. PMID:26060716

  3. Association of Unhealthy Exercise Patterns with Overweight and Obesity in Kuwaiti Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R Allafi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the frequency of the behaviors that are most often associated with excess weight gain in Kuwaitis and to determine which gender and age groups are at highest risk for each behavior.A questionnaire developed to identify barriers to exercise in western populations was modified for use with Kuwaitis and posted online during September through December 2012. Data from 1370 adults 18 to 59 years old with BMIs ranging from 15.1-70.8 was collected. The prevalence of seven behavior patterns was examined for age, BMI, and gender groups as well as the odds ratio of each behavior for each BMI group.Both individual unhealthy exercise behaviors and the sum of all such behaviors were more frequent in over-weight and obese individuals. For all behaviors the odds ratio was significantly greater for those with BMIs of 30-39 than for those with BMIs below 25 (P< 0.05. Some exercise avoidance behaviors were more frequent in older age groups and in overweight females.Unhealthy exercise behavior patterns were highly prevalent in obese individuals. Tailoring programs and counseling to the most common of these patterns in Kuwaiti obese should facilitate greater success in weight management.

  4. O risco de incidência e persistência da obesidade entre adultos Brasileiros segundo seu estado nutricional ao final da adolescência The risk of incidence and persistence of obesity among Brazilian adults according to their nutritional status at the end of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney Lisboa Conde

    2011-09-01

    adults from 2006 to 2009. METHODS: We used complete cases with demographic, socioeconomic, and anthropometric data of samples from 2006 to 2009. All estimates were adapted for the Brazilian population in 2007. The relative risk (RR for incidence and persistence of overweight or obesity was estimated by the Poisson multiple regression. All estimates were adjusted for smoking behavior, age, and practice of physical activity. RESULTS: The incidence of overweight among individuals with low or normal weight at the age of 20 is estimated in 40% for males and 30% for females. The persistence of obesity, in turn, is estimated in 65% for males and 47% for females. The gradient of obesity as a function of schooling is virtually inexistent in males. Among females, the gradient is negative, with linear and statistically significant associations. Conclusion: These characteristics, combined with the increase of obesity among young adults found in other studies, show the urgent need to use more effective public policies, which reduce public exposure to foods of poor nutritional quality and develop initiatives to promote physical activity.

  5. Risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with FTO gene variants discloses clinically relevant gender difference among Turks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu-Geyik, Filiz; Onat, Altan; Yuzbasıogulları, Ayse Berna; Coban, Neslihan; Can, Gunay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan

    2016-06-01

    Gene variations in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) have shown controversial associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in several populations. We explored the association of FTO gene with obesity, MetS, and insulin-related parameters separately in men and women. Two SNPs in the FTO, gene rs9939609 and rs1421085, were genotyped by the Taqman System in 1967 adults (mean age of the whole group 50.1 ± 12.0; 48.4 % male). A random sample of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor cohort was cross-sectionally analyzed. Both SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.85) and minor alleles were associated with risk of obesity in women and of MetS in men. Carriers of the rs1421085 C-allele exhibited higher body mass index (BMI) in each gender. Adjusted fasting insulin and HOMA index were significantly higher in C-allele carriers in men alone. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significantly increased likelihood for obesity in female C-risk allele carriers (OR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.19-2.18), after adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol usage, physical activity grade and presence of diabetes mellitus. Male C-allele carriers were at increased risk for MetS (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.07-1.95), adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the MetS risk, indicating interaction between C-allele, gender and BMI. The FTO gene in Turkish adults contributes independently to obesity in women and-by interacting with BMI-to MetS and insulin resistance in men.

  6. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials.

  7. Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-07-01

    Early nutrition in infancy may influence later child health outcomes including overweight through 'programming'. Systematic reviews suggest that breastfeeding is associated with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity. This commentary explores some of these mechanisms behind this association. Generally breastfed infants are leaner than artificially (formula)-fed infants and behavioural and hormonal mechanisms may explain this difference. The theory is that a high nutrient diet in infancy adversely programs the principal components of the metabolic syndrome in the child (body mass index, blood pressure and blood lipids) by promoting growth acceleration, whereas slower growth benefits later cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Artificial-feeding stimulates a higher postnatal growth velocity with the adiposity rebound occurring earlier in those children who have greater fatness later, whereas breastfeeding has been shown to promote slower growth. The adverse long-term effects of early growth acceleration emerge as fundamental in later overweight and obesity. The higher protein content of artificial baby milk compared to the lower protein content in breastmilk is responsible for the increased growth rate and adiposity during the influential period of infancy of formula-fed infants. Breastfeeding, on the other hand, has a protective effect on child overweight and obesity by inducing lower plasma insulin levels, thereby decreasing fat storage and preventing excessive early adipocyte development. Plausible biological mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity are based on the unique composition of human milk and the metabolic and physiological responses to human milk.

  8. Obesity as a causal risk factor for deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Benn, M; Nordestgaard, B G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that obesity is causally associated with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DESIGN: A Mendelian randomization design. SETTING: The Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study combined. SUBJECTS: Body mass index (BMI) measurements were.......95-1.25) for DVT and 1.54 (1.12-2.10) for DVT complicated by PE. In instrumental variable analysis, the causal odds ratio (95% CI) for an increase in BMI of 1 kg m(-2) was 1.13 (0.92-1.39) for DVT alone and 1.86 (1.14-3.02) for DVT complicated by PE. The absolute 10-year risk of DVT in a high-risk group (i.......e. those aged >60 years and homozygous for Factor V Leiden) was 35% in obese individuals and 18% in normal-weight individuals. CONCLUSION: A strong observational association between obesity and DVT with or without PE, supported by a direct genetic association between the obesity-specific locus FTO and DVT...

  9. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  10. Asthma diagnosis is not associated with obesity in a population of adults from Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested a relationship between asthma and obesity; however, this relationship is unclear when obesity is compared with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Aim: To determine whether obesity is associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of Spanish adults in the north of Madrid, Spain between 2003 and 2007. The patients included had experienced asthma symptoms during the previous y...

  11. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and 5.6 (1.9–16.6). Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions. PMID:25214839

  12. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Franceschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2 and 5.6 (1.9–16.6. Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions.

  13. Abdominal obesity: causal factor or simply a symptom of obesity-related health risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Kiyoji Tanaka,2 Jin-won Noh,3 Rina So,2,4 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,1,4 Mijung Kim,5 Junichi Shoda11Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Sports Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Healthcare Management, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 5Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: Abdominal fat (AF reduction is advocated in the treatment of obesity-related diseases. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown additional beneficial effects against obesity-related health risks, independent of AF reduction. Therefore it is important to determine whether AF plays a causal role in promoting metabolic disorders or is simply a symptom of increased obesity-related health risk factors. Clarification of the primary role of AF in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease is also important.Objective: This retrospective study was conducted with the objectives of 1 comparison between groups exhibiting equivalent amounts of AF loss that resulted from distinct treatments (exercise and dietary restriction with respect to degrees of improvement in obesity-related health risk factors and 2 determination of definite differences in the outcomes of obesity-related health risk in subjects receiving identical treatment (exercise but exhibiting a remarkable difference in AF reduction.Design: In 66 subjects who completed a 12-week exercise or dietary restriction program, 17 parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]; leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6; alanine aminotransferase [ALT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [γGT]; lipid profile: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLC], triglyceride [TG

  14. Overweight, Obesity and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhouser, Marian. L; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Prentice, Ross L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan; Carty, Cara L.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Knudtson, Jennifer; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Over ⅔ of U.S. women are overweight or obese, placing them at increased risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of overweight and obesity with risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer after extended follow-up in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial. DESIGN The WHI protocol incorporated measured height and weight, baseline and annual or biennial mammography, and adjudicated breast cancer endpoints. SETTING 40 U.S. clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS n=67,142 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years were enrolled from 1993–1998 with a median of 13 years of follow-up through 2010; 3388 invasive breast cancers were observed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Height and weight were measured at baseline and weight was measured annually thereafter. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history and personal habits (smoking, physical activity). Women underwent annual or biennial mammograms. Breast cancers were verified by medical records reviewed by physician adjudicators. RESULTS Women who were overweight and obese had an increased invasive breast cancer risk vs. normal weight women. Risk was greatest for obesity grades 2+3 (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) (hazard ratio [HR] for invasive breast cancer =1.58, 95% CI 1.40–1.79). BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2 was strongly associated with risk for ER+/PR+ breast cancers (HR=1.86 95% CI 1.60–2.17), but was not associated with ER− cancers. Obesity grade 2+3 was also associated with advanced disease including larger tumor size (HR=2.12 95%CI 1.67–2.69). (P=0.02), positive lymph nodes (HR=1.89 95%CI 1.46–2.45), (P=0.06), regional/distant stage (HR=1.94, 95%CI 1.52–2.47) (P=0.05) and deaths after breast cancer (HR=2.11 95%CI 1.57–2.84) (P5% of bodyweight over the follow-up period had an increased breast cancer risk (HR=1.36 95% CI 1.1–1.65), but among women already overweight or obese we found no association of weight change (gain or loss

  15. The Impact of Education on Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of obesity is rapidly rising. To reverse the obesity epidemic, efforts should be made to incorporate intensive weight loss programs into medical practice. The primary aim of this study was to change the behavior for achieving a mean weight loss of 5-10% of initial body weight over 6 months in overweight and obese adults. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 266 out of 533 subjects screened for coronary heart disease risk factors in Shiraz Healthy Heart House were overweight or obese. 140 individuals with BMI≥25 completed this study’s 6 month program. The subjects were visited on day 1 and at 2 week intervals and taught intensive lifestyle modification. The subjects who did not lose 5% of their initial body weight after 3 months were assigned to receive 120 mg orlistat three times daily for 3 months in addition to counseling sessions. The main outcome measures were body weight and BMI. Results: The mean weight and BMI of participants were 78.6±10.7 kg and 30±0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Women included 58% of the sample. 110 subjects (78.5% lost ≥5% of their initial body weight during 3 months. The Mean weight and BMI loss in these subjects were 7.6±0.8 kg and 2.4±0.3 kg/m2, respectively. Conclusions: Teaching of how to modify lifestyle and to gain more self-control with eating have the major role in reducing weight and BMI. So, training accompanied by continual follow up for performing the instructions could lead to favourable results.

  16. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558 having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS: Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98 and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04, gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19 and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32 and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91 and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40. Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27, polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99, tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46 and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95. Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63 and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22 and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11 and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33. Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001 and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56 and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54. Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77. Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69 than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61 or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54. CONCLUSION: Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those

  17. Increased genetic risk for obesity in premature coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Stewart, Alexandre F R; McPherson, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether obesity confers risk for CAD independently of associated risk factors including diabetes mellitus. We have carried out a Mendelian randomization study using a genetic risk score (GRS) for body mass index (BMI) based on 35 risk alleles to investigate this question in a population of 5831 early onset CAD cases without diabetes mellitus and 3832 elderly healthy control subjects, all of strictly European ancestry, with adjustment for traditional risk factors (TRFs). We then estimated the genetic correlation between these BMI and CAD (rg) by relating the pairwise genetic similarity matrix to a phenotypic covariance matrix between these two traits. GRSBMI significantly (P=2.12 × 10(-12)) associated with CAD status in a multivariate model adjusted for TRFs, with a per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% CI 1.042-1.076). The addition of GRSBMI to TRFs explained 0.75% of CAD variance and yielded a continuous net recombination index of 16.54% (95% CI=11.82-21.26%, Pobesity and CAD. This analysis supports the hypothesis that obesity is a causal risk factor for CAD.

  18. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence......OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early...... evidence...

  19. Risk factors and outcomes of childhood obesity in Hong Kong: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, Y K; Lam, T H; Chan, V; Mak, K K; Lo, W S

    2013-06-01

    1. Onset of obesity is related to age, gender, pubertal stage, dietary habits, and parental occupation. Targeting the high riskgroups may help curb obesity in children. 2. Obesity may lead to poor self-esteem and potential psychosocial risk. The psychosocial impact of obesity could be more pronounced in girls than boys. 3. The association between obesity and psychosocial health could be bi-directional. Improving psychosocial health could be beneficial in weight management for normal-weight and obese children. 4. Obesity is associated with higher blood pressures.

  20. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    P. Johnelle Sparks; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  1. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  2. Obesity and the Risk for Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Robert D; Reese, Stacey; Bochicchio, Kelly; Mazuski, John E; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after abdominal procedures; however, data characterizing the risk of SSI in obese patients during abdominal procedures are lacking. We hypothesized that obesity is an independent risk factor for SSI across wound classes. We analyzed American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) data for 2011. We calculated body mass index (BMI), classifying patients according to National Institute of Health (NIH) BMI groups. We excluded records in which height/weight was not recorded and patients with BMI less than 18.5. We examined patients undergoing open abdominal procedures, performing univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relative contribution of obesity to SSI. Study criteria were met by 89,148 patients. Obese and morbidly obese patients had significantly greater SSI rates in clean and clean-contaminated cases but not contaminated or dirty/infected cases. Logistic regression confirmed obesity and morbid obesity as being independently associated with the overall SSI development, specifically in clean [Obesity odds ratio (OR) = 1.757, morbid obesity OR = 2.544, P obesity OR = 1.239, morbid obesity OR = 1.287, P Obesity is associated with increased risk of SSI overall, specifically in clean and clean-contaminated abdominal procedures; this is independent of diabetes mellitus. Novel techniques are needed to reduce SSI in this high-risk patient population.

  3. Maternal obesity and risk of Down syndrome in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Eric; Källén, Bengt; Josefsson, Ann; Gottvall, Tomas; Blomberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to determine if maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of Down syndrome in the offspring and whether the risk estimates for trisomy 21 based on combined screening is affected by maternal body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Study group I consisted of a nationwide cohort of 168 604 women giving birth; outcome was infants born with Down syndrome. Adjustment was made for maternal age. Study group II consisted of 10 224 women undergoing 1st tr...

  4. Systematic review on the association of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse health effects of abdominal obesity are well documented in adults, but such association remains to be determined in the pediatric age group. This study aims to perform a systematic review on the association between abdominal obesity and cardio-metabolic factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia among children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to May 2014. Two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps. After studying the titles and texts of documents, repeated and irrelevant ones were excluded. The search was refined to the English language. We did not consider any time limitation. Studies with different measuring methods of abdominal obesity were included. Studies with abdominal obese patients secondary to other disease were excluded from the study. In final, the data of association of cardio-metabolic risk factors and abdominal obesity extracted from studies. Results: Overall, 3966 articles were reviewed, and 61 of them were studied according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio were the most common indexes used for defining abdominal obesity. The association of high blood pressure with increasing WC was seen in several studies. The association of other cardio-metabolic risk factors was seen in some studies. Conclusion: Whatever the definition used for abdominal obesity and whatever the methods used for anthropometric measurements, central body fat deposition in children and adolescents increases the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Therefore, more attention should be paid to abdominal obesity of children and adolescents both in clinical practice and in epidemiological studies.

  5. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

    2010-01-01

    weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants...

  6. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    XU, SHUMEI; Xue, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertensio...

  7. Prevalence and associated risk factors for obesity in Jalalabad city – Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately one third of adult population in Jalalabad city is suffering from obesity which is a cause of concern. Blood lipid profile is either borderline or more than average among study participants which could contribute to non-communicable diseases. Measures such as raising awareness and lifestyle modifications may help to reduce the burden of obesity among Jalalabad adults.

  8. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management.

  9. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  10. Hypertension and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors among HIV seropositive patients in Western Kenya.

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    Gerald S Bloomfield

    Full Text Available There is increased risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV is highest in sub-Saharan Africa; however, HIV-related cardiovascular risk research is largely derived from developed country settings. Herein, we describe the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a large HIV treatment program in Kenya.We performed a retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in Western Kenya between 2006 and 2009. We calculated the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV+ adults as well as utilized multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between clinical characteristics, HIV-related characteristics, and hypertension.Our final sample size was 12,194. The median systolic/diastolic blood pressures were similar for both sexes (male: 110/70 mmHg, female: 110/70 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension among men and women were 11.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Eleven percent of men and 22.6% of women were overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that overweight/obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension among HIV+ men (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.88-3.09 than a higher successive age category (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.40-1.87 comparing 16-35, 36-45 and >45 years categories. Among women, higher age category and overweight/obesity were most strongly associated with hypertension (age category: OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.95-2.50, overweight/obesity: OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16. Length of time on protease inhibitors was not found to be related to hypertension for men (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.42-6.20 or women (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.37-2.65 after adjustment for CD4 count, age and BMI.In Western Kenya, there is a high prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity among HIV+ patients with differences observed between men and women. The care of HIV+ patients in sub-Saharan Africa should also include both identification and

  11. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population.

  12. Risk, harm and intervention: the case of child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S; Voigt, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is simplistic once the broader context is taken into account. We also show that parents not only enjoy important relational prerogatives worth defending, but that children, too, are beneficiaries of that relationship in ways difficult to match elsewhere. Finally, against the backdrop of growing public concern and pressure to intervene earlier in the life cycle, we examine the perhaps unintended stigmatizing effects that labeling and intervention can have and consider a number of risks and potential harms occasioned by state interventions in these cases.

  13. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  14. Evaluation of Skin Findings in Adult Obese Dermatology Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between systemic diseases and obesity is well-known, but the dermatological effects of obesity are ignored. In the literature, a few articles have appeared concerning the skin findings related to obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the skin findings in obese patients who applied to dermatology outpatient clinic and to compare obese and non-obese outpatients. Material and Method: A total 640 patients (300-in study group, 340-in control group were included in the study. All subjects were asked questions about socio-demographic features and presence of coexisting systemic diseases. Body mass index was calculated, dermatologic examination was performed, and diagnosis was recorded. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Three-hundred obese patients (study group; 229 females, 71 males, mean age: 45.89 years and 340 non-obese outpatients (control group; 160 females, 180 males, mean age: 38.99 years were included in our study. There were more females in the study group and the mean age was higher than the control group. Most common skin findings of obese patients were: Skin tag (53.3%, plantar hyperkeratosis (29.6%, fungal infections (25.3%, striae (20.3% and acanthosis nigricans (15.3%. Fungal infections, intertrigo, varicose veins and keratosis pilaris were more common in females than males in the study group. Within the study group, patients with skin tag, acanthosis nigricans and plantar hyperkeratosis had higher BMI.Conclusion: Skin tag, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal infections, striae and acanthosis nigricans were found to be the most common skin diseases in obese patients in our study. Studies related with pathophysiologic features of the skin of obese patients will give more information about the development and treatment of these diseases. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 184-7

  15. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  16. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. López-Sobaler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI and waist to height ratio (WHtR were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p=0.000 and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p=0.000. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5 was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5, whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5. Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future.

  17. The Feasibility of Reducing Sitting Time in Overweight and Obese Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Gell, Nancy M.; Jones, Salene M. W.; Renz, Anne; Kerr, Jacqueline; Gardiner, Paul A.; Arterburn, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obese older adults have high sedentary time. We tested the feasibility and preliminary effects of a sedentary time reduction intervention among adults over age 60 with a body mass index over 27 kg/m2 using a nonrandomized one-arm design. Methods: Participants (N = 25, mean age = 71.4, mean body mass index = 34) completed…

  18. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  19. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  20. Estimated physical activity in Bavaria, Germany, and its implications for obesity risk: Results from the BVS-II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate physical activity (PA is considered as a key factor in the fight against the obesity epidemic. Therefore, detailed description of the actual PA and its components in the population is necessary. Additionally, this study aims to investigate the association between PA and obesity risk in a representative population sample in Bavaria, Germany. Methods Data from 893 participants (age 13–80 years of the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II (BVS II were used. In each participant, three computer-based 24-hour recalls were conducted by telephone assessing type and duration of PA in the domains occupation, sports, other strenuous leisure time activities (of mostly moderate intensity as well as TV/PC use in leisure time and duration of sleeping. After assigning metabolic equivalents (METs to each activity, estimates of energy expenditure (MET*h and total daily PA level (PALest. were calculated. In a subgroup of adults (n = 568 with anthropometric measurements logistic regression models were used to quantify the impact of PA on obesity risk. Results Estimated average PA in women and men was 38.5 ± 5.0 and 40.6 ± 9.3 MET*h/d, respectively, corresponding to PALest. values of 1.66 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.40. Obese subjects showed lower energy expenditure in the categories sports, occupation, and sleeping, while the time spent with TV/PC during leisure time was highest. This is confirmed in logistic regression analyses revealing a statistically significant association between obesity and TV/PC use during leisure time, while sports activity was inversely related to obesity risk. Overall, less than 1/3 of the study participants reached the recommended PAL of ≥ 1.75. Subjects within the recommended range of PA had an about 60 % (odds ratio = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21–0.85 reduced risk of obesity as compared to inactive subjects with a PALest. Conclusion Based on the results of short-term PA patterns, a major part of the Bavarian adult

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity among Elderly Attending Geriatric Outpatient Clinics in Mansoura City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Amany Mohamed; Hatata, El Sayed Zaki; Boughdady, Aziza Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Sally Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting all ages in both developed and developing countries. It is considered the fifth leading risk factor for deaths all over the world as about 2.8 million people die due to obesity each year directly or indirectly. Obesity in elderly is considered one of the most serious public health challenges for…

  2. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk: a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Kee, F.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing d

  3. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. Keywords: epigenetics, metabolic syndrome, fetal programming, maternal, pregnancy complications

  4. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative.

  5. Occupational risk of overweight and obesity: an analysis of the Australian Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults spend about one third of their day at work and occupation may be a risk factor for obesity because of associated socioeconomic and behavioral factors such as physical activity and sedentary time. The aim of this study was to examine body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity by occupation and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors (including leisure time and commuting physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol to occupational risk. Methods Secondary analyses of the National Health Survey in Australia (2005 were conducted for working age adults (20 to 64 years. Linear and logistic regression models using BMI as either dichotomous or continuous response were computed for occupation type. Model 1 was age-adjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and socioeconomic variables and Model 3 adjusted for age, socioeconomic variables and lifestyle behaviours. All models were stratified by gender. Results Age-adjusted data indicated that men in associate professional (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63 and intermediate production and transport (OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03-1.50 occupations had a higher risk of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 than those without occupation, and women in professional (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82, management (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92 and advanced clerical and service occupations (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.58-0.93 had a lower risk. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors no occupational group had an increased risk but for males, professionals, tradesmen, laborers and elementary clerical workers had a lower risk as did female associate professionals and intermediate clerical workers. Adjustment for lifestyle factors explained the lower risk in the female professional and associate professionals but failed to account for the lower odds ratios in the other occupations. Conclusions The pattern of overweight and obesity among occupations differs by gender. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to

  6. Pregnancy, obesity and other risk factors for complications in influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Paño-Pardo, José Ramón; Múñez Rubio, Elena; Segura Porta, Ferran

    2012-10-01

    Although influenza is usually a self-limited disease, patients who develop complications are at increased risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and death. Since preventive and early therapeutic measures should be prioritized in higher risk patients, identification of the risk factors for severe infection is important from a public health perspective. Risk factors for complications in pandemics may show some differences with regard to seasonal influenza. During the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic, although many cases occurred in younger adults, the risk factors identified for severe infections and complications were similar to those for seasonal influenza, including chronic respiratory, renal, liver, and heart diseases. Aged patients, although less frequently affected, were also at higher risk. Obesity, and particularly morbid obesity (>40 body mass index) has been noted as a significant risk factor for severe disease in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Some interesting recent studies provide insights into the biological reasons behind the poor outcomes in morbidly obese patients. In terms of pregnancy, the studies have shown contradictory results due to variations in methodology and medical care. However, it seems that pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester, increases the risk of complications, and that early antiviral treatment is associated with improved outcomes.

  7. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity

    OpenAIRE

    LM, Trandafir; OR, Temneanu

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers’ pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and ge...

  8. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  9. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.

  10. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A.; Al-Dhwayan, Madhawi M.; Alharbi, Abdulhameed A.; Khudhair, Basema K. Al; Nozha, Omar M. Al; Al-Qahtani, Nawal M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Bardisi, Wedad M.; Sallam, Reem M.; Riva, John J.; Brożek, Jan L.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Moore, Ainsley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence Results: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults. These included strong recommendations in support of lifestyle interventions rather than usual care alone, individualized counseling interventions rather than generic educational pamphlets, physical activity rather than no physical activity, and physical activity in addition to diet rather than diet alone. Metformin and orlistat were suggested as conditional recommendations for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery was recommended, conditionally, for the management of obese adults (body mass index of ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities). Conclusions: The current guideline includes recommendation for the non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical management of overweight and obese adults. In addition, the panel recommends conducting research priorities regarding lifestyle interventions and economic analysis of drug therapy within the Saudi context, as well as long term benefits and harms of bariatric surgery. PMID:27652370

  11. Preresection Obesity Increases the Risk of Hepatobiliary Complications in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan N. Langnas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients developing the short bowel syndrome (SBS are at risk for hepatobiliary disease, as are morbidly obese individuals. We hypothesized that morbidly obese SBS individuals would be at increased risk for developing hepatobiliary complications. We reviewed 79 patients with SBS, 53 patients with initial body mass index (BMI < 35 were controls. Twenty-six patients with initial BMI > 35 were the obese group. Obese patients were more likely to be weaned off parenteral nutrition (PN (58% vs. 21%. Pre-resection BMI was significantly lower in controls (26 vs. 41. BMI at 1, 2, and 5 years was decreased in controls but persistently increased in obese patients. Obese patients were more likely to undergo cholecystectomy prior to SBS (42% vs. 32% and after SBS (80% vs. 39%, p < 0.05. Fatty liver was more frequent in the obese group prior to SBS (23% vs. 0%, p < 0.05 but was similar to controls after SBS (23% vs. 15%. Fibrosis (8% vs. 13% and cirrhosis/portal hypertension (19% vs. 21% were similar in obese and control groups. Overall, end stage liver disease (ESLD was similar in obese and control groups (19% vs. 11% but was significantly higher in obese patients receiving PN (45% vs. 14%, p < 0.05. Obese patients developing SBS are at increased risk of developing hepatobiliary complications. ESLD was similar in the two groups overall but occurs more frequently in obese patients maintained on chronic PN.

  12. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults.

  13. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  14. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  15. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Nardelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n=500; BMI > 40 kg/m2 and controls (n=216; BMI 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  16. Predictors of overweight and obesity among adults aged 50 years and above: Serbian national health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić Vera; Dragnić Nataša; Mijatović-Jovanović Vesna; Ukropina Snežana; Harhaji Sanja; Radić Ivana; Kvrgić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial condition related to morbidity, mortality, poor quality of life and many other problems. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and factors associated with them (demographic, socioeconomic factors and lifestyle) in adults aged 50 years and above in Serbia. Methods. This cross-sectional study, representative for the population in Serbia, was carried out in one-year period, including 6,932 people age...

  17. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  18. Microvascular Blood Flow Improvement in Hyperglycemic Obese Adult Patients by Hypocaloric Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mastantuono, T; Di Maro, M.; Chiurazzi, M.; Battiloro, L.; Starita, N.; Nasti, G; Lapi, D.; Iuppariello, L.; M. Cesarelli; D’Addio, G.; Colantuoni, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the changes in skin microvascular blood flow (SBF) in newly diagnosed hyperglycemic obese subjects, administered with hypocaloric diet. Adult patients were recruited and divided in three groups: NW group (n=54), NG (n=54) and HG (n=54) groups were constituted by normal weight, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic obese subjects, respectively. SBF was measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring technique and oscillations in blood flow were analyzed by spectr...

  19. Development of a claims-based risk score to identify obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeanne M; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Bolen, Shari D; Shore, Andrew D; Goodwin, Suzanne M; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-08-01

    Obesity is underdiagnosed, hampering system-based health promotion and research. Our objective was to develop and validate a claims-based risk model to identify obese persons using medical diagnosis and prescription records. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of de-identified claims data from enrollees of 3 Blue Cross Blue Shield plans who completed a health risk assessment capturing height and weight. The final sample of 71,057 enrollees was randomly split into 2 subsamples for development and validation of the obesity risk model. Using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups case-mix/predictive risk methodology, we categorized study members' diagnosis (ICD) codes. Logistic regression was used to determine which claims-based risk markers were associated with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 35 kg/m(2). The sensitivities of the scores > or =90(th) percentile to detect obesity were 26% to 33%, while the specificities were >90%. The areas under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.67 to 0.73. In contrast, a diagnosis of obesity or an obesity medication alone had very poor sensitivity (10% and 1%, respectively); the obesity risk model identified an additional 22% of obese members. Varying the percentile cut-point from the 70(th) to the 99(th) percentile resulted in positive predictive values ranging from 15.5 to 59.2. An obesity risk score was highly specific for detecting a BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2) and substantially increased the detection of obese members beyond a provider-coded obesity diagnosis or medication claim. This model could be used for obesity care management and health promotion or for obesity-related research.

  20. Associations between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L; Van Cauter, Eve

    2008-01-01

    During the past few decades, sleep curtailment has become a very common in industrialized countries. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Evidence is rapidly accumulating to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. Laboratory studies in healthy volunteers have shown that experimental sleep restriction is associated with an adverse impact on glucose homeostasis. Insulin sensitivity decreases rapidly and markedly without adequate compensation in beta cell function, resulting in an elevated risk of diabetes. Prospective epidemiologic studies in both children and adults are consistent with a causative role of short sleep in the increased risk of diabetes. Sleep curtailment is also associated with a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine control of appetite, with a reduction of the satiety factor, leptin, and an increase in the hunger-promoting hormone, ghrelin. Thus, sleep loss may alter the ability of leptin and ghrelin to accurately signal caloric need, acting in concert to produce an internal misperception of insufficient energy availability. The adverse impact of sleep deprivation on appetite regulation is likely to be driven by increased activity in neuronal populations expressing the excitatory peptides orexins that promote both waking and feeding. Consistent with the laboratory evidence, multiple epidemiologic studies have shown an association between short sleep and higher body mass index after controlling for a variety of possible confounders.

  1. Overweight and Obesity among Palestinian Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Abdeen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18–64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45–54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women. When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P<0.05. Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented.

  2. Prevalence of Obesity among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. NCHS Data Brief. Number 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Margaret D.; Navaneelan, Tanya; Bryan, Shirley; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    About one-quarter of Canadian adults and more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. Obese children are at risk of becoming obese adults and can experience immediate health consequences such as psychosocial stress, elevated blood pressure and cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance. Monitoring trends in childhood obesity is…

  3. Regional variation in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes and their correlates among the adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Sudershan Rao, V; Laxmaiah, A; Polasa, K

    2016-04-14

    A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of India by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Information was collected from the participants about socio-demographic particulars such as age, sex, occupation, education, etc. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was assessed using a Glucometer. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, χ(2) test for association and logistic regression analysis. A total of 7531 subjects were covered for anthropometry and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was 29 and 21%, respectively, and was higher in the Southern region (40% each) as compared with other regions. The prevalence of hypertension was 18 and 16% and diabetes was 9·5% each among men and women, respectively. The risk of hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher among adults from the Southern and Western regions, the among elderly, among overweight/obese individuals and those with abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension was higher in the Southern region, whereas diabetes was higher in the Southern and Western regions. Factors such as increasing age, male sex, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity were important risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Appropriate health and nutrition education should be given to the community to control these problems.

  4. The impact of obesity on risk factors and prevalence and prognosis of coronary heart disease-the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a host of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence is rising rapidly. Despite strong evidence that obesity predisposes to the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), numerous studies have shown an inverse relationship between various measures of obesity (most commonly body mass index) and outcomes in established CHD. In this article we review the evidence surrounding the ≪obesity paradox≫ in the secondary care of CHD patients and the CHD presentations where a paradox has been found. Finally we discuss the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and a number of mechanisms which may offer potential explanations for this puzzling phenomenon.

  5. The Health Risks of Obesity: Worse Than Smoking, Drinking, or Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    dramatically in the past 20 years, in conjunction with a national trend toward sedentary lifestyles . Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk. The...negative effects of obesity and other known health risks, such as smoking, heavy drinking, and poverty , have been well documented. But until now, no one has...Kenneth Wells, examined the comparative effects of obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and poverty on chronic health conditions and health expenditures

  6. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHOD: The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. RESULTS: There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. CONCLUSION: Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  7. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  8. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  9. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  10. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  11. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women.

  12. Neck circumference as a screening measure of overweight/obesity among Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nitish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544 residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2 was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05.The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80% than females (19.12% (p<0.01. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01. The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01. Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.

  13. Overweight and obesity among older adults on admission to hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lithander, F E

    2011-03-01

    Poor nutritional status, which includesboth under- a nd over-nutrition, i s associated w it h poor health outcomes. T his cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status of older patients admitted to an acute geriatric ward of a Dublin hospital. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were made. Thirty patients, mean (sd) age 79 (7) y and body mass index 26.6 (4.7) kg\\/m2, participated. More patients were overweight (n = 12) or obese (n = 9) than underweight (n= 1) or healthy weight (n = 8) which indicates that this age-group may be part of the Irish obesity epidemic.

  14. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

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    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  15. Being an Only or Last-Born Child Increases Later Risk of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that number of siblings and birth order is associated with obesity. However, studies combining these exposures are needed. This study aimed at investigating obesity in children and young adults in regard to different combinations of family size and birth order....

  16. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  17. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac O. Amole

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:In many developing countries obesity and obesity-related morbidity are now becoming a problem of increasing importance. Obesity is associated with a number of disease conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, gallstones, respiratory system problems and sleep apnoea.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity, as classified according to waist circumference (WC, and further to determine whether there was any association between abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults attending the Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 adults aged 18 years or older was conducted. Blood pressure and WC measurements were taken and participants completed a standardised questionnaire.Results: A group of 400 participants were randomly selected (221 women; 179 men, with a mean age of 48.7 ± 16.6 years. The overall prevalence of obesity as indicated by WC was 33.8%(men = 8.9%; women = 53.8%. Women were significantly more sedentary than men (50.8% for men vs 62.4% for women, p < 0.05. Most of the obese participants’ families also preferred high-energy foods (85.2%, p > 0.05. Overall prevalence of hypertension amongst the study population was 50.5%, but without a significant difference between men and women (52.0% for men vs 49.3% for women, p > 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension amongst the obese subset, however, was 60.0%.Conclusion: Prevalence of abdominal obesity was found to be particularly significant amongst women in this setting and was associated with hypertension, physical inactivity and the consumption of high-energy diets.

  18. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-relat...

  19. Genetic risk for obesity predicts nucleus accumbens size and responsivity to real-world food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Zieselman, Amanda L; Kelley, William M; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2017-01-03

    Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9-12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted body mass and adiposity, a dominant model was most predictive of NAcc size and responsivity to food cues. These findings suggest that children genetically at risk for obesity are predisposed to represent reward signals more strongly, which, in turn, may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors later in life.

  20. Genetic risk for obesity predicts nucleus accumbens size and responsivity to real-world food cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M.; Zieselman, Amanda L.; Kelley, William M.; Sargent, James D.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9–12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted body mass and adiposity, a dominant model was most predictive of NAcc size and responsivity to food cues. These findings suggest that children genetically at risk for obesity are predisposed to represent reward signals more strongly, which, in turn, may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors later in life. PMID:27994159

  1. Neighborhood walking among overweight and obese adults: age variations in barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Ory, Marcia G; Yoon, Jeongjae; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2013-02-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity that can bring many public health benefits. It can be even more beneficial to those who are currently obese or overweight. However, many barriers discourage people from walking, ranging from lack of motivation to unsafe neighborhood environments, and such barriers vary with age. This study addresses barriers and motivators to walking among overweight and obese adults, and examines their age variations. Particular emphasis was given to modifiable environmental factors as the priority intervention targets. A survey of 161 overweight and obese adults recruited from a large integrated healthcare system in central Texas provided data on walking, demographics, motivators and barriers. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. The respondents had a mean age of 48.4 (20-86), and were predominantly female (80.8%), non-Hispanic White (86.0%), and obese (mean BMI = 32.5). Popular environmental barriers to walking were: bad weather, inadequate lighting, no shade, unattended dogs, disconnected sidewalks, poor walking surfaces, no interesting places to walk nearby, and no benches (74.5-38.5%). Even and smooth walking surfaces and benches were more frequently reported by older adults as motivators. Proximity to recreational facilities was a stronger motivator for younger adults. Two safety related barriers, fear of injury (older adults) and traffic safety concerns (younger adults), also showed significant age differences. Overweight and obese adults experience substantial environmental barriers to walking, but many of them are modifiable. Observed age variations suggest that future interventions may be more effective if tailored to address age-specific barriers.

  2. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrach Dare

    Full Text Available There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86. However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years. Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37 and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15. Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001. Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

  3. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  4. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioret Sandrine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (−0.42;-0.02 and −0.25 (−0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  5. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  6. Obesity, systemic inflammation, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes among adolescents: a need for screening tools to target interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in childhood, particularly in obese children and adolescents, raising important opportunities for early lifestyle intervention in at-risk individuals. However, not all obese individuals are at the same risk for disease progression. Accurate screening of obese adolescents may identify those in greatest need for intensive intervention to prevent or delay future disease. One potential screening target is obesity-related inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and CVD. In adults, the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has utility for risk stratification and treatment initiation in individuals of intermediate CVD risk. In adolescents, hsCRP shares many of the associations of hsCRP in adults regarding the degree of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and carotid artery media thickness. However, long-term data linking increased hsCRP levels-and increased insulin or decreased adiponectin-in childhood to adult disease outcomes are lacking at this time. Future efforts continue to be needed to identify childhood clinical and laboratory characteristics that could be used as screening tests to predict adult disease progression. Such tests may have utility in motivating physicians and patients' families toward lifestyle changes, ultimately improving prevention efforts.

  7. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  8. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  9. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  10. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  11. Factors affecting overweight and obesity among urban adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries. The present cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated variables among urban adult individuals belonging to the Bengalee Hindu Caste Population (BHCP.Methods: the study has been carried out among 600 adult individuals belonging to the BHCP in the age group of 20-60 years and residing in the district of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India. Height and weight, along with a number of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded. International cut off points of the body mass index were used to assess overweight (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2. The statistical tests (ANOVA, chi-square and multinomial logistic regression were done using SPSS (version 15.00.Results: the prevalence of overweight and obesity were observed to be high among both the male (23.67% and 9.67% and the female (20.33% and 29.33% individuals. The sex difference was observed to be significant in case of obesity (p<0.01 and combined overweight-obesity (p<0.01. The multinomial logistic regression indicated that age and monthly income had significant effects on overweight (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income, marital status, education and alcohol intake were observed to have significant effects on obesity (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income and monthly income and marital status also showed significant effects with combined overweight-obesity (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 (p<0.05.Conclusions: the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend among urban adults of the BHCP. Sex, age, marital status and monthly income were observed to have more influence on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them. There appears to be an urgent need for the development of health strategies and intervention programmes for combating the consequences of overweight and obesity.

  12. Gender differences in the association between tooth loss and obesity among older adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if differences according to gender exists in the association between tooth loss and obesity among older adults.METHODS We analyzed data on 1,704 older adults (60 years and over from the baseline of a prospective cohort study conducted in Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between tooth loss and general and central obesity after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, skin color, educational attainment, income, smoking, physical activity, use of dentures, hypertension, and diabetes. Linear regressions were also assessed with body mass index and waist circumference as continuous outcomes. Interaction between gender and tooth loss was further assessed.RESULTS Overall mean body mass index was 28.0 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference was 96.8 cm for males and 92.6 cm for females. Increasing tooth loss was positively associated with increased body mass index and waist circumference after adjustment for confounders. Edentates had 1.4 (95%CI 1.1;1.9 times higher odds of being centrally obese than individuals with a higher number of teeth; however, the association lost significance after adjustment for confounders. In comparison with edentate males, edentate females presented a twofold higher adjusted prevalence of general and central obesity. In the joint effects model, edentate females had a 3.8 (95%CI 2.2;6.6 times higher odds to be centrally obese in comparison with males with more than 10 teeth present in both the arches. Similarly, females with less than 10 teeth in at least one arch had a 2.7 (95%CI 1.6;4.4 times higher odds ratio of having central obesity in comparison with males with more than 10 teeth present in both the arches.CONCLUSIONS Central obesity was more prevalent than general obesity among the older adults. We did not observe any association between general obesity and tooth loss. The association between central obesity and tooth loss

  13. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

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    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  14. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  15. Muscle loss and obesity: the health implications of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Atkins, Janice L

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the health implications of obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity on CVD and mortality in older adults and discusses the obesity paradox seen in patients with CVD. Obesity is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is an established risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult populations. However, there is controversy surrounding the effects of obesity as measured by BMI in older people, and overweight and obesity (BMI ⩾ 25 kg/m2) are apparently associated with increased survival in those with CVD (obesity paradox). Ageing is associated with an increase in visceral fat and a progressive loss of muscle mass which have opposing effects on mortality. Thus BMI is not a good indicator of obesity in older adults. Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a major concern in ageing populations and has been associated with metabolic impairment, CVD risk factors, physical disability and mortality. Sarcopenia often coexists with obesity. Sarcopenic obesity is a new category of obesity in older adults who have high adiposity coupled with low muscle mass. To fully understand the effect of obesity on mortality in the elderly it is important to take muscle mass into account. The evidence suggests that sarcopenia with obesity may be associated with higher levels of metabolic disorders and an increased risk of mortality than obesity or sarcopenia alone. Efforts to promote healthy ageing should focus on both preventing obesity and maintaining or increasing muscle mass.

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Physical Inactivity and Obesity on Gait Speed in Older Adults with Frequent Knee Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

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    Saad M. Bindawas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity (PI and obesity are risk factors for many health conditions, including knee pain (KP. The purpose of the present study was to examine the 6-year effects of PI and obesity on gait speed (GS among older adults with frequent KP. This prospective cohort study used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI. At baseline, we studied 1788 adults aged 45 to 79 years old. We grouped the participants into four categories according to baseline scores on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE and body mass index (BMI. GS was measured using the 20-m timed walk test. Frequent KP was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, and obesity was assessed by BMI (30 kg/m2 or greater. General linear mixed models were conducted using data collected at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months. After adjusting for all covariates, lower levels of physical activity and obesity were associated with a decrease in GS (β = −0.095, SE = 0.011, p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that both PI and obesity are associated with decreased GS over time in older adults with frequent KP.

  17. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.

  18. Exercise and Healthy Eating Intentions and Behaviors among Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Psouni, Stavroula; Chasandra, Mary; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that exercise and eating behaviours are strongly linked. Theory of Planned Behaviour is a theoretical framework that has been successfully used to explain and predict both behaviours. The aim of the present study is to explore the constructs of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that better predicts exercise and healthy eating: a) intentions and b) selfreported behaviors among normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Participants were 361 adults in Gree...

  19. Adult obesity, food access, and eating habits in Italy: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, F.; Bonanno, A.; Viscecchia, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose
    – Improving access to healthy foods is currently on the European Union health policy agenda, as a means to mitigate obesity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between access to food stores and adult BMI in Italy, accounting also for the synergic role of individuals

  20. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  1. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  2. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  3. Sociodemographic and health-lifestyle determinants of obesity risks in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew K G; Dunn, Richard A; Samad, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Feisul, Mustapha Idzwan

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors that affect the likelihood of obesity among Malaysians. Data were obtained from the Malaysian Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The cross-sectional population-based survey consisted of 2447 observations, with an obesity prevalence rate of 17.2%. Based on logit regression analysis, the results suggest that obesity risks in Malaysia are affected by gender, education level, family history, health conditions, smoking status, and ethnic backgrounds. Specifically, Malaysians more likely to be obese are females (5.3%), lower educated (0.9%), those with history of family illnesses (4.8%), and nonsmokers (6.4%). However, Chinese (9.3%) and other (5.5%) ethnic groups are less likely to be obese when compared with Malays. Based on these results, several policy implications are discussed vis-à-vis obesity risks in Malaysia.

  4. ["Food addiction" as a possible risk factor for obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Letizia; Riva, Martina; Grosshans, Martin; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-03-30

    The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are, internationally as well as in Switzerland, increasing in recent years. The neurobiology tries to explore an improved understanding of the central nervous causes of obesity. Findings from addiction research seem very useful because there are certain similarities between addiction and obesity in terms of neurobiological causes. An improved understanding of the disease of obesity could help to develop more effective therapies for obese patients in the future. Further research, e. g. in the field of stress regulation, is thus urgently needed.

  5. Childhood obesity and risk of allergy or asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dinesh; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2014-11-01

    The simultaneous increment in the prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases suggests a possible link between them. This review focuses on the consequences of obesity on allergic diseases, especially asthma in children and adolescents, and evaluates the available evidence on the possible mechanisms. Obesity is related more strongly to nonatopic than atopic asthma, suggesting non-eosinophilic inflammation and Th1 polarization. Among other allergic diseases, the association is more consistent with eczema compared to allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The mechanisms of asthma in obese individuals could involve mechanical effects of obesity on lung function, adipokines-mediated inflammation, shared factors (diet, genetics, sedentary lifestyle) and comorbidities.

  6. Obesity-related hypertension: pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment: a position paper of The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.

  7. Obesity-related hypertension: pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment--a position paper of the The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.

  8. Are social inequalities widening in generalised and abdominal obesity and overweight among English adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Howel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now more common in lower socioeconomic groups in developed nations, but the socio-economic patterning of obesity has changed over time. This study examines the time trends in the socioeconomic patterning of generalised and abdominal obesity and overweight in English adults. METHODS: Data were from core annual samples of the Health Survey for England 1993-2008, including 155 661 participants aged 18-75 years. The prevalence of generalised and abdominal obesity and overweight was reported as crude and age-adjusted estimates. Binomial regression was used to model measures of obesity and overweight with age, sex, survey years, and two indicators of socioeconomic position: Registrar General's Social Class (manual and non-manual occupational groups and relative length of full time education. Trends in socioeconomic patterning were assessed by formal tests for interactions between socioeconomic position measures and survey periods in these models. RESULTS: The prevalence of generalised and abdominal overweight and obesity increased consistently between 1993 and 2008. There were significant differences in the four outcomes between the two socioeconomic position (SEP groups in men and women, except for generalised and abdominal overweight with social class in men. The prevalence of obesity and overweight across the whole period was higher in subgroups with lower SEP (differences of 0.2% to 9.5%. There was no significant widening of the socioeconomic gradient of most indicators of greater body fat since the early 1990s, except for educational gradient in generalised obesity in men and women (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial social class and education gradients in obesity and overweight are still present in both sexes. However, there is limited evidence that these socioeconomic inequalities have changed since 1993.

  9. Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that obesity may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. To conduct a systematic review of prospective studies assessing the association of obesity with the risk of CRC using meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before January 2012, with no restrictions. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles. We included prospective studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between general obesity [measured using body mass index (BMI] or central obesity [measured using waist circumference (WC] and the risk of colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer. Approximately 9, 000, 000 participants from several countries were included in this analysis. 41 studies on general obesity and 13 studies on central obesity were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of CRC for the obese vs. normal category of BMI were 1.334 (95% CI, 1.253-1.420, and the highest vs. lowest category of WC were 1.455 (95% CI, 1.327-1.596. There was heterogeneity among studies of BMI (P<0.001 but not among studies of WC (P=0.323. CONCLUSIONS: Both of general and central obesity were positively associated with the risk of CRC in this meta-analysis.

  10. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  11. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Peach MSN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  12. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity and Overweight among Primary School Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr-Bafghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are one of the health problems in developed and developing countries that are increasing every day. The purpose of this study was to asses the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their risk factors among preschool children in Yazd . .Methods: In a descriptive cross sectional study 400 preschool aged 6 years, including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected via random sampling method from among health assessment clinics and evaluated for obesity and overweight and their risk factors in 2005-2006. BMI for age and sex was based on standardized percentile curves for BMI ( NHNESIII accepted by WHO . Obesity was defined as BMI >95th and overweigh as BMI in 85-95th percentile. The data of the research was collected through complied questionnaire by interviewing parents and then analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Frequency of obesity and overweight was approximately 5.5% and 5% in boys and 2%, 3.5% in girls, respectively. Obesity and overweight had a significant statistical relationship with physical activity, amount of television viewing and consumption of fast food and soda, but no statistically significant relationships were seen with sex, birth order and parental educational levels. Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of obesity and overweight was lower than other similar studies, but obesity risk factors should be considered during decision making on preventive measures.

  14. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, LM; Temneanu, OR

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers’ pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children originate in intrauterine life. The current obesity epidemic is probably the result of our evolutive inheritance associated with the consumption of highly processed food with an increased calorific value. The determination of risk factors involved in child obesity are: genetic predisposition, diet, sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic position, ethnic origin, microbiota, iatrogenic, endocrine diseases, congenital and acquired hypothalamic defects, usage of medications affecting appetite. However, the vast majority of patients will not have any of these identifiable conditions. Regardless of the aetiology, all the patients should be considered for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and screened for the complications of obesity. PMID:27928443

  15. The impact of obesity on medication use and expenditures among nonelderly adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Eric M

    2014-08-01

    Obesity contributes substantially to health resource use and costs. This study examines the impact of obesity on medication use and expenditures among nonelderly adults with asthma using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Obese classes II/III individuals were more likely to have current asthma, seek treatment for asthma, use more medications, and have higher medication and health care expenditures compared with normal weight individuals. Multivariate results indicate that if obese classes II/III were normal weight the probability of asthma treatment would decrease by 8.0 percentage points. Conditional on any asthma treatment, if obese classes II/III were normal weight the mean number of total prescribed medications would decrease by 19.42 fills, and expected expenditures on total prescribed medications and health care would decrease by $1,738.68 and $3,682.58, respectively. These results suggest that, all else equal, reduction in body weight may help reduce health resource use and expenditures for nonelderly adults with asthma.

  16. Systematic review of obesity surgery mortality risk score--preoperative risk stratification in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Harun; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is the best long term treatment for morbid obesity. However, it carries risks of considerable morbidity and potential mortality. There is no published review on pre-operative identification of high-risk patients in bariatric surgery. This systematic review analyses obesity surgery mortality risk score (OS-MRS) as a tool for pre-operative prediction of mortality risk in bariatric surgery. Medline and Embase was systematically searched using the medical subjects headings (MeSH) terms 'bariatric surgery' and 'mortality' with further free text search and cross references. Studies that described OS-MRS to predict mortality risk after bariatric surgery were included in this review. Six studies evaluated 9,382 patients to assess the validity of OS-MRS to predict the mortality risk after bariatric surgery. Patient's age ranged from 19 to 67 years, and the body mass index ranged from 30 to 84. There were 83 deaths among the 9,382 patients (0.88 %) with individual studies reporting a mortality range from 0 % to 1.49 %. There were 13 deaths among 4,912 (0.26 %) class A patients, 55 deaths among 4,124 (1.33 %) class B patients and 15 deaths among 346 (4.34 %) class C patients. Mortality in classes A, B and C was significantly different from each of the other two classes (P < 0.05, χ(2)). This systematic review confirms that OS-MRS stratifies the mortality risk in the three-risk classification subgroups of patients. The OS-MRS can be used for pre-operative identification of high-risk patients undergoing primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

  17. Bone mineral density-associated polymorphisms are associated with obesity-related traits in Korean adults in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwon Cha

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis share common physiological factors, including the presence of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, as well as a common progenitor that differentiates into both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Among the 23 polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density (BMD in recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs, an Osterix polymorphism has been identified and associated with childhood obesity in girls. Therefore, we focused on elucidating polymorphisms associated with adulthood obesity in a sex-dependent manner among the previously published BMD-associated polymorphisms from GWASs. We performed 2 screenings of 18 BMD-associated polymorphisms for obesity-related traits in 2,362 adults aged >20 years. We excluded 13 polymorphisms showing deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or no association with obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio. Among 5 selected polymorphisms (rs9594738 of RANKL, rs17066364 of NUFIP1, rs7227401 of OSBPL1A, and rs1856057 and rs2982573 of ESR1 analyzed, 2 polymorphisms (rs9594738 and rs17066364 were associated with obesity-related traits. We found sex-dependent associations such that the 4 polymorphisms (excluding rs9594738 of RANKL were associated with abdominal traits such as WC and waist-to-hip ratio only in men. In addition, when the combined genetic risk score (GRS for WC increase was calculated with 4 SNPs (rs9594738, rs17066364, rs7227401, and rs1856057 exhibiting similar trends for both sexes, the magnitude of the GRS effect for the WC increase was larger in men than in women (effect size = 0.856 cm, P = 0.0000452 for men; effect size = 0.598 cm, P = 0.00228 for women. In summary, we found 4 polymorphisms, previously related to osteoporosis, to be associated to obesity-related traits in a sex-dependent manner in Korean adults, particularly in men.

  18. Obesity and metabolic disorders in adults with lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdibaylo, S F

    1996-10-01

    Anthropometric and biochemical research was conducted on 94 subjects with various levels of lower limb amputation. The purpose of the work was to investigate the features of obesity progression and disorders of cholesterin metabolism, as well as to develop adequate training exercises. Anthropometric research was conducted by calipermetry; the biochemical research was done by various methods to determine exempt and total cholesterin and triglycerides in the blood serum. The research establishes the frequency of obesity progression relative to the level of amputation, as well as the features of the excessive body mass. Type 11A hyperlipoproteidemia was evident. It is characterized by rapid progress of atherosclerotic vascular disease and coronary disease (CD). Cyclic and acyclic exercises were developed for prophylaxis and therapy. Anthropometric research on the determination of body fat mass was conducted on 68 subjects with various levels of lower limb amputation. The nondirect method of measuring skin folds of several parts of the body was used to determine the extent of lipogenesis. Biochemical research of cholesterin metabolism was conducted on 26 subjects with lower limb amputation (a different group). Anthropometric research revealed an increase of body fat mass directly related to the level of amputation. The largest amount of fat in the body mass was noted for the subjects with bilateral transfemoral (above-knee) amputation or transfemoral plus transtibial (below-knee) amputation. Both groups averaged 25.9%. The body fat mass increased chiefly in the subcutaneous fat. Increase of the internal fat mass was less noticeable. The frequency of obesity progression in subjects with unilateral transtibial amputation equaled 37.9%; in subjects with transfemoral amputation, 48.0%; and in subjects with bilateral transfemoral or transfemoral plus transtibial amputation, 64.2%. Young subjects demonstrated obesity progression during the first year after amputation

  19. UK health visitors' role in identifying and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Nathan, Dilip; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Atkinson, Philippa; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of modifiable risk factors that can be identified during infancy or earlier. In the UK, health visitors advise parents about infant feeding, but little is known about their role in obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and current practices of UK health visitors in relation to recognising and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity. Thirty members of the health visiting team were interviewed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Health visitors were aware of some of the modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity such as infant feeding practices. They felt they had a role in advising parents about diet but did not formally identify and/or intervene with larger infants. Infant overweight was considered a sensitive issue that was difficult to raise with parents. They believed some parents preferred larger infants and were unaware that their feeding practices might be contributing to obesity risk. A need for training and guidance was identified together with strategies to overcome system barriers. Health visitors do not currently target parents of infants at risk of obesity largely because they do not perceive they have appropriate guidance and skills to enable them to do so. There is an urgent need for tools and training to enable all health care professionals to recognise and manage infants at risk of developing obesity without creating a sense of blame.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Shahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of the study was to explore the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of Ramkot VDC (Village Development Committee, Kathmandu district of Nepal. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to explore the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women of age group between 20 to 59 years old. Five wards were selected randomly on the lottery drawn and quota sampling basis. 22 samples were drawn from each selected wards. There were 110 sample sizes. A questionnaire guided interview method. BMI was calculated by following formula: weight in kg/height in m2. Findings The prevalence of obesity and overweight is 24.5 and 1.8% respectively and there is no association between BMI with caste, education and age. 81.7% of respondents, who consumed fruits more than five times a week had low BMI, whereas 44% of respondents, who consumed fruits less than once a week in their diet had high BMI indicating overweight and obesity. The significance difference of taking fruits daily or not, was showed by the chi square (p value i.e. 0.013. Conclusion The finding of this study shows that the prevalence of overweight among women was 24.5% and prevalence of obesity was 1.8%. Overweight and obesity of women was not associated with physical activities, whether women were vegetarian or non-vegetarian and frequency of food they usually took. But the women who took fruits frequently in their diet had low body mass index than women who took fruits less frequently. In other word, overweight and obesity among women was associated with fruits intake less frequently.

  1. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  2. Social facilitation maintenance treatment for adults with obesity: study protocol for a randomised-controlled feasibility study (SFM study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The long-term success of non-surgical weight loss treatment in adults with obesity is limited by substantial relapse, and only a few evidence-based weight loss maintenance treatments exist. This clinical trial investigates the feasibility and efficacy of a social facilitation maintenance programme for weight loss maintenance, tailored to meet the needs of obese adults who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention. Methods and analysis In a single-centre, open feasibility trial, 72 adults currently or previously obese or overweight who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention are centrally randomised to 4 months of social facilitation maintenance treatment or treatment as a usual control condition. In 16 outpatient group sessions, the social facilitation maintenance treatment, based on a socioecological model and on evidence supporting social facilitation as a key process in maintaining weight loss, focuses on promoting interpersonal relationships to build up a healthy lifestyle for long-term weight loss maintenance. Primary outcome is the amount of weight regain at 6-month follow-up, compared with pre-treatment weight, derived from measured body weight. Secondary outcomes address feasibility, including recruitment, attrition, assessment non-completion, compliance and patients' programme evaluation; and in comparison with pre-weight loss maintenance, social and interpersonal functioning, eating behaviour and physical activity, psychological and physical symptoms, body composition and risk of comorbidity, and quality of life at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the University of Leipzig (165-13-15072013). The study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number DRKS00005182. PMID:27580827

  3. Is it time for bed? Short sleep duration increases risk of obesity in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children. We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at base- line and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Slee...

  4. Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

  5. The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Stoelwinder, Johannes; Shortreed, Susan

    2011-01-01

    , health behaviour and physical activity made little difference to these HR. For women the evidence of a dose–response relationship was less clear than for men, particularly for women with an older age at obesity onset. Conclusions The duration of obesity is a relevant risk factor for type 2 diabetes...

  6. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  7. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women who are overweight or obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willson Kristyn J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity amongst women bearing children in Australia is rising and has important implications for obstetric care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of mothers being overweight and obese in early to mid-pregnancy on maternal, peripartum and neonatal outcomes. Methods A secondary analysis was performed on data collected from nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy enrolled in the Australian Collaborative Trial of Supplements with antioxidants Vitamin C and Vitamin E to pregnant women for the prevention of pre-eclampsia (ACTS. Women were categorized into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI: normal (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2; overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2 and; obese (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 1661 women included, 43% were overweight or obese. Obese women were at increased risk of pre-eclampsia (relative risk (RR 2.99 [95% confidence intervals (CI 1.88, 4.73], p Conclusion The rate of overweight and obesity is increasing amongst the Australian obstetric population. Women who are overweight and obese have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In particular, obese women are at increased risk of gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Effective preventative strategies are urgently needed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00416244

  8. The risk of Barrett's esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendall, B.J.; Macdonald, G.A.; Hayward, N.K.; Prins, J.B.; O'Brien, S.; Whiteman, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified

  9. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors among overweight and obese adults in Pakistan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Fawad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is known to decrease the health risks associated with being overweight and obese. Awareness of overweight status is an important determinant of weight loss attempts and may have more of an impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. We therefore investigated the perception of weight among adults attending primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan, and compared it to their weight categories based on BMI (Body Mass Index, focusing on the underestimation of weight in overweight and obese individuals. We also explored the factors associated with underestimation of weight in these individuals. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 493 adults presenting to the three primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted face to face interviews to gather data on a pre-coded questionnaire. The questionnaire included detail on demographics, presence of comorbid conditions, and questions regarding weight assessment. We measured height and weight of the participants and calculated the BMI. The BMI was categorized into normal weight, overweight and obese based on the revised definitions for Asian populations. Perception about weight was determined by asking the study participants the following question: Do you consider yourself to be a thin b just right c overweight d obese. We compared the responses with the categorized BMI. To identify factors associated with underestimation of weight, we used simple and multiple logistic regression to calculate crude odds Ratios (OR and adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results Overall 45.8% (n = 226 of the study participants were obese and 18% (n = 89 were overweight. There was poor agreement between self perception and actual BMI (Kappa = 0.24, SE = 0.027, p Conclusion In this cross sectional survey, we observed marked discordance between the actual and perceived weight

  10. Obesity and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of 21 Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Huang, Min; Wang, Li; Ye, Wei; Tong, Yan; Wang, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. However, the results remain uncertain. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. Material/Methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) were retrieved before 10 August 2014. We included all studies that reported adjusted risk ratios (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of thyroid cancer risk. Results Thirty-two studies (n=12 620 676) were included in this meta-analysis. Obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer (adjusted RR=1.33; 95% CI, 1.24–1.42; I2=25%). In the subgroup analysis by study type, increased risk of thyroid cancer was found in cohort studies and case-control studies. In subgroup analysis by sex, both obese men and women were at significantly greater risk of thyroid cancer than non-obese subjects. When stratified by ethnicity, significantly elevated risk was observed in Caucasians and in Asians. In the age subgroup analysis, both young and old populations showed increased thyroid cancer risk. Subgroup analysis on smoking status showed that increased thyroid cancer risks were found in smokers and in non-smokers. In the histology subgroup analyses, increased risks of papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer were observed. However, obesity was associated with decreased risk of medullary thyroid cancer. Conclusions Our results indicate that obesity is associated with an increased thyroid cancer risk, except medullary thyroid cancer. PMID:25612155

  11. Obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, Rickie; Brisbon, Nancy; Plumb, James

    2009-09-01

    Obesity has become the second leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, trailing only tobacco use. Weight control, dietary choices, and levels of physical activity are important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. Physicians have a key role in integrating multifactorial approaches to prevention and management into clinical care and advocating for systemic prevention efforts. This article provides an introduction to the epidemiology and magnitude of childhood and adult obesity; the relationship between obesity and cancer and other chronic diseases; potential mechanisms postulated to explain these relationships; a review of recommended obesity treatment and assessment guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children; multilevel prevention strategies; and an approach to obesity management in adults using the Chronic Care Model.

  12. Health effects of lean fish consumption in overweight and obese young adults following an energy-restricted diet for eight weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In the cross-European study SEAFOODplus YOUNG it was recently shown that consumption of lean fish increases weight loss in men and has other positive health effects. The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether lean fish consumption increases weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors in a dose-dependent manner during an eight-week energy restriction in young overweight or mildly obese healthy adults. A total of 126 Icelandic individuals were grouped into three isocaloric die...

  13. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  14. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  15. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status.

  16. OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults: feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebnick Corinna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population.

  17. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  18. Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2014-06-01

    News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice.

  19. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of abdominal obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real de Asua, Diego; Parra, Pedro; Costa, Ramón; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Suarez, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to describe anthropometric differences in weight-related disorders between adults with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls, as well as their disparate impact on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. We underwent a cross-sectional study of 49 consecutively selected, community-residing adults with DS and 49 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Siblings of adults with DS were studied as controls in 42 cases. Epidemiological data (age and gender), anthropometric data (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio [WHR]), coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile) were measured and compared between the groups. Adults with DS were significantly younger and more often male, with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Adults with DS also had a higher WHR, and more frequently presented abdominal obesity. Moreover, insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment was more prevalent among adults with DS and abdominal obesity. However, lipid profiles were similar between groups. The kappa correlation index for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity between waist circumference and WHR was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.13-0.34). We concluded that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity was higher in adults with DS than in controls. Adults with DS and abdominal obesity showed higher indexes of insulin resistance than their non-obese peers. WHR was a useful tool for the evaluation of abdominal obesity in this population.

  1. Mutation screen and association studies for the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH gene and early onset and adult obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rief Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orexigenic effects of cannabinoids are limited by activation of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. The aim of this study was to analyse whether FAAH alleles are associated with early and late onset obesity. Methods We initially assessed association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FAAH with early onset extreme obesity in up to 521 German obese children and both parents. SNPs with nominal p-values ≤ 0.1 were subsequently analysed in 235 independent German obesity families. SNPs associated with childhood obesity (p-values ≤ 0.05 were further analysed in 8,491 adult individuals of a population-based cohort (KORA for association with adult obesity. One SNP was further analysed in 985 German obese adults and 588 normal and underweight controls. In parallel, we screened the FAAH coding region for novel sequence variants in 92 extremely obese children using single-stranded-conformation-polymorphism-analysis and denaturing HPLC and assessed the implication of the identified new variants for childhood obesity. Results The trio analysis revealed some evidence for an association of three SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 rs324419 and rs873978 with childhood obesity (two-sided p-values between 0.06 and 0.10. Although analyses of these variants in 235 independent obesity families did not result in statistically significant effects (two-sided p-values between 0.14 and 0.75, the combined analysis of all 603 obesity families supported the idea of an association of two SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 and rs2295632 with early onset extreme obesity (p-values between 0.02 and 0.03. No association was, however, found between these variants and adult obesity. The mutation screen revealed four novel variants, which were not associated with early onset obesity (p > 0.05. Conclusions As we observed some evidence for an association of the FAAH variants rs2295632 rs324420 with early onset but not adult obesity

  2. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  3. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen LM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rossen,1,2 Vanessa A Milsom,1,3 Kathryn R Middleton,1,4 Michael J Daniels,5,6 Michael G Perri1,71Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Statistics and Scientific Computation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 7College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury.Objective: To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years and older (65–74 years, obese women.Materials and methods: Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study.Results: Both middle-aged (n = 162 and older (n = 56 women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further

  4. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy.

  5. The obesity paradox in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Palaniappan, Latha

    2014-02-01

    Overweight or obese adults have demonstrated a survival advantage compared with leaner adults in several population-based samples. This counterintuitive association has been termed the obesity paradox. Evidence for an obesity paradox among persons with diabetes has been less consistent. In the present review, we identified 18 longitudinal studies conducted in cohort studies, patient registries and clinical trial populations that tested the associations between obesity and survival in patients with diabetes. The majority of these studies reported that mortality was lowest in overweight and obese persons, and that leaner adults had the highest relative total and cardiovascular mortality. Some of these studies observed the patterns most strongly in older (age > 65 years) adults. To date, little research has been conducted to identify mechanisms that could explain elevated mortality in leaner adults with diabetes, or to identify strategies for diabetes management or mitigation of elevated mortality risk.

  6. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); M. Aubertin-Leheudre (Mylene)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the meta

  7. School-Based Obesity Interventions: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T.; Flores, David; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Wang, Jingshu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods: PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched…

  8. Association of food environment and food retailers with obesity in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renfei; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Griffin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    The food environment has been shown to be a factor affecting the obesity rate. We studied the association of density of food retailer type with obesity rate in U.S. adults in local regions controlling for socioeconomic factors. Parametric nonlinear regression was used on publically available data (year=2009) at the county level. We used the results of this association to estimate the impact of the addition of a new food retailer type in a geographic region. Obesity rate increased in supercenters (0.25-0.28%) and convenience stores (0.05%) and decreased in grocery stores (0.08%) and specialized food stores (0.27-0.36%). The marginal measures estimated in this work could be useful in identifying regions where interventions based on food retailer type would be most effective.

  9. Risk, harm and intervention: the case of child obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry; K. Voigt

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is

  10. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Aigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  11. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the context of a worldwide high prevalence of childhood obesity, the role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a cause of excess weight gain remains controversial. Conflicting results may be due to methodological issues in original studies and in reviews. OBJECTIVE......: The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. METHODS: A systematic review of cohort and experimental...... studies published until December 2013 in peer-reviewed journals was performed on Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents were included, and methodological quality...

  12. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-07-11

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p obese (p obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  13. Military Personnel Exhibit a Lower Presence of Obesity than the General U.S. Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    307 Rankinen T & Bouchard C (2004) Fitness alters the associations of BMI and 308 waist circumference with total and abdominal fat. Obesity...either group. 152 Active duty military personnel are not included in the U.S. CDC national surveys 153 [e.g., NHANES, Behavioral Risk Factor

  14. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  15. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma.

  16. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  17. Bimodal distribution of risk for childhood obesity in urban Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Schwartz, Norah; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    In Mexico, higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with increased risk for obesity in children. Within developed urban areas, however, there may be increased risk among lower SES children. Students in grades 4-6 from five public schools in Tijuana and Tecate, Mexico, were interviewed and weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measurements were taken. Interviews consisted of questions on food frequency, food insecurity, acculturation, physical activity and lifestyle practices. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess risk factors for obesity (having a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) and abdominal obesity (a WC >90th percentile) using Stata 11.0. Five hundred and ninety students were enrolled; 43.7% were overweight or obese, and 24.3% were obese and 20.2% had abdominal obesity. Independent risk factors for obesity included watching TV in English (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41) and perceived child food insecurity (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.36). Decreased risk for obesity was associated with female sex (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96), as was regular multivitamin use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Risk obesity was also decreased with increased taco consumption (≥1×/week; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Independent risk factors for abdominal obesity included playing video games ≥1×/week (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-2.96) and older age group (10-11 years, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.29-4.73 and ≥12 years, OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.09-4.49). Increased consumption of tacos was also associated with decreased risk for abdominal obesity (≥1×/week; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-1.00). We found a bimodal distribution for risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in school aged children on the Mexican border with the United States. Increased risk for obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with factors indicative of lower and higher SES including watching TV in English, increased video game playing and perceived food insecurity

  18. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43±8 yrs, the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC score (criterion measure between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

  19. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petrenya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective: We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results: Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions: We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of

  20. Overweight and Obesity among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Who Use Intellectual Disability/Developmental Disability Services in 20 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Larson, Sheryl; Engler, Joshua; Bershadsky, Julie; Taub, Sarah; Fortune, Jon; Ticha, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The authors compare the prevalence of obesity for National Core Indicators (NCI) survey participants with intellectual disability and the general U.S. adult population. In general, adults with intellectual disability did not differ from the general population in prevalence of obesity. For obesity and overweight combined, prevalence was lower for…

  1. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Obese and Lean Adults Does Not Release Hepcidin In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Tussing-Humphreys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n=18, mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin = 4.9±9.6 ng/mL, P=0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  2. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  3. Management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk – role of phentermine/extended release topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeting AN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arianne N Sweeting,1 Eddy Tabet,1 Ian D Caterson,1,2 Tania P Markovic1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA recently approved lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (phentermine/topiramate ER for the treatment of obesity in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention, expanding the therapeutic options for long-term obesity pharmacotherapy, which was previously limited to orlistat. Combination phentermine/topiramate ER is associated with greater weight loss compared to its constituent monotherapy, with a more favorable adverse effect profile. Phentermine/topiramate ER also appears to have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk, although longer-term cardiovascular safety data are required. While there are no head-to-head studies among the currently available obesity pharmacotherapy agents, phentermine/topiramate ER appears to have a superior weight loss profile. This review will discuss the epidemiology, natural history, and cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity, provide an overview on current obesity pharmacotherapy, and summarize the recent clinical efficacy and safety data underpinning the FDA's approval of both phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin as pharmacotherapy for a long-term obesity intervention. Keywords: obesity, phentermine/topiramate extended release, safety and efficacy, review

  4. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  5. New insights into the true nature of the obesity paradox and the lower cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes by National and International Committees. For this reason, they advocate weight loss and prevention of obesity. However, several studies in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, and hypertension have shown an inverse relationship between obesity and mortality, the so called "obesity paradox," whereas other studies have not shown such a relationship. In studies showing the obesity paradox (OP), body mass index (BMI) was used, almost exclusively as an index of obesity, although is a poor discriminator of total body fatness. Recent studies using better indices of obesity such as waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) have shown that high WC and WHR were directly and positively associated with higher event rate and total mortality in these patients. Because the OP could convey the wrong message in obese patients, the validity and true nature of the OP will be examined in this concise review. A Medline search of the English literature was performed between 2000 and September 2012, and 46 pertinent articles were selected for this review. The majority of these studies do not support an OP and those that do have used almost exclusively BMI as an index of obesity. Therefore, based on recent studies using other indices of body fat distribution, such as WC and WHR, besides BMI, the true existence of OP has been questioned and needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  6. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  7. Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among LA County Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-31

    This podcast features Nelly Mejia, winner of the journal’s 2015 Student Research Paper Contest and PhD Candidate at the Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California. Nelly discusses her winning paper, which examined the relationship between neighborhood food outlet locations and the diet and body mass index of adults living in Los Angeles County, California.  Created: 8/31/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/31/2015.

  8. Come and get it! A discussion of family mealtime literature and factors affecting obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-05-01

    The L.E.A.D. (Locate, Evaluate, and Assemble Evidence to Inform Decisions) framework of the Institute of Medicine guided the assembly of transdisciplinary evidence for this comprehensive, updated review of family meal research, conducted with the goal of informing continued work in this area. More frequent family meals are associated with greater consumption of healthy foods in children, adolescents, and adults. Adolescents and children who consume fewer family meals consume more unhealthy food. School-aged children and adolescents who consume more family meals have greater intakes of typically underconsumed nutrients. Increased family meal frequency may decrease risk of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Frequent family meals also may protect against eating disorders and negative health behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial benefits include improved perceptions of family relationships. However, the benefits of having a family meal can be undermined if the family consumes fast food, watches television at the meal, or has a more chaotic atmosphere. Although these findings are intriguing, inconsistent research methodology and instrumentation and limited use of validation studies make comparisons between studies difficult. Future research should use consistent methodology, examine these associations across a wide range of ages, clarify the effects of the mealtime environment and feeding styles, and develop strategies to help families promote healthful mealtime habits.

  9. An open study of the effectiveness of a multi-component weight-loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A; Boyle, Susan; Miller, Susan; Macmillan, Susan; Penpraze, Victoria; Pert, Carol; Spanos, Dimitrios; Matthews, Lynsay; Robinson, Nicola; Murray, Heather; Hankey, Catherine R

    2011-05-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities experience high rates of obesity. Despite this higher risk, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The present study examined the effectiveness of the TAKE 5 multi-component weight-loss intervention. Adults with obesity were invited using specialist intellectual disability services to participate in the study. Obesity was defined as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater. TAKE 5 included a daily energy-deficit diet of 2510 kJ (600 kcal), achieved via a personalised dietary prescription. Participants' body weight, BMI, waist circumference and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured before and after the intervention. A total of fifty-four individuals consented to participate, of which forty-seven (87 %) completed the intervention in the study period. There was a significant decrease in body weight (mean difference - 4·47 (95 % CI - 5·91, - 3·03) kg; P < 0·0001), BMI (- 1·82 (95 % CI - 2·36, - 1·29) kg/m(2); P < 0·0001), waist circumference (- 6·29 (95 % CI - 7·85, - 4·73) cm; P < 0·0001) and daily sedentary behaviour of participants (- 41·40 (95 % CI - 62·45, - 20·35) min; P = 0·00 034). Of the participants who completed the intervention, seventeen (36·2 %) lost 5 % or more of their initial body weight. Findings from the study suggest that TAKE 5 is an effective weight-loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The effectiveness of TAKE 5 should be examined further in a controlled study.

  10. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  11. Relationship between frequent knee pain, obesity, and gait speed in older adults: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindawas SM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saad M BindawasDepartment of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Knee pain (KP causes gait difficulties in older adults and is associated with slow gait speed (GS. Obesity has negative effects on health. GS is an important indicator of health, well-being, and mean life span in older adults and is a strong predictor of future disability and mortality. The relationship between frequent KP, obesity, and GS in older adults remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining the relationship between baseline frequent KP and obesity status on GS over time. We hypothesized that frequent KP, obesity, or both would be associated with decreased GS over time.Methods: The data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used for this 6-year longitudinal cohort study. We studied 3,118 adults aged between 45 years and 79 years. We grouped the participants into the following four categories according to KP frequency and obesity status at baseline: 1 no KP and nonobese, 2 frequent KP and nonobese, 3 no KP and obese, and 4 frequent KP and obese. GS measurements were based on a 20 m walking test timed using a stopwatch; testing was performed at baseline and over a 6-year follow-up period. Walk pace (m/sec was calculated as the average pace over two trials conducted at clinic visits. General linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between frequent KP, obesity, and GS.Results: After adjusting for all covariates, at baseline, all the nonobese group with frequent KP (β=-0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.07 to -0.04, the obese group with no KP (β=-0.07, 95% CI: -0.1 to -0.04, and the obese group with frequent KP (β=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.1 to -0.05 exhibited decreased GS compared with the nonobese and no KP group. However, the associations between frequent KP, obesity, and GS over time were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Frequent KP alone

  12. Risk factors of obesity in preschool children in an urban area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leshan; He, Guoping; Zhang, Jingping; Xie, Rihua; Walker, Mark; Wen, Shi Wu

    2011-11-01

    To assess risk factors of childhood obesity, we carried out a case-control study in ten kindergartens in Changsha, the capital city in the Chinese province of Hunan, between July 1 and December 31, 2007. Height and weight measurements were obtained from annual physical examinations for children attending these kindergartens. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoff for body mass index (BMI). For each obese child, one child with normal BMI, matched by kindergarten class, sex, age (within 3 months), and height (within 3 cm) were chosen as controls. The parents of the study subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about their children, including perinatal factors, infant feeding, and current lifestyle factors. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of childhood obesity. A total of 162 subjects (81 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. The results showed that the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for childhood obesity were 8.88 (2.41-32.70), 5.23 (1.24-22.04), 10.96 (2.08-21.64), and 6.72 (1.55-29.12), respectively, for macrosomia, cesarean delivery, early solid foods initiation (obesity in preschool children in urban China.

  13. Oxidative Stress Status in Childhood Obesity: A Potential Risk Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Elif; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Erek, Aybala Toprak; Erman, Hayriye; Torun, Emel; Ayhan, Sıddıka Kesgin; Caglar, Hifa Gülru; Selek, Sahbettin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. Material/Methods Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard methods. Glucose, lipid parameters, CRP, insulin, total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS) levels, and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in serum. HOMA index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The differences between the groups were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Body mass index was significantly higher in the obese group (median: 28.31(pLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001). TAS (med: 2.5 μmol Trolox eq/L (1.7–3.3)) and TOS (med: 49.1 μmol H2O2 eq/L (34.5–78.8)) levels and TTL (med: 0.22 mmol/L (0.16–0.26)) were significantly higher in the obese group (p=0.001). CRP levels showed positive correlation with TOS and negative correlation with TTL levels (p=0.005, r=0.473; p=0.01, r=−0.417; respectively). TTL levels exhibited negative correlation with TOS levels (p=0.03, r=−0.347). Conclusions In conclusion, obese children were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with normal weight. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by childhood obesity can cause development of obesity-related complications and diseases. Widely focussed studies are required on the use of oxidative parameters as early prognostic parameters in detection of obesity-related complications. PMID:27733746

  14. Adult atopic dermatitis and the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H;

    2016-01-01

    While AD is not an independent risk factor for T2D in adjusted analysis, age, smoking, alcohol abuse and use of systemic and topical corticosteroids may increase the risk of T2D in adults with AD.......While AD is not an independent risk factor for T2D in adjusted analysis, age, smoking, alcohol abuse and use of systemic and topical corticosteroids may increase the risk of T2D in adults with AD....

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Tedizolid in Morbidly Obese and Covariate-Matched Nonobese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Manjunath P

    2016-08-01

    Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antimicrobial administered in its prodrug form, tedizolid phosphate, as a fixed once-daily dose. The pharmacokinetics of tedizolid has been studied in a relatively small proportion of morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI] of ≥40 kg/m(2)) adults through population analyses with sparse sampling. The current study compared the intensively sampled plasma pharmacokinetics of tedizolid phosphate and tedizolid in 9 morbidly obese and 9 age-, sex-, and ideal body weight-matched nonobese (BMI, 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) healthy adult (18 to 50 years of age) volunteers after administration of a single intravenous dose of tedizolid phosphate. The median (range) weights were 72.6 kg (58.9 to 89.5 kg) and 117 kg (102 to 176 kg) for the mostly female (77.8%) nonobese and morbidly obese adults, respectively. Tedizolid phosphate concentrations were below the limit of quantitation in a majority of subjects after the 2-h time point. The tedizolid median (range) maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-∞) were 2.38 (1.28 to 3.99) mg/liter and 26.3 (18.4 to 43.2) h · mg/liter, respectively, for morbidly obese subjects, and these were nonsignificantly different (P ≥ 0.214) from the values for nonobese subjects. Similarly, the volumes of distribution (Vz) (P = 0.110) and clearance (CL) values (P = 0.214) were comparable between groups. Nearly identical (P = 0.953) median tedizolid half-lives of approximately 12 h were observed for both groups. Tedizolid Vz and CL scaled with body weight, but not proportionately. The small and nonsignificant differences in tedizolid AUC0-∞ values between morbidly obese and nonobese subjects suggest that dose modification is not necessary for morbidly obese adults. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT02342418.).

  16. [Overweight and obesity as the risk factor in perinatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziennicki, A

    2001-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have become a frequent phenomenon among pregnant women during last thirty years. They result in increased morbidity rates of different chronic, health- or even life-threatening diseases. Among different perinatal complications associated with obesity the most important are: hypertension, diabetes, varices, cholecystolithiasis, prolonged pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation. Increased rates of operative deliveries, intrapartal and postpartal infections, thrombotic complications, anaemia, urinary infections and lactation disorders can be observed.

  17. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

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    Andy Japutra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 well-nourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/week are risk factors for childhood obesity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:35-9.].

  18. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  19. Complex relationship of obesity and obesity paradox in heart failure - higher risk of developing heart failure and better outcomes in established heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Banach, Maciej; Ahmed, Ali; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2016-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) and obesity are major public health problems. Studies have shown that obesity may increase the risk of developing new HF but after patients have developed HF, obesity may be associated with improved outcomes. This paradoxical association of obesity with HF remains poorly understood. It is believed that the obesity paradox may in part be due to the inherent limitations of body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity. BMI may not appropriately measure important components of body mass like body fat, fat distribution, lean body mass, and body fluid content and may not be ideal for examining the relationship of body composition with health outcomes. Differentiating between body fat and lean body mass may explain some of the paradoxical association between higher BMI and better prognosis in patients with HF. Paradoxical outcomes in HF may also be due to phenotypes of obesity. Future studies need to develop and test metrics that may better measure body composition and may serve as a better tool for the estimation of the true association of obesity and outcomes in HF and determine whether the association may vary by obesity phenotypes. KEY MESSAGES Obesity predisposes to heart failure in all age groups. But obesity in heart failure is an area of controversy, because of obesity paradox, the apparent protective effect of overweight and mild obesity on mortality after development of heart failure. Traditional markers of obesity do not measure different components of body weight like muscle mass, fat, water, and skeletal weight. Body Mass Index in heart failure subjects does not measure accurately body fat or fluid retention. So new markers of obesity like visceral adiposity index, body composition analysis, sarcopenic status assessment may be helpful in the assessment of heart failure outcomes. Different phenotypes of obesity may be responsible for the different morbidity, mortality as well as therapeutic outcomes in heart failure.

  20. Update on pharmacology of obesity: benefts and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cabrerizo García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Western countries has increased at a much greater pace than the development of new efficient and safe drugs, beyond mere lifestyle changes, for the treatment of overweight. Numerous different types of drugs which had been used in the past for the treatment of obesity have currently been withdrawn due to undesirable long-term side effects. The only available drug in Europe is orlistat, which serves only as an aid for the treatment of obesity. In the USA, however, a few central adrenergic-mediators, for instance, diethylpropion and phentermine, have been available for decades to treat obesity during a short-term period (less than 12 weeks. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA has recently approved lorcaserin and the combination phentermine/topiramate for the treatment of obesity. The first one is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that works by decreasing food intake with few side effects. Its outcomes on weight are modest, but may be helpful in certain selected patients. The phentermine/topiramate combination has proved to be highly effective, achieving a 10% reduction in weight in the majority of patients, although attention must be drawn to the possible development of side effects in both the short and the long-term follow-up. Further investigation regarding the mechanisms involved in weight balance will anticipate the development of new expectations for the treatment of obesity in the near future.

  1. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  2. Obesity as a risk factor in cancer: A national consensus of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Barneto, I; García-Almeida, J M; Blasco, A; Lecube, A; Grávalos, C; Martínez de Icaya, P; de las Peñas, R; Monereo, S; Vázquez, L; Palacio, J E; Pérez-Segura, P

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years, many prospective studies have demonstrated a clear association between obesity and cancers of the colon and rectum, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrium, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas. Obesity is also associated with a high risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. The pathophysiology of obesity involves various changes that may be implicated in the relationship between obesity and cancer, such as excess inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and raised leptin and oestrogens. The Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology have signed a cooperation agreement to work together towards reducing the impact of obesity in cancer. Preventing obesity prevents cancer.

  3. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity.

  4. Nutritional status and obesity in children and young adults with disabilities in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Barbosa, Clara I; Díaz, Mauricio; Urzua, Miyochi; Andrade, Asterio H

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world; however, little is known on the nutritional status of children with disabilities. To address this issue, medical records of 748 children aged 18 years or younger receiving physical therapy during 2004-2005 at a privately sponsored free rehabilitation clinic in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile were abstracted. Data included demographic, clinical, and anthropometric information recorded at the first visit. As a comparison, height and weight were also collected in 215 children attending local schools. Nutritional status was calculated as body mass index (above 6 years of age) or evaluated by growth curves (6 years of age or below) as undernourished, normal, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for obesity in these children. Overall, a significant difference in nutritional status between disabled and non-disabled children was found (Pcerebral palsy were less than half as likely to be obese than non-disabled children (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.20-1.03). We conclude that overnutrition continues to be a problem for both disabled and non-disabled children in Patagonia. Programs to increase physical activity and improve nutrition are needed in this isolated part of the world.

  5. RISK FACTORS FOR ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM CRACOW, POLAND (1983-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Agnieszka; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine abdominal obesity risk factors in two successive cohorts of children and adolescents aged 4-18 from Cracow, Poland, examined during the years of political transformation. The influence of biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors on abdominal obesity was analysed by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression analysis. It was found that for girls obesity in both parents (OR=4.31; 95% CI 1.73-20.70) and high birth weight (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.12-2.82) were significant risk factors for abdominal obesity in the 1983 cohort. In the 2000 cohort obesity in both parents for boys and girls (boys: OR=5.85; 95% CI 1.36-25.10; girls: OR=4.82; 95% CI 1.17-19.77), low level of parental education in girls (OR=2.06; 95% CI 1.15-3.69), having only one son (OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.36-3.40), parents' smoking habits in girls (OR=2.94; 95% CI 1.46-5.91) and lack of undertaking physical activity in sport clubs in boys (OR=6.11; 95% CI 1.46-25.47) were significant abdominal obesity risk factors. Higher number of hours of leisure time physical activity (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) significantly lowered the risk of abdominal obesity in boys in the 2000 cohort. The greater differentiation of abdominal obesity risk factors in the 2000 cohort in comparison to the 1983 cohort may have resulted from the social and economic changes taking place in Poland at the end of the 20th century.

  6. Autonomic Reactivity Differs in Young Adults Classified using Revised Indian and WHO Guidelines for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arohi; Singh, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have reported alteration in autonomic activity in obesity. However, there is paucity of literature comparing autonomic reactivity using different guidelines of obesity. As Indian guidelines were revised recently and WHO states that countries should use all categories of BMI for reporting purposes, it is prudent to compare physiological state in different categories of BMI. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the autonomic alteration in young adults using revised Indian and WHO guidelines for obesity. Materials and Methods A battery of autonomic tests (Valsalva Manoeuvre (VM), Deep Breathing Test (DBT), Lying to Standing Test (LST) and Hand Grip isometric exercise Test (HGT) was conducted on 34 overweight and obese and 30 normal weight volunteers categorised using revised Indian guidelines of body mass index. Same participants were regrouped and analysed using WHO guidelines of BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR). Results For analysis, participants were grouped into 3 categories of normal, overweight and obese using revised Indian guidelines for obesity. Same participants were regrouped according to WHO guidelines. E:I ratio during DBT, 30:15 ratio during LST, Valsalva ratio during VM and increase in DBP during HGT were compared in different subgroups. There was no difference in sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in participants classified according to revised Indian guidelines. In participants classified using WHO criteria, sympathetic reactivity in overweight subjects was significantly less as compared to normal subjects (p<0.05). Conclusion Autonomic alterations might be more related to body fat percent rather than BMI. Indian guidelines are based on the observation that Asian population has more adipose tissue in WHO range of BMI. As the guidelines of BMI are applicable to all age groups and do not consider physical activity profile, they might still not be a good predictor of body fat. PMID:27790425

  7. Predictors of Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults: Findings from the USA and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and demographic predictors of clinically meaningful weight loss in community samples of obese older adults in the USA and the UK. Methods: Data were from obese older adults (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; age ≥ 52 years, free of a cancer diagnosis, from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 3398 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 998. Weight change was assessed from 2004 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression tested whether age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, education, or BMI predicted ≥ 5% weight loss. Results: Over a quarter (28.7% of obese participants from HRS and 16.6% from ELSA lost ≥ 5% weight. Being female (odds ratio (OR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.11-1.54 and heavier (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.37-1.87 predicted weight loss in HRS. Trends were similar in ELSA (female: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.83-1.69; BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.85-1.82. ORs were increased in ≥ 65-year-olds in HRS (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81, and reduced in married people in ELSA (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48-1.00. Neither education nor ethnicity predicted weight loss in either cohort. Conclusion: A high proportion of obese older adults experience clinically meaningful weight loss, but few demographic variables consistently predict weight loss in this population.

  8. Developmental origins of obesity-related hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Sarah L; Barzel, Benjamin; Wood-Bradley, Ryan J; Burke, Sandra L; Head, Geoffrey A; Armitage, James A

    2012-09-01

    1. In the past 30 years the prevalence of obesity and overweight have doubled. It is now estimated that globally over 500 million adults are obese and a further billion adults are overweight. Obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor and some studies suggest that up to 70% of cases of essential hypertension may be attributable, in part, to obesity. Increasingly, evidence supports a view that obesity-related hypertension may be driven by altered hypothalamic signalling, which results in inappropriately high appetite and sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney. 2. In addition to the adult risk factors for obesity and hypertension, the environment encountered in early life may 'programme' the development of obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In particular, maternal obesity or high dietary fat intake in pregnancy may induce changes in fetal growth trajectories and predispose individuals to develop obesity and related sequelae. 3. The mechanisms underlying the programming of obesity-related hypertension are becoming better understood. However, several issues require clarification, particularly with regard to the role of the placenta in transferring fatty acid to the fetal compartment, the impact of placental inflammation and cytokine production in obesity. 4. By understanding which factors are most associated with the development of obesity and hypertension in the offspring, we can focus therapeutic and behavioural interventions to most efficiently reduce the intergenerational propagation of the obesity cycle.

  9. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  10. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  11. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  12. Obesity and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  13. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. METHODS: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. RESULTS: In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  14. Estimating the risk of cardiovascular disease using an obese-years metric

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Amin, Fauzi Ali; Stoelwinder, Johannes; Tanamas, Stephanie K; Wolfe, Rory; Barendregt, Jan; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between obese-years and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Study design Prospective cohort study. Setting Boston, USA. Participants 5036 participants of the Framingham Heart Study were examined. Methods Obese-years was calculated by multiplying for each participant the number of body mass index (BMI) units above 29 kg/m2 by the number of years lived at that BMI during approximately 50 years of follow-up. The association between obese-years and CVD w...

  15. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pinterpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (prelationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did.

  16. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  17. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  18. Risk of venous thrombosis: obesity and its joint effect with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, Elisabeth R.; Cessie, le Saskia; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Doggen, Carine J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA study), body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated as risk factors. Additionally, the joint effect of obesity together with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations on the ris

  19. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of

  20. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of obesity among Panamanian adults. 1982-2010.

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    Morris Sasson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n = 11 611, ENV-II 2003 (n = 14 737, ENV-III 2008 (n = 15 484, PREFREC-2010 (n  = 3 590. We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people's perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n = 25 748. RESULTS: In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3-4.2 and in females 7.6% (6.9-8.2. In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6-15.2 and in females to 21.8% (20.8-22.7. In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0-17.7 and in females it was 23.8% (22.8-24.7. Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem.

  2. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  3. Comparison of brain serotonin transporter using [I-123]-ADAM between obese and non-obese young adults without an eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Chin-Sung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Shen, Lie-Hang; Yao, Wei-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral serotonin metabolism has an important but controversial role in obesity. However, it is not given enough attention in morbidly obese young adults. We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [I-123]-labeled 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM) to investigate changes in serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in 10 morbidly obese young adults without an eating disorder (M/F = 5/5, body mass index (BMI): 40.3 ± 4.1 kg/m2, percentage of body fat (BF%): 46.0 ± 3.9%) and 10 age- and sex-matched non-obese controls (BMI: 20.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2, BF%: 20.6 ± 8.9%). All participants underwent SPECT at 10 min and 6 h after an injection of 200 MBq of [I-123]-ADAM. The SERT binding site (midbrain) was drawn with cerebellum normalization. The BF% and fat distribution were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The midbrain/cerebellum SERT binding ratios (2.49 ± 0.46 vs. 2.47 ± 0.47; p = 0.912) at 6 h were not significantly different between groups, nor was the distribution of the summed images at 10 min (1.36 ± 0.14 vs. 1.35 ± 0.11; p = 0.853). There were no significant correlations between midbrain/cerebellum SERT binding ratio and age, BMI, BF%, or fat distribution. No significant difference in SERT availability in the midbrain between morbidly obese and non-obese young adults without an eating disorder indicates an unmet need for investigating the role of cerebral serotonin in obesity. PMID:28182708

  4. Combined parental obesity augments single-parent obesity effects on hypothalamus inflammation, leptin signaling (JAK/STAT), hyperphagia, and obesity in the adult mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal and/or paternal obesity on offspring body mass, leptin signaling, appetite-regulating neurotransmitters and local inflammatory markers. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow (SC, lean groups) or high-fat diet (HF, obese groups) starting from one month of age. At three months, HF mice became obese relative to SC mice. They were then mated as follows: lean mother and lean father, lean mother and obese father, obese mother and lean father, and obese mother and obese father. The offspring received the SC diet from weaning until three months of age, when they were sacrificed. In the offspring, paternal obesity did not lead to changes in the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activation of the transcription (STAT) pathway or feeding behavior but did induce hypothalamic inflammation. On the other hand, maternal obesity resulted in increased weight gain, hyperleptinemia, decreased leptin OBRb receptor expression, JAK/STAT pathway impairment, and increased SOCS3 signaling in the offspring. In addition, maternal obesity elevated inflammatory markers and altered NPY and POMC expression in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, combined parental obesity exacerbated the deleterious outcomes compared to single-parent obesity. In conclusion, while maternal obesity is known to program metabolic changes and obesity in offspring, the current study demonstrated that obese fathers induce hypothalamus inflammation in offspring, which may contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes in adulthood.

  5. Obesity and metabolic evaluation of 24 hour urinary analysis of adult stone formers, a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The positive relationship between Obesity and the risk factors for urolithiasis was evident from this study. To understand the mechanism of urolithiasis in obese patient's further research is required. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4990-4994

  6. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Sistrun, Sakita N; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Older, obese, and sedentary individuals are at high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training improves metabolic anomalies associated with such diseases, but the effects of caloric restriction in addition to exercise in such a high-risk group are not known. Changes...... in body composition and metabolism during a lifestyle intervention were investigated in 23 older, obese men and women (aged 66 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 33.2 +/- 1.4 kg/m(2)) with impaired glucose tolerance. All volunteers undertook 12 wk of aerobic exercise training [5 days/wk for 60 min at 75% maximal...... oxygen consumption (Vo(2max))] with either normal caloric intake (eucaloric group, 1,901 +/- 277 kcal/day, n = 12) or a reduced-calorie diet (hypocaloric group, 1,307 +/- 70 kcal/day, n = 11), as dictated by nutritional counseling. Body composition (decreased fat mass; maintained fat-free mass), aerobic...

  7. The Effectiveness of a Weight Maintenance Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Obesity: A Single Stranded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Hankey, Catherine R.; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for weight management programmes incorporating a weight loss and a weight maintenance phase for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited. This study describes the weight maintenance phase of a multicomponent weight management programme for adults with intellectual disability and obesity (TAKE 5).…

  8. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  9. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative.

  10. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  11. [Obesity and high health risk due to beberages consumption and obesity among high school students in méxico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravalí-Meza, NurisYohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the consumption of beverages among high school Mexican students and to determine obesity (OB) and abdominal obesity (AB). Differences in range and calorie beverage consumption between gender and BMI categories were calculated with the Mann-Whitney test. We assessed 1,677 students 15 to 17 yo. The prevalence of OB and AO was 15% and 53% in men and 12% and 47% in women. The consumption of energy, sugary drinks, and alcohol in milliliters and kilocalories per week, was higher in men (p = 0.001). More than 70% of students consumed per day more than 25 g/day of sugar from beverages, and more than 38% consumed more than 50 g/day of sugar. This high risk food consumption warrants immediate intervention.

  12. Sleep and eating behavior in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilkus, J.M.; Booth, J. N.; Bromley, L.E.; Darukhanavala, A.P.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient quantity and quality of sleep may modulate eating behavior, everyday physical activity, overall energy balance, and individual risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of habitual sleep quantity and quality with the self-reported pattern of eating behavior in 53 healthy urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (30F/23M; mean [SD] age: 27 [4] y; BMI: 23.9 [2.3] kg/m2) while taking into consideration the amount of their everyday physical activit...

  13. Obesity and Physical Frailty in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of Intervention Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2013-01-01

    Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physical function and biomarkers for potential underlying causes of obesity-related decline. We used the five-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley to conduct a scoping review of randomized trials of weight loss and/or exercise interventions for obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in older adults (aged > 60 yrs), examining the outcomes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation in muscle, as well as direct measures of physical function. Our initial search yielded 212 articles; exclusion of cross-sectional and observational studies, cell culture and animal studies, disease-specific interventions, and articles published before 2001 led to a final result of 21 articles. Findings of these trials included the following major points: The literature consistently confirmed benefits of lifestyle interventions to physical function assessed at the clinical level. Generally speaking, weight loss alone produced a greater effect than exercise alone and the best outcomes were achieved with a combination of weight loss and exercise, especially exercise programs that combined aerobic, resistance, and flexibility training. Weight loss interventions tended to reduce markers of inflammation and/or oxidative damage when more robust weight reduction was achieved and maintained over time, whereas exercise did not change markers of inflammation. However, participation in a chronic exercise program did reduce the oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of exercise. Weight loss

  14. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  15. Effect of maternal obesity on diabetes development in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Pimenta, Walkyria de Paula; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2007-10-27

    This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal obesity leads to the onset of diabetes in adult Wistar rats offspring. MSG solution neonatally administration induced obesity in rats (F(1)MSG group, n=30); and saline solution was also administrated to control rats (F(1)CON group, n=13). In 3rd month of age, both control and MSG groups were mated for offspring (generation F(2)), named as F(2)CON, n=28 and F(2)MSG groups, n=15; and so both generations were studied until 7th month of life. Lee Index was measured for experimental obesity validation from 5th to 7th month. Glycemia was weekly determined during pregnancy and monthly from 3rd to 7th month. In the end of experimental period all rats were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with estimation of total area under the curve (AUC); and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Rats were then anesthetized and killed. Data were statistically analyzed with significance level of pgenerations showed significant maternal interference in control and MSG groups. OGTT analysis showed higher glycemia in obese rats (F(1)MSG) and their offspring (F(2)MSG) as compared to their respective controls; and MSG groups increased AUC from OGTT. As regards ITT, F(2)MSG showed higher glycemia at 30 and 120 min, suggesting a delay of insulin action decreasing. Although glucose intolerance and insulin resistance clinical conditions represent as a factors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus development, this experimental model proposal was not efficient to induce type 2 Diabetes mellitus, but for obesity developing, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in successive generations of rats.

  16. Increased asthma risk and asthma-related health care complications associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J; Koebnick, Corinna

    2013-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6-19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007-2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 per 1,000 person-years among normal-weight youth to 22.3 per 1,000 person-years among extremely obese youth. The adjusted risks of asthma for overweight, moderately obese, and extremely obese youth relative to those of normal weight youth were 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.20), 1.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 1.28), and 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.42), respectively (Ptrend obesity and asthma risk was strongest in Asian/Pacific Islanders and in the youngest girls (aged 6-10 years), compared with other groups. Among youth who developed asthma, those who were moderately or extremely obese had more frequent asthma exacerbations requiring emergency department services and/or treatment with oral corticosteroids. In conclusion, obese youth are not only more likely to develop asthma, but they may be more likely to have severe asthma, resulting in a greater need for health care utilization and aggressive asthma treatment.

  17. Association between tooth loss and obesity in Brazilian adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Oliveira Bernardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between tooth loss and general and central obesity among adults. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with 1,720 adults aged 20 to 59 years from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Home interviews were performed and anthropometric measures were taken. Information on sociodemographic data, self-reported diabetes, self-reported number of teeth, central obesity (waist circumference [WC] > 88 cm in women and > 102 cm in men and general obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m² was collected. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the association between general and central obesity and tooth loss after controlling for confounders. We also performed simple and multiple linear regressions by using BMI and WC as continuous variables. Interaction between age and tooth loss was also assessed. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.9 kg/m² (95%CI 25.6;26.2 in men and 25.4 kg/m2 (95%CI 25.0;25.7 in women. The mean WC was 79.3 cm (95%CI 78.4;80.1 in men and 88.4 cm (95%CI 87.6;89.2 in women. A positive association was found between the presence of less than 10 teeth in at least one arch and increased mean BMI and WC after adjusting for education level, self-reported diabetes, gender and monthly per capita income. However, this association was lost when the variable age was included in the model. The prevalence of general obesity was 50% higher in those with less than 10 teeth in at least one arch when compared with those with 10 or more teeth in both arches after adjusting for education level, self-reported diabetes and monthly per capita family income. However, the statistical significance was lost after controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with number of teeth, though it depended on the participants' age groups.

  18. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...

  19. Use of a Wearable Activity Device in Rural Older Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Batsis MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI ≥30kg/m2 were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m2. We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03 but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9. All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5% found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5% found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%] were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence.

  20. Budding adult hypertensives with modifiable risk factors: "Catch them young"

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    Aravind S.K. Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the data of primary hypertension (HT in children is scanty in India, this study attempted to evaluate HT by a multidimensional investigation of the various risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 3906 subjects were recruited, all of whom lived in Chennai, an urban area of Tamil Nadu. The children and adolescents aged from 10 to 17 years were selected by random sampling. The children/adolescents were randomized into one control and further divided into two groups. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program fourth report (2004 and anthropometric body mass index (BMI, food frequency questionnaire (PURE were followed in the study. Results: Out of 3906 children, 2107 were girls and 1799 boys. On screening, we found 9.5% to be hypertensive with the prevalence rate of boys and girls 8% and 10.8%, respectively. Overall obesity was 2.7%, (boys 2%, girls 3.32%; hypertensives and normotensives were 8.4% and 2.1%, respectively. We found that overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06 [1.40-3.01] 95% confidence interval [CI], obese children (OR: 1.21 [2.72-6.48] 95% CI, and those with a family history of HT (OR: 1.66 [1.20-2.30] 95% CI had increased risk of hypertension. Females were 1.39 times (OR: 1.39 [1.11-1.72] 95% CI more at risk of getting HT. Multivariate analysis showed that obese children/adolescent were four times more likely to have HT than children with normal BMI (OR: 4.67 [3.00-7.26] 95% CI]. Conclusion: Family history of HT, obesity, and female gender are associated with a high risk of HT. The prevalence of HT was higher among obese adolescents than among slender subjects. This may be related to their sedentary lifestyle, faulty eating habits, high fat content in the diet and little physical activity.

  1. Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Martin A; Lavie, Carl J; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul B; Kumar, Senthil A

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) in both men and women. The mortality risk of overweight and class I and II obese adults with HF is lower than that of normal weight or underweight adults with HF of comparable severity, a phenomenon referred to as the obesity paradox. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function, which may lead to the development of HF. The presence of systemic hypertension, sleep apnea, and hypoventilation, comorbidities that occur commonly with severe obesity, may contribute to HF in such patients. The resultant syndrome is known as obesity cardiomyopathy. Substantial weight loss in severely obese persons is capable of reversing most obesity-related abnormalities of cardiac performance and morphology and improving the clinical manifestations of obesity cardiomyopathy.

  2. A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a Swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls. The sensitivity was higher for girls (41% than for boys (21%. The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4 for girls and 120.3 (95% CI 24.5 to 589.9 for boys. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sensitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in child health centre settings are warranted.

  3. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-18

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  4. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  5. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  6. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Bishop, D Timothy; Macrae, Finlay;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk...... was 25.0 months, and mean follow-up was 55.7 months. RESULTS: During follow-up, 55 of 937 participants developed CRC. For obese participants, CRC risk was 2.41× (95% CI, 1.22 to 4.85) greater than for underweight and normal-weight participants (reference group), and CRC risk increased by 7% for each 1-kg....../m(2) increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation...

  7. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  8. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC. Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05 and obese (p < 0.01 participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, malonaldehyde (MDA and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  9. Comparing risk factors in a group of obese children and group of athlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pastucha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing problem that more and more often affects children, thus not only the adult population. The aim of this thesis is to compare various elements and life habits of obese children with elements and habits of children practising athletics. These processes are physical activity, healthstate, eating habits, physical condition, breast-feeding period duration and the BMI of the children's parents. We have come upon an agreement with other authors that while comparing the BMI results of the parents, the two sets differed significantly. It was clearly indicated that obese children also have overweight or obese parents. Therefore it can be said that obesity is usually a problem of the whole actual family and its life-style. Regarding birth-weight, breast-feeding period duration, participation in P.E. class or a time spent watching TV or playing a computer, no major differences were noted. However, slight differences in favour to the athletes were seen in their good eating habits, their body-posture and their interest in sports in general. Here, the intensity with which active children practise sports and the time they devote to it are much higher and bigger than the energy and time spent on sports by obese children.

  10. C-B3-01: Variation in Seven Obesity-Related Genes and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feigelson, Heather S; Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Tang, Weining; Patel, Alpa V; Calle, Eugenia E.; Bouzyk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obesity has been consistently associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins secreted by adipose tissue or involved in regulating obesity may play a role in breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case- control study among white, postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS -II) Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk of breast cancer.

  11. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness: Part 1--Obesity and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of many health conditions, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, high blood pressure, lipid disorders, stroke and more. While obesity affects more than one third of all adult Americans, people with disabilities are more likely to be overweight or obese and often have fewer tools for controlling weight at…

  12. Childhood Obesity in Primary Care : Not yet General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.D. Paulis (Winifred)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe prevalence of childhood obesity has at least doubled the last 30 years. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood to develop adult obesity, which translates into increased risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease and

  13. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Eating at "fast food" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fast food" restaurants is associated with body weight. Methods A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and home addresses. Proximity of home and work to restaurants was assessed by Global Index System (GIS methodology. Results Eating at "fast food" restaurants was positively associated with having children, a high fat diet and Body Mass Index (BMI. It was negatively associated with vegetable consumption and physical activity. Proximity of "fast food" restaurants to home or work was not associated with eating at "fast food" restaurants or with BMI. Proximity of "non-fast food" restaurants was not associated with BMI, but was associated with frequency of eating at those restaurants. Conclusion Failure to find relationships between proximity to "fast food" restaurants and obesity may be due to methodological weaknesses, e.g. the operational definition of "fast food" or "proximity", or homogeneity of restaurant proximity. Alternatively, the proliferation of "fast food" restaurants may not be a strong unique cause of obesity.

  14. Risks and Benefits of Exercise Training in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living.

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness in the elderly: association with cardiovascular risk, obesity and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnatas Mikael Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS and the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular dysfunction, depression and obesity in the elderly. METHODS: We interviewed 168 elderly from the community of Campina Grande, Paraíba. They were selected according to health districts in the period of 2010. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to diagnose excessive daytime sleepiness (> 10 points; waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (> 94 or > 80 cm; Geriatric Depression Scale for depression (>10 points and body mass index for obesity (> 25 kg/m2. Association analysis was performed by the Chi-square test adjusted for sex and age group, adopting α < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty eight elderly individuals with mean age of 72.34 ± 7.8 years old participated in this study, being 122 (72.6% women. EDS was identified in 53 (31.5% of them; depression, in 72 (42.9%; overweight/obesity, in 95 (64.46%; and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, in 129 (79.6%. Depressed men (78.6%, p = 0.0005 and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (57.1%, p = 0.02 were more prone to EDS. In women, only obesity was related to sleepiness (42.1%, p = 0.01. Only those aged between 70 - 79 years old showed association between sleepiness and obesity. CONCLUSION: It was found that obesity for women, and depression and cardiovascular dysfunction risking for men were associated with EDS in the elderly. The variable sex is a confusion condition for the association with sleepiness.

  16. Risk of developing adulthood obesity among females born with low birth weight: Results from a non-concurrent study from rural Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between birth weight and the evolution of obesity in adult life in women from a rural developmental block in southern India. Design: Non-concurrent cohort Setting: General community- a rural developmental block in southern India. Participants: Two hundred and seventy one young healthy females were recruited from a birth cohort. The study subjects were 98 women in the age group of 19-23 years who had been born with low birth weight (LBW and 173 women in the same age group who had been born with normal birth weight (NBW. Materials and Methods: Data collection involved interview using a structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Analysis: Chi-square test to assess significance of association, independent sample t test to assess the difference between means, odds ratios for measuring magnitude of association, stratified analysis to identify various interactions and confounders, and multiple logistic regression models to identify the relationship between birth weight and young adult obesity (BMI > 25. Results: A crude odds ratio of 0.564 (95% CI 0.262 - 1.214 was obtained for the association between LBW and development of obesity later in life. In the final logistic regression model, it was found that a young adult female with low birth weight who belonged to a higher socio-economic group had a higher risk of developing obesity (Adjusted odds for the interaction term between LBW and high SES 6.251; 95% CI 1.236 - 31.611. Conclusion: The study could not find any significant association between LBW and development of obesity later in life, but it found a higher probability of developing obesity later in life among low birth weight female children born in high socio-economic status families.

  17. Maternal obesity is a risk factor for orofacial clefts: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most prevalent birth defects that affect craniofacial structures and implicate genetic and environmental factors in their aetiology. Maternal metabolic state and nutrition have been related to these and other structural malformations, and studies of maternal obesity before pregnancy have shown controversial results about its association with the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring. Our aim was to assess the combined effect of several single studies of maternal obesity on the risk of orofacial clefts using meta-analysis. We searched for these reports in the PubMed database, and selected 8 studies that met our criteria for eligibility. As a result of this analysis, and using maternal normal weight as a reference, we found that maternal obesity does increase the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26). When these clefts are considered separately, maternal obesity is associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23), and with cleft palate alone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). Our results support the relation between maternal obesity and orofacial clefts, and confirm two previous meta-analyses that considered fewer studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this statistical evidence have not been fully elucidated.

  18. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood obesity: analysis of a Peruvian prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess if Caesarean section is a risk factor for overnutrition in early- and late-childhood, and to assess the magnitude of the effect of child- versus family-related variables in these risk estimates.Methods. Longitudinal data from Peruvian children from the Young Lives Study was used. Outcomes assessed were overweight, obesity, overnutrition (overweight plus obesity, and central obesity (waist circumference at the age 5 (first follow-up and 7 (second follow-up years. The exposure of interests was delivery by Caesarean section. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multivariable models adjusted for child-related (e.g., birth weight and family-related (e.g., maternal nutritional status variables.Results. At baseline, mean age was 11.7 (± 3.5 months and 50.1% were boys. Children born by Caesarean section were 15.6%. The 10.5% of the children were overweight and 2.4% were obese. For the obesity outcome, data from 6,038 and 9,625 children-years was included from baseline to the first and second follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who did not experience Caesarean delivery, the risk of having obesity was higher in the group born by Caesarean: RRs were higher at early-childhood (first follow-up: 2.25; 95% CI [1.36–3.74] than later in life (second follow-up: 1.57; 95% CI [1.02–2.41]. Family-related variables had a greater effect in attenuating the risk estimates for obesity at the first, than at the second follow-up.Conclusion. Our results suggest a higher probability of developing obesity, but not overweight, among children born by Caesarean section delivery. The magnitude of risk estimates decreased over time, and family-related variables had a stronger effect on the risk estimates at early-childhood.

  19. Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Emily P; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.

  20. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  1. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  2. Coffee intake and risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-01-01

    to 78,021 additional individuals from the DIAGRAM consortium. RESULTS: Observationally, high coffee intake was associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Further, high coffee intake was associated with high body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic...... convincingly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or glucose levels. Per-allele meta-analysed odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1......BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages. We tested the hypothesis that genetically high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof. METHODS: We included 93,179 individuals from two large...

  3. Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos españoles Overweight and obesity among Spanish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos españoles y comprobar cuál es la situación actual y cómo ha evolucionado en los últimos años. Material y métodos: Se ha estudiado un colectivo de 418 individuos (196 varones y 222 mujeres de 18 a 60 años, que fueron seleccionados para constituir una muestra representativa de la población española en su conjunto. Se han registrado datos sanitarios, socioeconómicos y antropométricos (peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y porcentaje de grasa corporal mediante bioimpedancia. Se ha calculado el Índice de Masa Corporal y la relación cintura/altura. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso en la población fue del 34,2%, siendo mayor en los varones (43,9% que en las mujeres (25,7%; y la de obesidad fue del 13,6%, sin existir diferencias entre sexos. Un 47,8% de la población presentó sobrecarga ponderal y un 70,2% exceso de grasa corporal, siendo mayor en varones que en mujeres y aumentando estos parámetros con la edad. Un 22,2% de la población estudiada presentó obesidad central (tomando como referencia la circunferencia de la cintura y un 54,7% obesidad central y riesgo cardiovascular (al presentar relaciones cintura/altura > 0,5, siendo mayores ambos parámetros en el grupo de los varones. Conclusión: La población española se encuentra en una situación alarmante con respecto al padecimiento de sobrepeso y obesidad, presentando más de la mitad de la población riesgo de padecer enfermedad cardiovascular. Además, la situación ha empeorado con respecto a datos obtenidos en estudios anteriores, por lo que hay que seguir trabajando para disminuir su prevalencia.Aim: to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Spanish adults and to know the current situation and its evolution in the last years. Material and methods: The study involved 418 subjects (196 men and 222 women from 18 to 60 years, who were selected to constitute a representative sample of

  4. C-B3-01: Variation in Seven Obesity-Related Genes and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather S; Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Tang, Weining; Patel, Alpa V; Calle, Eugenia E; Bouzyk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obesity has been consistently associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins secreted by adipose tissue or involved in regulating obesity may play a role in breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case- control study among white, postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS -II) Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk of breast cancer. Methods: Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose- related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models and haplotype analysis were used to examine the association between each tagSNP and risk of breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity. Results: Two of five tagSNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P=0.006; rs932335, P=0.0002). The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly two-fold increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.01–3.33 for C/C versus G/G). The rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2=0.74), and when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. Three of the eleven SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P=0.007; rs2289046, P=0.016; rs754204, P=0.03). When these 3 SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.90 for TGC compared to CAT). IRS2 rs2289046 and rs754204 were also associated with adult weight gain. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were associated with breast cancer or adiposity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that

  5. Prevalence of binge eating disorder in obese adults seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamado, P J; Williamson, D A; Bentz, B G; Ryan, D H; Rhodes, S K; O'Neil, P M; Sebastian, S B; Barker, S E

    1997-09-01

    Binge eating has been identified as a common problem in samples of obese persons. Earlier studies found that approximately 30% of participants presenting for weight loss treatment could be diagnosed with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). This study investigated the prevalence of BED using the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP) and the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (IDED) in a sample of 468 obese adults seeking weight loss treatment at two research facilities. The study found that only a small percentage of the participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Revision (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for BED using either the IDED (1.3%) or QEWP (7.3%). A larger percentage of the sample (10.7% based on the IDED and 20.5% based on the QEWP) reported binge eating, but did not endorse all criteria necessary to warrant a diagnosis of BED. The primary finding of the study was that the prevalence of BED in treatment seeking obese adults was much lower than was reported in previous studies. Also, there was significant discrepancy in prevalence rates of BED as defined by self-report and interview assessment methods, with the interview method yielding lower estimates of prevalence. These findings suggest that the prevalence of BED may be lower than estimates of earlier reports. We recommend that future studies of BED use reliable and valid interview methods and that this research focus on more diverse populations, including men and a variety of racial and ethnic groups.

  6. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joane Matta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009. Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91. No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults.

  7. Overweight and obesity are associated with neuronal injury in the human cerebellum and hippocampus in young adults: a combined MRI, serum marker and gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K; Sacher, J; Arelin, K; Holiga, S; Kratzsch, J; Villringer, A; Schroeter, M L

    2012-12-04

    There is growing evidence that obesity represents a risk for enhanced gray matter (GM) density changes comparable to those demonstrated for mild cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, it is not clear what mechanisms underlie this apparent alteration in brain structure of overweight subjects and to what extent these changes can already occur in the adolescent human brain. In the present volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated GM changes and serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker for neuronal injury, in a set of overweight/obese subjects and controls. We report a negative correlation for overweight and obese subjects between serum NSE and GM density in hippocampal and cerebellar regions. To validate our neuroimaging findings, we complement these data with NSE gene expression information obtained from the Allen Brain atlas. GM density changes were localized in brain areas that mediate cognitive function-the hippocampus associated with memory performance, and the cognitive cerebellum (lateral posterior lobes) associated with executive, spatial and linguistic processing. The data of our present study highlight the importance of extending current research on cognitive function and brain plasticity in the elderly in the context of obesity to young adult subjects and include serum biomarkers to validate imaging findings generally.

  8. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  9. Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  10. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  11. The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD