WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult non-clinical populations

  1. Assessing the relationship between eating disorder psychopathology and autistic traits in a non-clinical adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Amelia Myri; Smith, Alastair D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates a genetic and behavioural link between eating disorders and autism spectrum disorders, and a recent study (Coombs et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 50:326-338, 2011) extends this link to typical populations, showing a positive correlation between behaviours in typically developing children. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether this relationship continues beyond development, by studying the link between behaviours in a non-clinical adult population. We examined associations between performance on measures relating to autistic traits and disordered eating. Undergraduate students, equally balanced by gender and by subject studied (i.e. humanity or science), completed three tasks: to measure autistic traits, participants were administered the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Eating disorder symptomatology was measured by the Eating Attitudes Test (Eat-26). Our data revealed a significant positive correlation between scores on the AQ and Eat-26. Multiple linear regressions showed that higher scores on the AQ were particularly associated with higher scores on the Bulimia & Food Preoccupation subscale of the Eat-26. EFT performance was positively related to behaviours associated with autism and eating disorders, although not reliably so. These data support the broader link between autistic traits and disordered eating in the non-clinical population, and demonstrate that it extends into adulthood (a time at which autistic behaviours can decrease). This work carries implications for the development of cognitive therapies for people with eating disorders.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and adult attachment interview (AAI) in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning. Specifically, the group differences for individuals who experienced no ACE (n=42, 33%), those with 1-3 ACEs (n=48, 37.8%), and those with ≥4 ACEs (n=37, 29.1%) revealed a pattern in which increased group ACE exposure was associated with greater lack of resolution for past trauma/loss experiences, more adult traumatic events, and more difficulty disclosing past trauma. Despite ≥4 ACEs, 51.4% of highly exposed individuals were classified as secure in the Adult Attachment Interview. Resilience in this group may be related to a combination of attachment security, college education, and engagement in meaningful activities. Likewise, adversity may actually encourage the cultivation of more social support, goal efficacy, and planning behaviors; factors that augment resilience to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Celiac disease in non-clinical populations of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Mai; Ishimura, Norihisa; Fukuyama, Chika; Izumi, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Nahoko; Araki, Asuka; Oka, Akihiko; Mishiro, Tomoko; Ishihara, Shunji; Maruyama, Riruke; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2018-02-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten ingestion. While its prevalence in Western countries is reported to be as high as 1%, the prevalence has not been evaluated in a large-scale study of a Japanese population. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible presence of celiac disease in a Japanese non-clinical population as well as in patients showing symptoms suggestive of the disease. Serum samples were collected from 2008 non-clinical adults and 47 patients with chronic unexplained abdominal symptoms between April 2014 and June 2016. The anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG) immunoglobulin A antibody titer was determined as a screening test for celiac disease in all subjects, and individuals with a value of >2 U/mL subsequently underwent testing for the presence of serum endomysial IgA antibody (EMA) as confirmation. Those testing positive for EMA or with a high concentration (>10 U/mL) of TTG were further investigated by histopathological examinations of duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens and HLA typing tests. Of the 2008 non-clinical adults from whom serum samples were collected, 161 tested positive for TTG, and all tested negative for EMA. Four subjects who had a high TTG titer were invited to undergo confirmatory testing, and the histopathological results confirmed the presence of celiac disease in only a single case (0.05%). Of the 47 symptomatic patients, one (2.1%) was found to have a high TTG titer and was diagnosed with celiac disease based on duodenal histopathological findings. The presence of celiac disease in a non-clinical Japanese population was low at 0.05% and was rarely found in patients with unexplained chronic abdominal symptoms.

  4. Associations between autistic traits and emotion recognition ability in non-clinical young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between emotion recognition ability and autistic traits in a sample of non-clinical young adults. Two hundred and forty nine individuals took part in an emotion recognition test, which assessed recognition of 12 emotions portrayed by actors. Emotion portrayals were presented as short video clips, both with and without sound, and as sound only. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (ASQ) questionnaire. Results showed that men ...

  5. Relations of the Big-Five personality dimensions to autodestructive behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla Topic, Marina; Perkovic Kovacevic, Marina; Mlacic, Boris

    2012-10-01

    To examine the relationship between the Big-Five personality model and autodestructive behavior symptoms, namely Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression in two groups of participants: clinical and non-clinical adolescents. Two groups of participants, clinical (adolescents with diagnosis of psychiatric disorder based on clinical impression and according to valid diagnostic criteria, N=92) and non-clinical (high-school students, N=87), completed two sets of questionnaires: the Autodestructiveness Scale which provided data on Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which provided data on the Big -Five personality dimensions. Clinical group showed significantly higher values on the Autodestructiveness scale in general, as well as on Suicidal Depression, Aggressiveness, and Borderline subscales than the non-clinical group. Some of the dimensions of the Big-Five personality model, ie, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness showed significant relationship (hierarchical regression analyses, P values for β coefficients from 0.000 to 0.021) with Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, even after controlling for the sex and group effects or, when analyzing Suicidal Depression, after controlling the effect of other subscales. The results indicate that dimensions of the Big-Five model are important when evaluating adolescent psychiatric patients and adolescents from general population at risk of self-destructive behavior.

  6. Relations of the Big-Five personality dimensions to autodestructive behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla Topić, Marina; Perković Kovačević, Marina; Mlačić, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between the Big-Five personality model and autodestructive behavior symptoms, namely Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression in two groups of participants: clinical and non-clinical adolescents. Methods Two groups of participants, clinical (adolescents with diagnosis of psychiatric disorder based on clinical impression and according to valid diagnostic criteria, N = 92) and non-clinical (high-school students, N = 87), completed two sets of questionnaires: the Autodestructiveness Scale which provided data on Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which provided data on the Big -Five personality dimensions. Results Clinical group showed significantly higher values on the Autodestructiveness scale in general, as well as on Suicidal Depression, Aggressiveness, and Borderline subscales than the non-clinical group. Some of the dimensions of the Big-Five personality model, ie, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness showed significant relationship (hierarchical regression analyses, P values for β coefficients from Big-Five model are important when evaluating adolescent psychiatric patients and adolescents from general population at risk of self-destructive behavior. PMID:23100207

  7. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  8. Typology of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults: Psychopathological and personality disorder traits correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-12-30

    Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Khaled

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. Methods This is a systematic review of observational studies. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Scopus, Global Health, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization (WHO regional databases will be searched for eligible prevalence studies published between 2010 and 2016. Data from cross-sectional studies that report the prevalence of NPS use (one or more types in participants (of any age from censuses or probabilistic or convenience samples will be included. Data will be extracted from eligible publications, using a data extraction tool developed for this study. Visual and statistical approaches will be adopted instead of traditional meta-analytic approaches. Discussion This review will describe the distributions of various types of prevalence estimates of NPS use and explore the impact of different population groups and study-related and tempo-geographical variables on characteristics of these distributions over the period of 2010 to 2016. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037020

  10. Efficacy of 8- and 4-Session Mindfulness-Based Interventions in a Non-clinical Population: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Moreno-González, Sergio; Calvo-Carrión, Sandra; Bafaluy-Franch, Laura; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population. Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively). Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed. Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both programmes

  11. Efficacy of 8- and 4-Session Mindfulness-Based Interventions in a Non-clinical Population: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Demarzo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population.Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively. Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed.Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both

  12. The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanmore, Emma; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; de Bruin, Eling D; Firth, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Physically-active video games ('exergames') have recently gained popularity for leisure and entertainment purposes. Using exergames to combine physical activity and cognitively-demanding tasks may offer a novel strategy to improve cognitive functioning. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to establish effects of exergames on overall cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinical and non-clinical populations. We identified 17 eligible RCTs with cognitive outcome data for 926 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses found exergames significantly improved global cognition (g=0.436, 95% CI=0.18-0.69, p=0.001). Significant effects still existed when excluding waitlist-only controlled studies, and when comparing to physical activity interventions. Furthermore, benefits of exergames where observed for both healthy older adults and clinical populations with conditions associated with neurocognitive impairments (all p<0.05). Domain-specific analyses found exergames improved executive functions, attentional processing and visuospatial skills. The findings present the first meta-analytic evidence for effects of exergames on cognition. Future research must establish which patient/treatment factors influence efficacy of exergames, and explore neurobiological mechanisms of action. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resting and reactive frontal brain electrical activity (EEG among a non-clinical sample of socially anxious adults: Does concurrent depressive mood matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott A Beaton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability

  14. Comparing attentional control and intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and non clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention is an important factor in information processing; obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two main emotional disorders with a chronic course. This research examined the relationship among attentional control and intrusive thoughts (worry, rumination and obsession in these disorders. It was hypothesized that attentional control is a common factor in OCD and GAD. In addition, we compared worry, rumination and obsession among OCD, GAD and non- clinical participants.The research sample included three groups: OCD (n = 25, GAD (n = 30 and non- clinical samples (n = 56. Data were collected using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS, Rumination Response Scale (RRS, Pennsylvania State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and MANCOVA by SPSS-17.Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that the OCD and GAD groups reported greater deficits in attentional control, higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms, rumination, worry, anxiety and depression compared to the control group.This research indicated a great attentional deficit in obsessive- compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, no significant difference was found between these two disorders.

  15. Are autistic traits associated with suicidality? A test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in a non-clinical young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, M K; Cassidy, S A

    2017-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1891-1904. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Recent research has shown that people with high autistic traits are more likely to attempt suicide. However, no studies have explored why. We found that people with high autistic traits were more likely to experience feelings that they do not belong in the world, are a burden on others, and depression, which may increase their likelihood of

  16. A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J Mark G; Eelen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for depression (Williams et al., 2007) or depressive reactivity to stressful life-events (e.g., Gibbs & Rude, 2004). Traditionally, a cue word procedure known as the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) is used to assess OGM. Although frequently and validly used in clinical populations, there is evidence suggesting that the AMT is insufficiently sensitive to measure OGM in non-clinical groups. Study 1 evaluated the usefulness of a sentence completion method to assess OGM in non-clinical groups, as an alternative to the AMT. Participants were 197 students who completed the AMT, the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT), a depression measure, and visual analogue scales assessing ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of overgeneral responses was markedly higher for the SCEPT than for the standard AMT. Also, overgeneral responding on the SCEPT was positively associated to depression scores and depressive rumination scores, whereas overgeneral responding on the AMT was not. Results suggest that the SCEPT, relative to the AMT, is a more sensitive instrument to measure OGM, at least in non-clinical populations. Study 2 further showed that this enhanced sensitivity is most likely due to the omission of the instruction to be specific rather than to the SCEPT's sentence completion format (as opposed to free recall to cue words).

  17. Investigating the role of attachment in social comparison theories of eating disorders within a non-clinical female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Bryony; Halliwell, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to integrate attachment theory and sociocultural theory as predictors of disordered eating, thereby combining two previously distinct literatures in order to provide a more comprehensive model of eating disorder development. It was specifically proposed that women's attachment style may influence their tendency to socially compare themselves to idealized others. Participants (N = 213) were non-clinical female undergraduates. Sociocultural attitudes to appearance, social comparison, attachment and eating disorder symptomatology were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Consistent with the hypothesis, social comparison was found to mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and disordered eating. In addition, attachment avoidance, was not significantly associated with either internalisation of cultural ideals or social comparison but was significantly related to eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that attachment anxiety and avoidance influence disordered eating via different pathways, with attachment anxiety specifically being implicated in sociocultural models of disordered eating.

  18. The relationship between early life stress and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum in a non-clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Paul

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Paul1, Lorrie Henry2, Stuart M Grieve3, Thomas J Guilmette2,4, Raymond Niaura4, Richard Bryant5, Steven Bruce1, Leanne M Williams3,6, Clark C Richard7, Ronald A Cohen4, Evian Gordon3,71University of Missouri, St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; 2Providence College, Providence, RI, USA; 3The Brain Resource International Database, The Brain Resource Company, Ultimo, NSW, Australia; 4Brown Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Providence, RI, USA; 5School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 7Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory and School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Previous studies have examined the impact of early life stress (ELS on the gross morphometry of brain regions, including the corpus callosum. However, studies have not examined the relationship between ELS and the microstructural integrity of the brain.Methods: In the present study we evaluated this relationship in healthy non-clinical participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and self-reported history of ELS.Results: Regression analyses revealed significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA within the genu of the corpus callosum among those exposed to the greatest number of early life stressors, suggesting reduced microstructural integrity associated with increased ELS. These effects were most pronounced in the genu of the corpus callosum compared to the body and splenium, and were evident for females rather than males despite no differences in total ELS exposure between the sexes. In addition, a further comparison of those participants who were exposed to no ELS vs. three or more ELS events revealed lower FA in the genu of the corpus callosum among the ELS-exposed group, with trends of FA reduction in the body and the whole corpus callosum. By contrast, there were no relationships between ELS

  19. Childhood trauma is not a confounder of the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits: A study in a non-clinical adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Ya; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-11-01

    Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Correlation analysis showed that the majority of associations between AQ variables and SPQ variables were significant (p autistic and schizotypal traits could not be explained by shared variance in terms of exposure to childhood trauma. The findings point to important overlaps in the conceptualization of ASD and SSD, independent of childhood trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose-response effect between cannabis use and psychosis liability in a non-clinical population: evidence from a snowball sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Barrigón, María Luisa; Hernández, Laureano; Rubio, José Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel; Sarramea, Fernando; Cervilla, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Blanca; James, Anthony; Ferrin, Maite

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations between daily cannabis use and the specific profiles of subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical population obtained through snowball sampling, taking into account alcohol use, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. We included 85 daily cannabis users and 100 non-daily cannabis users. Both the case and the control populations were identified by snowball sampling. Daily cannabis use was associated with more alcohol intake and other drug use, as well as with early onset in the use of cannabis. Daily cannabis use appeared to exert a dose-response effect on first-rank symptoms, mania symptoms and auditory hallucinations, even after adjusting for sex, age, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. The paranoid dimension was only associated with the heaviest consumption of cannabis. Initial age of cannabis use modified the effects of daily cannabis use on the first-rank and voices experiences. Daily cannabis use was associated with significantly more first-rank and voices experiences among those subjects who started to use cannabis before 17 years of age. Our study supports the association of psychotic experiences with cannabis use even among non-psychotic subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Which aspects of non-clinical quality of care are most important? Results from WHO's general population surveys of "health systems responsiveness" in 41 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, Nicole; Darby, Charles; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2008-01-01

    Quality of care research has reached some agreement on concepts like structure, process and outcome, and non-clinical versus clinical processes of care. These concepts are commonly explored through surveys measuring patient experiences, yet few surveys have focused on patient, or "user", priorities

  2. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  3. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  4. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    MH Lotfi; M Shakiba; S Jafary-Nodushan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease an...

  6. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  7. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population. Celestine Okorome Mume*. Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun. State, Nigeria. Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities.

  8. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Lotfi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease and there might also be an association between a low habitual fluid intake and some carcinomas,cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many indices have been investigated to establish their role as markers of dehydration status. Body mass changes,blood indices,urine indices and bioelectrical impedance analysis have been used most widely, but current evidence and opinion tend to favour urine indices as the most convenient and sensitive methods. Methods: This cross sectional study was done for estimating the prevalence of dehydration in adult population(students,nurses,officials,workersin Yazd. These persons were selected randomly. Urine samples of two hundred and thirty persons were obtained at 10-12 AM,and urine specific gravity measured by refractometer (all of the samplesand dip stick (some samples. Finding: According to this study,96.7% of our population had some degree of dehydration.69.7% of them were significantly dehydrated(urine SG>1020 and 4.8% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1030 and the mean specific gravity was 1021±5/65. This study evaluated other factors that could probably indicate hydration status like urine colour, type of drink,frequency of urination and frequency of thirst per day. Conclusion: High percentage of our population were dehydrated which was not correlated to the type of drink but was correlated to urine colour, frequency of urination and frequency of thirst. So, regular monitoring of urine to keep if clear or light

  9. Nutritional assessment of Esmeraldan adult population (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia MATEOS-MARCOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyse the nutritional status of the adult population in Esmeraldas by means of anthropometric measurements, the input of macro and micronutrients in the diet, and the adequacy estimation of nutrient intake by hispanic Dietary Reference Instakes along with the sex and the age influence. Methods Nutrient intake data were obtained by personal interview with the application of two 24 hour recalls (weekend and weekday. The anthropometric indicators analysed were body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Nutriplato version 2.0 software was used for the two 24-hours food recall surveys data processing, and for the respective calculations of macronutrients, micronutrients and Dietary Reference Intakes. Means and standard deviations were calculated for anthropometry, nutrient intakes and Dietary Reference Instakes. The General Linear Model was applied to identify differences in relation to nutrient intakes considering sex, profession, body mass index, group, origin and day of the week as factors. Results Statistical analysis showed significant differences mainly in carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, iodine, and vitamin E. Dietary intakes were compared with the Federación Española de Sociedades de Nutrición, Alimentación y Dietética Dietary Reference Intakes requirements and calcium, potassium, iodine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin D, vitamin E, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are below the Dietary Reference Instakes in all ages and gender subgroups. The anthropometric results obtained indicated that 67.0% of the population were overweight and obese, the 87.7% of the adults suffered from prehypertension and the waist circumference indicated that 73.0% of the subjects were established in the range of high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Priority nutrition actions and interventions are needed to be developed in Esmeraldas adult

  10. Smokeless tobacco use in adult Nigerian population | Desalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aim was to establish the prevalence and determinants of smokeless tobacco use in Nigerian adults' population. Across-sectional survey of 1776 adults inYola, North-East Nigeria was carried out in June 2007.A modified World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco survey questionnaire was used for interview and ...

  11. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  12. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  13. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Abrol, Raman; Nehru, Vikas I.; Venkatramana, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Ver...

  14. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, R; Nehru, V I; Venkatramana, Y

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Vertigo secondary to cardiovascular disease was most common and prevalent in 0.32% of population. Neurologic disease accounted for vertigo in 0.14%, metabolic disease in 0.09% and otologic disease 0.08%. Miscellaneous disorders were present in remaining 0.08% of population studied. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first population based survey of prevalence of various causes of vertigo in general community in adult rural population.

  15. Emotion Recognition and Social/Role Dysfunction in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Orr, Joseph M.; Gupta, Tina; Millman, Zachary B.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    As researchers continue to understand non-clinical psychosis (NCP- brief psychotic-like experiences occurring in 5–7% of the general population; van Os et al., 2009), it is becoming evident that functioning deficits and facial emotion recognition (FER) impairment characterize this phenomenon. However, the extent to which these domains are related remains unclear. Social/role functioning and FER were assessed in 65 adolescents/young adults exhibiting Low and High-NCP. Results indicate that FER and social/role functioning deficits were present in the High-NCP group, and that the domains were associated in this group alone. Taken together, findings suggest that a core emotive deficit is tied to broader social/role dysfunction in NCP. PMID:23182437

  16. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  17. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  18. Obsessive-Compulsive Tendencies, Self/Other Perception, Personality, and Suicidal Ideation in a Non-clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Cassarà, Luisa; Giacolini, Teodosio; Sabatello, Ugo; Candilera, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Research on the risk factors for SI in adults with OC tendencies is limited, and it is still unclear whether the association between OC tendencies and SI in non-clinical individuals exists. The goal of the present study was to test the associations between OC tendencies, self/other perception, personality traits, depressive symptoms and SI among a non-clinical adult population. We investigated an Italian sample of 337 adults, who were administered a set of self-report questionnaires to assess obsessive-compulsive tendencies, depression, self/other perception, personality traits, and hopelessness. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed. In the final model we found that personality, obsessive-compulsive factor and suicidal ideation were significantly correlated with each other: personality correlated negatively with obsessive-compulsive factor and suicidal ideation, while obsessive-compulsive factor and suicidal ideation resulted as strongly positively associated. Our results highlight the importance of assessing OC tendencies, negative self/other perception and SI. Understanding their role and interplay will allow for the development and implementation of more advanced prevention and treatment policies.

  19. Orthodontic treatment need in a Spanish young adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  1. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  2. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  3. Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, A Y M; Denzel, A D; Scherder, E J A; Masthoff, E D M

    2017-10-01

    Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate of the risk of offence recidivism. It requires a short assessment instrument that provides a reliable estimation of a person's intellectual functioning at the earliest possible stage of this process. The aim of this systematic review is (a) to provide an overview of recent short assessment instruments that provide a full-scale IQ score in adult prison populations and (b) to achieve a quality measurement of the validation studies regarding these instruments to determine which tests are most feasible in this target population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement is used to ensure reliability. The Satz-Mögel, an item-reduction short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows the highest correlation with the golden standard and is described to be most reliable. Nevertheless, when it comes to applicability in prison populations, the shorter and less verbal Quick Test can be preferred over others. Without affecting these conclusions, major limitations emerge from the present systematic review, which give rise to several important recommendations for further research.

  4. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  5. [Osteoarthritis in the adult population of the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaeva, M G

    2015-01-01

    To analyze overall and new-onset osteoarthritis (OA) morbidity among the adult population in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2011-2012. The data of annual statistical reports "On Population Health and Public Health System" (Form No. 12) in 2011-2012 were analyzed. The indicators in the Republic of Kazakhstan were taken from the statistical collected articles "Population Health in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Activities of Healthcare Facilities". A comparative analysis of the indicators revealed a rising trend in overall morbidity by 1%, including in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) by 3% (the increase rate per 100,000 population was 2%). An analysis of the incidence of MSD per 100,000 population in some regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan showed an upward trend in the Almaty Region: the incidence increased among the women and the 18 or more year olds by 23 and 16%, respectively. Among the adults (aged 18 years or older) and women, the number of patients with a newly diagnosed coxarthrosis (CA) increased by 43 and 18%, respectively; the number of those with gonarthrosis (GA) rose by 36 and 33%, respectively. The people older than 60 years of age and women showed 122 and 82% rises in the number of patients with a newly diagnosed CA; there were 78% increment rates in the patients with GA and 68% in the women. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, there was a high incidence of OA in both the people aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed CA, GA and the people over 60 years of age, in women in particular.

  6. Non-clinical development of CER-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaras, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most pressing healthcare issue for the developed world and is becoming so for developing countries. There are no currently approved therapies that can rapidly reduce the burden of unstable, inflamed plaque in the overall coronary vascular bed. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has multiple actions that could lead to plaque stabilization, such as rapid removal of large quantities of cholesterol from the vasculature through the process of reverse lipid transport, improvement in endothelial function, protection against oxidative damage, and reduction in inflammation. Short-term infusion of HDL-mimetics in animal models as well as in humans has shown promising effects on the plaque size and morphology. Cerenis Therapeutics has developed CER-001, a negatively charged lipoprotein complex consisting of phospholipid and recombinant human apoA-I that mimics the structure and function of natural HDL. Three clinical trials using CER-001 infusions have demonstrated improvements in the carotid wall thickness of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and in patients with hypo-alphalipoproteinaemia, as well as an impact on coronary plaque burden measured by intravascular ultrasonography at the lowest tested dose (3 mg/kg) in post-ACS patients. Here, we reviewed the non-clinical data leading to the demonstration that CER-001 is a full HDL mimetic.

  7. Prediction equation of resting energy expenditure in an adult Spanish population of obese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Romero, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of the equations to estimate REE in obese patents and develop a new equation in our obese population. A population of 200 obesity outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. The following variables were specifically recorded: age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. Basal glucose, insulin, and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) were measured. An indirect calorimetry and a tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance were performed. REE measured by indirect calorimetry was compared with REE obtained by prediction equations to obese or nonobese patients. The mean age was 44.8 +/- 16.81 years and the mean BMI 34.4 +/- 5.3. Indirect calorimetry showed that, as compared to women, men had higher resting energy expenditure (REE) (1,998.1 +/- 432 vs. 1,663.9 +/- 349 kcal/day; p consumption (284.6 +/- 67.7 vs. 238.6 +/- 54.3 ml/min; p predicted by prediction equations showed the next data; Berstein's equation (r = 0.65; p prediction equation was REE = 58.6 + (6.1 x weight (kg)) + (1,023.7 x height (m)) - (9.5 x age). The female model was REE = 1,272.5 + (9.8 x weight (kg)) - (61.6 x height (m)) - (8.2 x age). Our prediction equations showed a nonsignificant difference with REE measured (-3.7 kcal/day) with a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.67; p prediction equations overestimated and underestimated REE measured. WHO equation developed in normal weight individuals provided the closest values. The two new equations (male and female equations) developed in our study had a good accuracy. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  9. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Suseela, B.; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  10. Depression in an older adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sati P; Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-10-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more

  11. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  12. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  15. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  16. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  17. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  18. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  20. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

  1. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456

  2. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  3. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  4. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  5. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, S; Nordhus, I H; Nielsen, G H; Havik, O E; Kvale, G; Johnsen, B H; Skjøtskift, S

    2001-11-01

    A representative adult sample (18 years and above) of the Norwegian population, comprising 2001 subjects, participated in telephone interviews, focusing on the one-month point prevalence of insomnia and use of prescribed hypnotics. Employment of DSM-IV inclusion criteria of insomnia yielded a prevalence rate of 11.7%. Logistic regression analysis performed on the different insomnia symptoms revealed that somatic and psychiatric health were the strongest predictors of insomnia, whereas gender, age, and socioeconomic status showed a more inconsistent relationship. Use of prescribed hypnotic drugs was reported by 6.9% and was related to being female, elderly, and having somatic and emotional problems. Sleep onset problems and daytime impairment were more common during winter compared to summer. Use of hypnotics was more common in the southern (rather than the northern) regions of Norway. For sleep onset problems a Season x Region interaction was found, indicating that the prevalence of sleep onset problems increased in southern Norway from summer to winter, while the opposite pattern was found in the northern regions. The importance of clinically adequate criteria and seasonal variation in the evaluation of insomnia is briefly discussed.

  6. Factors related to food involvement in the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de ALENCAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.

  7. Adult Mouse Liver Contains Two Distinct Populations of Cholangiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biliary system plays an important role in several acquired and genetic disorders of the liver. We have previously shown that biliary duct epithelium contains cells giving rise to proliferative Lgr5+ organoids in vitro. However, it remained unknown whether all biliary cells or only a specific subset had this clonogenic activity. The cell surface protease ST14 was identified as a positive marker for the clonogenic subset of cholangiocytes and was used to separate clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Only ST14hi duct cells had the ability to generate organoids that could be serially passaged. The gene expression profiles of clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells were similar, but several hundred genes were differentially expressed. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that clonogenic duct cells are interspersed among regular biliary epithelium at a ∼1:3 ratio. We conclude that adult murine cholangiocytes can be subdivided into two populations differing in their proliferative capacity.

  8. Clinical spectrum of thrombocytopenia in adult population of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Z.; Alam, M.; Mubarik, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiology and clinical features of patients presenting with bleeding due to thrombocytopenia. Design: A cross sectional study. Place and duration of study:.Th study was carries out at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi during the period form 1994-1996. Subjects and Methods: A total of 500 consecutive patients of 15 years or more age with a platelet count of less than 150 x 10/sup 9/L were included in the study. Complete blood count including platelets count was carried out by using electronic counter model T-890 for each patient. Very low platelet count was also confirmed by manual method. Results: among 500 patients of thrombocytopenia the commonest cause was malaria consisting of 216 (43.2%) cases. Megaloblastic anemia was the leading hematological cause, comprising of 31 (6.2%) patients. Other miscellaneous causes like dengue hemorrhagic fever, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura aplastic anemia and leukemias were responsible for the rest of cases of thrombocytopenia. Epistaxis followed by gum bleeding was the leading clinical manifestation. Conclusion: We conclude that malaria and viral infections are common causes of transient ghtombocytopenia. Epistaxis and gum bleeding are the leading clinical manifestations in various disease processes in adult population. (author)

  9. A Study Of Prevalence Of Obesity In Adult Punjabi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Goyal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally with more than 1 billion overweight, Atleast 300 million of them are clinically obese and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (1. Long considered a buy product of modern life in rich, developed contries, obesity is spreading to developing contries as well. Two critical factors that have influenced this explosion are changes in dietary patterns and levels of physical activity. The latest list of morbidity associated with obesity includes about forty diseases. Though, prevalence of co-morbidities of obesity is quite high among adults in India yet there are relatively less reliable and representative data available. Hence, this study was carried out. Material & Methods : It was a community based, cross sectional study conducted in field practice areas at Rural Health Centre (RHC, Pohir and Urban Health Centre (UHC, Kirti Nagar attached to the department of Community Medicine, DMC & Hospital Ludhiana. Field practice area of RHC is composed of 10 villages serving a total population of 20,450. The Urban health Centre covers ten colonies having a total populaation of 20.645.

  10. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  12. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)

    2007-07-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  13. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults.

  14. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. Methods: The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at

  16. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  17. Cognitive performance in both clinical and non-clinical burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Maes, J.H.R.; Linden, D. van der; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about cognitive performance in burnout. The aim of the present study was to further our knowledge on this topic by examining, in one study, cognitive performance in both clinical and non-clinical burnout while focusing on three interrelated aspects of cognitive

  18. Death Anxiety in Clinical and Non-Clinical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2005-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was administered, individually, to 7 groups (N=765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, and patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally matched as groups according to age, occupation, and education. The…

  19. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Iowa Gambling Task with non-clinical participants: Effects of using real + virtual cards and additional trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Overman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in clinical populations can be interpreted only in relation to established base line performance in normal populations. As in all comparisons of assessment tools, the normal base line must reflect performance under conditions in which subjects can function at their best levels. In this review, we show that a number of variables enhance IGT performance in non-clinical participants. First, optimal performance is produced by having participants turn over real cards while viewing virtual cards on a computer screen. The use of only virtual cards results in significantly lower performance than the combination of real + virtual cards. Secondly, administration of more than 100 trials also enhances performance. When using the real/virtual card procedure, performance is shown to significantly increase from early adolescence through young adulthood. Under these conditions young (mean age 19 years and older (mean age 59 years adults perform equally. Females, as a group, score lower than males because females tend to choose cards from high-frequency-of-gain Deck B. Groups of females with high or low gonadal hormones perform equally. Concurrent tasks, e.g., presentation of aromas, decrease performance in males. Age and gender effects are discussed in terms of a dynamic between testosterone and orbital prefrontal cortex.

  1. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  2. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  3. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals: Non-clinical and clinical safety signals and non-clinical testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Enni-Kaisa; Palomäki, Tiina; Pasanen, Markku

    2017-11-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers are oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals with a promising role in targeted therapies. Currently, five oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals have achieved marketing authorization in Europe or USA and many more are undergoing clinical testing. However, several safety concerns have been raised in non-clinical and clinical studies. Oligonucleotides share properties with both chemical and biological pharmaceuticals and therefore they pose challenges also from the regulatory point of view. We have analyzed the safety data of oligonucleotides and evaluated the applicability of current non-clinical toxicological guidelines for assessing the safety of oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals display a similar toxicological profile, exerting adverse effects on liver and kidney, evoking hematological alterations, as well as causing immunostimulation and prolonging the coagulation time. It is possible to extrapolate some of these effects from non-clinical studies to humans. However, evaluation strategies for genotoxicity testing of "non-natural" oligonucleotides should be revised. Additionally, the selective use of surrogates and prediction of clinical endpoints for non-clinically observed immunostimulation is complicated by its multiple potential manifestations, demanding improvements in the testing strategies. Utilizing more relevant and mechanistic-based approaches and taking better account of species differences, could possibly improve the prediction of relevant immunological/proinflammatory effects in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours in the adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, R.I.; Williams, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare in adults. This review will evaluate a single centre's experience with this malignancy. The medulloblastoma - primitive neuroectodermal tumour database was evaluated for all patients aged more than 18 years who were referred for management. Relevant information from the database was abstracted to provide a descriptive record of this malignancy. Between 1977-2004 there were 11 patients referred, 1 with persistent disease and 10 were eligible, presenting with initial diagnosis. There was increased intracranial pressure in 50% of patients. Most patients had symptoms >3 months, with three having symptoms 1-3 months before diagnosis and one patient having thoracic dural metastases at presentation. Complete resection was recorded in four patients and six had 50-90% resection. All patients completed craniospinal radiotherapy (35-36 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) barring one patient, who died of surgical complications during his radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was given in five of the nine patients postradiotherapy. There were two posterior fossa recurrences, with associated supratentorial and extra central nervous system disease. Of the 10 primary patients 7 are alive with no evidence of diease, 2 died because of disease, with 1 intercurrent death. One patient developed a second malignancy. The outcome for adults matches that of the more common paediatric patients. Radiotherapy could control local disease even where complete resection was not achieved.

  5. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Trends in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population, United States - 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Emma L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Shouse, R Luke; Weiser, John

    2018-06-01

    Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16.2-17.4) in 2014. HIV-positive adults in care were significantly more likely to be current smokers compared with the general U.S. population; they were also less likely to quit smoking. For both HIV-positive adults in care and the general population, disparities were noted by racial/ethnic, educational level, and poverty-level subgroups. For most years, non-Hispanic blacks, those with less than high school education, and those living below poverty level were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-Hispanic whites, those with greater than high school education, and those living above poverty level, respectively. To decrease smoking-related causes of illness and death and to decrease HIV-related disparities, smoking cessation interventions are vital as part of routine care with HIV-positive persons. Clinicians who care for HIV-positive persons who smoke should utilize opportunities to discuss and implement smoking cessation strategies during routine clinical visits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Investigating antibiotic resistance in non-clinical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eWalsh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been many calls for more information about the natural resistome and these have also highlighted the importance of understanding the soil resistome in the preservation of antibiotics for the treatment of infections. However, to date there have been few studies which have investigated the culturable soil resistome, which highlights the difficulties faced by microbiologists in designing these experiments to produce meaningful data. The World Health Organization definition of resistance is the most fitting to non-clinical environmental studies: Antimicrobial resistance is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. The ideal investigation of non-clinical environments for antibiotic resistance of clinical relevance would be using standardized guidelines and breakpoints. This review outlines different definitions and methodologies used to understand antibiotic resistance and suggests how this can be performed outside of the clinical environment.

  8. A Survey of the Non-clinical Benefits of EBVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hauser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to add non-clinical benefits to the virtues for adopting Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM. The objective is to quantify the commercial benefits of EBVM through an online survey of veterinary professionals, giving clear indications of the key areas of non-clinical benefits of EBVM. Further, the study aims to outline barriers to the wider implementation of EBVM and find preferred ways of overcoming those barriers.Background: A PICO-based literature review (Hauser and Jackson, 2016 found that while there are some papers suggesting a link between the practice of EBVM and better non-clinical benefits such as client satisfaction, a single study, focusing on the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, had yet to be conducted. This study builds on the findings of an exploratory study (Jackson and Hauser, 2017 outlining key areas of non-clinical benefits of EBVM: increased client satisfaction and retention, improved reputation, confidence, as well as employee engagement.Evidentiary value: This online survey of veterinary professionals (n=407 provides evidence for practitioners, universities and other veterinary staff regarding the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, the barriers to a wider adoption of the practice and ways of overcoming those barriers.Methods: The online survey of veterinary professionals was conducted during September – October 2016 and contained 23 questions. Survey participation was voluntary and the data used for analysis were de-identified.Results: The survey responses of 407 veterinary professionals provide quantitative evidence of how EBVM is put into practice, how EBVM is perceived to impact client behaviour and employee engagement, what the barriers are to practising EBVM and how these could be overcome. Key findings are that veterinary professionals are more likely to practise EBVM if they have been taught how to do so at vet school. EBVM is a way to provide value to and build trust with clients. Survey

  9. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht,...

  10. Periodontal Reasons for Tooth Extraction in Adult Population in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of permanent teeth extracted due to periodontal disease and its relation to several aspects such as age, gender and type of extracted teeth due to periodontal and non-periodontal reasons, among patients attending a private practice. Material and Methods: Study population consisted of 600 patients, 270 males and 330 females, aged 18 to 74 years from a private practice in Greece. The reasons for extractions of teeth in the sample for ...

  11. MedAustron – Non-Clinical Research Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, T.

    2013-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based light-ion beam therapy centre for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research, currently in the construction phase in Wiener Neustadt. Whilst the choice of basic machine parameters was driven by medical requirements, the accelerator complex design was also optimised to offer flexibility for research operation. The potential of the synchrotron is being exploited to increase the maximum proton energy far beyond the medical needs to up to 800 MeV, for experimental physics applications, mainly in the areas of proton scattering and detector research. The accelerator layout allows for the installation of up to four ion source-spectrometer units, to provide various ion types besides the clinical used protons and carbon ions. To decouple research and medical operation, a dedicated irradiation room for non-clinical research was included providing two isocentres for the installation of different experiments. This presentation provides a status overview over the whole project and highlights the non-clinical research opportunities at MedAustron. (author)

  12. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  14. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  16. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the general 40- to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, Iran. Population-based cross-sectional study. Through cluster sampling, 6311 people were selected and 5190 participated. Assessment of dry eye was done in a random subsample of 1008 people. Subjective assessment for dry eye syndrome was performed using Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. In addition, the following objective tests of dry eye syndrome were employed: Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining using the Oxford grading scheme. Those with an Ocular Surface Disease Index score ≥23 were considered symptomatic, and dry eye syndrome was defined as having symptoms and at least one positive objective sign. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 6.9-10.6). Assessment of signs showed an abnormal Schirmer score in 17.8% (95% confidence interval 15.5-20.0), tear break-up time in 34.2% (95% confidence interval 29.5-38.8), corneal fluorescein staining (≥1) in 11.3% (95% confidence interval 8.5-14.1) and Rose Bengal staining (≥3 for cornea and/or conjunctiva) in 4.9% (95% confidence interval 3.4-6.5). According to the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, 18.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9-20.6) had dry eye syndrome symptoms. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was significantly higher in women (P = 0.010) and not significantly associated with age (P = 0.291). The objective dry eye syndrome signs significantly increased with age. Based on the findings, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in the studied population is in the mid-range. The prevalence is higher in women. Also, objective tests tend to turn abnormal at higher age. Pterygium is associated with dry eye syndrome and increased its symptoms. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level...

  18. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  19. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori; Belsky, J.L.; Pastore, J.O.

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  20. Multidimensional clinical phenotyping of an adult cystic fibrosis patient population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Conrad

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease.The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier.Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1 a low lung health scores phenotype, 2 a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3 various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency.This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study.

  1. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  2. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  3. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  4. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R; Henry, Julie D

    2003-06-01

    To provide UK normative data for the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and test its convergent, discriminant and construct validity. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,771) in terms of demographic variables. Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS were derived from theoretical and empirical sources and evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables on DASS scores. The convergent and discriminant validity of the measure was examined through correlating the measure with two other measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the sAD), and a measure of positive and negative affectivity (the PANAS). The best fitting model (CFI =.93) of the latent structure of the DASS consisted of three correlated factors corresponding to the depression, anxiety and stress scales with correlated error permitted between items comprising the DASS subscales. Demographic variables had only very modest influences on DASS scores. The reliability of the DASS was excellent, and the measure possessed adequate convergent and discriminant validity Conclusions: The DASS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess. The utility of this measure for UK clinicians is enhanced by the provision of large sample normative data.

  5. Incidence of endocrine disorders in Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.

  6. A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Brief Online Mindfulness-Based Intervention on Paranoia in a Non-Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Robert; Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Hayward, Mark; Ellett, Lyn

    2018-01-01

    Paranoia is common and distressing in the general population and can impact on health, emotional well-being and social functioning, such that effective interventions are needed. Brief online mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical samples; however, at present, there is no research investigating whether they can reduce paranoia. The current study explored whether a brief online MBI increased levels of mindfulness and reduced levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. The mediating effect of mindfulness on any changes in paranoia was also investigated. One hundred and ten participants were randomly allocated to either a 2-week online MBI including 10 min of daily guided mindfulness practice or to a waitlist control condition. Measures of mindfulness and paranoia were administered at baseline, post-intervention and 1-week follow-up. Participants in the MBI group displayed significantly greater reductions in paranoia compared to the waitlist control group. Mediation analysis demonstrated that change in mindfulness skills (specifically the observe, describe and non-react facets of the FFMQ) mediated the relationship between intervention type and change in levels of paranoia. This study provides evidence that a brief online MBI can significantly reduce levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. Furthermore, increases in mindfulness skills from this brief online MBI can mediate reductions in non-clinical paranoia. The limitations of the study are discussed.

  7. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  8. Components of the metabolic syndrome differ between young and old adults in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew D; Sardi, Gabriel L; Reed, James F

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is high in the United States and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The authors examined whether the prevalence of the MetS and its components differs across age groups. Data were analyzed from 4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between the years 1999 and 2006. Prevalence of MetS as defined by the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria and prevalence of associated cardiac risk factors were determined in 41,474 participants aged 18 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All estimates were weighted. Prevalence of MetS among asymptomatic adults without CVD was 20.5% and remained stable for the total population during survey periods. Prevalence of MetS increased with age: 6.6% in young adults (age 18-29 years) and 34.6% in older adults (70 and older). Components of MetS differed between young and old adults. Young adults had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less glucose intolerance, and less hypertension. This study provides an estimate of MetS prevalence in asymptomatic adults in the United States during an 8-year period revealing that MetS affects a large number of Americans. Components of MetS differ between young and old adults and may have important implications in their clinical management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jian

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the

  10. Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gu Yoon

    Full Text Available Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.

  11. Population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults in Toronto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agron Plevneshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs. METHODS: We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in homeless adults in Toronto, a Canadian city with a total population of 2.5 M, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006. RESULTS: We identified 69 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease and 27 cases of laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in an estimated population of 5050 homeless adults. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults was 273 infections per 100,000 persons per year, compared to 9 per 100,000 persons per year in the general adult population. Homeless persons with invasive pneumococcal disease were younger than other adults (median age 46 years vs 67 years, P<.001, and more likely than other adults to be smokers (95% vs. 31%, P<.001, to abuse alcohol (62% vs 15%, P<.001, and to use intravenous drugs (42% vs 4%, P<.001. Relative to age matched controls, they were more likely to have underlying lung disease (12/69, 17% vs 17/272, 6%, P = .006, but not more likely to be HIV infected (17/69, 25% vs 58/282, 21%, P = .73. The proportion of patients with recurrent disease was five fold higher for homeless than other adults (7/58, 12% vs. 24/943, 2.5%, P<.001. In homeless adults, 28 (32% of pneumococcal isolates were of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, 42 (48% of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, and 72 (83% of serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Although no outbreaks of disease were identified in shelters, there was evidence of clustering of serotypes suggestive of transmission of pathogenic strains within the homeless population. CONCLUSIONS: Homeless persons are at high risk of serious pneumococcal infection. Vaccination, physical structure changes

  12. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  13. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  14. Effects of age and gender in quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in a control adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)

  15. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low

  16. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  17. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...

  18. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Sluik, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in

  19. Objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were

  20. APPEALING OF ADULT POPULATION TO TERRITORIAL DENTAL POLYCLINIC AND DEMAND FOR MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Иванович Бабенко

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion. The presented information and analytical technology of the use of the personalized database of territorial dental polyclinic has allowed revealing not only the nature of appealing of adult population for the dental care, but also defining the demand for dental technologies of the general, therapeutic and surgical profiles, establishing the significance of separate types of technologies in quantitative expression.

  1. Problematic internet use and psychiatric co-morbidity in a population of Japanese adult psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Hille T; Nakamae, Takashi; Fukui, Kenji; Denys, D.; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate

  2. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Sofia; Wang, Chengwei; Qu, Wenchun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations.

  3. Problematic Video Game Play and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.

  4. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Comorbidities in adults with asthma: Population-based cross-sectional analysis of 1.4 million adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherburn, C J; Guthrie, B; Mercer, S W; Morales, D R

    2017-10-01

    Comorbidity in people with asthma can significantly increase asthma morbidity and lower adherence to asthma guidelines. The objective of this study was to comprehensively measure the prevalence of physical and mental health comorbidities in adults with asthma using a large nationally representative population. Cross-sectional analysis of routine primary care electronic medical records for 1 424 378 adults in the UK, examining the prevalence of 39 comorbidities in people with and without asthma, before and after adjustment for age, sex, social deprivation and smoking status using logistic regression. Of 39 comorbidities measured, 36 (92%) were significantly more common in adults with asthma; 62.6% of adults with asthma had ≥1 comorbidity vs 46.2% of those without, and 16.3% had ≥4 comorbidities vs 8.7% of those without. Comorbidities with the largest absolute increase in prevalence in adults with asthma were as follows: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (13.4% vs 3.1%), depression (17.3% vs 9.1%), painful conditions (15.4% vs 8.4%) and dyspepsia (10.9% vs 5.2%). Comorbidities with the largest relative difference in adults with asthma compared to those without were as follows: COPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.65, 95% CI 5.52-5.79), bronchiectasis (aOR 4.65, 95% CI 4.26-5.08), eczema/psoriasis (aOR 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.48), dyspepsia (aOR 2.20, 95% CI 2.15-2.25) and chronic sinusitis (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.99-2.26). Depression and anxiety were more common in adults with asthma (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.57-1.63, and aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.57, respectively). Physical and mental health comorbidities are the norm in adults with asthma. Appropriate recognition and management should form part of routine asthma care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  7. The role of mental imagery in non-clinical paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Gemma; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive models of paranoia incorporate many of the processes implicated in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Despite this, the role of mental imagery in paranoia remains under-researched. The current study examined the impact of a self-imagery manipulation in people with high non-clinical paranoia. We used a mixed design with one between-subjects variable (type of self-imagery) and one within-subjects variable (time--pre and post imagery manipulation). Thirty participants with high trait paranoia were allocated alternately to a positive or negative self-imagery condition. Scripts were used to elicit positive and negative self-imagery. All participants completed self-report state measures of paranoia, mood, self-esteem and self-compassion. Group by time interaction effects were found for each of the dependent variables. Positive imagery led to less state paranoia, anxiety and negative affect, and more positive affect, self-esteem and self-compassion, compared with the negative imagery group. This was a non-blind study, limited by allocation method and a brief time-frame which did not allow us to assess longevity of effects. We recruited a relatively small and predominantly female sample of people with high non-clinical paranoia. The study did not include a neutral control condition, a low paranoia comparison group, or a manipulation check following the imagery task. Self-imagery manipulations may affect paranoia, mood and self-beliefs. If the findings are replicated with clinical groups, and maintained over a longer period, this would suggest that imagery-based interventions targeting persecutory delusions might be usefully examined. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; Crawford, John R

    2005-06-01

    To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

  9. Quantitative thoracic CT techniques in adults: can they be applied in the pediatric population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    With the rapid evolution of the multidetector row CT technique, quantitative CT has started to be used in clinical studies for revealing a heterogeneous entity of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is caused by a combination of lung parenchymal destruction and remodeling of the small airways in adults. There is growing evidence of a good correlation between quantitative CT findings and pathological findings, pulmonary function test results and other clinical parameters. This article provides an overview of current quantitative thoracic CT techniques used in adults, and how to translate these CT techniques to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  10. Modelling population effects of juvenile offshore fish displacement towards adult habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Wolfshaar, K.E.; Tulp, I.; Wennhage, H.

    2015-01-01

    consequences on population dynamics through changes in resource use and competition. To explore this, a conceptual stage-structured model was developed with 3 stages and 2 resources and allowing a move of large juveniles from the shallow to the deep habitat. Large juveniles compete with small juveniles...... in shallow waters and with adults in deeper waters. Alternative stable states occur, with one state dominated by small juvenile biomass and the other dominated by adult biomass. The model results show for both states that while large juvenile biomass responds to a change in time spent in the deep habitat...

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population. Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs. Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  13. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Rubinstein,1 Chengwei Wang,1 Wenchun Qu2 1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. Materials and methods: This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. Results: After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. Conclusion: This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations. Keywords: CKD, risk factors, occupations

  14. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  15. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  16. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  17. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  18. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  19. Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.

  20. Assessment of the use in adults of four vaccines: a population survey in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vizzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for disease prevention. Argentina initiated the transition from child vaccination to family vaccination through the incorporation of an adult schedule. One of the difficulties with this last group is to assess the percentage of use (PU of the vaccines. With the aim of determining the PU of adult vaccines in Argentina, a vaccination module was included in the National Survey of Risk Factors carried out in 2013 by the National Ministry of Health. The sampling had a stratified multistage design. A total of 32 365 people = 18 year-old were surveyed about the use of four vaccines included in the National Vaccination Calendar: hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcus. The entire population was surveyed for tetanus and hepatitis B while certain groups at risk were evaluated for influenza and pneumococcus, according to current recommendations. PU varied according to the vaccine analyzed: tetanus 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% and pneumococcus 16.2%. The main information sources on adult vaccination were media (television, internet, etc. followed by health personnel (70.8% and 27.9%, respectively. The survey is a suitable tool to assess the use of vaccines by adults, identify low coverage populations, and to plan and implement strategies to improve coverage

  1. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  2. Gender Dependence in Mouth Opening Dimensions in Normal Adult Malaysians Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shaari, Ramizu; Hwa, Teoh Eng; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2011-01-01

    While measurement of mouth opening is an important clinica examination in diagnosis and management of oral disease, data on non-Western populations are limited. This study was therefore conducted to determine the range of mouth opening in normal Malaysian male and female adults. A total of 34 dental students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were chosen randomly and their maximum mouth opening was measured after being asked to open their mouth sufficiently to accommodate three fingers. Measu...

  3. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS), round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines ...

  4. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  5. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: The Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in an Urban Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Prpic, Milica; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered. The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of 360 adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (77.1%) answered correctly that cancer was indicative of medical cannabis treatment, while the remaining conditions were less frequently recognized. A total of 42% answered correctly that adverse effects of cannabis were hallucinations and dizziness. Persons who previously used cannabis were more knowledgeable on conditions for medical cannabis treatment (ρ = 0.155; p = 0.006). Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis (median 5 out of 5) and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis (median 2 out of 5). In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

  6. Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Christian; Höhn, René; Kottler, Ulrike; Wild, Philipp; Blettner, Maria; Bühren, Jens; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent. Population-based eye study in Germany with 15010 participants aged 35-74 years. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery. 13959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia increased with age. 3.5% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia. Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia.

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  8. Relation of serum γ-glutamyl transferase activity with copper in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, You-Fan; Wang, Chun-Fang; Pan, Guo-Gang

    2017-10-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GGT) activity and serum copper in an adult population. We analyzed 281 adult subjects who regularly attended the physical examination center at the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities. The demographic and laboratory data of the participants were divided into two groups according to the median of serum γ-GGT activity. Serum copper concentrations in individuals with higher γ-GGT levels were significantly increased compared with those with lower γ-GGT concentrations (9.9±2.41 vs. 11.2±3.36 μmol/L, pcopper in all eligible subjects (r=0.198, p=0.001). Further, serum γ-GGT maintained a positive correlation with serum copper in both males and females (r=0.322, pcopper after adjusting for multiple potential confounders (b=0.464, p=0.001). This study suggests that serum γ-GGT activity is correlated with copper in the study population, indicating that serum γ-GGT may be a biomarker to evaluate serum copper levels in an adult population.

  9. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebar, Alexandra; Koller, Christiane; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Chabicovsky, Monika; Bodenteich, Angelika; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded) iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  10. Improving retention and motivation in non-clinical dialysis employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne

    2004-02-01

    For no additional expense, little intrusion into the schedule or duties of the day, and no additional personnel to hire, dialysis facilities can make a dramatic impact on the training, motivation, and retention of employees through the use of classes designed specifically for the needs of newly employed non-clinical personnel. In today's world where many are expected to do a task with little or no orientation to the overall values and goals of the organization and how their tasks matter, what other action can accomplish so much for employee motivation and retention for so little time and expense? At DCI Mid-Missouri this program has been successful in retaining many excellent employees over many years and has been part of an ongoing effort to increase employees' interest and commitment to their work and the organization. It has also made them much more aware of treatments, other personnel and most of all, of our patients and their needs. It fulfills the needs of humans to be valued and have meaningful work. It contains costs and helps efficiency and productivity. Most of all, it keeps excellent people on the job and enjoying their work more than they would have. Participants' words when evaluating the most recent series of classes speak for themselves in demonstrating these important benefits that can be achieved easily in dialysis facilities throughout the United States and the world.

  11. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  12. De Novo Advanced Adult-Onset Offending: New Evidence from a Population of Federal Correctional Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Tahja, Katherine N; Drury, Alan J; Elbert, Michael J; Caropreso, Daniel E; Heinrichs, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Adult antisocial behavior is almost always predated by delinquency during childhood or adolescence; however, there is also evidence of adult-onset criminal offending. This study examined this controversial subgroup of offenders using self-reported and official data from a total population of federal correctional clients selected from the Midwestern United States. Difference of means t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression models found that 11.7% of clients had an adult onset of offending and 2.7% of clients (n = 23) had an onset occurring at age 60 years or older. This group-introduced as de novo advanced adult-onset offenders-had high socioeconomic status, mixed evidence of adverse childhood experiences, and virtually no usage of drugs with the exception of alcohol. These offenders were primarily convicted of social security and white-collar crimes and evinced remarkably low psychopathology and criminal risk. More research is needed to replicate the phenomenon of de novo advanced adult-onset offending. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inácio C M; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  14. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégore I Mielke

    Full Text Available There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults.A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927. Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home. Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position.On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5 hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8 hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling.Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of imatinib mesylate and its metabolite in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon-Andersen, Divya; Mondick, John T; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Thompson, Patrick A; Blaney, Susan M; Bernstein, Mark; Bond, Mason; Champagne, Martin; Fossler, Michael J; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for use in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia in adults and children and in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in adults. Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) studies evaluating the effect of population covariates on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib and its active metabolite have been developed in adults with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, this still remains to be described in children. The objectives of the analysis were to develop a PPK model of imatinib and its active metabolite, CGP74588, to describe exposure in children and young adults and to identify covariates that are predictors of variability in disposition. Plasma concentrations from 26 subjects with Philadelphia (Ph+) leukemia (Phase I study) and 15 subjects with refractory solid tumors (Phase II study), who received oral imatinib at doses ranging from 260 to 570 mg/m(2), were available for the PPK analysis in NONMEM. Blood samples were drawn prior to dosing and over 24-48 h on days 1 and 8 of the studies. Covariates studied included weight, age, albumin, alanine aminotransferase and the study population. The pharmacokinetics of imatinib and CGP 74588 were well described by one and two compartment models, respectively. Total body weight was the only covariate found to significantly affect Cl/F and V/F. The final imatinib-CGP 74588 model is summarized as follows: CL/F (imatinib) (L/h) = 10.8 x (WT/70)(0.75), V/F (imatinib) (L) = 284 x (WT/70) and D1(duration of zero order absorption,imatinib) (h) = 1.67 and CL/F (CGP 74588) (L/h) = 9.65 x (WT/70)(0.75), V1/F (CGP 74588) (L) = 11.6 x (WT/70), Q (CGP 74588) (L/h) = 2.9 x (WT/70)(0.75) and V2/F (CGP 74588) (L) = 256*(WT/70). Model evaluation indicated that the final model was robust and satisfactory. Current imatinib dosing guidelines in pediatrics is based on the achievement of exposures consistent with doses known to be

  16. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Selena; Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; McClintock, Martha K

    2018-04-01

    first nationally representative study of sexuality and multisensory dysfunction in community-dwelling older adults. 4 of the 5 classic senses were measured with objective tests, and hearing was rated by interviewers in the context of their conversation. Medical and health care interventions that can reduce the burden of sensory dysfunction may improve older adults' sexual experience. Sensory dysfunction is associated with sexual inactivity, but not with sexual motivation. Among those who are sexually active, sensory dysfunction did not interfere with sexual expression. Improving the sexual experience of older adults requires a focus on sensory dysfunction as an impediment to sexual activity given that older adults remain sexually motivated. Zhong S, Pinto JM, Wroblewski KE, et al. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults. J Sex Med 2018;15:502-509. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender moderates the relationship between impulsivity and sexual risk-taking in a cocaine-using psychiatric outpatient population

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Anne C.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adult...

  18. Validation of the Community Integration Questionnaire in the adult burn injury population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Paul; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M; Shie, Vivian L; Holavanahalli, Radha; Lee, Austin; Jette, Alan; Fauerbach, James A; Esselman, Peter; Herndon, David; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2015-11-01

    With improved survival, long-term effects of burn injuries on quality of life, particularly community integration, are important outcomes. This study aims to assess the Community Integration Questionnaire's psychometric properties in the adult burn population. Data were obtained from a multicenter longitudinal data set of burn survivors. The psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (n = 492) were examined. The questionnaire items were evaluated for clinical and substantive relevance; validation procedures were conducted on different samples of the population; construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis; internal consistency reliability was examined using Cronbach's α statistics; and item response theory was applied to the final models. The CIQ-15 was reduced by two questions to form the CIQ-13, with a two-factor structure, interpreted as self/family care and social integration. Item response theory testing suggests that Factor 2 captures a wider range of community integration levels. Cronbach's α was 0.80 for Factor 1, 0.77 for Factor 2, and 0.79 for the test as a whole. The CIQ-13 demonstrates validity and reliability in the adult burn survivor population addressing issues of self/family care and social integration. This instrument is useful in future research of community reintegration outcomes in the burn population.

  19. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish adult population: an interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...

  1. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Influencing factors of the 6-min walk distance in adult Arab populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joobeur, Samah; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Sfaxi, Raoudha; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2016-05-01

    Background Walk tests, especially the 6-min walk-test (6MWT), are commonly used in order to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity. The primary outcome of the 6MWT is the 6-min walk-distance (6MWD). Numerous demographic, physiological and anthropometric factors can influence the 6MWD in healthy adults. Objective The purpose of the present review is to highlight and discuss the 6MWD influencing factors in healthy of the healthy adult Arab populations. Methods It is a review including a literature search, from 1970 to September 31th 2015 using the PubMed, the Science Direct databases and the World Wide Web on Google search engine. Reference lists of retrieved English/French articles were searched for any additional references. Results Six studies, conducted in Tunisia (n=2), Saudi Arabia (n=3) and Algeria (n=1) were included. All studies were conducted according to the 2002-American-thoracic-society guidelines for the 6MWT. In addition to anthropometric data (sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass), the following data were recognized as 6MWD influencing factors: schooling and socioeconomic levels, urban origin, parity, physical activity score or status, metabolic equivalent task for moderate activity, spirometric data, end-walk heart-rate, resting diastolic blood pressure, dyspnoea Borg value and niqab-wearing. Conclusion The 6MWD influencing factors in adult Arab populations are numerous and include some specific predictors such as parity, physical activity level and niqab-wearing.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushaj, Entela B.; Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  4. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function and qual......Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function...... and quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  5. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  6. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  7. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  9. Excessive daytime sleepiness and body composition: a population-based study of adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie C Hayley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is often associated with increased adiposity, particularly when assessed in the context of samples of sleep-disordered patients; however, it is unclear if this relationship is sustained among non-clinical, population-based cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between EDS and a number of body composition markers among a population-based sample of men and women. METHODS: This study assessed 1066 women aged 21-94 yr (median = 51 yr, IQR 35-66, and 911 men aged 24-92 yr (median = 60 yr, IQR 46-73 who participated in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS between the years 2001 and 2008. Total body fat mass was determined from whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Lifestyle and health information was collected via self-report. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Scores of ≥ 10 were considered indicative of EDS. RESULTS: Women: After adjusting for age, alcohol intake, antidepressant medication use and physical activity, EDS was associated with greater waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. EDS was also associated with 1.5-1.6-fold increased odds of being overweight or obese. Men: After adjusting for age, alcohol use, physical activity and smoking status, EDS was associated with greater BMI. These findings were not explained by the use of sedative or antidepressant medication. EDS was also associated with 1.5-fold increased likelihood of being obese, independent of these factors. No differences in lean mass, %body fat, or %lean mass were detected between those with and without EDS for men or women. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that EDS is associated with several anthropometric adiposity profiles, independent of associated lifestyle and health factors. Among women, symptoms of EDS are pervasive at both overweight and obese BMI classifications

  10. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population.We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders.ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology.The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  11. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  12. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Television viewing and cardiovascular risk behaviors in the adult population of the French West Indies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrère, P; Atallah, A; Kelly-Irving, M; Lang, T; Inamo, J

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown a link between prolonged television viewing and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. We aimed to estimate the relationship between television viewing and CV risk behaviors and in the adult population of the French West Indies. We used data from Consant, a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 on a representative sample of the adult Guadeloupean population (1005 subjects aged 25-74 years selected by stratified random sampling and interviewed at home by trained investigators working in pairs). Among respondents who reported watching television for 2 hours or more per day, 46.5% stated practicing no leisure time physical activity, compared with 35.6% among those who reported watching television for less than 2 hours per day. Adjusting for age, sex, education, income, family status, and perceived CV benefits of physical activity, the odds ratio of physical inactivity was estimated at 1.75 (Ptelevision for 2 hours or more per day, compared with other subjects. A similar relationship was observed when considering dieting to prevent weight gain. In this representative sample of a French Caribbean population, a strong and very significant relationship was observed between prolonged television viewing and CV risk behaviors. Prolonged television viewing seems common to a lifestyle that is characterized by little physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. This may play a role in social inequalities observed in CV diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day) in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  15. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Campbell MS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  16. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C

    2014-01-01

    -gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...

  17. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  18. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  19. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Riley, M; Taylor, A W; Page, A

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Cox regression was used in the analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ⩾25 kg m - 2 . A total 12 970 adults were followed for a median of 9 years. During 126 884 person-years of follow-up, 3203 subjects developed overweight/obesity. The absolute incidence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.4, 22.3, 24.4 and 20.5 per 1000 person-years among those who consumed no chilli or 1-20, 20.1-50, ⩾50.1 g per day, respectively. Chilli consumption was therefore inversely associated with the incidence of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for age, gender, energy and fat intake, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, those whose cumulative average chilli intake was 0, 1-20, 20.1-50 and ⩾50.1 g per day had a hazard ratio for overweight/obesity of 1.00, 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.73-0.89), 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84); P for trend overweight/obesity. Chilli intake is inversely associated with the risk of becoming overweight/obese in Chinese adults.

  20. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  1. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity: Population-based study of 40,000 Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Berit Skretting; Halmøy, Anne; Engeland, Anders; Igland, Jannicke; Haavik, Jan; Klungsøyr, Kari

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining whether gender modified associations between ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities in adults. METHOD: We identified adults with ADHD by linking Norwegian national registries and compared them with the remaining adult population (born 1967-1997, ADHD and bipolar during 2004-2015, other psychiatric disorders 2008-2015). Prevalence differences (PDs) and prevalence ratios (PRs) of psychiatric disorders were determined by Poisson regression. Interaction by gender wa...

  2. Secular trends in child and adult sexual violence--one decreasing and the other increasing: a population survey in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...

  3. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  4. An Outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Adults in Northern China, 2013: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Liang, Guodong

    2018-05-09

    A Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic occurred in 2013 in China. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in adults occurring in 2013, as well as identify potential hotspots of incidences in the afflicted regions in China. To generate a spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in China, epidemiological and demographic data between 2011 and 2013 were collected. Our results indicate that the total number of JE cases in 2013 was significantly higher compared with those in 2011 and 2012. While the incidence of JE in individuals aged less than 15 years decreased in 2013, the incidence rate increased substantially in those aged 15 years and older. The population aged over 40 years was associated with the greatest increase of JE. Demographic analysis revealed a consistent increase in the proportion of JE cases aged 15 years and older in 2013 (42%) compared with that in 2012 (15%). In addition, JE cases from areas located between 35°N, 114°E and 40°N, 120°E in northern China were found to account for 27.17% of total JE cases nationwide in 2013, compared with 2.21% and 3.13% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In these northern regions, the group aged 15 years and older represents the predominant population with JE, accounting for 73% of total cases. Further cluster analysis identified a large number of hotspots of JE in adults (>15 years of age) in northern China. Unlike the JE epidemics primarily in children below 15 years old in southern China, a significant outbreak of JE occurred in northern China in 2013, with the older age groups being the primary population affected. The increasing incidence of JE in adults has become an important public health issue and poses a new challenge to the successful prevention and control of JE in China, as well as other countries in East Asia.

  5. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Machado Miranda

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo.Data came from the 'Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital' among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR. Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis.After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64, alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87, lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98, as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98, and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74. However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated.There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension.

  6. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  7. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  8. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J

    2017-07-01

    To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at baseline. Five measurements of self-reported sleep duration were used to compose seven patterns from 1987 to 2012: persistent short (≤6 hours), moderate (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours) sleep duration and several changing patterns (varying and became short, moderate, or long sleepers). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to compare characteristics across sleep duration patterns. About 56% of the adults had persistent moderate sleep duration over 20 years. This group had a better sleep quality than the other groups. Of the adults who changed in their sleep duration (40%), 43% became a short sleeper. Sleep duration patterns that deviate from persistent moderate sleep duration were associated with physical inactivity during leisure time (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] varied between 1.26 [1.04-1.53] and 1.58 [1.06-2.37]) and with poor self-rated health (ORs [95% CIs] varied between 1.50 [1.20-1.87] and 2.15 [1.48-3.12]). Nearly half of the adults did not have persistent moderate sleep duration over a 20-year period and more than one-sixth became short sleeper. This is reason for concern considering the adverse health status associated with short and long sleep duration. Leisure-time physical activity is a potential important target to prevent unfavorable changes in sleep duration over the life course. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  9. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  10. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  11. [Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  13. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  14. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals.

  15. PO-58 - Cardiovascular risk profile in survivors of adult cancer - results from the general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova-Noeva, M; Hermanns, I M; Schulz, A; Laubert-Reh, D; Zeller, T; Blankenberg, S; Spronk, H M; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Ten Cate, H; Wild, P S

    2016-04-01

    The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study. Presence of CVRFs and laboratory markers have been compared in individuals with (n=1,359) and without (n=13,626) history of cancer. Standard laboratory profile, including blood glucose and lipid profile, has been evaluated in 15,010 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Coagulation factors, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity were available in N=4,993. The individuals with history of cancer were older compared to no history of cancer with mean age of 61,5years and 54.4years, respectively (pprofile showed cancer survivors with lower erythrocyte, platelet and white blood cell counts and higher C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides levels (pprofile in individuals with history of cancer from a well characterized population-representative adult sample. It gives evidence for higher prevalence of CVRFs, particularly diabetes in this vulnerable population. Markers of inflammation as CRP and fibrinogen and vWF activity were higher in cancer survivors independent of the cardiovascular risk profile. These results underline the increased risk of CVD and need for development of cardio-oncology programs offering cardiovascular prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  18. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  19. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  20. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  1. Successful weight maintainers among young adults-A ten-year prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2018-03-07

    To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within ±5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  3. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Folake; Alade, Omolola

    2017-09-01

    Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT). Socio-demographic variables were also recorded and statistical analysis done with SPSS software. A total of 430 females aged 16 to 59 years participated in the outreach programme out of which 109 (25.3%) had a DMFT score > 0. Mean DMFT was 0.7 ± 1.6. Fifty-five (12.8%) participants had decayed teeth, 78 (18.1 %) had missing teeth and 10(2.3%) had filled teeth. The treatment need was 34.3%, restorative index was 13.3% and significant caries index was 2.0. There were significant differences in caries experience based on age, marital status and educational qualifications of participants p caries among the study group was low but the treatment need was high. Younger females, singles and those with lower educational qualifications had a higher dental caries experience.

  4. Factor associated with tobacco use among the adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly.  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day.  Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be  important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms

  5. Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša

    2010-10-01

    In the adult human telencephalon, subcortical (gyral) white matter contains a special population of interstitial neurons considered to be surviving descendants of fetal subplate neurons [Kostovic & Rakic (1980) Cytology and the time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. J Neurocytol9, 219]. We designate this population of cells as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons and describe their morphology and distribution in the postnatal and adult human cerebrum. Human fetal subplate neurons cannot be regarded as interstitial, because the subplate zone is an essential part of the fetal cortex, the major site of synaptogenesis and the 'waiting' compartment for growing cortical afferents, and contains both projection neurons and interneurons with distinct input-output connectivity. However, although the subplate zone is a transient fetal structure, many subplate neurons survive postnatally as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons. The fetal white matter is represented by the intermediate zone and well-defined deep periventricular tracts of growing axons, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsule, and the fountainhead of the corona radiata. These tracts gradually occupy the territory of transient fetal subventricular and ventricular zones.The human fetal white matter also contains distinct populations of deep fetal interstitial neurons, which, by virtue of their location, morphology, molecular phenotypes and advanced level of dendritic maturation, remain distinct from subplate neurons and neurons in adjacent structures (e.g. basal ganglia, basal forebrain). We describe the morphological, histochemical (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) and immunocytochemical (neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y) features of both deep fetal interstitial neurons and deep (periventricular

  6. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between dry eye symptoms and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sun-Bi; Yeom, Hyungseon; Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hyung Keun; Suh, Il

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the association of dry eyes with depression and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population. Data from 16408 participants (6972 men and 9436 women) aged ≥ 19 years included in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2010-2012, were analyzed. For dry eyes, surveys of previous diagnosis of dry eye disease (DED) by an ophthalmologist and experience of subjective dry eye symptoms were separately used. Diagnosis of depression and suicidal ideation were obtained via responses to an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, and questions were asked in a closed-ended response format. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dry eyes, depression, and suicidal ideation. DED diagnosis exhibited an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.57) for depression and 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for suicidal ideation compared to those without DED, after adjusting for sex, age, education, occupation, household income, body mass index, smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, thyroid diseases, major cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Similarly, the adjusted OR (95% CI) of dry eye symptoms was 1.50 (95% CI 1.30-1.73) for depression and 1.47 (95% CI 1.27-1.70) for suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that dry eyes (either DED diagnosis or dry eye symptoms) may be associated with the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation in the Korean adult population.

  8. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae

  9. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Increase in antidepressant medication in the US adult population between 1990 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2008-01-01

    The rate of antidepressant treatment in the US has significantly increased in the past decade. There are, however, concerns about undertreatment among traditionally underserved groups and overtreatment in less severely ill individuals. This study examines trends in the prevalence of antidepressant drug treatment in two US general population surveys. The prevalence of antidepressant treatment within a 12-month period was compared in the US National Comorbidity Survey (1990-1992) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (2001-2003). Variations in trends across groups were examined using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. The rate of antidepressant drug treatment increased more than four times between early 1990s and early 2000s. The trend was similar across sociodemographic groups. Younger adults, men and racial/ethnic minorities continued to receive antidepressant treatment at a lower rate compared to middle-aged adults, women and non-Hispanic whites, respectively. The rate of antidepressant treatment increased more in the group of less severely ill individuals than in those with more severe psychopathology. Sociodemographic disparities in antidepressant treatment persisted over the last decade in the US, lending support to concerns about undertreatment among traditionally underserved groups, whereas the greater increase in the rate of antidepressant treatment in the less severely ill group lends support to concerns about antidepressant overtreatment in this population.

  11. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  13. Dental status, oral prosthesis and chewing ability in an adult and elderly population in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Alexandre; Schmidt, Jeanne Gabriele; Rech, Rafaela Soares; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the factors associated with inadequate chewing in an adult and elderly population of a city in the southern region of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study based on a population home-based inquiry (DCH-POP) in southern Brazil. Individuals were interviewed by trained interviewers to create a standardized procedure. In a pilot study, the Questionnaire of Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP) was created and validated to identify self-reported speech and language, swallowing and hearing disorders. The outcome was dichotomized into either having adequate chewing or not, as assessed by a series of questions about chewing ability. Analyses of absolute and relative frequencies were measured according to the studied variables. A Poisson regression was applied at a significance level of 5%. A total of 1,246 people were interviewed. Inadequate chewing was found in 52 (5.6%) individuals, with a higher prevalence in the elderly (11.8%) than in adults (5.2%). In the final model, the following factors were associated with inadequate chewing: being 61 years of age or older (prevalence ratio or PR=9.03; 95% CI: 1.20-67.91), loss of teeth and use of unadjusted prosthesis (PR=3.50; 95% CI: 1.54-7.95), preference for foods of soft consistency (PR=9.34; 95% CI:4.66-8.70) and difficulty in nasal breathing (PR=2.82; 95% CI: 1.31-6.06). Age, oral health status through dental prosthesis, preference for foods of soft consistency and difficulty breathing through the nose were factors associated with chewing inability in adults and the elderly.

  14. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xiao-feng; Shi, Yan; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years) from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1), which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10), prefrail (0.100.21). Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS). Results During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4%) participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail), one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states. Transitions to greater frailty (ie, “worsening”) were more common than transitions to lesser frailty (ie, “improvement”). Among four categories of frailty transitions, “worsening” and “remaining frail” had increased risks of painful death, eg, with odds ratios of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.41, 2.62) and 4.75 (95% CI =3.32, 6.80), respectively, for type 4 death (ie, ≥30 bedridden days with suffering before death). Conclusion This large sample of older adults in China supports that frailty is a dynamic process, characterized by frequent types of transitions. Furthermore, those who remained frail had the highest likelihood of experiencing painful death, which raises concerns about the quality of life in frail populations. PMID:29805253

  15. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult-onset diabetes among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter-Leibovici, O; Chetrit, A; Lubin, F; Atamna, A; Alpert, G; Ziv, A; Abu-Saad, K; Murad, H; Eilat-Adar, S; Goldbourt, U

    2012-06-01

    To study the age at presentation and factors associated with adult-onset diabetes (≥ 20 years) among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Participants (n = 1100) were randomly selected from the urban population of the Hadera District in Israel. The study sample was stratified into equal groups according to sex, ethnicity (Arabs and Jews) and age. Information on age at diabetes presentation, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through personal interviews. Self reports of diabetes were compared with medical records and were found reliable (κ = 0.87). The risk for diabetes was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Factors associated with diabetes in both ethnic groups were studied using Cox proportional hazard model. The prevalence of adult-onset diabetes was 21% among Arabs and 12% among Jews. Arab participants were younger than Jews at diabetes presentation. By the age of 57 years, 25% of Arabs had diagnosed diabetes; the corresponding age among Jews was 68 years, a difference of 11 years (P Arabs was independent of lifestyle factors, family history of diabetes and, among women, history of gestational diabetes; adjusted hazard ratio 1.70; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.43. Arabs in Israel are at greater risk for adult-onset diabetes than Jews and are younger at diabetes presentation. Culturally sensitive interventions aimed at maintaining normal body weight and active lifestyle should be targeted at this population. Possible genetic factors and gene-environmental interactions underlying the high risk for diabetes among Arabs should be investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  17. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  18. Clinical and non-clinical depression and anxiety in young people: A scoping review on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniccia, Melissa; Paniccia, David; Thomas, Scott; Taha, Tim; Reed, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, has emerged as a physiological indicator for emotional regulation and psychological well-being. HRV is understudied in the context of depression and anxiety in young people (10-24years old). Main objectives: (1) describe the nature and breadth of reviewed studies; and (2) synthesize main findings in the context of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression and/or anxiety. The Arksey and O'Malley methodology was utilized for this scoping review. CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, as well as grey literature, were searched. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full papers for inclusion. A total of 20 citations were included in the final review (19 citations peer-reviewed journal articles, 1 journal abstract). Numerical and thematic analysis was used to summarize study findings. In clinical populations of either depression or anxiety, HRV was lower compared to controls. In non-clinical populations of either depression or anxiety, HRV was found to be lower in those who reported more depression or anxiety symptoms. The quality of the reviewed articles was not assessed which limits the ability to generate conclusions regarding study findings. Changes in HRV were found across the spectrum of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression or anxiety. Neurophysiological research on depression and anxiety in young people can act as a first step to understanding how physiological flexibility (i.e. HRV) is related to psychological flexibility (i.e. adaptive or maladaptive responses to life events). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  1. Long-lasting cough in an adult German population: incidence, symptoms, and related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Raphael; Riffelmann, Marion; Kennerknecht, Nicole; Hülße, Christel; Littmann, Martina; O'Brien, Judith; von Kries, Rüdiger; von König, Carl Heinz Wirsing

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus A and rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were performed. Treatment data were extracted for a subgroup of 138 patients. Descriptive statistics, including Kaplan-Maier curves were generated. Yearly incidence ranged between 1.4 and 2.1% per population in the two cities. Adult patients sought medical attention only after a median of 3 weeks of coughing. Irrespective of smoking and unrelated to the identified pathogens, the median duration of coughing was 6 weeks, with an interquartile range of 4-11 weeks. In 48.3% of patients, possible pathogens were identified, among which adenovirus (15.1%), RSV (7.5%), B. pertussis (5.6%), and influenza viruses (4.0%) were most often found. Symptoms were not indicative of a specific agent and a total of 64% of patients received antibiotics. Prolonged adult coughing requiring medical attention prompts substantial healthcare use. Apart from B. pertussis, a broad range of pathogens was associated with the symptoms. However, patients sought medical attention too late to guide efficacious therapeutic interventions using the diagnostic tests.

  2. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oxaliplatin in adults and children identifies important covariates for dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanjam, Mina; Stewart, Clinton F; Takimoto, Chris H; Synold, Timothy W; Beaty, Orren; Fouladi, Maryam; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic function in children and adults. Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic data were combined from phase I and II clinical trials: three pediatric trials (Peds1-3) and two adult NCI organ dysfunction studies (Hepatic and Renal). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed utilizing platinum ultrafiltrate concentrations to characterize changes in oxaliplatin disposition with age and organ dysfunction along with other potential sources of oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic variability. A total of 1,508 concentrations from 186 children and adults were used in the study. The data were well described by a three-compartment model. Serum creatinine (SCR) was an independent predictor of clearance (CL) while age was an independent predictor of volume of distribution. Although age was a significant covariate on CL in the univariate analysis, age effects on CL were entirely accounted for by SCR. Gender, hepatic function, and race had no effect on CL or volume of distribution. Median CL values were 0.58 (Hepatic), 0.34 (Renal), 0.78 (Peds1), 0.74 (Peds2), and 0.81 (Peds3) (L/h/kg(0.75)). Monte Carlo simulations of the final model with 130 mg/m(2) yielded median AUC values of: 14.2 (2-6 years), 16.8 (6-12 years), 16.5 (12-18 years), and 17.3 (>18 years) (µg h/mL). Renal function had the greatest effect on CL with a small age effect seen on the distribution of oxaliplatin. Young pediatric patients had higher CL values than adults as a result of better renal function.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency: knowledge and practices among the adult population in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanpour, Vida A; Ibrahim, Hassan S; Salameh, Ahmad G; Yahya, Amel M; Debal, Basel K

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis), muscle cramps, back pain, heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, etc. The lack of knowledge and poor practice of study subjects regarding vitamin D deficiency became evident in this study. Vitamin D is vital for the growth and development of the body throughout the life span. The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and the practices related to vitamin D deficiency among the adult population in Sharjah, UAE. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 20-40 years in Sharjah, UAE. Participants were selected from public places using convenience sampling method. They were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software. All knowledge-related questions were summed up, where a correct answer was given 1 point and incorrect one a 0, yielding a score out of 43. Subjects' scores were then transformed to a percentage. A total of 503 adults were included in the study. They had a mean age of 30 years (±5.47) with a relatively homogenous gender distribution (51 % females). The mean knowledge score on vitamin D deficiency was 16.7 out of 43 (39 %). Less than half of the respondents (43 %) knew that sunlight is the main source of vitamin D. The mean score for participants' practice was 2.34 out of 6 (39 %); 77 % of them reported that they tried to avoid sun exposure, and 97 % had not tested vitamin D levels in their blood before. The majority of the adults demonstrated significant lack of knowledge and poor practices towards vitamin D and its deficiency. Therefore, attempts to increase the awareness about this issue are required through establishing educational campaigns targeting the general public in Sharjah, UAE.

  4. Socioeconomic status in childhood and obesity in adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.

  5. Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health Supplements in Penang, Malaysia. ... A total of 10.7 % respondents indicated that the sale of non-clinically proven products result in high profit. Only 25.0 % of the pharmacists ... Keywords: Perception, Health promotion, Urban poor, Health supplements.

  6. A study on job satisfaction among clinical and non-clinical hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Two hundred clinical and non-clinical hospital staff were invited to take part in the study. They completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). Results: The results indicated that majority clinical and non-clinical staff were satisfied with their jobs as regards the parameters of the ...

  7. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. METHODS: Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010, a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years. TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01. Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24 after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15 and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35. Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSIONS: A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  8. Causes and consequences of adult sex ratio imbalance in a historical U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Ryan; Smith, Ken R

    2017-09-19

    The responsiveness of individuals to partner availability has been well-documented across the literature. However, there is disagreement regarding the direction of the consequences of sex ratio imbalance. Specifically, does an excess of males or females promote male-male mating competition? In an attempt to clarify the role of the adult sex ratio (ASR) on behaviour, here we evaluate both competing and complimentary expectations derived from theory across the social and biological sciences. We use data drawn from a historical, nineteenth century population in North America and target several life-history traits thought to be affected by partner availability: age at first birth, relationship status, completed fertility and longevity. Furthermore, we assess the role of various contributors to a population's ASR. We find that both the contributors to and consequences of sex ratio imbalance vary over time. Our results largely support predictions of greater male pairbond commitment and lesser male mating effort, as well as elevated bargaining power of women in response to female scarcity. After reviewing our findings, and others from across the literature, we highlight the need to adjust predictions in response to ASR imbalance by the: (i) culturally mediated mating arena, (ii) variable role of demographic inputs across time and place, (iii) constraints to behavioural outcomes across populations, and (iv) ability and accuracy of individuals to assess partner availability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive strategies: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Television Viewing Time in Hong Kong Adult Population: Associations with Body Mass Index and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Methods Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009–2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age≥18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Results Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all PTV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24) after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15) and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35). Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. Conclusions A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing – BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing. PMID:24427309

  10. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban Population of the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran. Methods. Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545 females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III guidelines when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, blood pressure ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥100 mg/dl. Results. Metabolic syndrome was present in 697 (23.7% subjects (CI 95%:22%–25%, P = .001, prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in women (P : .4. The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the population younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%, 170 subjects (24.4% had four and none had five components simultaneously. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl and high LDL cholesterol (≥130 mg/dl was greater in the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be undertaken in this area.

  11. Long-term population-based divorce rates among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Winter, David L; Taylor, Aliki J; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Previously from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) it was seen that adult survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to marry than the general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the number of childhood cancer survivors from the BCCSS who were currently divorced or separated, examine factors associated with marriage dissolution and compare survivor divorce rates to population rates. The BCCSS is a population-based cohort of 18,119 individuals diagnosed with cancer aged 0-14 years between 1940 and 1991, and survived at least 5 years. 14,539 were alive, aged 16 years or over and eligible to receive a questionnaire, which ascertained marital status. From 8,155 survivors, who were aged at least 20 years at questionnaire completion, the proportions currently divorced and divorced or separated were 13.5% and 18.1%, respectively. Only current age, educational attainment and age at marriage were associated with divorce, and for divorce and separation status only age at marriage (P divorced (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)): 0.94 (0.81-1.10)). However, the survivors overall (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.94)), and separately for those diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.34-0.89)) and leukaemia (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52-0.95)), were less likely to be currently divorced or separated than the general population. It is reassuring that survivors do not experience more divorce than the general population, and that no cancer or treatment factors were shown to be associated with marriage dissolution. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Variables associated with olfactory disorders in adults: A U.S. population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Noel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olfactory dysfunction is known to have significant social, psychological, and safety implications. Despite increasingly recognized prevalence, potential risk factors for olfactory loss have been arbitrarily documented and knowledge is limited in scale. The aim of this study is to identify potential demographic and exposure variables correlating with olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 editions of the National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey was performed. The utilized survey reports from a nationally representative sample of about 5000 persons each year located in counties across the United States. There is an interview and physical examination component which includes demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions as well as medical, dental, physiologic measurements, and laboratory tests. 3594 adult respondents from 2011 to 2012 and 3708 respondents from 2013 to 2014 were identified from the above population-based database. The frequency of self-reported disorders as well as performance on odor identification testing was determined in relation to demographic factors, occupational or environmental exposures, and urinary levels of environmental and industrial compounds. Results: In both subjective and objective analysis, smell disorders were significantly more common with increasing age. While the non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic Asian populations were less likely to report subjective olfactory loss, they, along with Hispanics, performed more poorly on odor identification than Caucasians. Those with limited education had a decreased prevalence of hyposmia. Women outperformed men on smell testing. Those reporting exposure to vapors were more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction, and urinary levels of manganese, 2-Thioxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, and 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid were lower among respondents with subjective smell

  13. Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Arbid, Natalie; Sayegh, Philip

    2014-05-01

    With the recent debates over marijuana legalization and increases in use, it is critical to examine its role in cognition. While many studies generally support the adverse acute effects of cannabis on neurocognition, the non-acute effects remain less clear. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine relationships between recent and past cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical adult sample. One hundred and fifty-eight participants were recruited through fliers distributed around local college campuses and the community. All participants completed the Brief Drug Use History Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, and neurocognitive assessment, and underwent urine toxicology screening. Participants consisted of recent users (n=68), past users (n=41), and non-users (n=49). Recent users demonstrated significantly (pcannabis use in the last 4 weeks was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and all individual cognitive domains. Similarly, amount of daily cannabis use was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and individual cognitive domains. Our results support the widespread adverse effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning. Although some of these adverse effects appear to attenuate with abstinence, past users' neurocognitive functioning was consistently lower than non-users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  15. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  16. Dietary intake of aflatoxins in the adult Malaysian population - an assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C K; Abdullah, A; Sugita-Konishi, Y

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxins in the adult Malaysian diet was estimated by analysing aflatoxins in 236 food composites prepared as "ready for consumption". Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ranged from 24.3 to 34.00 ng/kg b.w./day (lower to upper bound), with peanuts being the main contributor. Estimated liver cancer risk from this exposure was 0.61-0.85 cancers/100,000 population/year, contributing 12.4%-17.3% of the liver cancer cases. Excluding AFB1 occurrence data higher than 15 µg/kg reduced exposure by 65%-91% to 2.27-11.99 ng/kg b.w./day, reducing the cancer risk to 0.06-0.30 cancers/100,000 population/year (contributing 1.2%-6.1% liver cancer cases). Reducing further the ML of AFB1 from 15 to 5 µg/kg yielded 3%-7% greater drop in the exposure to 0.47-10.26 ng/kg b.w./day with an estimated risk of 0.01-0.26 cancers/100,000 population/year (0.2%-5.1% liver cancer cases attributed to dietary AFB1). These findings indicate that current MLs are adequate in protecting Malaysians' health.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  18. Incidence and prognosis of stroke in young adults: a population-based study in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppo, Elisabetta; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Granieri, Gino; Fazio, Patrik; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria

    2012-02-01

    The reported annual incidence of juvenile stroke ranges from 9 to 47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We sought to estimate the incidence of first-ever stroke in young adults through a population-based stroke registry in a well-defined and stable population. We planned to collect all cases of new stroke in people aged 15-44 years in Ferrara, Italy, over the period 2002-2007. During the surveillance period, a first-ever stroke was diagnosed in 39 patients, giving a mean annual crude incidence rate of 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 8.6-16.5), 9.1 when adjusted to the European population. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 7.7, 21.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence rate was in the range of estimates detected in western countries. The case-fatality rate was lower than that reported in less recent studies. The stroke subtype predicted the probability of death and the outcome.

  19. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Arrebola, J.P.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E.; Aragones, N.; Llorca, J.; Perez-Gomez, B.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point

  20. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  1. The safety of meperidine prescribing in older adults: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kevin J; Falk, Jamie; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-05-11

    Meperidine (pethidine) is an opioid analgesic that offers little advantage relative to other opioids and several disadvantages including limited potency, short duration of action, and the production of a neurotoxic metabolite (normeperidine) with a long half-life. Older adults are more sensitive to meperidine's side effects and may have diminished renal function which leads to the accumulation of normeperidine. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices has suggested avoiding meperidine in older adults, limiting its dose (≤600 mg/day) and duration of use (≤48 h). The objective of this study was to determine the level of meperidine use in older adults and assess the dosage and duration of meperidine with reference to these safety recommendations. A longitudinal study using administrative healthcare data was conducted to examine meperidine utilization and levels of high dose and extended duration prescribing among persons ≥65 years of age between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2014 in Manitoba, Canada. The number of meperidine prescriptions, users, duration of treatment, defined daily doses (DDD) dispensed and number of prescribers were determined over the study period. In the Manitoba older adult population there was a marked decline in meperidine users and prescriptions from 2001 to 2014. There was an average use of 26.4 (95 % CI 24.0-28.8) DDDs of meperidine per user per year. While only 3.7 % of the prescriptions exceeded the 600 mg maximum daily dose, 96.7 % of prescriptions exceeded the recommended 2 days of therapy. For the remaining users of meperidine, the amount of meperidine used per person rose from 18.98 to 56.14 DDDs/user/year over the study period. The number of prescribers of meperidine declined throughout the study, but low DDD prescribers declined more quickly than high DDD prescribers. While meperidine use has declined, the remaining use appears to be decreasing in safety, with more meperidine prescribed per user. This seems to be driven by

  2. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless of their economic condition, ethnicity, age, gender or whether they reside in a rural or urban area. The findings also showed that education is the single most positive influence on the perception of feeling healthy, more so even than economic situation.

  3. Color Trails Test: normative data and criterion validity for the greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Malegiannaki, Amaryllis-Chryssi; Christodoulou, Tessa; Panagiotopoulos, Vassillis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-06-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) was developed as a culturally fair analog of the Trail Making Test. In the present study, normative data for the CTT were developed for the Greek adult population and further the criterion validity of the CTT was examined in two clinical groups (29 Parkinson's disease [PD] and 25 acute stroke patients). The instrument was applied to 163 healthy participants, aged 19-75. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed a significant influence of age and education level on completion time in both parts of the CTT (increased age and decreased educational level contributed to slower completion times for both parts), whereas gender did not influence time to completion of part B. Further, the CTT appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of PD and acute stroke patients and matched healthy controls.

  4. Serum thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine deficiency in adult populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejbjerg, Anne; Bjergved, Lena; Bülow Pedersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify which factors may influence the serum Tg level in an adult population and how this may affect Tg as a biomarker of iodine deficiency (ID). DESIGN AND METHODS: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (C1a: 1997-98, n = 4649) and after (C2: 2004-05, n = 3570......) the Danish mandatory iodine fortification (IF) of salt (2000). Additionally, a follow-up study of C1a was performed after IF (C1b: 2008-10, n = 2465). The studies took place in two regions with mild (Copenhagen) and moderate (Aalborg) ID before IF. Serum Tg was measured by immunoradiometric method...... and investigated as outcome variable in multivariate models. RESULTS: Multiple factors were associated with serum Tg. Some were directly related to iodine intake (cohort, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level and region), and some were likely mediators of iodine intake effects on Tg (thyroid nodularity, thyroid...

  5. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut

  6. Oral health literacy and oral health outcomes in an adult population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Lawrence, Herenia Procopio; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the association between critical and communicative oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health outcomes (status, oral health-related quality of life and practices) in adults. This cross-sectional study examined a household probability sample of 248 adults, representing 149,635 residents (20-64 years old) in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. Clinical oral health and socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) and health practices were collected. The oral examinations were carried out in the participants' homes, using the World Health Organization criteria for oral diseases. The critical and communicative OHL instrument was the primary independent variable, and it was measured using five Likert items that were dichotomized as 'high' ('agree' and 'strongly agree' responses for the 5 items) and 'low' OHL. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed on each outcome (oral health status and practices), controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Approximately 71.5% presented low OHL. When adjusted for age and sex (first model) low OHL was associated with untreated caries (Odds Ratio = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.07-3.45), tooth brushing oral health impact on quality of life (OR = 2.06, 1.15-3.69). Adjusting for age, sex and SES, OHL is related to a risk factor (biofilm) and a consequence of poor oral health (emergency dental visits) and can interfere with the impact of oral diseases on quality of life. As low OHL can be modified, the results support oral health promotion strategies directed at improving critical and communicative oral health literacy in adult populations.

  7. Household composition and suicidal behaviour in the adult population of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisle, Lydia; Van Oyen, Herman

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, i.e. ideation and attempt, in the adult population of Belgium, and to explore their association with household composition. Data of 4,459 adults (25-64 years) from the 2004 Belgian Health Interview Survey were used for analyses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds of engaging in suicidal behaviours according to household type, further controlling for age, sex, income, employment status and social support. Lifetime prevalence of ideation and attempts was 14 and 4.7 %, respectively. Current prevalence of ideation was 4.0 % and past year prevalence of attempts was 0.5 %. Compared to other household compositions, living alone (A) and as lone parent (P) increased the odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-2.9 and ORP 3.8, 95 % CI 1.9-7.7) and lifetime attempts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.4-3.6 and ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5). When controlling for confounders, single person and single parent households still presented increased adjusted-odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (a-ORA 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-2.9 and a-ORP 2.3, 95 % CI 1.0-5.5). The likelihood of ever attempted suicide was also higher among single parent households (a-ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5) after adjustment, but not among those living alone (a-ORA 1.4, 95 % CI 0.8-2.8). Living alone or as lone parent place adults at higher risk for suicide behaviour, and this is only partly explained by lower socio-economic status or poor perceived support.

  8. Awareness and perceptions regarding common cancers among adult population in a rural area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Arumugam Mariappan; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    Awareness regarding cancer signs and symptoms and their screening and treatment method was low in India. To assess the awareness level of common cancers, perception regarding prevention and treatment of common cancers, association between sociodemographic variables with the awareness level of common cancers in the adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 299 adults from the field practice areas of Our Rural Health Centre, Puducherry, during April-May 2014. Using systematic random sampling, 299 adults were interviewed through a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Chi-square test was used. Nearly, 64% were in the age group of ≥40 years, the majorities were females (56.2%) and 64% were in lower socioeconomic class. Symptoms reported majorities were unusual bleeding (41.6%), followed by nagging cough (34.1%). Risk factors reported majorities were smoking (65%), chewing tobacco (59%) followed by alcohol use (46.5%). Only 10% reported cancer could be diagnosed early and 27% perceived cancer could be preventable. Only 6% perceived cancer could be cured fully. The adequate awareness level regarding lung and oral cancer were 14%, but breast and cervical cancer were <5%. The younger age group (<40 years) had more adequate awareness level compared to age group ≥40 years ( P < 0.05). The awareness level of common cancers was very poor. Vigorous health education program should improve the status of early diagnosis and proper treatment for common cancers such as oral, breast, and cervical cancer.

  9. Meal-specific food patterns and the incidence of hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Taylor, Anne; Noakes, Manny

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up. The associated between food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia was assessed by logistic regression. During the follow-up, 125 new cases of hyperglycaemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely associated with incident hyperglycaemia, whereas traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycaemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates including glycaemic load, carbohydrate intake and BMI. Incident hyperglycaemia occurred in 15·9, 13·6, 11·7, 6·1 % across quartiles of traditional breakfast; and 5·3, 9·1, 15·9, 17·1 % of the quartiles of traditional lunch pattern. The adjusted OR for hyperglycaemia was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), 1·83 (95 % CI 1·32, 2·53) and 1·39 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·86) for 1 sd increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. A traditional wheat-based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycaemia. A rice-based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults.

  10. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Lena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also

  11. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: a population-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar H; Edén, Lena; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2007-03-21

    It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by chi2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also to personal development.

  12. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of infective endocarditis in a contemporary adult congenital heart disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Benjamin; Cao, Jacob; Kotchetkova, Irina; Celermajer, David S

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the adult population is steadily increasing. A substrate of prosthetic material and residual lesions, constantly evolving as surgical techniques change over time, predispose these patients to the potentially devastating complication of infective endocarditis (IE). We retrospectively reviewed 2935 patients in our adult CHD database for all cases of endocarditis between 1991 and 2016. Incidence, clinical course and predictors of outcomes were analysed. We document 74 episodes in 62 patients, with an incidence of 0.9 cases/1000 patient years (py). IE was more common in complex CHD (1.4 cases/1000py) and ventricular septal defects (VSDs) (1.9 cases/1000py). Prosthetic material was involved in 47% and left-sided infection predominated (66%). The incidence in bicuspid aortic valves post aortic valve replacement (AVR) was significantly higher than in unoperated valves, being 1.8 and 1.1 cases/1000 patient years respectively. Streptococcus was the most frequently implicated causative organism (37%). Emboli occurred in 34% of cases with a cerebral predilection. 46% of patients required surgery during the admission for IE, most frequently to replace a severely regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve. Early endocarditis-related mortality was 15%, associated with cerebral emboli and acute renal failure. In a contemporary adult CHD cohort, those with complex underlying lesions, VSDs or an AVR were at higher risk for IE. Mortality remains substantial and is more likely in patients with cerebral emboli and/or acute renal failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  14. [Respiratory infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in the adult population: description of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Jordi; López, Carla

    2013-08-17

    Respiratory infections of viral etiology are frequent in the adult population. Those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a little known entity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients with respiratory infection due to RSV. We performed a prospective study from October 2012 to March 2013 on respiratory infections caused by RSV. Viral detection was performed using a technique of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction genomic amplification in real time. We diagnosed 16 patients, 12 (75%) requiring hospitalization. Patients were grouped into immunocompromised (7 [43.7%]) and immunocompetent cases (9 cases 56.3%]). The first group included 3 patients with HIV infection (42.8%) and 4 hematologic patients (57.2%). The second group included those who had a baseline disease, 5 cases (55.5%), and those who lacked it, 4 cases (44.4%), and did not require hospitalization. The main clinical manifestations of patients prompting them to attend the Emergency Department were cough (50%), dyspnea (43.5%), fever (25%), expectoration (25%) and flu symptoms (25%). The most frequent diagnoses at discharge were pneumonia (37.5%) and flu syndrome (31.2%). Respiratory infections caused by RSV represent a rare condition that mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The underlying pathology determines the evolution of the process, which is favorable except in cases of severe immunosuppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  16. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Macronutrient and Calcium Intake in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, R.; Bano, G.; Dar, F. J.; Khan, A. H.; Bilgirami, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a food frequency table (FFQ) for use in urban Pakistani population. Study Design: A validation study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to November 2008. Methodology: Healthy adult females, aged A 18 years who consented to be included in the study were inducted, while males, unhealthy females, aged below 18 years or who did not consent were excluded. The FFQ was administered once while 4, 24 hours recalls spread over a period of one year were administered as the reference method. Daily intakes for energy, protein, fat, and calcium intake were estimated for both the tools. Crude and energy adjusted correlations for nutrient intakes were computed for the FFQ and mean of 4, 24 hours recalls and serum N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx). Results: The correlation coefficients for the FFQ with mean of 4, 24 hours recall ranged from 0.21 for protein to 0.36 for calcium, while the correlation for nutrient estimates from the FFQ with NTx ranged from -0.07 for calcium to 0.01 for energy. Conclusion: Highly significant correlations were found for nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ vs. those estimated from the mean of 4, 24 hours recalls but no correlations was found between nutrient estimates from the FFQ and serum NTx levels. FFQ was concluded to be a valid tool for assessing dietary intake of adult females in Pakistan. (author)

  17. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere’s method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Cássia Silva AZEVEDO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older. The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004 and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80 years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78 years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26 years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54 years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere’s formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  18. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  19. The correlates of leisure time physical activity among an adults population from southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lin, Linda L; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2011-06-03

    Assessing the correlates of practicing physical activity during leisure time is important with regard to planning and designing public health strategies to increase beneficial behaviors among adult populations. Although the importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is highlighted in many Western countries, there are not many publications on physical activity patterns, and even less on their correlates, in non-Western societies. The goal of this study was thus to explore the determinants influencing adults' leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a city in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2007, using a standardized questionnaire. Energy expenditure was dichotomized into two groups based on the recommended levels of moderate physical activity from LTPA: ≥10 or benefits of exercise (OR = 1.85;95%CI = 1.25-2.74), more sports media consumption (OR = 1.94;95%CI = 1.26-2.98), and higher self-efficacy (OR = 3.99;95%CI = 2.67-5.97) were more likely to engage in LTPA. Further analysis comparing different sources of social support showed only social support from friends had a significant positive association (OR = 1.73;95%CI = 1.14-2.63) with increased LTPA. LTPA in southern city of Taiwan showed some unique associations with age, socioeconomic status and media consumption that are not commonly reported in the Western World and similar associations with regards to psychosocial correlates of LTPA participation. Further studies from developing countries are warranted to highlight culture-specific differences in physical activity participation.

  20. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  1. Effects of different protein concentrations on longevity and feeding behavior of two adult populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do Carmo; Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of protein intake on two adult male and female populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann were assessed. One population consisted of flies reared for twenty years in the laboratory (Lab-pop); the other population consisted both of flies reared in the laboratory for approximately fifteen years and of the periodically introduced wild flies (Hybrid-pop). Three diets were tested: a no-yeast diet and two diets containing yeast (protein source) at the concentrations 6.5 g or 1.5 g per 100 ml diet. The parameters analyzed were: adult longevity, diet intake with and without yeast, and discrimination threshold for yeast. Protein intake increased Lab-pop adult longevity and did not affect longevity of the Hybrid-pop. Longevity in each population was similar for males and females fed on the same diet. Food behavior were similar for male and female adults of both populations; all preferred diets containing protein (yeast). Males and females in both populations ingested similar amounts of each diet. The discrimination threshold for yeast was similar for all males (0.5 g yeast/100 ml diet); Lab-pop females were able to detect the presence of smaller quantities of yeast in their diet, thus having a higher discrimination capacity (0.4 g/100 ml diet) as compared to the Hybrid-pop females (0.6 g/ 100 ml diet). (author)

  2. Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an adult population of Rosario, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Zapata; Romina Buffarini; Nadia Lingiardi; Ana Luiza Gonçalves-Soares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary assessment of nutrients and food groups by food frequency questionnaire needs to be validated in each population. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire among adults of Rosario, Argentina.Material and Methods: Two food frequency questionnaires and four 24-hour dietary recalls were applied in a sample of 88 adults. Reproducibility of food frequency questionna...

  3. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  4. Establishment of reference CD4+ T cell values for adult Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Krishnangshu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte counts are the most important indicator of disease progression and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection in resource limited settings. The nationwide reference range of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not available in India. This study was conducted to determine reference values of absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages for adult Indian population. Methods A multicentric study was conducted involving eight sites across the country. A total of 1206 (approximately 150 per/centre healthy participants were enrolled in the study. The ratio of male (N = 645 to female (N = 561 of 1.14:1. The healthy status of the participants was assessed by a pre-decided questionnaire. At all centers the CD4+ T cell count, percentages and absolute CD3+ T cell count and percentages were estimated using a single platform strategy and lyse no wash technique. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS, version 15 and Prism software version 5. Results The absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages in female participants were significantly higher than the values obtained in male participants indicating the true difference in the CD4+ T cell subsets. The reference range for absolute CD4 count for Indian male population was 381-1565 cells/μL and for female population was 447-1846 cells/μL. The reference range for CD4% was 25-49% for male and 27-54% for female population. The reference values for CD3 counts were 776-2785 cells/μL for Indian male population and 826-2997 cells/μL for female population. Conclusion The study used stringent procedures for controlling the technical variation in the CD4 counts across the sites and thus could establish the robust national reference ranges for CD4 counts and percentages. These ranges will be helpful in staging the disease progression and monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection in India.

  5. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  6. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    as a jumping point from which to create an unlimited number of 3D and 4D variations for imaging research. Conclusions: A population of phantoms that includes a range of anatomical variations representative of the public at large is needed to more closely mimic a clinical study or trial. The series of anatomically variable phantoms developed in this work provide a valuable resource for investigating 3D and 4D imaging devices and the effects of anatomy and motion in imaging. Combined with Monte Carlo simulation programs, the phantoms also provide a valuable tool to investigate patient-specific dose and image quality, and optimization for adults undergoing imaging procedures.

  7. Atypical Antipsychotic Medications and Hyponatremia in Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gandhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of case reports have suggested a possible association between atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of hyponatremia risk from atypical antipsychotic drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia in older adults dispensed an atypical antipsychotic drug relative to no antipsychotic use. Design: The design of this study was a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Setting: The setting of this study was in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2012. Patients: Adults 65 years or older with an identified psychiatric condition who were newly dispensed risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in the community setting compared to adults with similar indicators of baseline health who were not dispensed such a prescription. Measurements: The primary outcome was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia. The tracer outcome (an outcome that is not expected to be influenced by the study drugs was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with bowel obstruction. These outcomes were assessed using hospital diagnosis codes. Methods: Using health administrative data, we applied a propensity score technique to match antipsychotic users 1:1 to non-users of antipsychotic drugs (58,008 patients in each group. We used conditional logistic regression to compare outcomes among the matched users and non-users. Results: A total of 104 baseline characteristics were well-balanced between the two matched groups. Atypical antipsychotic use compared to non-use was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia within 30 days (86/58,008 (0.15 % versus 53/58,008 (0.09 %; relative risk 1.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.29; absolute risk increase 0.06 % (95 % CI 0.02 to 0.10. The limited number of events precluded some additional analyses to confirm if the association was robust. Atypical

  8. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Che-Chen; Jen, Yee-Min; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chen, Chang-Ming; Chang, Ying-Nan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  9. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    , serve as a jumping point from which to create an unlimited number of 3D and 4D variations for imaging research. Conclusions: A population of phantoms that includes a range of anatomical variations representative of the public at large is needed to more closely mimic a clinical study or trial. The series of anatomically variable phantoms developed in this work provide a valuable resource for investigating 3D and 4D imaging devices and the effects of anatomy and motion in imaging. Combined with Monte Carlo simulation programs, the phantoms also provide a valuable tool to investigate patient-specific dose and image quality, and optimization for adults undergoing imaging procedures.

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in social anxiety in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Hou, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals are characterized as those with distorted negative self-beliefs (NSBs), which are thought to enhance reactions of social distress (emotional reactivity) and social avoidance (social functioning). However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in social distress and social avoidance are represented by differences in brain morphometry. To probe into these neural correlates, we analyzed magnetic resonance images of a sample of 130 healthy subjects and used the Connectome Computation System (CCS) to evaluate these factors. The results showed that social distress was correlated with the cortical volume of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the subcortical volume of the left amygdala, while social avoidance was correlated with the cortical volume of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Additionally, loneliness might mediate the relationship between the amygdala volume and the social distress score. Our results demonstrated that social distress and social avoidance were represented by segregated cortical regions in the healthy individuals. These findings might provide a valuable basis for understanding the stable brain structures underlying individual differences in social anxiety.

  11. Brief Report: Discrimination of Foreign Speech Pitch and Autistic Traits in Non-Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Wippich, Anna; Lam, Yu Hin

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are widely suggested to show enhanced perceptual discrimination but inconsistent findings have been reported for pitch discrimination. Given the high variability in ASC, this study investigated whether ASC traits were correlated with pitch discrimination in an undergraduate sample when musical and…

  12. The Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version: Validity and reliability in Spanish non-clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Canals Sans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar la estructura factorial, la validez y la fiabilidad de la versión española del Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV, así como determinar el mejor punto de corte para detectar el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC. Un total de 1.514 escolares (8-12 años participaron en la primera fase del estudio y 562 de estos en la segunda (participantes con riesgo de trastornos del estado de ánimo y ansiedad y controles sin riesgo. El LOI-CV fue administrado en ambas fases y el diagnóstico de TOC se obtuvo en la segunda fase. Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio se obtuvieron tres factores que explicaron el 45,84% de la variancia: Orden/ comprobación/contaminación, Preocupaciones obsesivas y Superstición/compulsión mental. La fiabilidad fue buena (0,79-0,90. Para detectar TOC, los puntos de corte seleccionados fueron 21 para la puntuación total y 10 para la interferencia, presentando ambos una sensibilidad del 82,4% y una especificidad del 84,1% y 83,8% respectivamente. Las puntuaciones del LOI-CV fueron significativamente mayores en sujetos con diagnóstico de TOC que en sujetos con diagnóstico subclínico y sin diagnóstico. No hemos hallado diferencias según sexo y edad. Nuestros resultados apoyan la validez y fiabilidad del LOI-CV como herramienta de detección del TOC en población no clínica.

  13. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  14. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Achón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  16. The Effects of Eight-Month Physical Activity Intervention on Vigilance Performance in Adult Obese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Cristina; Ballester, Rafael; Sanchis, Carlos; Llorens, Francesc; Martín, Marta; Pablos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We aim to analyze the effects of an 8-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and vigilance performance in an adult obese population. We conducted an 8-month physical activity intervention based on dance and rhythmic activities. The weekly frequency was 2 sessions of 1 hr per day. Training sessions were divided into 3 phases: a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of dance and rhythmic activities, and 10 min to cool-down. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness, participants performed a modified version of the 6-min walk test from the Senior Fitness Test battery (Larsson & Mattsson, 2001; Rikli & Jones, 1999). Vigilance performance was measured by means of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Two measurements were performed immediately before and after the intervention. The results revealed that participants improved their cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and vigilance performance after the intervention. All in all, findings contribute new empirical evidence to the field that investigates the benefits of physical activity intervention on cognitive processes in obese population.

  17. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  18. Reduction in pedometer-determined physical activity in the adult Danish population from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Raustorp, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the development in pedometer-determined physical activity from 2007–2008 to 2011–2012 in the adult Danish population. Methods: The study population comprised two random samples of 18–75-year-old individuals who took part in cross-sectional studies in 2007–2008 (n=224) and 2011......–2012 (n=1515). Pedometer data (sealed Yamax SW 200) were obtained for seven consecutive days. Data for 1624 participants (48.2% men) were included in the analysis. An overall step-defined activity level was examined based on a graduated step index (sedentary, low active, somewhat active, active, highly.......1%) lower overall step-defined activity level was observed in 2011–2012 compared to 2007–2008. These changes were primarily due to a reduced level of activity among women. The proportion of individuals taking ⩾10,000 steps/day decreased non-significantly from 34.8% to 29.3%, whereas the proportion taking...

  19. Prevalence of latent tuberculous infection among adults in the general population of Ca Mau, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, G B; Nhung, N V; Nguyen, T A; Hoa, N B; Khoa, T H; Son, N V; Phuong, N T B; Tin, D M; Ho, J; Fox, G J

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of persons aged 15 years living in Ca Mau Province, southern Viet Nam. To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in the general adult population of this province of Viet Nam. The secondary objective was to examine age and sex differences in prevalence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a cluster-random sample of the population. Clusters were subcommunes. The presence of LTBI was assessed using the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test system. QuantiFERON tests were performed among 1319 persons aged 15 years (77.7% of those selected). The overall prevalence of positive tests was 36.8% (95%CI 33.4-40.3). The prevalence of a positive test was lower in females than in males (31.0% vs. 44.7%, OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.45-0.72, P Viet Nam have evidence of LTBI. Although LTBI prevalence is higher in males, the sex difference is not as great as that for TB notification rates.

  20. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achón, María; Serrano, María; García-González, Ángela; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-05-18

    Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  1. [Seroprevalence of Q fever among the adult population of Lanzarote (Canary Islands)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Velasco, F; Rodríguez Pérez, J C; Otero Ferrio, I; Borobio Enciso, M V

    1992-09-01

    Q fever is an endemic zoonosis in the Canary Islands. In 1986, we detected, in a pilot study, residual antibodies of the infection in 3% of the population from Lanzarote. In 1989, we performed a new study in order to assess seroprevalence of Q fever among the adult native population from the island. We studied 390 human serums obtained from an statistically representative sample. Age ranged from 30 to 64 years. Out of 390 serums, 196 (50.25%) were obtained from men and 194 (49.74%) from women. The serological technique used was the fixation of complement using Coxiella burnetii antigens in phase II. Titres equal or higher than 1/8 were considered positive. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to seroprevalence rates considering sex, age, nor living in or outside the island's capital city. However, when dividing the island's territory in three areas (north, centre and south), and assessing independently their respective seroprevalences, we observed relatively higher seroprevalences in the furthest areas (13.3% in the north and 13.5% in the south) than in the central area (4.7%), although only the higher seroprevalence in the south reached statistical significance when compared with the mean prevalence. Probably, these observations indicate that, although Q fever is extended all over the island, it is a more frequent infection in rural areas of Lanzarote, at the north and the south, than in the central area, where the main urban areas are located.

  2. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.

  3. Associations between cognitive biases and domains of schizotypy in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebot Sacks, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy Gina; Garcia, Cristina Phoenix

    2012-03-30

    Schizotypy is a non-clinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to psychotic disorders (Claridge and Beech, 1995). Research on normative populations scoring high on schizotypy is valuable because it may help elucidate the predisposition to schizophrenia (Jahshan and Sergi, 2007) and because performance is not confounded by issues present in schizophrenia samples. In the current study, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted using several comprehensive measures of schizotypy. As expected and replicating prior research, a four-factor model of schizotypy emerged including a positive, a negative, a cognitive disorganization, and an impulsive nonconformity factor. We also evaluated how each factor related to distinct cognitive biases. In support of hypotheses, increased self-certainty, decreased theory of mind, and decreased source memory were associated with higher scores on the positive factor; decreased theory of mind was associated with higher scores on the negative factor; and increased self-certainty was associated with greater impulsive nonconformity. Unexpectedly, decreased self-certainty and increased theory of mind were associated with greater cognitive disorganization, and decreased source memory was associated with greater impulsive nonconformity. These findings offer new insights by highlighting cognitive biases that may be risk factors for psychosis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases: Therapeutic Approach and Drug Validation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Ivette Fernandez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, 19.8% of the Cuban population was aged 60 or over. As a result, age-associated degenerative diseases and other diseases have become priority targets from a prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic perspective. As a result, the Cuban biomedical scientific community has addressed its basic, preclinical and epidemiological research in order to rise up to the challenge. A firm step in this direction has been the international congress “State of the art in non-clinical models for neurodegenerative diseases” which has brought together preclinical and clinical researchers, technicians and regulatory staff members from different countries to review the state of the art in neurodegenerations, find unifying ideas, objectives and collaborations or partnership. The objective is to expose the perspectives of new biotechnological products from Cuba and other countries from the diagnostic, therapeutic and neuroprotective point of view. It is crucial, therefore, that the irreplaceable role of laboratory animals in achieving these objectives is understood but they must be used in rational, adequate and ethical manner. We expose the current development trends in this field, being of common interest to the work directed to the search for potential drugs, diagnostic tools and the promotion of changes in lifestyle as a preventive projection.

  5. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-05-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010-2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008-2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53-2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65-16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30-67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72-114.87) in class III obese. Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public policy and highlight the need for effective interventions

  6. Effects of serum phosphorus on vascular calcification in a healthy, adult population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kristin; Logomarsino, John V

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels, which have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. This is commonly seen in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population where studies have shown that high phosphorus levels cause coronary artery calcification. Although studies have independently associated vascular stiffness and serum phosphorus in those with and without CKD, there are fewer data in individuals without CKD. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze whether serum phosphorus levels are associated with cardiovascular calcification in healthy individuals. A systematic review of the literature that was conducted revealed 10 articles, all cross-sectional studies, that met eligibility criteria. These criteria were peer-reviewed studies on a healthy, adult population written in the English language. Studies lacking data on serum phosphorus and measured to assess its association with vascular calcification were excluded. Studies on subjects with CKD, other chronic diseases, or on children were also excluded. Of the 10 studies located, 8 indicated an association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification. One study did not indicate an association. One study indicated a statistically significant association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification prevalence, but not incidence. Studies were limited since no randomized controlled trials were available. This systematic review generates gaps in research. Due to considerable amounts of phosphorus additives in the food supply, there may be a connection to dietary phosphorus and vascular calcification. Additionally, phosphorus binders may assist in the prevention of vascular calcification but have not been studied in a healthy population. Further study on both dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders is needed. While 8 out of 10 cross-sectional studies found an association in this systematic review, the topic of vascular

  7. [Acetabular anteversion angle of the hip in the Mexican adult population measured with computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, J; Gómez-García, F; Ríos-Reina, J L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiogrametric characteristics of a specific skeletal segment in a healthy population is of the utmost clinical importance. The main justification for this study is that there is no published description of the radiogrametric parameter of acetabular anteversion in a healthy Mexican adult population. A prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. Individuals of both genders older than 18 years and orthopedically healthy were included. They underwent a two-dimensional axial tomographic study of both hips to measure the acetabular anteversion angles. The statistical analysis consisted of obtaining central trend and scatter measurements. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical significance were performed. 118 individuals were studied, 60 males and 58 females, with a mean age of 47.7 +/- 16.7, and a range of 18-85 years. The anteversion of the entire group was 18.6 degrees + 4.1 degrees. Anteversion in males was 17.3 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees (10 degrees - 25 degrees) and in females 19.8 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees (10 degrees - 31 degrees). There were no statistically significant differences (p right and left anteversion in the entire group. However, there were statistically significant differences (p > or = 0.005) both in the right and left sides when males and females were compared. Our study showed that there are great variations in the anteversion ranges of a healthy population. When our results are compared with those published by other authors the mean of most measurements exceeds 15 degrees. This should be useful to make therapeutic decisions that involve acetabular anteversion.

  8. Psychological functioning in non-clinical young adults: Protective and risk factors for internalizing symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mabilia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The present research proposes the analysis of specific aspects of psychosocial functioning and development with a focus on issues related to internalizing symptoms, attachment styles and interpersonal dimensions of interpersonal functioning. Developmental theories emphasized the importance of transitions, as periods of biologically and socially characterized changes (Arnett, 1997; Gurevitz Stern, 2004; Schulenberg, Magges, Hurrelmann, 1997; Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). The development...

  9. Interhemispheric Interaction and ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Non-clinical Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh; Borger, Norbert; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that ADHD, depression, anxiety and stress are related to impaired interhemispheric communication and anomalies in the right hemisphere functioning. The current study aimed to investigate whether interhemispheric interaction (IHI) is related to ADHD and mood disorders in a

  10. Nose profile morphology and accuracy study of nose profile estimation method in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarilita, Erli; Rynn, Christopher; Mossey, Peter A; Black, Sue; Oscandar, Fahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated nose profile morphology and its relationship to the skull in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations, with the aim of improving the accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstruction. Samples of 86 lateral head cephalograms from Dundee Dental School (mean age, 11.8 years) and 335 lateral head cephalograms from the Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia (mean age 24.2 years), were measured. The method of nose profile estimation based on skull morphology previously proposed by Rynn and colleagues in 2010 (FSMP 6:20-34) was tested in this study. Following this method, three nasal aperture-related craniometrics and six nose profile dimensions were measured from the cephalograms. To assess the accuracy of the method, six nose profile dimensions were estimated from the three craniometric parameters using the published method and then compared to the actual nose profile dimensions.In the Scottish subadult population, no sexual dimorphism was evident in the measured dimensions. In contrast, sexual dimorphism of the Indonesian adult population was evident in all craniometric and nose profile dimensions; notably, males exhibited statistically significant larger values than females. The published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) performed better in the Scottish subadult population (mean difference of maximum, 2.35 mm) compared to the Indonesian adult population (mean difference of maximum, 5.42 mm in males and 4.89 mm in females).In addition, regression formulae were derived to estimate nose profile dimensions based on the craniometric measurements for the Indonesian adult population. The published method is not sufficiently accurate for use on the Indonesian population, so the derived method should be used. The accuracy of the published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) was sufficiently reliable to be applied in Scottish subadult population.

  11. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu ZY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zu-yun Liu,1,* Yin-zhi Wei,2,* Li-qing Wei,3,* Xiao-yan Jiang,4 Xiao-feng Wang,5 Yan Shi,6 Hua Hai7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Huangshi Central Hospital, Edong Healthcare Group, Huangshi, China; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 4Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of the Ministry of Education of China, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 5Unit of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 6Department of Emergency, Huai’an Second People’s Hospital and the Affiliated Huai’an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai’an, China; 7Department of Intensive Care Unit, Xuyi People’s Hospital, Xuyi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods: We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS. Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1, which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10, prefrail (0.10< FI ≤0.21, and frail (FI >0.21. Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS. Results: During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4% participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail, one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states

  12. Study Circles as a Method of Informing the Adult Population on Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, M.

    2002-01-01

    Public acceptance of the radioactive waste disposal facilities is difficult to achieve. Analysis of the reasons that underlie public rejection of radioactive waste disposal facilities shows that people are not adequately informed about the proposal. They also have a lot of prejudices due to the lack of knowledge and understanding about basic facts on radioactivity and environmental processes. ARAO has proposed that the topic of radioactivity and radioactive waste be included in the program of study circles in order to promote knowledge and understanding of these issues among the adult population in several Slovenian communities. Study circles are self-organized adult learning groups in the local community environment. Two study circles were initially proposed: one in Krsko, the community with a nuclear facility, and one in Radovljica, a community without a nuclear facility. Because of troubles with the unexpected politicization of nuclear issues, the study circle in Krsko was postponed to the later term, so that only the study circle in the community without the nuclear installation was active. The members were found by personal invitations. They worked on different issues dealing with radiation, mainly with the application of radiation and radioactive substances in medicine. Through the study circle activities the interest in radiation issues increased. The members reported that they disseminated their interest and acquired knowledge to their family members and friends. Our experience shows that self-learning in small groups, promoting discussions and the confrontation of different opinions, results in an increase in objective knowledge. Therefore, study circles can provide a good basis for confidence building in the nuclear technology.(author)

  13. Maxillary and mandibular contribution to the establishment of class II malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Nadine; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla; Tauk, Alain; Mouhanna-Fattal, Carole; Bouserhal, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the contribution of the maxilla and the mandible to the establishment of a Class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population. Secondary aims were to detect the presence of sex-based dimorphism and to study the influence of the vertical dimension on the Class II skeletal pattern. A sample of 90 adults in skeletal Class II was recruited and equally distributed according to sex and vertical typology. The study describes the skeletal and dentoalveolar cephalometric characteristics of the Class II sample, essentially according to Coben's cephalometric analysis. The total effective depth of the cranial base and the anterior cranial base angle (SN-BaH) were both greater in the Class II sample. In females, the effective depth of the maxilla (Ptm-A) was larger than normal while SNB was smaller. The parameters describing the size and shape of the body of the mandible were significantly different from those of normal subjects. The upper incisors were in a retrusive position, while the axis of the lower incisors was located normally. The mandibular molars had a more distal sagittal position. Hyperdivergent subjects had more significant posterior alveolar growth, a more retrusive mandibular position and smaller mandibular dimensions than the other two vertical sub-groups. The cranial base contributes to the establishment of a Class II malocclusion, and mandibular retrusion cannot be considered as a characteristic shared by all skeletal Class II subjects. Lessening of the absolute length of the mandibular body is the second most frequent etiological factor noted in the Class II sample studied. Most individuals in skeletal Class II have an associated dental Class II malocclusion, and the vertical dimension has an influence on the Class II skeletal pattern. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns and adult asthma: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolis, I; Hooper, R; Thompson, R L; Shaheen, S O

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. We carried out a population-based case-control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Overall, there was weak evidence that a 'vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93-2.20), P trend 0.075], and a 'traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45-1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the 'vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A 'prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13-6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication.

  15. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Abbate, Rossella; Albano, Luciana; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2008-03-17

    Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.

  16. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. Results A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Conclusion Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.

  17. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  18. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  19. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications.

  20. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  1. Use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with fractures in young adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, D E; Haynes, K; Denburg, M R; Zemel, B S; Leonard, M B; Abrams, J A; Yang, Y-X

    2015-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with risk for fracture in osteoporotic adults. In this population-based study, we found a significant association between PPIs and fracture in young adults, with evidence of a dose-response effect. Young adults who use PPIs should be cautioned regarding risk for fracture. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with fracture in adults with osteoporosis. Because PPI therapy may interfere with bone accrual and attainment of peak bone mineral density, we studied the association between use of PPIs and fracture in children and young adults. We conducted a population-based, case-control study nested within records from general medical practices from 1994 to 2013. Participants were 4-29 years old with ≥ 1 year of follow-up who lacked chronic conditions associated with use of long-term acid suppression. Cases of fracture were defined as the first incident fracture at any site. Using incidence density sampling, cases were matched with up to five controls by age, sex, medical practice, and start of follow-up. PPI exposure was defined as 180 or more cumulative doses of PPIs. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and confidence interval for use of PPIs and fracture. We identified 124,799 cases and 605,643 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for the risk of fracture associated with PPI exposure was 1.13 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.39) among children aged young adults aged 18-29 years old. In young adults but not children, we observed a dose-response effect with increased total exposure to PPIs (p for trend young adults, but overall evidence did not support a PPI-fracture relationship in children. Young adults who use PPIs should be cautioned regarding potentially increased risk for fracture, even if they lack traditional fracture risk factors.

  2. Oral health literacy and oral health outcomes in an adult population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Jesus Batista

    2017-07-01

    strategies directed at improving critical and communicative oral health literacy in adult populations.

  3. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  4. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over

  5. Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight...

  6. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  7. Sexting Leads to "Risky" Sex? An Analysis of Sexting Behaviors in a Nonuniversity-Based, Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Joseph M; Hubach, Randolph D; Sanders, Carissa; Hammer, Tonya R

    2017-10-03

    Since few researchers have analyzed sexting behaviors in nonuniversity-based adult samples, we sought to determine if sexting is associated with negative psychological correlates and risky sexual behaviors in this population. Analysis of individuals who indicated having vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months and who identified as single (n = 377) showed that condomless sex is independent of sexting behaviors. Results for those in committed relationships (n = 374) and having had vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months also demonstrated condomless sex and sexting behaviors were not related. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and relational health were predictive of sexting behaviors in adults in committed relationships. These findings demonstrate that while risky sexual behavior and negative psychological correlates are associated with sexting and younger populations, the same might not be true for a nonuniversity-based, older adult sample.

  8. Gaussian Graphical Models Identify Networks of Dietary Intake in a German Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Buijsse, Brian; Wirth, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    Data-reduction methods such as principal component analysis are often used to derive dietary patterns. However, such methods do not assess how foods are consumed in relation to each other. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are a set of novel methods that can address this issue. We sought to apply GGMs to derive sex-specific dietary intake networks representing consumption patterns in a German adult population. Dietary intake data from 10,780 men and 16,340 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were cross-sectionally analyzed to construct dietary intake networks. Food intake for each participant was estimated using a 148-item food-frequency questionnaire that captured the intake of 49 food groups. GGMs were applied to log-transformed intakes (grams per day) of 49 food groups to construct sex-specific food networks. Semiparametric Gaussian copula graphical models (SGCGMs) were used to confirm GGM results. In men, GGMs identified 1 major dietary network that consisted of intakes of red meat, processed meat, cooked vegetables, sauces, potatoes, cabbage, poultry, legumes, mushrooms, soup, and whole-grain and refined breads. For women, a similar network was identified with the addition of fried potatoes. Other identified networks consisted of dairy products and sweet food groups. SGCGMs yielded results comparable to those of GGMs. GGMs are a powerful exploratory method that can be used to construct dietary networks representing dietary intake patterns that reveal how foods are consumed in relation to each other. GGMs indicated an apparent major role of red meat intake in a consumption pattern in the studied population. In the future, identified networks might be transformed into pattern scores for investigating their associations with health outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering among rural adult population in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in a rural adult population of West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged ≥20 years in a rural community. All participants were grouped: Group I (20-39 years); Group II (40-59 years); Group III (≥60 years). Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. Metabolic profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Mean of minimum waist circumference (MWC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), trunk-extremity ratio (TER), fat free mass (FFM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), intra-abdominal visceral fat (IVF) and arm muscle area (AMA) was found to be higher among males in comparison to females, whereas, the mean of body mass index (BMI), maximum hip circumference (MHC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), sum of four skinfolds (∑SF4), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), insulin, HOMA-IR and arm fat area (AFA) was higher in females. 37% of individuals (males 25% and females 49%) with high triglyceride (TG) also had low high density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas, 25% individuals (males 25% and females 24%) with overweight also had high fasting blood glucose (FBG). The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) among individuals having high %BF was higher in the age groups of 40-59 years for both sexes. The study showed that prevalence of CVD risk factor clustering is high in the study population and warranted early intervention to safeguard the cardiovascular health of the nation. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypertension management in a population of older adults in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Reiger, Sheridan; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Wade, Alisha; Bärnighausen, Till W; Salomon, Joshua; Tollman, Stephen; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates were assessed. A regression model was built to identify predictors of those outcomes. The mean age of the 2884 hypertensive participants was 64.1 ± 12.7 years. Hypertension awareness rate was 64.4%, treatment among those aware was 89.3 and 45.8% of those treated were controlled. Considering aware and unaware hypertensives, treatment rate was 49.7% and control 22.8%. In the multivariable regression model, awareness was predicted by female sex, age at least 60 years, higher social economic status, prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonimmigrant status, literacy, and physical limitation. Improved control among those treated was predicted by age at least 60 years. Blood pressure control among all hypertensive study participants was predicted by female sex, being HIV-negative, age at least 60 years, nonimmigrant status, and prior CVD. High rates of awareness and treatment of hypertension as well as good levels of control were found in this population, probably explained by the long-term surveillance program conducted in the area. Considering the predictors of hypertension management, particular attention should be given to men, residents younger than 60 years, immigrants, and study participants without CVD as these characteristics were predictors of poor outcome.

  11. Smoking and adult glioma: a population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Han, Wei; Wu, Yanping; Zou, Xiaonong; Nasca, Philip C; Xue, Fang; Chen, Yuanli; Zhang, Biao; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Zixing; Li, Junyao

    2016-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of numerous cancers; however, an association of smoking with adult gliomas has not been found in a population. This case-control study included 4556 glioma cases (ICD-9 code 191.0-191.9) aged ≥ 30 years and 9112 controls from a national survey of smoking and mortality in China in 1989-1991. Controls from 325 255 surviving spouses of all-cause deaths were randomly assigned to cases in each of 103 areas according to sex and age groups at a ratio of 2:1. Smoking information was ascertained retrospectively by interviewing surviving spouses. After adjustment for confounders, smoking increased the risk of glioma deaths by 11% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.21). Compared with non-smokers; the increased risk was 9% (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99-1.20) in men and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36) in women. The risk increased with age and doses. For individuals aged ≥ 50 years, smoking was associated with higher risk of glioma death by 25% (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.15-1.38); this increased risk for smokers who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily for ≥ 30 years was 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.34-1.74). There were similar findings in both men and women and with either pathology-based or non-pathology-based comparisons. This study indicates that smoking is associated with glioma deaths in the Chinese population. Long-term heavy smoking could be a factor for risk stratification in individuals attending brain tumor clinics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  13. A STUDY ON TIBIAL TORSION IN ADULT DRY TIBIA OF EAST AND SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami Sagar Prusti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rotational deformities of the lower limbs are very common. There is increasing evidence that abnormal torsion in the tibia is associated with severe knee and ankle arthritis. Primary knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in older persons. Varus or valgus alignment increases the risk of osteoarthritis. Coexistence of tibial torsional deformity may increase the risk further. Variability in the tibial torsion has been reported and is due to the torsional forces applied on tibia during development. The aim of the study is to estimate the angle of tibial torsion on both sides and both sexes. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of tibial torsion in the East and South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 100 dry adult unpaired human tibia, i.e. 50 male and 50 female bones. The measurements were recorded and statistically analysed using Student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (free trial version. RESULTS Out of the 100 tibia undertaken, mean value of tibial torsion angle obtained is 25.8°. In males, it is 23.68° and in females it is about 27.86°. Statistical analysis revealed significant greater average angle of tibial torsion in female bones. The angle of the right-sided bones was more and this was statistically significant. CONCLUSION The gender variation for the angle could be the result of the difference in lifestyle in day-to-day activities. The knowledge of the angle in a population could be helpful in understanding the incidence of pathogenesis related to gait and knee osteoarthritis and in view of reconstructive surgeries in orthopaedic practice.

  14. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, A; Sluik, D; Feskens, E J M; Kok, F J; Mensink, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in humans. 1128 men and women aged 20-70 years were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. FLI was derived from body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Associations were adjusted for energy intake, alcohol intake, age, sex, education, smoking and prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. In this population (mean age 53.0±11.4 years; BMI 25.9±4.0 kg/m 2 ; FLI 35.0±27.7), the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60 was 21.5%. Subjects in the highest FLI category were more likely to be male, older and less physically active. Total protein intake and animal protein intake were positively associated with the highest FLI score versus the lowest (odds ratio (OR) 1.25 per 1 en%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.37 and OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17-1.38, respectively); for vegetable protein, an inverse association was observed (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94). A similar positive association with FLI was observed when carbohydrates and fat were iso-calorically exchanged for total and animal proteins. Subjects in the high FLI group consumed more protein, especially from animal origin, less carbohydrates and less dietary fibre. The presence of fatty liver was associated with a higher intake of animal protein and total fat, soft drinks and snacks.

  15. Associations Between Plasma Chemerin Concentrations and Bone Quality in Adults From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Lejla; Zylla, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Friedrich, Nele; Hannemann, Anke

    2018-06-01

    Chemerin is an adipokine associated with parameters of inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Small observational studies suggested that high circulating chemerin levels are also related to bone erosion. We aimed to determine whether plasma chemerin levels are related to bone quality in the general population and to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on that relation. For our analyses, we obtained data from 3583 adults who participated in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania-Trend. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI: lean (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25 to 30 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Chemerin concentrations were determined in EDTA plasma. Bone quality was assessed using quantitative ultrasound at the heel. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index, and osteoporotic fracture risk were derived from this measurement. Sex- and BMI-specific linear regression models revealed inverse associations between chemerin levels and BUA in obese men. In obese women, inverse relations between chemerin levels and SOS or stiffness index were found. Logistic regression models revealed positive associations between chemerin levels and osteoporotic fracture risk. In lean or overweight subjects, no statistically significant associations were found. Our sex- and BMI-specific analyses showed that inverse associations between chemerin levels and bone quality are restricted to obese men and women. The observed association may be due to a chemerin-induced negative affect on bone metabolism, possibly due to abrogation of osteoblastogenesis or stimulation of adipogenesis.

  16. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  17. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  20. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  1. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus FC; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William CS; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor...

  2. Protection Provided by Hepatitis B Vaccine in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Masoumeh; Imani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis B vaccination has been integrated into National Expanded Program on Immunization in Iran since the year 1993 and young adult national vaccination project was done in 2008. So we have three subpopulations with vaccination coverage for hepatitis B and different antibody levels. Consisting of Subpopulation 1 born after 1993, subpopulation 2 born between 1989 and 1993 and receiving vaccination under adult national project, and subpopulation 3 born prior to the year 1989. The present study was conducted to investigate community protection by hepatitis B vaccine in adult population in an accessible population in Iran and compare vaccination coverage, HBs Ab level, and its effective titration among the three above-mentioned subpopulations. This cross-sectional study was done on a 3000-individual adult population from all seven counties of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province enrolled by clustering. After obtaining written consent and filling out a questionnaire of demographic data and history of hepatitis B vaccination by trained interviewers, necessary blood sample was taken and HBs Ab titration was checked. The data were analysed by chi-square in SPSS 19. The level of significance was considered as 0.05 and effective Ab titration as ≥ 10. The mean age of the participants was 38.4±16.3 years. Of the participants 48.2% had effective titration. For vaccination coverage, 77.4% were unvaccinated, 20% completely vaccinated, and 2.6% incompletely vaccinated with a significant association with effective titration (ptitration between them (ptitration was significantly associated with being married and residence place (p=0.003). There was a significant association between effective titration and the time at vaccination (p<0.001). Protection provided by hepatitis B vaccine in adult population is relatively suitable especially in the youth population; however, catch-up programs of the groups exposed to risk are recommended.

  3. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Relationship between leptin and body mass and metabolic syndrome in an adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria do Carmo; Lima Faleiro, Luís; Fonseca, Aidil

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the relationship between leptin and obesity expressed as body mass index (BMI) and certain components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in an adult population. The study included 103 subjects, 42 men and 61 women, aged over 30 years, clinically defined as non-diabetic but with personal or family history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects underwent fasting blood measurements of leptin, insulin, glucose, glucose after ingestion of 75g glucose, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and insulin resistance (IR) and BMI were calculated. BMI as an index of overall adiposity was strongly associated with serum leptin. BMI rose as serum leptin levels increased from the first to the third tertile; the correlation between leptin and BMI was strong, r=0.524 in men and r=0.603 in women, with high statistical significance (pcorrelations between leptin and IR, and leptin and insulinemia, were strong in both sexes. With regard to MS components, increased serum levels of the study variables were observed as leptin concentrations rose from the first to the third tertile (with the exception of HDL cholesterol, which decreased). Elevated serum leptin, particularly in obese individuals, should be taken as a warning sign of energy imbalance, poor diet, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, or changes in other metabolic risk factors that are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Body Mass Index and Migraine: A Survey of Adult Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both migraine and obesity are prevalent disorders in the general population, which are characterized by disability and impaired quality of life. Although so many researches had studied the association between migraine and obesity, there are still no full knowledge of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and migraine, especially chronic migraine (CM. In this study, we analyzed a previous epidemiological survey data of primary headache patients in Chongqing, which surveyed consecutive neurological outpatients through face-to-face interview with physicians using a headache questionnaire. 166 episodic migraine (EM patients and 134 chronic migraine (CM patients were included in the study out of 1327 primary headache patients. And 200 healthy adults from the physical examination center were included as a control group. Finally, we found that the patients with migraine (EM and CM were more likely to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese compared to those in the healthy group. Significant difference was found between BMI and frequency of migraine attacks but not severity or duration of headache onset. And no significant difference was found in severity and duration of headache onset between episodic and chronic migraine among different BMI classifications. Such may update our knowledge about the clinical features of migraine and BMI, revealing that the frequency of attacks may be associated with being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in patients with migraine and that the extent of being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in CM patients was lower than that in EM patients.

  6. Risk factors for the progression of periodontal disease in a Greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the progression risk factors of periodontal disease by individual characteristics at baseline in a Greek adult population. The study sample consisted of 854 individuals. All participants were clinically examined and answered questions regarding sex, smoking status, socioeconomic status, low educational level, frequency of dental follow up, and oral hygiene habits. Serum levels of disease markers were investigated, and attachment levels were clinically recorded. For the assessment of periodontal disease progression, additional clinical attachment loss (CAL) was used if one or more sites showed a 3 mm or more increase in probing attachment level over a 2-year period. Statistical analysis was performed by using a modified multiple Poisson's analysis model. A total of 74% of the participants exhibited additional CAL over a 2-year period. Significant associations were observed between additional CAL and smoking (relative risk [RR] = 0.78, 95% confidence level [CI] = 0.65-0.92), attachment level of 5 mm or more at baseline (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.75-1.05), educational level (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.76-1.07), socioeconomic status (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.59-1.14), and irregular dental follow up (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04-1.45). Smoking, baseline attachment level of 5 mm or more, low educational level, low socioeconomic status, and irregular dental follow up could be considered risk factors for further CAL. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Childhood trauma and increased peripheral cytokines in young adults with major depressive: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. The total sample comprised 166 young adults, of these: 40.4% were subjects with MDD and childhood trauma and 59.6% were diagnosed with MDD without childhood trauma. In relation to serum interleukin levels, subjects with childhood trauma showed a significantly higher serum IL-6 (p = 0.013) and IL-10 levels (p = 0.022) to compare no childhood trauma. Subjects with childhood trauma was observed positive correlation between serum IL-6 and physical abuse (r = 0.232, p = 0.035) and emotional abuse (r = 0.460, p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, IL-10 were positive correlation with physical abuse (r = 0.258, p = 0.013). TNF- α was not associated with childhood trauma. Childhood maltreatment may result higher inflammation dysregulation in individuals with depression than individuals that no has childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunogenetic markers of Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavtsev D.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study immunogenetic markers of predisposition to the development and protection for Crohn's disease in adults population of the Moscow region. Material and methods. The study included 53 samples of peripheral blood of patients with Crohn's disease in the Moscow region. The control group was represented by 1,700 samples of umbilical cord blood is healthy newborns. Revealing HLA antigens at low level performed by SSO method on DynalRELI 48 processor. The results received with ambiguous interpretation was using PCR-SSP method (Ivitrogen. Results. Were found the positive and negative associations of groups of HLA alleles with clinical form, the course of Crohn's disease and response to steroid treatment, in particular revealed that, predisposition to the development for Crohn's disease in women and with sensitivity to steroid treatment in this disease associated allele group C*12, to the characteristic restricting markers such as Crohn's disease include the В 38 and A*11 markers nonrestricting, nonpenetrating noninflammatory type groups are alleles B*56 and C*14 and C*14 is also associated with the risk of Crohn's disease in men, characteristic markers of protection to the development of the disease crown with chronic relapsing and severe clinical course are DQB1*02 and DQB1*03, respectively. Conclusion. These results demonstrate the need for studies of gene polymorphism HLA-system, not only in relation to the disease in general, but in selected patients with clinical groups.

  9. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Salmerón, Jorge; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón

    2016-01-01

    To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  10. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  11. Age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution in Japanese adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (pabdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.

  12. Study of risk factors for carcinoma breast in adult female general population in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.; Sheikh, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate some of the established risk factors for the breast cancer in adult female population. It was a prospective study. This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore, from August 1999 to August, 2000. One hundred breast cancer patients and 100 control subjects enrolled for interview and the percentage of positives was analyzed. Performa containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for breast cancer was established. All the female subjects, above 15 years of age, were subjected to the questions in this proforma. To keep uniformity medical officers were briefed for filling this proforma. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Out of established risk factors, family history of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptive pills were proved significantly positive with a value of p 0.05). This study showed that there is a family tendency for breast cancer and estrogenic hormones are playing some role. More possibility of breast cancer was found in infertile and those having early menarche. (author)

  13. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  14. Association of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with symptoms of excessive exercising in an adult general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nikolas A A; Müller, Astrid; Brähler, Elmar; Philipsen, Alexandra; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-09-12

    An increasing number of studies suggest that physical activity can alleviate symptoms of ADHD in children. In adults there are currently insufficient data available on this subject. Interestingly, ADHD and forms of excessive exercising have both been shown to occur more frequently in adult athletes. The aim of the present study was to empirically investigate the association of ADHD and excessive exercising in the adult general population. For diagnosis of adult and childhood ADHD a large representative sample of the German general population (n = 1,615) completed a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD and a self-report assessment of adult ADHD. Excessive exercising as well as putative mediating variables such as eating related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety were assessed using standardized self-rating instruments. Individuals with childhood only ADHD had a significantly higher frequency of excessive exercising (9.0%) than individuals without ADHD (2.7%). Excessive exercising was significantly associated with childhood only ADHD compared to no ADHD with an odds ratio of 3.239 even after controlling for socio-demographic variables, BMI, eating related and general psychopathology. Our data show that excessive exercising is significantly overrepresented in individuals in which ADHD symptoms in childhood have not persisted into adulthood. We thus hypothesize that a subgroup of individuals might suppress ADHD symptoms by excessive sporting activities. Although in healthy adults physical activity has been associated with immediate and long term improvements in cognitive functioning, studies empirically investigating associations between the effects of physical activity and adult ADHD are rare. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential role of physical activity in the treatment of ADHD in adults.

  15. Patterns of care and outcomes in adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori; Alvarez, Elysia; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Abrahão, Renata; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa

    2018-04-24

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represent a heterogeneous population who receive care in pediatric or adult cancer settings. Using the California Cancer Registry, we describe AYA ALL patterns of care and outcomes over the past decade. Sociodemographics, treatment location, and front-line therapies administered to AYAs diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2014 were obtained. Cox regression models evaluated associations between ALL setting and regimen and overall survival (OS) and leukemia-specific survival (LSS) for the entire cohort, younger AYA (<25 years), and AYAs treated in the adult cancer setting only. Of 1473 cases, 67.7% were treated in an adult setting; of these, 24.8% received a pediatric ALL regimen and 40.7% were treated at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated center. In multivariable analyses, front-line treatment in a pediatric (vs adult) setting (OS HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.76; LSS HR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.35-0.74) and at an NCI/Children's Oncology Group (COG) center (OS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.66-0.96; LSS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) were associated with significantly superior survival. Results were similar when analyses were limited to younger AYAs. Outcomes for AYAs treated in an adult setting did not differ following front-line pediatric or adult ALL regimens. Our population-level findings demonstrate that two-thirds of AYAs with newly diagnosed ALL are treated in an adult cancer setting, with the majority receiving care in community settings. Given the potential survival benefits, front-line treatment of AYA ALL at pediatric and/or NCI/COG-designated cancer centers should be considered. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  17. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  18. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7), 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status). We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcomes were short- (Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0]) on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1]) during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%]) and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%]), respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%); both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this nationally representative sample, the sociodemographic profile of short-sleep contrasts the long-sleep. These scenarios in Peru, as depicted by sleeping

  19. [Analysis of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in the adult population of Yecla (Murcia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Candela, J; Gallardo Martín, A; Franch Nadal, J; Romero Ortiz, J; Cánovas Domínguez, C; Gómez Marco, R

    2004-10-31

    To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG or GBA), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in the adult population of Yecla. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study (on Primary Care Field) with stratified and random sampling (393) from 17 500 residents in Yecla with sanitary card and aged > or =30 years. We studied 286 subjects (107 declining to participate) and 261 of them (125 men and 136 women) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). World Health Organization (WHO-99) and American Diabetes Association (ADA-97) criteria were used for diagnosis of unknown DM2, GBA and IGT. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables were measured. Plasma lipid, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), microalbuminuria and insulin levels also were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the HOMA method. According ADA-97 criteria the prevalence of DM2 and GBA was 2.65 (CI+/-1.95) and 4.3% (+/-2.5) respectively. Underwent an OGTT, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM2, IGT and GBA (using the Spanish population of July 02) was 6.7 (95%CI, 3,7-9,7); 13.2 (95%CI, 9.1-17.3) and 0.2% (95%CI, 0-1.8) respectively. The known DM2 was 5,9% (95%CI, 3.8-8) and the global prevalence of DM2 was 12.6% (95%CI, 9.6-15.6). The diabetes was associated with overweight, overage and higher insulin, HbA1C and insulin resistance levels. There is a high prevalence of DM2 in Yecla (known/unknown 0.87/1). The ADA97 criteria only detected 53% of the unknown DM2. The 78% of normoglycemics subjects had overweight or upper-body fat distribution and diabetics people had higher BMI (Body Mass Index), Hypertension, insulinemia, HbA1C and insulin resistance levels than normoglycemics and IGT subjects.

  20. Determination of Mean Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy Adults of a Local Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Sumbal; Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Ijaz, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Qaiser Alam; Aleef, Hira; Abbasi, Maria

    2017-07-01

    To determine the mean hemoglobin HbA1C levels of disease-free adults in a local population and its optimum cutoff for the diagnosis of diabetes. Cross-sectional study. Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2015. Healthy subjects aged 18 years and above of either gender were recruited from local population. Pregnant ladies and individuals with known diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, congestive cardiac failure, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, mental illness and individuals on glucocorticoid therapy were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) was analyzed using hexokinase methodology and glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) was also analyzed using turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technique. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Differences among the groups were tested by one-way ANOVA, and p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among 558 subjects, 88.8% (496) were normoglycaemic (NG), 5.7% (32) were with impaired glucose fasting (IFG), and 5.4% (30) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). A1C was 5.00 ±0.44% in NG and 6.28 ±1.16% in diabetics. FPG in NG was 4.55 ±0.95 mmol/Land in diabetics was 8.28 ±1.78 mmol/L. The optimal HbA1C cutoff value for diagnosis of DM was at 6.05% (AUC 0.827 95% CI 0.732 to 0.923, p ≤0.05 with its sensitivity of 53.3% and specificity of 98.5%. However, HbA1C showed suboptimal sensitivity and specificity for prediabetes. The mean HbAIC and cutoff point for diabetes in the study population is 5.07 ±0.58% and 6.05%, respectively (AUC 0.827, 95% CI: 0.732 to 0.923, p<0.001) with 53.3% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity.

  1. Determination of Mean Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy Adults of a Local Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nida, S.; Ijaz, A.; Aleef, H.; Khan, D. A.; Khan, M. Q. A.; Abbasi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean hemoglobin HbA1C levels of disease-free adults in a local population and its optimum cutoff for the diagnosis of diabetes. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2015. Methodology: Healthy subjects aged 18 years and above of either gender were recruited from local population. Pregnant ladies and individuals with known diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, congestive cardiac failure, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, mental illness and individuals on glucocorticoid therapy were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) was analyzed using hexokinase methodology and glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) was also analyzed using turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technique. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Differences among the groups were tested by one-way ANOVA, and p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among 558 subjects, 88.8% (496) were normoglycaemic (NG), 5.7% (32) were with impaired glucose fasting (IFG), and 5.4% (30) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). A1C was 5.00 0.44% in NG and 6.28 +-1.16% in diabetics. FPG in NG was 4.55 +-0.95 mmol/L and in diabetics was 8.28 1.78 mmol/L. The optimal HbA1C cutoff value for diagnosis of DM was at 6.05% (AUC 0.827 95% CI 0.732 to 0.923, p <=0.05 with its sensitivity of 53.3% and specificity of 98.5%. However, HbA1C showed suboptimal sensitivity and specificity for prediabetes. Conclusion: The mean HbAIC and cutoff point for diabetes in the study population is 5.07 +-0.58% and 6.05%, respectively (AUC 0.827, 95% CI: 0.732 to 0.923, p<0.001) with 53.3% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. (author)

  2. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  3. Induced not just right and incompleteness experiences in OCD patients and non-clinical individuals: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Romero, Gertrudis; Belloch, Amparo

    2017-12-01

    Research on incompleteness and not-just right experiences, (INC/NJREs) indicate that some OCD symptom dimensions are motivated by these experiences rather than by anxiety. Most published data are correlational, using non-clinical individuals. This study sought to examine INC/NJREs in vivo in non-clinical and OCD individuals. Study 1: Ninety-three undergraduates were randomly assigned to a INC/NJREs induction (n=44) or non-induction task (n=47). Scores on self-reports assessing INC, NJREs, OCD, Anxiety, and Depression were also recorded. Study 2: Twenty adults with OCD performed the induction task and completed the same questionnaire-packet as the non-clinical participants. Study 1: The induction-group scored higher on several DVs of the experimental task, as INC/NJREs and uncomfortable physical sensations predicted impulses/urges to do something. All the DVs correlated with INC, NJREs, and OCD symptoms. Anxiety was only related to suppressing difficulties of the most intense sensation. Study 2: Results were comparable to those found in non-clinical people. Induced INC/NJREs correlated with compulsions severity and were associated with ordering, washing, and hoarding symptoms. OCDs did not differ from non-clinical subjects in the number of induced INC/NJREs, but they were more disturbing, difficult to suppress, and instigated more urges to do in OCDs. The small group of OCDs and the lack of a non-OCD clinical group kept us from drawing conclusions about the specificity of INC/NJREs to some OCD symptoms. Findings support the role of INC/NJREs as stimuli triggering urges and/impulses to do and their impact on OCD severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Adult CHD patients under clinical follow-up have a similar quality of life to the general population in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Maryanne; Grech, Victor

    2017-08-01

    The improved survival of patients born with CHD has led to increasing interest in research on quality of life of adult survivors. We report the findings of the first study in Malta carried out to investigate quality of life in adults with CHD under follow-up. A self-reporting questionnaire modelled on the basis of the European Health Interview Survey 2008, including questions on mental health and vitality, was administered to consecutive adult CHD outpatients, aged 16 years and over, between May, 2013 and May, 2014. Foreigners and patients with learning difficulties or cognitive impairment were excluded. Quality-of-life data were compared with that from 371 age- and sex-matched 2008 survey responders - general population cohort. The impact of congenital lesion complexity, hospitalisation in the preceding 12 months, arrhythmias, co-morbidities, and cardiac medication use on quality of life of the CHD cohort was also investigated. There were a total of 120 patient responders (63 males; mean age 30.53, SD 12.77 years). Overall, there were no significant differences in mental health and vitality between patient and general population cohorts, although older patients had better mental health scores compared with age-matched controls. Within the adult CHD cohort, hospitalisation in the preceding 12 months was the only factor associated with a poorer quality of life. Overall, CHD has no negative impact on mental health and vitality in Maltese adult patients under follow-up. Patients needing frequent hospitalisations might warrant closer attention by clinical psychologists.

  6. Occurrence of risk factors for dental erosion in the population of young adults in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmyhr, Øyvind; Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of risk factors for dental erosion for a group of young adults who are particularly susceptible to erosion. Another aim was to describe the awareness of erosion and distribution of risk factors according to the educational background of the parents. The sample (n = 2004 individuals) was randomly drawn from the population of 19-20-year-old Norwegians. The data were collected using telephone interviews. We measured awareness about erosion using the following question: 'Have you ever heard about dental erosion?' We obtained information about the frequency of intake of the following risk factors: soft drinks with and without sugar, and juice. Soft drinks with sugar included lemonade (Coca-Cola, Solo, Pepsi, Mozell and ice tea) and sport drinks (XL1, Maxim). Soft drinks without sugar included Cola light, Zero, PepsiMax, Solo light and ice tea light. Juice included orange, grapefruit, apple and kiwi juice. The parents' level of education was based on the Norwegian school system, which has three levels: compulsory schooling (10 years), upper secondary school education (up to 13 years) and university/college education. The data were analysed using logistic regressions analyses. Awareness of erosion was high - 93.5% of respondents were aware of the problem. The majority of respondents believed that erosion can be prevented - altogether 84.9%. They also believed that soft drinks with and without sugar are equally important for the development of erosion. 17.5% of respondents drank soft drinks with sugar daily or several times a day. The corresponding figures for soft drinks without sugar and juice were 4.9% and 34.1%, respectively. Young adults with mothers with high education drank soft drinks both with and without sugar less frequently than those who had mothers with low education. This pattern was the opposite for juice. Consumption of soft drinks and juice is high, even though awareness and knowledge about the causes

  7. Gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity: a population-based study of 40 000 adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, B S; Halmøy, A; Engeland, A; Igland, J; Haavik, J; Klungsøyr, K

    2018-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether gender modified associations between ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities in adults. We identified adults with ADHD by linking Norwegian national registries and compared them with the remaining adult population (born 1967-1997, ADHD and bipolar during 2004-2015, other psychiatric disorders 2008-2015). Prevalence differences (PDs) and prevalence ratios (PRs) of psychiatric disorders were determined by Poisson regression. Interaction by gender was evaluated on additive (PDs) and multiplicative (PRs) scales. Proportions of psychiatric disorders attributable to ADHD were calculated. We identified 40 103 adults with ADHD (44% women) and 1 661 103 adults (49% women) in the remaining population. PDs associated with ADHD were significantly larger in women than in men for anxiety, depression, bipolar and personality disorders, for example depression in women: 24.4 (95% CI, 23.8-24.9) vs. in men: 13.1 (12.8-13.4). PDs were significantly larger in men for schizophrenia and substance use disorder (SUD), for example SUD in men: 23.0 (22.5-23.5) vs. in women: 13.7 (13.3-14.0). Between 5.6 and 16.5% of psychiatric disorders in the population were attributable to ADHD. The association between ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities differed significantly among men and women. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of these frequent and gender-specific comorbidities, such that early treatment can be offered. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  9. A STUDY ON FEMORAL ANTEVERSION IN ADULT DRY FEMORA OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Korukonda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA is an important parameter for diagnosis of gait abnormality in children, risk of various congenital and acquired orthopaedic disorders as well as corrective osteotomy and hip arthroplasty. Femoral anteversion is the lateral rotation of the neck of the femur to the long axis of its shaft. Variability in FNA has been reported and is due to torsional forces applied on femur during development. The aim of this study was to estimate the angle of anteversion of femur in both genders on both sides. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of FNA in South Indian population, in particular, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 70 dried adult unpaired human femora, i.e. 48 male and 22 female bones. The Kingsley Olmsted 1 method was used for the study and the data was analysed. Statistical analysis - Statistical analysis was done using student unpaired ‘t’ test. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Free Trial Version. RESULTS Out of the 70 femora undertaken, mean value of FNA obtained in male is 15.95, 14.1 on right and 17.8 on left sides and in female it is 19.2, 21.8 on right and 16.6 on left side. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05 greater average anteversion in female bones and right-left variations being greater on the left side. CONCLUSION In the present study, the mean FNA was 17.8 deg. There was a gender variation for the FNA values in the population studied with females showing higher value than the male with a statistically significant difference. The reason for the difference obtained could be the small sample size of female femora due to the rarity of the donated female bodies. The value was higher on the left side than the right; 50% of the femora had the range of 16 - 25 deg of FNA. The overall mean of femoral anteversion determined is very much different from the studies in various regions in India.

  10. Long-term outcome of refractory status epilepticus in adults: A retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Reinikainen, Matti; Parviainen, Ilkka; Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2017-07-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcome of intensive care unit (ICU)-treated RSE and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) patients in a population based cohort. A retrospective study of ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE patients in Kuopio University Hospital's (KUH) special responsibility area hospitals in the central and eastern part of Finland from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 was conducted. KUH's catchment area consists of five hospitals-one university hospital and four central hospitals-and covers a population of 840 000. We included all consecutive adult (16 years or older) RSE patients admitted in the participating ICUs during the 3-year period and excluded patients with postanoxic etiologies. We used a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as a long-term (1-year) outcome measure: good (mRS 0-3, recovered to baseline function) or poor (mRS 4-6, major functional deficit or death). We identified 75 patients with ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE, corresponding to an annual incidence of 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.8). 21% of the patients were classified as SRSE, with the annual incidence being 0.6/100 000 (95% CI 0.4-1.0). For RSE, the ICU mortality was 0%, hospital mortality was 7% (95% CI 1.2%-12.8%) (n=5), and one-year mortality was 23% (CI 95% 13.4%-32.5%) (n=17). 48% (n=36) of RSE patients recovered to baseline, and 29% (n=22) showed neurological deficit at 1year. Poor outcome (mRS 4-6) was recorded for 52% (n=39) of the patients. Older age was associated with poorer outcome at 1year (p=0.03). For SRSE, hospital mortality was 6% (n=1) and 1-year mortality was 19% (n=3) (95%CI 0%-38.2%). During 1-year follow-up, nearly 50% of the ICU-treated RSE patients recovered to baseline function, whereas 30% showed new functional defects and 20% died. SRSE does not have a necessarily poorer outcome. The outcome is worse in older patients and in patients with

  11. Secular trends in child and adult sexual violence--one decreasing and the other increasing: a population survey in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-02-01

    Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. Child sexual abuse involving physical contact was reported by 20% of women and 16% of men. In adulthood, figures were 20% and 10% for women and men, respectively. Prevalence of any form of sexual violence across the lifespan was 42% (women) and 38% (men). Analysis by year of birth indicated a curvilinear pattern for child sexual abuse with lower prevalence in the oldest and youngest participants. Sexual violence in young adulthood showed a linear pattern with higher prevalence in the youngest participants. The trend of lower rates of experience of child sexual abuse in younger adults in the sample is in keeping with findings from other countries. The trend of higher rates of adult sexual violence in younger adults is worrying, particularly since the same participants reported less experience of child sexual abuse than the preceding generations. There is a paucity of international data addressing the issue of cohort differences in exposure to sexual violence. Within-study analysis, and follow-up studies designed to maximize replicability, are needed to inform discussion about societal trends in different types of sexual violence.

  12. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  13. Association of obesity categories and high blood pressure in a rural adult Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X; Yin, L; Pang, C; Feng, T; Ren, Y; Wang, B; Zhang, L; Li, L; Zhang, H; Yang, X; Han, C; Wu, D; Zhou, J; Shen, Y; Wang, C; Zhao, J; Hu, D

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure (HBP) in rural China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural adult Chinese population during July to August of 2007 and 2008. The relationship between various obesity categories and HBP was analysed by gender for 20 194 participants. Obesity categories were classified as general and central obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively; cross-classification of BMI and WC created another four groups: both BMI and WC normal (BNWN), BMI obesity and WC normal (BOWN), BMI normal and WC obesity (BNWO), and both BMI and WC obesity (BOWO). The rates of HBP for BNWN, BOWN, BNWO and BOWO groups were 20.8, 63.3, 39.8 and 48.7%, respectively, for men and 20.1, 28.0, 34.7 and 54.2%, respectively, for women. As compared with BNWN group, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of BOWN and BOWO for having HBP in men were 6.227 (2.712-14.300) and 4.842 (4.036-5.808), respectively. As compared with BNWN women, BNWO and BOWO women showed increased risk of HBP (adjusted OR=1.342, 95%CI=1.139-1.581 and adjusted OR=4.530, 95%CI=4.004-5.124, respectively). The prevalence of general and central obesity was strongly related to HBP. Men with obese BMI but normal WC may be at increased risk of HBP. Women should pay more attention to changes in visceral adipose distribution and keep both BMI and WC values within normal ranges to reduce obesity-related health problems.

  14. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos A; Moura, Erly C; Conde, Wolney L; Popkin, Barry M

    2004-12-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004.

  15. Validity of a population-specific BMR predictive equation for adults from an urban tropical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrlich, Vivian; Teixeira, Tatiana Miliante; Anjos, Luiz Antonio Dos

    2018-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an important physiologic measure in nutrition research. In many instances it is not measured but estimated by predictive equations. The purpose of this study was to compare measured BMR (BMRm) with estimated BMR (BMRe) obtained by different equations. A convenient sample of 148 (89 women) 20-60 year-old subjects from the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil participated in the study. BMRm values were measured by an indirect calorimeter and predicted by different equations (Schofield, Henry and Rees, Mifflin-St. Jeor and Anjos. All subjects had their body composition and anthropometric variables also measured. Accuracy of the estimations was established by the percentage of BMRe falling within ±10% of BMRm and bias when the 95% CI of the difference of BMRe and BMRm means did not include zero. Mean BMRm values were 4833.5 (SD 583.3) and 6278.8 (SD 724.0) kJ*day -1 for women and men, respectively. BMRe values were both biased and inaccurate except for values predicted by the Anjos equation. BMR overestimation was approximately 20% for the Schofield equation which was higher comparatively to the Henry and Rees (14.5% and 9.6% for women and men, respectively) and the Mifflin-St. Jeor (approximately 14.0%) equations. BMR estimated by the Anjos equation was unbiased (95% CI = -78.1; 96.3 kJ day -1 for women and -282.6; 30.7 kJ*day -1 for men). Population-specific BMR predictive equations yield unbiased and accurate BMR values in adults from an urban tropical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating and validating an algorithm to measure AIDS mortality in the adult population using verbal autopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Lopman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Vital registration and cause of death reporting is incomplete in the countries in which the HIV epidemic is most severe. A reliable tool that is independent of HIV status is needed for measuring the frequency of AIDS deaths and ultimately the impact of antiretroviral therapy on mortality.A verbal autopsy questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 381 adults of known HIV status who died between 1998 and 2003 in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. Individuals who were HIV positive and did not die in an accident or during childbirth (74%; n = 282 were considered to have died of AIDS in the gold standard. Verbal autopsies were randomly allocated to a training dataset (n = 279 to generate classification criteria or a test dataset (n = 102 to verify criteria. A rule-based algorithm created to minimise false positives had a specificity of 66% and a sensitivity of 76%. Eight predictors (weight loss, wasting, jaundice, herpes zoster, presence of abscesses or sores, oral candidiasis, acute respiratory tract infections, and vaginal tumours were included in the algorithm. In the test dataset of verbal autopsies, 69% of deaths were correctly classified as AIDS/non-AIDS, and it was not necessary to invoke a differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Presence of any one of these criteria gave a post-test probability of AIDS death of 0.84.Analysis of verbal autopsy data in this rural Zimbabwean population revealed a distinct pattern of signs and symptoms associated with AIDS mortality. Using these signs and symptoms, demographic surveillance data on AIDS deaths may allow for the estimation of AIDS mortality and even HIV prevalence.

  17. Clinical signs in the foot that are predictors of ligamentous laxity in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamú-Benhamú, Salomón; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; García-De-La-Peña, Raquel; Jiménez-Cristino, María Dolores; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the influence of ligamentous laxity on the foot from observation of clinical signs and quantification of certain joint ranges. The sample consisted of 400 subjects - 200 in the non-lax control group (ages 32.49 ± 11.06 years) and 200 in the lax group (ages 29.82 ± 9.41 years). The Beighton criteria were applied to each subject to diagnose laxity or non-laxity after noting their gender, age, and 2 joint ranges and 2 clinical signs for both feet. This was an observational analytical study of cases and controls, in which a multivariate binary logistic regression model was applied. Extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) ≥95°, extension of the 1st toe's interphalangeal joint (IPJ) ≥14°, and the signs 1st "in the plantar footprint, marked and narrowly confined support under metatarsal heads" and 2nd "in the plantar footprint, continuity of the 1st toe to the 1st metatarsal" presented significant differences between the lax and the non-lax groups. These are usable as parameters with which to detect laxity. The Beighton criteria were confirmed as being the most appropriate for diagnosis. We propose the use of 2 clinical signs that can be evaluated in plantar footprints ("1st" and "2nd") and 2 exploratory manoeuvres (extension of the first MTPJ ≥95° and extension of the 1st toe's IPJ ≥14°) as factors present in the foot which allow the detection of ligamentous laxity in the adult population, for subsequent confirmation by applying the Beighton criteria. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Identification of circulatory diseases and their risk during medical examination of an adult population: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, A M; Ipatov, P V; Kaminskaya, A K; Kushunina, D V

    2015-01-01

    To study the efficiency of a methodology for the active detection of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) during medical examination and to determine the need and possible ways of its improvement. The medical examinations of 19.4 million people (94.6% of all the citizens who had undergone medical examinations in all the regions of Russia in 2013) were analyzed and the methodological aspects of identification of the circulatory diseases (CDs) that were induced by coronary and cerebral vessel atherosclerosis and had common risk factors, primarily CHD and CVD, were assessed. The medical examinations revealed 2,915,445 cases of CDs and their suspicions, during which its clinical diagnosis was established in 57.2%. The suspected disease requiring that its diagnosis should be further specified; off-medical examinations revealed hypertension in more than 770,000 cases, CHD in 232,000, and CVD in 146,000. The proportion of stable angina pectoris of all angina cases was much higher at a young age (25.6%) than at middle (15.6%) and elderly (11.3%) ages. Brachiocephalic artery stenoses were detected in almost 13,000 cases. According to the official health statistics, within the years preceding the introduction of large-scale medical examinations, there was a slight rise in new CD cases among the adult population of Russia, which was more significant in 2013 (according to the preliminary data) than in 2012. The methodology for the active detection of CDs through a two-step medical examination, which is used during a follow-up, makes it possible to substantially increase detection rates for CDs. There has been shown to be a need for the better quality and completeness of diagnostic examination in real practice.

  19. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  20. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone′s life (92.7%. Body distortion (39% and fear of health complications (35% were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  1. Prevalence of self-reported stroke and disability in the French adult population: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named "the Disability Health survey" was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%-1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without.

  2. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P valuehypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P valuehypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  4. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Memory-related subjective cognitive symptoms in the adult population: prevalence and associated factors - results of the LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Roehr, Susanne; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Mehnert, Anja; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-05-21

    Subjectively perceived memory problems (memory-related Subjective Cognitive Symptoms/SCS) can be an indicator of a pre-prodromal or prodromal stage of a neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. We therefore sought to provide detailed empirical information on memory-related SCS in the dementia-free adult population including information on prevalence rates, associated factors and others. We studied 8834 participants (40-79 years) of the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study. Weighted prevalence rates with confidence intervals (95%-CI) were calculated. Associations of memory-related SCS with participants' socio-demographic characteristics, physical and mental comorbidity, and cognitive performance (Verbal Fluency Test Animals, Trail-Making-Test, CERAD Wordlist tests) were analyzed. Prevalence of total memory-related SCS was 53.0% (95%-CI = 51.9-54.0): 26.0% (95%-CI = 25.1-27.0) of the population had a subtype without related concerns, 23.6% (95%-CI = 22.7-24.5) a subtype with some related concerns, and 3.3% (95%-CI = 2.9-3.7) a subtype with strong related concerns. Report of memory-related SCS was unrelated to participants' socio-demographic characteristics, physical comorbidity (except history of stroke), depressive symptomatology, and anxiety. Adults with and without memory-related SCS showed no significant difference in cognitive performance. About one fifth (18.1%) of the participants with memory-related SCS stated that they did consult/want to consult a physician because of their experienced memory problems. Memory-related SCS are very common and unspecific in the non-demented adult population aged 40-79 years. Nonetheless, a substantial proportion of this population has concerns related to experienced memory problems and/or seeks help. Already available information on additional features associated with a higher likelihood of developing dementia in people with SCS may help clinicians to decide who should be monitored more closely.

  6. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Non-Clinical Benefits of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jackson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As little prior research exists about the non-clinical benefits of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM, this exploratory study was conducted to identify non-clinical benefits of EBVM to veterinary practices, as well as highlighting the barriers to further implementation, and ways to overcome them.Background: A PICO-based literature review (Hauser and Jackson, 2016 was conducted to establish current knowledge about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM. It found that while there are some papers suggesting a link between the practice of EBVM and better non-clinical benefits such as client satisfaction and client retention, a single study, focusing on the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, had yet to be conducted.Evidentiary value: This exploratory study provides a solid basis for the further development of a confirmatory study of the themes identified in the interviews. The impact on practice from our findings is significant as it details the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield commercial benefits from the perspective of a group of EBVM experts via interview. It is entirely possible that international veterinary environments which mirror that of the UK will find this research beneficial.Methods: Due to the paucity of data about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, an exploratory, qualitative approach was taken to this research in order to build a platform for further confirmatory, quantitative investigation (Zikmund, 2003. In February and March 2016 interviews with 16 RCVS Knowledge Group chairs[1] were conducted. The interview guide contained broad, open-ended questions to explore existing tacit knowledge about the non-commercial benefits of EBVM. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using NVivo 11 software.Results: This qualitative enquiry showed that the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield non-clinical benefits are through increased client satisfaction and retention, improved

  7. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  8. Evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease in a population-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Lakatos, Laszlo; Horvath, Agnes; Szita, Istvan; Pandur, Tunde; Mandel, Michael; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease (CD) populations, diagnosed between 1977 and 2008. METHODS: Data of 506 incident CD patients were analyzed (age at diagnosis: 28.5 years, interquartile range: 22-38 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected prospectively with a complete clinical follow-up and comprehensively reviewed in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008 in adult and pediatric onset CD populations. Disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification and long-term disease course was analysed according to the age at onset in time-dependent univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among this population-based cohort, seventy-four (12.8%) pediatric-onset CD patients were identified (diagnosed ≤ 17 years of age). There was no significant difference in the distribution of disease behavior between pediatric (B1: 62%, B2: 15%, B3: 23%) and adult-onset CD patients (B1: 56%, B2: 21%, B3: 23%) at diagnosis, or during follow-up. Overall, the probability of developing complicated disease behaviour was 49.7% and 61.3% in the pediatric and 55.1% and 62.4% in the adult onset patients after 5- and 10-years of follow-up. Similarly, time to change in disease behaviour from non stricturing, non penetrating (B1) to complicated, stricturing or penetrating (B2/B3) disease was not significantly different between pediatric and adult onset CD in a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Calendar year of diagnosis (P = 0.04), ileal location (P < 0.001), perianal disease (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.038) and need for steroids (P < 0.001) were associated with presence of, or progression to, complicated disease behavior at diagnosis and during follow-up. A change in disease location was observed in 8.9% of patients and it was associated with smoking status (P = 0.01), but not with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Long

  9. Several aspects of descriptive epidemiology of hematological malignancies in adult population of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation after Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslitser, N; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Gluzman, D F

    2016-12-01

    Chornobyl impact on the health of adult population in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation was a subject of several studies. However, the studies of the effects of Chornobyl on leukemia in adult populations in post-Soviet countries are scarce and the results are contradictory up to present. The results of the epidemiological studies of the oncohematological consequences of Chornobyl accident are briefly reviewed with particular focus on pre-Chornobyl and post-Chornobyl trends in leukemia incidence in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation as well as in small territories of these countries with various levels of radionuclide contamination. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  10. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  11. Les effets potentiels du taping chez une population adulte souffrant d'un conflit sous-acromial

    OpenAIRE

    Roch, Sylvie; Thétaz, Alain; Balthazard, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Le conflit sous-acromial est une pathologie fréquente qui touche une grande partie de la population. Quelques revues de la littérature recommandent une prise en charge spécifique, mais peu d’études proposent le taping comme adjuvant aux traitements préconisés. Ainsi ce travail de bachelor a pour objectif de déterminer les effets potentiels du taping chez une population adulte souffrant de conflit sous-acromial. Méthodologie : Notre recherche d’études s’est effectuée de janvier ...

  12. Preliminary analyses of psychometric characteristics of the Polish version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R in a non-clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mojsa-Kaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is an anxiety-spectrum disorder that affects 1–2% of the adult population. People with OCD are more likely to report impaired social and occupational functioning. Although effective treatments of the OCD exist, many sufferers from this disorder are continuously misdiagnosed. Therefore, improving the assessment of the OCD remains an important area of scientific research. The main goal of the study is the initial verification of psychometric properties in the Polish version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R in a college student sample. Material and Methods: A group of students completed a battery of measures consisting of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (The OCI-R, The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, depression (The Beck Depression Inventory and anxiety trait (The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: A confirmatory factor analysis, conducted on data from 334 university students, supported a solid and replicable 6-fold factor structure of the OCI-R. Further analyses on test-retest reliability (following a 1-month interval, convergent and divergent validity of the OCI-R were respectively conducted in a group of 137 students who had completed a battery of measures mentioned above. The results showed adequate testretest reliability for the full scale and subscales cores, high internal consistency and confirmed satisfactory convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions: The study constitutes the first phase of work on a Polish version of measurement for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Satisfactory results obtained in a non-clinical sample allow to recognize this method to be promising for further research. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:1011–1021

  13. pH and bacterial profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raner, Elisabeth; Lindqvist, Lina; Johansson, Sofia; Hassan, Haidar; Carlén, Anette; Suksu-art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    This study compares pH and microbiological profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population. Thirty-nine children, 12-14 years of age and 45 adults between 20 and 39 years of age in 5 Karen villages of the Tak province, Northern Thailand were examined for plaque, calculus, caries (DMFT) and pH measurements in resting plaque and after a sucrose rinse. Information on dietary and oral hygiene habits was obtained through interviews using a fixed questionnaire. Microbiological profile of plaque samples was analyzed with DNA-DNA checkerboard technique. Mean DMFT was 0.77 ± 1.56 and 87% of the adults and 67% of the children were caries free (p plaque samples showed high levels of low acidogenic and anaerobic species, which dominated over strong acid producers such as streptococci. The study indicates that the Karen children and adults has a plaque physiology and microbiology predominating by low acidogenic anaerobes, which in addition to the low sucrose intake explains the low caries prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  15. Fall risk and prevention needs assessment in an older adult Latino population: a model community global health partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Erin R; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René

    2013-01-01

    The impact of falls in older adults presents a significant public health burden. Fall risk is not well-described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. The objectives of this study were to develop a needs assessment of falls in older adult Latinos at a community center (CC), determine fall prevention barriers and strengths in this population, determine the level of interest in various fall prevention methods, and provide medical students an opportunity for participation in a culturally diverse community project. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of older adult program participants. The survey was developed in collaboration with both partners. CC participants were approached by the interviewer and asked to participate. They were read the survey in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We conducted 103 interviews. We found that 54% of participants had fallen in the last year, and of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. Of all respondents, 52% had 5 or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling; 4% had no risk factors. Of all respondents, 75% were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (78% and 65%, respectively). Older adult Latinos in this selected population frequently fall and are worried about falling. Risk factors are prevalent. A fall prevention program is warranted and should include exercise classes and a connection with local primary care providers. A partnership between an academic organization and a CC is an ideal collaboration for the future development of prevention program.

  16. Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: Results from a Canadian population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo Sanchez Bustillos; Kris Gregory Vargas, III; Raul Gomero-Cuadra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and work productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine work productivity among adults with varied BMI using population-based data. Methods: Data source was the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey. The outcomes reflected work absence (absenteeism) and reduced activities at work (presenteeism). The key explanatory variable was BMI in six categories. Logistic re...

  17. Comparing individuals with learning disability and those with borderline IQ: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd edition).

    OpenAIRE

    MacLean, Hannah Ng On-Nar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Support for the four factor construct validity of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) has been found in clinical and non clinical populations but some studies question whether more complex models consistent with the concepts of fluid and crystallised intelligence provide a better explanation of the data. The WAIS-III is frequently used in the diagnosis of learning disability, however, previous exploratory factor analysis of data from a population ...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in an urban population of adults living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiama, Catherine Nduku; Wamicwe, Joyce Njeri; Oyugi, Elvis Omondi; Obonyo, Mark Odhiambo; Mungai, Jane Githuku; Roka, Zeinab Gura; Mwangi, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome affects 20-25% of the adult population globally. It predisposes to cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Studies in other countries suggest a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients but no studies have been reported in Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in adult HIV-infected patients in an urban population in Nairobi, Kenya. In a cross-sectional study design, conducted at Riruta Health Centre in 2016, 360 adults infected with HIV were recruited. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography. Blood was collected by finger prick for fasting glucose and venous sampling for lipid profile. Using the harmonized Joint Scientific Statement criteria, metabolic syndrome was present in 19.2%. The prevalence was higher among females than males (20.7% vs. 16.0%). Obesity (AOR = 5.37, P metabolic syndrome while physical activity (AOR = 0.28, P = 0.001) was associated with decreased odds. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this study population. Obesity, lack of formal education, family history of hypertension, and physical inactivity are associated with metabolic syndrome. Screening for risk factors, promotion of healthy lifestyle, and nutrition counselling should be offered routinely in HIV care and treatment clinics.

  19. Tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (L. in Sabah, Malaysia: the adult body sizes and population estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwarfarid Manca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dwindling number of the tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus has been reported globally and its status in Malaysia is not much known. Study on dimorphism in adult body sizes and population size estimation were conducted using capture–mark–recapture method of adult T. tridentatus in Tawau, Sabah. Camry the estimated population sizes of T. tridentatus ranged from 182 to 1095 with 95% confident limits of 56–42,942 individuals (Schnabel formula. The multivariate discriminant Hotelling’s T2 test verifies the sexual size dimorphism among the adult T. tridentatus with 97.7% separation among sexes (Hotelling’s T2 = 778.49, F = 152.85, p < 0.001 with females being larger and heavier than the male individuals. The number estimated from the study is the first reported for T. tridentatus in Malaysia, particularly in Sabah. Even though this number may slightly overestimate the actual population size in the area owing to the low number of individuals recaptured, for now it could serve as baseline data for horseshoe crab management purpose.

  20. Interaction between FKBP5 gene and childhood trauma on psychosis, depression and anxiety symptoms in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R; Papiol, Sergi; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Ballespí, Sergi; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Rosa, Araceli

    2017-11-01

    Childhood trauma has been associated with a heightened risk for presenting clinical and non-clinical psychopathology in adulthood. Genes related with the stress response, such as the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), are plausible candidates moderating the effects of childhood trauma on the emergence of such symptoms later on. The present study aimed to explore the moderating role of FKBP5 genetic variability on the association of different types of childhood trauma with subclinical psychosis, depression and anxiety in a non-clinical sample. Schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms and childhood trauma were assessed in 808 young adults. Two FKBP5 haplotypic blocks were detected: block 1 (rs3800373 - rs9296158 - rs1360780) and block 2 (rs9470080 - rs4713916). Subjects were classified in two groups according to whether they carried or not the risk haplotype previously described in the literature (block 1: CAT and block 2: TA). Linear regression analyses were used to study (i) the main effects of childhood trauma and FKBP5 haplotype blocks and (ii) their interaction effects on the mentioned forms of psychopathology. All childhood trauma scales, except sexual abuse, were associated with schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms. None of the analysed symptoms was associated with the main effects of FKBP5 genetic variability. However an interaction effect between block 1 and physical abuse was observed on anxiety, with lower scores in CAT carriers. This effect was driven by SNP 1 and 2. Moreover, an interaction effect between block 2 and physical abuse was identified on the variables tapping depressive and anxiety symptoms. Specifically, non-TA carrier subjects who were exposed to physical abuse were found to be at higher risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms. These effects were driven by SNP 5. No interaction effect was observed for the other variables. Our data suggest that exposure to childhood physical

  1. [Dietary sources of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene in a adult Mediterranean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón-Vila, P; Ribas, L; García-Closas, R; Farrán Codina, A; Serra-Majem, L

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene food sources, as well as its nutritional intake and density in adult Catalonian population. A cross-sectional study was conducted over 2,346 individuals obtained from the sample of Catalonian Survey of Nutritional Status aged 18 to 75 years old to estimate usual dietary intake of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene using two 24 hour dietary recalls administered in two periods (june-july and november-december of 1992). Replicated 24 hour Recalls allowed for estimation of usual intake. Calculation of food sources for vitamins encompassed three phases: foods transformation into nutrients, aggregation of foods in categories and sum of nutrients by food categories. Intake of vitamin A (equivalents of retinol of provitamin A and vitamin A), E, C were closely near or higher than RDA. Nutritional density of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene were higher in female group. Nutritional density was positively associated to age for vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. Addition fat was the first source of vitamin E and it reached 33.8% of total vitamin E intake. Vegetables contributed in 17.3 % to the total vitamin C, whereas fruits accounted for 57.9%. Fruits recached 40.6% of the total beta-carotene intake, whereas vegetables accounted for 34.8%. The major contributors of vitamin A were milk and dairy products. Nutritional intake of vitamin A, C and E are over the RDA parameters suggesting an healthy nutritional status that must be confirmed and ratify by biochemical assessment. Nutritional densities were higher in female gender than in males in vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene possibly due to a higher intake of total lipids in male gender than in females. Nutritional density was positively associated to age in the same group of vitamins, suggesting a higher intake of empty calories in younger group. Fruits and Vegetables accounted for more than 70% of vitamin C and beta-carotene and major contributors were citrics, carrots, tomatoes

  2. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  3. Drug use among youth and adults in a population-based survey in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Illicit drug use is a growing public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of drug use and the sociodemographic and health characteristics that influence it among young and adult South Africans. Methods: Data based on the South African national population-based survey in 2012 for 26 453 individuals (52.0% women and 48.0% men aged 15 years and older were analysed. Past 3-month drug use was assessed with the ‘Alcohol, Smoking and Substance use Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST’. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between sociodemographic factors, health variables and any past 3-month drug use. Results: Overall, any past 3-month drug use was 4.4%, 7.9% among men and 1.3% among women. The proportion of past 3-month cannabis use was 4.0%, followed by sedatives or sleeping pills 0.4%, amphetamine-type stimulants 0.3%, cocaine 0.3%, opiates 0.3%, inhalants 0.2% and hallucinogens 0.1%. Among the nine South African provinces, any past 3-month drug use was the highest in the Western Cape (7.1%, followed by the Free State (6.3% and Northern Cape (5.2%. In adjusted, multivariable, logistic regression analysis among both men and women, younger age, being mixed race and hazardous or harmful alcohol use were associated with any past 3-month drug use. In addition, having been a victim of violent crime and sexual risk behaviour among men and having psychological distress among women were associated with any past 3-month drug use. Conclusion: An increase of any past 3-month drug use from 3.7% in 2008 to 4.4% in 2012 was observed in South Africa. Prevention and intervention activities targeting drug use, in particular in identified risk groups, need to be strengthened in South Africa.

  4. Mediators of the Link between Autistic Traits and Relationship Satisfaction in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Begeer, Sander

    2010-01-01

    People with ASD have deficits in their social skills and may therefore experience lower relationship satisfaction. This study investigated possible mechanisms to explain whether and how autistic traits, measured with the AQ, influence relationship satisfaction in a non-clinical sample of 195 married couples. More autistic traits were associated…

  5. The Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis and Dyslexic Tendencies in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Stirling, John

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between cerebellar deficits and dyslexic tendencies in a non-clinical sample, 27 primary school children aged 8-9 completed a cerebellar soft signs battery and were additionally assessed for reading age, sequential memory, picture arrangement and knowledge of common sequences. An average measure of the soft…

  6. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  7. A General Factor of Death Distress in Seven Clinical and Non-Clinical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death anxiety (ASDA), the Death Depression Scale (DDS), and the Death Obsession Scale (DOS) were administered, individually, to 7 groups (n = 765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally…

  8. Mediators of the Link between Autistic Traits and Marital Functioning in a Non-Clinical Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollmann, M.M.H.; Finkenauer, C.; Begeer, S.

    2010-01-01

    People with ASD have deficits in their social skills and may therefore experience lower relationship satisfaction. This study investigated possible mechanisms to explain whether and how autistic traits, measured with the AQ, influence relationship satisfaction in a non-clinical sample of 195 married

  9. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  10. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982-2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Substance-related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Elizabeth; Balogh, Robert; McGarry, Caitlin; Selick, Avra; Dobranowski, Kristin; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-09-02

    Describe the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with IDD and SRAD to those with IDD or SRAD only. Population-based cohort study (the Health Care Access Research and Development Disabilities (H-CARDD) cohort). All legal residents of Ontario, Canada. 66 484 adults, aged 18-64, with IDD identified through linked provincial health and disability income benefits administrative data from fiscal year 2009. 96 589 adults, aged 18-64, with SRAD but without IDD drawn from the provincial health administrative data. Sociodemographic (age group, sex, neighbourhood income quintile, rurality) and clinical (psychiatric and chronic disease diagnoses, morbidity) characteristics. The prevalence of SRAD among adults with IDD was 6.4%, considerably higher than many previous reports and also higher than found for adults without IDD in Ontario (3.5%). Among those with both IDD and SRAD, the rate of psychiatric comorbidity was 78.8%, and the proportion with high or very high overall morbidity was 59.5%. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were anxiety disorders (67.6%), followed by affective (44.6%), psychotic (35.8%) and personality disorders (23.5%). These adults also tended to be younger and more likely to live in the poorest neighbourhoods compared with adults with IDD but no SRAD and adults with SRAD but no IDD. SRAD is a significant concern for adults with IDD. It is associated with high rates of psychiatric and other comorbidities, indicating that care coordination and system navigation may be important concerns. Attention should be paid to increasing the recognition of SRAD among individuals with IDD by both healthcare and social service providers and to improving staff skills in successfully engaging those with both IDD and SRAD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  12. Age-associated impact on presentation and outcome for penetrating thoracic trauma in the adult and pediatric patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollberg, Nathan M; Tabachnick, Deborah; Lin, Fang-Ju; Merlotti, Gary J; Varghese, Thomas K; Arensman, Robert M; Massad, Malek G

    2014-02-01

    Studies reporting on penetrating thoracic trauma in the pediatric population have been limited by small numbers and implied differences with the adult population. Our objectives were to report on a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma and to determine age-related impacts on management and outcome through comparison with an adult cohort. A Level I trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2012. All patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, admission physiology, and outcome were recorded. Patients were compared, and outcomes were analyzed based on age at presentation, with patients 17 years or younger defining our pediatric cohort. A total of 1,423 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma were admitted during the study period. Two hundred twenty patients (15.5%) were pediatric, with 205 being adolescents (13-17 years) and 15 being children (≤ 12 years). In terms of management for the pediatric population, tube thoracostomy alone was needed in 32.7% (72 of 220), whereas operative thoracic exploration was performed in 20.0% (44 of 220). Overall mortality was 13.6% (30 of 220). There was no significant difference between the pediatric and adult population with regard to injury mechanism or severity, need for therapeutic intervention, operative approach, use of emergency department thoracotomy, or outcome. Stepwise logistic regression failed to identify age as a predictor for the need for either therapeutic intervention or mortality between the two age groups as a whole. However, subgroup analysis revealed that being 12 years or younger (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-11.4) was an independent predictor of mortality. Management of traumatic penetrating thoracic injuries in terms of the need for therapeutic intervention and operative approach was similar between the adult and pediatric populations. Mortality from

  13. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  14. Overgeneral autobiographical memory bias in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A; Jackson, Mike; Chadwick, Paul

    2018-03-14

    Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices. We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT). As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group. Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.

  15. Energy intake underreporting of adults in a household survey: the impact of using a population specific basal metabolic rate equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify energy intake (EI underreporting and to estimate the impact of using a population specific equation for the basal metabolic rate (BMR in a probability sample of adults from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A sample of 1,726 subjects participated in the study. EI was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall and EI/BMR was computed with BMR estimated using internationally recommended equations as well as specific equations developed for the adult population of Niterói. Mean EI was 1,570.9 and 2,188.8kcal.day-1 for women and men, respectively. EI decreased with increasing age in both men and women. BMR estimated by the Brazilian equation was significantly lower than the values estimated by the international equation for all age, sex and nutritional status groups. In general, EI underreporting was found in at least 50% of the population, higher in women, and increased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI. The results of the present study confirm that EI is underreported, even when BMR is estimated using population-specific equations.

  16. Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Ostbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Dupre, Matthew E; Wu, Bei

    2018-03-07

    The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural. Cognition was assessed by immediate and delayed recall tests, digit span test, and verbal fluency test. Multilevel models were used to account for state-level differences and adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Urban residents and urban-to-urban migrants had the highest levels of cognition, whereas rural residents and those who migrated to (or within) rural areas had the lowest cognition. The differences largely persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates; however, rural-to-urban migrants had no difference in cognition from urban residents once socioeconomic factors were taken into account. Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The adult spinal cord harbors a population of GFAP-positive progenitors with limited self-renewal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Roberto; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose-Manuel; Raineteau, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) of the forebrain are GFAP-expressing cells that are intercalated within ependymal cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ). Cells showing NSCs characteristics in vitro can also be isolated from the periaqueductal region in the adult spinal cord (SC), but contradicting results exist concerning their glial versus ependymal identity. We used an inducible transgenic mouse line (hGFAP-CreERT2) to conditionally label GFAP-expressing cells in the adult SVZ and SC periaqueduct, and directly and systematically compared their self-renewal and multipotential properties in vitro. We demonstrate that a population of GFAP(+) cells that share the morphology and the antigenic properties of SVZ-NSCs mostly reside in the dorsal aspect of the central canal (CC) throughout the spinal cord. These cells are non-proliferative in the intact spinal cord, but incorporate the S-phase marker EdU following spinal cord injury. Multipotent, clonal YFP-expressing neurospheres (i.e., deriving from recombined GFAP-expressing cells) were successfully obtained from both the intact and injured spinal cord. These spheres however showed limited self-renewal properties when compared with SVZ-neurospheres, even after spinal cord injury. Altogether, these results demonstrate that significant differences exist in NSCs lineages between neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions of the adult CNS. Thus, although we confirm that a population of multipotent GFAP(+) cells co-exists alongside with multipotent ependymal cells within the adult SC, we identify these cells as multipotent progenitors showing limited self-renewal properties. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  19. Juvenile Resilience and Adult Longevity Explain Residual Populations of the Andean Wax Palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  20. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sanín

    Full Text Available Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1 adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2 adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.

  1. Rib fractures: comparison of associated injuries between pediatric and adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Boris; Dagan, Jasmin; Swaid, Forat; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Olsha, Oded; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Alfici, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Rib fractures are considered a marker of exposure to significant traumatic energy. In children, because of high elasticity of the chest wall, higher energy levels are necessary for ribs to fracture. The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of associated injuries in children as compared with adults, all of whom presented with rib fractures. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with rib fractures registered in the National Trauma Registry was conducted. Of 6,995 trauma victims who were found to suffer from rib fractures, 328 were children and 6,627 were adults. Isolated rib fractures without associated injuries occurred in 19 children (5.8%) and 731 adults (11%). More adults had 4 or more fractured ribs compared with children (P pneumothorax (P = .006), spleen, and liver injury (P < .001). Mortality rate was 5% in both groups. The incidence of associated head, thoracic, and abdominal solid organ injuries in children was significantly higher than in adults suffering from rib fractures. In spite of a higher Injury Severity Score and incidence of associated injuries, mortality rate was similar. Mortality of rib fracture patients was mostly affected by the presence of extrathoracic injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of parental care and overprotection, neuroticism and adult stressful life events on depressive symptoms in the general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yasuyuki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Masuya, Jiro; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    The quality of parenting, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events are reportedly associated with depressive symptoms. However, previous studies have not examined the complex interaction between these three factors. In this study, we hypothesized that the quality of parenting (care and overprotection) acts on depressive symptoms through 'neuroticism' and the appraisal of adult stressful life events, and this hypothesis was verified by structural equation modeling. Four hundred one participants from the general adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), neuroticism subscale of the short version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQ-R), and Life Experiences Survey (LES). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and covariance structure analyses. In the covariance structure analysis, neuroticism scores and negative change scores on the LES acted on the depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores) directly, but care or overprotection in childhood on the PBI did not act on them directly. Low care and high overprotection of the PBI increased depressive symptoms and negative change scores on the LES through enhanced neuroticism, which is regarded as a mediator in these effects. The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers; the findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. This research showed that low care and high overprotection of maternal and paternal parenting in childhood influence depressive symptoms indirectly through enhanced neuroticism in general adults. These findings suggest that neuroticism mediates the long-term effect of the quality of parenting on depression in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  4. Prevalence of osteoarthritis of knee joint among adult population in a rural area of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Jayaseelan; Natesan, Murugan; Eswaran, Muthurajesh; Johnson, Abel K Samuel; Bharath, V; Singh, Zile

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative disorders among the elderly population; although aging is the most important cause, research has shown that it is a complex disease with many etiologies. It is not an inevitable part of aging but rather the result of a combination of factors, many of which can be modified or prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the burden and determinants of OA knee among the adult population. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 1986 adult persons living in a rural area in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, South India, was interviewed and examined from January 2014 to December 2014. Data collection was done by the postgraduates, trained health workers under the supervision of principal investigator. Written and informed consent was obtained before data collection. OA was diagnosed using the criteria laid down by the American College of Rheumatology, and it was validated and tested in the study area. A total of 1986 adult respondents were interviewed out of which 27.1% had OA of knee. Age more than 50 years, female gender, tobacco usage, illiteracy, lower socioeconomic class, positive family history of OA, diabetes, and hypertension were found to be associated with OA knee (P < 0.05). The burden of osteoarthritis knee was high in this region. Hence, effective preventive strategy has to be taken to minimize this burden.

  5. Self-reported occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Franco, Marco da Silveira; Santos, Flavia Vinhaes; Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

    2017-01-01

    to provide an overview of occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population. descriptive study using data from the 2013 National Health Survey. A total of 4.9 million workers mentioned having suffered some kind of work-related accident, which is equivalent to 3.4% (CI95% 4.6-5.6) of Brazil's adult population. Prevalence rates were higher among men, young adults aged between 18 and 39 years, and black people and in the North Region of the country. Prevalence was highest in the State of Para and lowest in the State of Rio de Janeiro State. Around one third of all accidents were commuting accidents, 50.4% (CI95% 45.3-55.5) of people who had suffered an occupational accident were prevented from carrying out some kind of routine activity due to the accident, 8.8% (CI95% 6.4-11.2) were hospitalized and 19% (CI95% 15.3-22.7) had sequelae resulting from occupational accidents. the data provided by the National Health Survey comprises an unprecedented and invaluable source of information on these issues in Brazil. The results of the survey confirm that occupational accidents are underreported, since official figures do not cover individuals working in the informal sector.

  6. Self-perceived coping resources of middle-aged and older adults - results of a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Friederike H; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Maatouk, Imad; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann; Wild, Beate

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial resources (personal resources, social resources, and other) are important for coping with aging and impairment. The aim of this study was to describe the resources of older adults and to compare subgroups with frailty, complex health care needs, and/or mental disorders. At the third follow-up of the large population-based German ESTHER study, 3124 elderly persons (aged 55-85) were included. Psychosocial resources were assessed during a home visit by trained study doctors by using a list of 26 different items. Resources were described for the total group, separated by sex, and for the three subgroups of persons with frailty, complex health care needs, and mental disorders. Family, self-efficacy, and financial security were the most frequently reported resources of older adults. Women and men showed significant differences in their self-perceived resources. Personal resources (self-efficacy, optimism, mastery), social resources, and financial security were reported significantly less frequently by frail persons, persons with complex health care needs, and mentally ill older adults compared to non-impaired participants. Apart from external support, patients who experienced complex health care needs reported resources less frequently compared to frail and mentally ill patients. Coping resources in older adults are associated with sex and impairment. Evaluation and support of personal resources of frail or mentally ill persons or individuals with complex health care needs should be integrated in the therapeutic process.

  7. Measurement properties of tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S A; Bradley, L; Bowen, E; Wigham, S; Rodgers, J

    2018-05-05

    Adults diagnosed with autism are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts, suicidal behaviours and dying by suicide. However, it is unclear whether any validated tools are currently available to effectively assess suicidality in autistic adults in research and clinical practice. This is crucial for understanding and preventing premature death by suicide in this vulnerable group. This two stage systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults, evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties, and make recommendations for appropriate selection of suicidality assessment tools in research and clinical practice. Three databases were searched (PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge). Four frequently used suicidality assessment tools were identified, and subsequently rated for quality of the evidence in support of their measurement properties using the COSMIN checklist. Despite studies having explored suicidality in autistic adults, none had utilised a validated tool. Overall, there was lack of evidence in support of suicidality risk assessments successfully predicting future suicide attempts. We recommend adaptations to current suicidality assessment tools and priorities for future research, in order to better conceptualise suicidality and its measurement in autism. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Transitional Care for Older Adults with Chronic Illnesses as a Vulnerable Population: Theoretical Framework and Future Directions in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn Jung; You, Mi Ae

    2015-12-01

    Effective transitional care is needed to improve the quality of life in older adult patients with chronic illness and avoid discontinuity of care and adverse events. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the key features, broader implications, and the utility of Meleis' transition theory intended for the transitional care of older adults with chronic illnesses. We present the role of nurse in the context of transitional care and propose future directions to increase the quality of nursing care. The online databases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, and Science Direct were searched for relevant literature published since 1970 along with textbooks regarding nursing theory. An evaluation of the usefulness of transition theory based on transitional care in older adult patients with chronic illnesses is provided. Healthy transition should be the expected standard of nursing care for older adults across all healthcare settings. Nurses need to contribute to the development of transitional care for vulnerable populations; however, transition theory needs to be enhanced through additional theoretical work and repeated evaluations of the applicability in areas of transitional care.

  9. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-08-22

    To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte - Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults' clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach's alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. Analisar se a autopercepção de saúde bucal em contexto urbano está associada aos factores sociodemográficos que interferem na qualidade de vida da saúde bucal. Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de indivíduos idosos (65

  10. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  11. Relation of intelligence to ego functioning in an adult psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J G; Coyne, L; David, E

    1986-01-01

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQs and clinical ratings of 10 ego functions in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample of 60 adult psychiatric inpatients were correlated. With severity of pathology statistically controlled, higher intelligence was associated with more adequate ego functioning in several spheres: primary autonomous functions, thought processes, object relations, and mastery-competence. There were also some clinically meaningful differences between the Verbal and Performance IQs in the pattern of correlations. Extending Hartmann's original views, the authors employ an ethological framework to conceptualize intelligence in relation to the ego's role in adaptation, emphasizing that intelligence is an important-albeit neglected-aspect of ego functioning.

  12. Geographic coupling of juvenile and adult habitat shapes spatial population dynamics of a coral reef fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelekerken, I.; Debrot, A.O.; Jongejans, E.

    2013-01-01

    Marine spatial population dynamics are often addressed with a focus on larval dispersal, without taking into account movement behavior of individuals in later life stages. Processes occurring during demersal life stages may also drive spatial population dynamics if habitat quality is perceived

  13. [Prevalence of hyperlipidemia and possible risk factors in rural Chinese adults: cohort study of health population in Yuhuan rural].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Fu, Chaowei; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; He, Na; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related factors in adults in rural Yuhuan, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out as a baseline study of Rural Yuhuan Health Population Cohort in all communities in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 118,571 subjects aged 35 years old or above participated in this study. The trained health/medical workers collected the general information, health conditions and so on by the face-to-face interview. Totally, 5 ml blood samples were taken. Hyperlipidemia was defined as blood triglyceride > or = 1.70 mmol/L and/or total cholesterols > or = 5.18 mmol/L. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Data of the fifth China population census 2000 was used as the standard population. Among 118,571 eligible subjects, the averages of blood triglyceride and total cholesterols were (1.71 +/- 14.42) mmol/L and (5.48 +/- 40.25 ) mmol/L, respectively, and there was a statistical difference in gender on blood triglyceride (t = 4.163, P education levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index were significantly related to hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia, especial hypercholesterolemia, was common in adults aged 35 years old or above living in rural China.

  14. Dental caries, tooth wear and diet in an adult medieval (12th-14th century) population from mediterranean France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Grimoud, A M; Ruas, M P; Donat, R; Sevin, A; Astie, F; Lucas, S; Crubezy, E

    2009-03-01

    The aims of the present work were to determine the frequency and distribution of caries and tooth wear on paired maxillae of a mediaeval sample from southwest France in which the sex of the remains had been established, and to make a relation with the diet of this population. The sample analysed consisted of the dental remains of 58 adult individuals (29 men and 29 women) excavated from the mediaeval cemetery of the archaeological site of Vilarnau d'Amont (southwest France). A total of 1395 teeth were examined. The frequency of ante-mortem tooth loss for the sample was 8.7% and the frequency of caries was 17.5%. The frequencies of carious lesions in adult men and women's dentition were 21.9% and 14.0%. The most frequent were occlusal (49.7% and 34.3%) and approximal caries (26.5% and 37.4%). Concerning tooth wear, all 58 individuals were affected by attrition (100%) and more than 90% of the teeth were concerned. Most of them showed the presence of dentin clusters. There was no significant difference between men and women for caries and tooth wear. These findings are similar to those of other studies on European populations of the same socio-economic status and confirm the predominance of tooth wear over carious lesions during this period. Both caries and tooth wear may be related to the regional diet of this rural population.

  15. Molecular taxonomic analysis of the plant associations of adult pollen beetles (Nitidulidae: Meligethinae), and the population structure of Brassicogethes aeneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, Pierre; Hicks, Damien M; Mouland, Molly; Nicholls, James A; Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Kunin, William E; Potts, Simon G; Thieme, Thomas; Veromann, Eve; Stone, Graham N

    2016-12-01

    Pollen beetles (Nitidulidae: Meligethinae) are among the most abundant flower-visiting insects in Europe. While some species damage millions of hectares of crops annually, the biology of many species is little known. We assessed the utility of a 797 base pair fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene to resolve molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) in 750 adult pollen beetles sampled from flowers of 63 plant species sampled across the UK and continental Europe. We used the same locus to analyse region-scale patterns in population structure and demography in an economically important pest, Brassicogethes aeneus. We identified 44 Meligethinae at ∼2% divergence, 35 of which contained published sequences. A few specimens could not be identified because the MOTUs containing them included published sequences for multiple Linnaean species, suggesting either retention of ancestral haplotype polymorphism or identification errors in published sequences. Over 90% of UK specimens were identifiable as B. aeneus. Plant associations of adult B. aeneus were found to be far wider taxonomically than for their larvae. UK B. aeneus populations showed contrasting affiliations between the north (most similar to Scandinavia and the Baltic) and south (most similar to western continental Europe), with strong signatures of population growth in the south.

  16. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd.; Hossain, Md. Golam; Kamarul, T.; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. PMID:24294597

  17. Australoheros mattosi Ottoni, 2012 (Teleostei: Cichlidae: live coloration, population differences, and new data on adult external anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ferreira Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p55 Recently collected specimens of Australoheros mattosi in water courses around locality type (Das Velhas River drainage, including Upper Cipó River, Minas Gerais, Brazil revealed new data on the adult live coloration (iridescent markings on the base of the dorsal and anal fins and reddish to grayish hyaline coloration on the distal margin of the caudal-fin, population (dorsal head profile and head ground coloration and ontogenetic variations (variation in the nostril position, head ventral profile, scales on the cheek and the anal and dorsal fins, spot on the posterior margin of the operculum, and ground coloration in alcohol on the external morphology and new morphometric data (pelvic-pectoral distance, eye position in relation to the horizontal axis at the symphysis and the 5th ceratobranchial levels on adult individuals.

  18. Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in the association between self-rated health and hypertension in a Korean adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hee-Young

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been reported as a predictor of mortality in previous studies. This study aimed to examine whether SRH is independently associated with hypertension and if there is a gender difference in this association. Methods 16,956 community dwelling adults aged 20 and over within a defined geographic area participated in this study. Data on SRH, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education and health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Logistic regression models were used to determine a relationship between SRH and hypertension. Results 32.5% of the participants were found to have hypertension. Women were more likely than men to rate their SRH as poor (p p p Conclusions SRH was independently associated with hypertension in a Korean adult population. This association was modified by gender.

  20. Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention in a non-treatment-seeking population of adult heavy drinkers: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups....

  1. Prevalence of serum celiac antibodies in a multiracial Asian population--a first study in the young Asian adult population of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18-30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3-60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1-65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought.

  2. Prevalence of Serum Celiac Antibodies in a Multiracial Asian Population-A First Study in the Young Asian Adult Population of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18–30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. Results 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3–60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1–65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. Conclusions The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought. PMID:25799401

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population of District of Tetovo in the Northwest Region of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Rexhepi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its separate components in the adult population of the district of Tetovo. Methods: Total of 630 subjects aged over 18 years were selected at random, from the primary healthcare register, to constitute a representative sample of a population in the district of Tetovo, adjusted for age and sex. MetS is defined according to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATPIII. Results: The prevalence of MetS in the district of Tetovo was 28.25%. It was significantly higher in women than in men (34.06% versus 22.26%, p=0.004. The largest number of people with MetS living in rural areas (31.32% versus 23.60%, p=0.002. Of the particular components of MetS, 52.06% of the population had increased arterial blood pressure, 46.35% reduced values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and 43.17% abdominal adiposity (AA. In women population, more dominated was abdominal adiposity (59.38% and 26.54%, p=0.000, in men more dominated was increased arterial blood pressure (53.44% and 50.65%, p=0.48. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS in our population is high, particularly in women. The prevalence rates for arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity are among the highest reported for the region. Advice on diet and change in lifestyles, in addition to the pharmacological treatment of this category, would contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and complications from these diseases.

  4. Sex-Ratio and Gender Differences in Depression in an Unselected Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, E. P.; Oliver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Neither sex-ratio nor gender differences in depression were found in adult sample, similar to pattern found among university students. No demographic variable was correlated significantly with depression. Suggests results may be due to the elimination of face-to-face interviews, which expose males to greater negative repercussions for exhibiting…

  5. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and psychosis: Epidemiological evidence from a population survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Bebbington, Paul; Singh, Swaran P; Freeman, Daniel; Winsper, Catherine; Broome, Matthew R

    2015-09-30

    Despite both having some shared features, evidence linking psychosis and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. Hypotheses tested were (1) adult ADHD symptoms are associated with auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation and psychosis (2) links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis, paranoid ideation and auditory hallucinations despite controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic and dysphoric mood. An ASRS score indicating probable ADHD diagnosis was also significantly associated with psychosis. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis, paranoia and auditory hallucinations was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood, but not by use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis. In conclusion, higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Our analyses contradict the traditional clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is illicit drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...

  7. A population-based study examining injury among older adults with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Meuleners

    2017-04-01

    Older adults with dementia were at increased risk of an admission for an injury compared to those without dementia. Multifactorial injury prevention programs should target older people with dementia, those over 85 years, living alone and with a history of previous falls.

  8. Multilineage Potential and Self-Renewal Define an Epithelial Progenitor Cell Population in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlia Wong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critical for T cell development and self-tolerance but are gradually lost with age. The existence of thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPCs in the postnatal thymus has been inferred, but their identity has remained enigmatic. Here, we assessed the entire adult TEC compartment in order to reveal progenitor capacity is retained exclusively within a subset of immature thymic epithelium displaying several hallmark features of stem/progenitor function. These adult TEPCs generate mature cortical and medullary lineages in a stepwise fashion, including Aire+ TEC, within fetal thymus reaggregate grafts. Although relatively quiescent in vivo, adult TEPCs demonstrate significant in vitro colony formation and self-renewal. Importantly, 3D-cultured TEPCs retain their capacity to differentiate into cortical and medullary TEC lineages when returned to an in vivo thymic microenvironment. No other postnatal TEC subset exhibits this combination of properties. The characterization of adult TEPC will enable progress in understanding TEC biology in aging and regeneration.

  9. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo study preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Leonardo; Blatt, Graciela; Insua, Iván; Furman, Mariano; González, María Agustina; Hermann, Bárbara; Kesselman, Mariana; Massautis, Alicia; Reinado, Alejandra; Senas, Patricia; Yavitz, Claudia; Lejarraga, Horacio; Nunes, Fernando; Arizaga, Raúl Luciano; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. Methods A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND) and dementia. Results and Conclusions A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia) with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population. PMID:29213923

  10. The profile of adult onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Adeline Mei-Yen; Lee, Shan-Xian; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is less common in adults and has been linked with a more severe clinical syndrome as well as a higher frequency of renal disease and internal malignancy. Renal involvement in adult HSP has been significantly associated with antecedent infections, pyrexia at time of first presentation, and purpura above the waist. We aim to evaluate the frequency of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features and identify the predictive factors for renal involvement in Asian adults with HSP. We performed a retrospective study of 48 adult Asian patients diagnosed with HSP based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria at a tertiary hospital in Singapore between January 2000 and December 2011. The most common cutaneous manifestations were palpable purpura (73%), papules (31%), and petechiae (27%). Forty-percent had cutaneous lesions extending above the waist. Fifteen patients (31%) had gastrointestinal symptoms, 21 (44%) had joint involvement, and 27 (56%) had renal disease. Seventy-percent of patients with pyrexia at presentation experienced renal disease, whereas only 30% without pyrexia had renal involvement (P = 0.018). Sixty-six percent of patients with purpura had renal involvement as compared to 31% in those without purpura (P = 0.049). The frequency of renal involvement in patients with purpura above the waist (52%) was similar to those with purpura below the waist (55%). Our study confirms that HSP in adults tends to be more severe with a high incidence of extracutaneous manifestations, especially renal disease. Pyrexia at presentation and the presence of purpura were significant predictive factors for renal involvement. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Good death in elderly adults with cancer in Japan based on perspectives of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Okuyama, Toru; Sakamoto, Masaki; Sagawa, Ryuichi; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2012-02-01

    To investigate concepts relevant to a good death in elderly adults with cancer. Cross-sectional. Japan. A national sample of 2,595 adults, including 466 aged 70 to 79. An anonymous questionnaire covering 18 domains (physical and psychological comfort, dying in a favorite place, good relationship with medical staff, maintaining hope and pleasure, not being a burden to others, good relationship with family, physical and cognitive control, environmental comfort, being respected as an individual, life completion, natural death, preparation for death, role accomplishment and contribution to others, unawareness of death, fighting against cancer, pride and beauty, control over the future, and religious and spiritual comfort) and two additional concepts (pokkuri (sudden death) and omakase (leaving the decisions to a medical expert) was completed. The difference in importance of the concept between two age groups (40-69 and 70-79) was investigated using effect sizes (ESs). Clinically significant differences in the concept of good death were observed for two domains and one component: not being a burden to others (ES = -0.24), role accomplishment and contribution to others (ES = 0.29), and omakase (leaving the decisions to a medical expert; ES = 0.60). Only a few differences in the concept of good death existed between elderly and younger adults. When caring for terminally ill elderly Japanese adults, medical staff should acknowledge that some elderly adults value the traditional paternalistic attitude of physicians and that not all people want to be actively involved in decision-making. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Associations Among Cardiometabolic Abnormalities, Obesity, and Sociobehavioral Factors in a Southern Nevada Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Johnson, Michael D; Iser, Joseph P

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities underlie many health risks associated with obesity. We determined the relationship between cardiometabolic abnormalities, sociodemographic characteristics, and modifiable risk factors among adults in Southern Nevada. We included 2415 participants older than 20 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted in 2011, 2013, and 2015 in Southern Nevada. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were assessed on the combined basis of blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes status. Logistic regression stratified by body mass index status was used to examine cardiometabolic abnormalities in different body mass index classes. Odds ratio estimates for cardiometabolic abnormalities after accounting for sociodemographic and health behavior characteristics. Cardiometabolic abnormalities followed a socioeconomic gradient, although adjustment for lifestyle variables attenuated the associative link. Non-Hispanic black (vs white) race did not elevate cardiometabolic abnormalities risk among nonobese adults, yet conferred a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.61) among obese adults. By comparison, odds of cardiometabolic abnormalities among nonobese adults were 2.42 (95% CI, 0.99-5.92) times higher for Hispanics and 2.83 (95% CI, 1.23-6.55) times higher for other or multiracial minorities. Among obese adults, male gender (odds ratio: 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03-3.27) and former (odds ratio: 2.09; 95% CI, 1.14-3.85) smoker status were associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities independent of other covariates. The present data support intervention strategies tailored to reinforce and promote positive health behaviors among disadvantaged groups. There were variable patterns of ethnic group disparities in clustered cardiometabolic abnormalities across body mass index classes. Targeted prevention approaches incorporating an explicit health equity perspective may help mitigate observed differences.

  13. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (penergy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  14. Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: the epidemic has arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, A R; Lauder, W; Jones, M C; Kirk, A; Agyemang, C; Bhopal, R S

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of, and trends in, physical inactivity and diabetes in adult West African populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases. Journal hand searches and examination of citations of relevant articles were also undertaken. To be included, studies had to be population based, use clearly defined criteria for measuring diabetes and physical inactivity, present data that allowed calculation of the prevalence of diabetes or physical inactivity, and sample adult participants. Studies retrieved were appraised critically. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random effect model. Twenty-one reports were retrieved for diabetes and 15 reports were retrieved for physical in/activity. Most studies (10 for diabetes and six for physical activity) were conducted solely among urban populations. The prevalence of diabetes in West Africa was approximately 4.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-9.0] in urban adults and 2.6% (95%CI 1.5-4.4) in rural adults, and was similar in men and women [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.36, 95%CI 0.96-1.92]. Cumulative time trend analyses suggested an increase in the prevalence of diabetes among adults in urban West Africa, from approximately 3.0% (95%CI 1.0-7.0) to 4.0% (95%CI 2.0-9.0) in the past 10 years. The prevalence of inactivity in West Africa was 13% (95%CI 9.0-18.0). An association was found between physical inactivity and being older (> or = 50 years) (PR 1.82, 95%CI 1.36-2.44), female gender (PR 1.62, 95%CI 1.41-1.87) and urban residence (PR 2.04, 95%CI 1.58-2.63). Diabetes and physical inactivity are important public health issues in urban West Africa, with similar prevalences to wealthy industrialized countries. There is an urgent need for policy makers, politicians and health promotion experts to put measures in place to encourage active lifestyles and control diabetes in urban West Africa.

  15. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  16. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Plessis, Johan; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Eloff, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging perspective that it is not sufficient to just assess skin exposure to physical and chemical stressors in workplaces, but that it is also important to assess the condition, i.e. skin barrier function of the exposed skin at the time of exposure. The workplace environment, repre......, representing a non-clinical environment, can be highly variable and difficult to control, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges not typically encountered in clinical settings....

  17. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  18. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition short form for index and IQ scores in a psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K; Girard, Todd A; Bagby, R Michael

    2007-06-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric analyses revealed an optimal SF8 comprising Vocabulary, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, Matrix Reasoning, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search, scored by linear scaling. Expanding on previous short forms, the current SF8 maximizes the breadth of information and reduces administration time while maintaining the original WAIS-III factor structure. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Population pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole in pediatric Chagas disease suggests efficacy despite lower plasma concentrations than in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Altcheh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce.Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK cohort study in children 2-12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5-8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387.Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs.Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses, possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00699387.

  20. Vitamin D in the General Population of Young Adults with Autism in the Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovská, Eva; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Weihe, Pál; Halling, Jónrit; Fernell, Elisabeth; Stóra, Tormóður; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Gillberg, I. Carina; Shea, Robyn; Billstedt, Eva; Bourgeron, Thomas; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a possible risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels were examined in a cross-sectional population-based study in the Faroe Islands. The case group consisting of a total population cohort of 40 individuals with ASD (aged 15-24 years) had significantly…

  1. [Bolsa-Família Program: diet quality of adult population in Curitiba, Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávia Emília Leite de; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Picheth, Telma

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the quality of diet of the population receiving the Bolsa Familia Program in Curitiba, state of Parana, Brazil. It was a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted from July 2006 to July 2007. 747 beneficiaries were interviewed from 19 years of age, of both genders. A 24 hour-recall was implemented in order to assess the quality of the diet and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used as a parameter for the classification of the group in consumption levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the diet quality of the studied population. Wald test and ANOVA test were performed to compare the means of the index according to the socio-economic variables, considering a significance level of 5%. The sample comprised 91.4% of women and 8.6% of men. The average age of the population was 36.4 ± 13.3 years, with 75% having completed elementary school. The mean HEI was 51 points, which features a diet that needs improvement. The population has a monotonous diet with an adequate intake of legumes, but low for fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Comparing the categories of diet quality of individuals, all components, except sodium, showed statistically different median score (p < 0.01). Studies that evaluate the quality of the diet are essential to support the implementation of nutrition education programs targeted to the core of the problem in the populations studied.

  2. Protection motivation theory and physical activity: a longitudinal test among a representative population sample of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Trinh, Linda

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict physical activity (PA) behaviour in a large, population-based sample of adults. One thousand six hundred and two randomly selected individuals completed two telephone interviews over two consecutive six-month periods assessing PMT constructs. PMT explained 35 per cent and 20 per cent of the variance in intention and behaviour respectively. Coping cognitions as moderators of threat explained 1 per cent of the variance in intention and behaviour. Age and gender as moderators of threat did not provide additional variance in the models. We conclude that salient PMT predictors (e.g. self-efficacy) may guide the development of effective PA interventions in the general population.

  3. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  4. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population: The DanFunD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P stress......Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM...... (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. PERSPECTIVE: Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity...

  5. Lumbar spine spondylolysis in the adult population: using computed tomography to evaluate the possibility of adult onset lumbar spondylosis as a cause of back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Benjamin K.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W.; Logan, Jeremy; Rosett, Matthew [University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-07-15

    To determine if new onset of low back pain in adults could be secondary to lumbar spondylolysis by establishing the age-related prevalence in the general population by examining patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for reasons unrelated to back pain. The records of 2,555 patients who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT in 2008 were reviewed electronically. In order to determine a true representation of the general population, we reviewed all indications for CT, excluding patients with a primary complaint of low back pain as the primary indication for imaging. Equal numbers of patients were separated into age groups by decade to ensure an even distribution of ages for statistical analysis. Patients older than 70 years were grouped together to provide case numbers comparable to those of the other decades. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the significance of the results. Three board-certified radiologists, including two musculoskeletal fellows and a radiology resident, retrospectively evaluated CT scans for lumbar spondylolysis, including unilateral and bilateral defects. Of the 2,555 cases evaluated, there were 203 positive cases of defects of the lumbar pars interarticularis. This corresponded to an overall prevalence of 8.0%. Prevalence per decade was fairly evenly distributed and ranged from 7.0%(ages 30-39 years) to 9.2% (ages 70 years and above). Prevalence of ages 20-49 years was 7.9%, and that of ages 50 years and older was 8.0%. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Logistic regression showed no significant increase in spondylolysis based on age. No significant increase in the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis was demonstrated in patients older than 20 years. This suggests that the development of symptomatic lumbar pars defects do not occur in this population and should not be considered as a rare but potentially treatable cause of new onset low back pain in adults. This study demonstrated an overall prevalence of pars defects of 8

  6. Lumbar spine spondylolysis in the adult population: using computed tomography to evaluate the possibility of adult onset lumbar spondylosis as a cause of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin K; Southam, Samuel L; Mlady, Gary W; Logan, Jeremy; Rosett, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    To determine if new onset of low back pain in adults could be secondary to lumbar spondylolysis by establishing the age-related prevalence in the general population by examining patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for reasons unrelated to back pain. The records of 2,555 patients who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT in 2008 were reviewed electronically. In order to determine a true representation of the general population, we reviewed all indications for CT, excluding patients with a primary complaint of low back pain as the primary indication for imaging. Equal numbers of patients were separated into age groups by decade to ensure an even distribution of ages for statistical analysis. Patients older than 70 years were grouped together to provide case numbers comparable to those of the other decades. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the significance of the results. Three board-certified radiologists, including two musculoskeletal fellows and a radiology resident, retrospectively evaluated CT scans for lumbar spondylolysis, including unilateral and bilateral defects. Of the 2,555 cases evaluated, there were 203 positive cases of defects of the lumbar pars interarticularis. This corresponded to an overall prevalence of 8.0%. Prevalence per decade was fairly evenly distributed and ranged from 7.0%( ages 30-39 years) to 9.2% (ages 70 years and above). Prevalence of ages 20-49 years was 7.9%, and that of ages 50 years and older was 8.0%. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Logistic regression showed no significant increase in spondylolysis based on age. No significant increase in the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis was demonstrated in patients older than 20 years. This suggests that the development of symptomatic lumbar pars defects do not occur in this population and should not be considered as a rare but potentially treatable cause of new onset low back pain in adults. This study demonstrated an overall prevalence of pars defects of 8

  7. Lumbar spine spondylolysis in the adult population: using computed tomography to evaluate the possibility of adult onset lumbar spondylosis as a cause of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Benjamin K.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W.; Logan, Jeremy; Rosett, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    To determine if new onset of low back pain in adults could be secondary to lumbar spondylolysis by establishing the age-related prevalence in the general population by examining patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for reasons unrelated to back pain. The records of 2,555 patients who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT in 2008 were reviewed electronically. In order to determine a true representation of the general population, we reviewed all indications for CT, excluding patients with a primary complaint of low back pain as the primary indication for imaging. Equal numbers of patients were separated into age groups by decade to ensure an even distribution of ages for statistical analysis. Patients older than 70 years were grouped together to provide case numbers comparable to those of the other decades. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the significance of the results. Three board-certified radiologists, including two musculoskeletal fellows and a radiology resident, retrospectively evaluated CT scans for lumbar spondylolysis, including unilateral and bilateral defects. Of the 2,555 cases evaluated, there were 203 positive cases of defects of the lumbar pars interarticularis. This corresponded to an overall prevalence of 8.0%. Prevalence per decade was fairly evenly distributed and ranged from 7.0%(ages 30-39 years) to 9.2% (ages 70 years and above). Prevalence of ages 20-49 years was 7.9%, and that of ages 50 years and older was 8.0%. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Logistic regression showed no significant increase in spondylolysis based on age. No significant increase in the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis was demonstrated in patients older than 20 years. This suggests that the development of symptomatic lumbar pars defects do not occur in this population and should not be considered as a rare but potentially treatable cause of new onset low back pain in adults. This study demonstrated an overall prevalence of pars defects of 8

  8. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  9. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-11-10

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Balamurugan; Rani, B Sandya; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; John, K R; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2017-02-01

    The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced. Totally 227,710 good-quality reads were analyzed. TAs consumed a millets-based diet, ate pork every day, and did not consume milk or milk products. RAs consumed a rice-based diet with meat intake once a week. In both groups, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The median Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was 34.0 in TA and 92.9 in RA groups. Actinobacteria were significantly low in TA, possibly due to non-consumption of milk. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in both groups, but was significantly more abundant in TAs than RAs, while Streptococcus was significantly more abundant in RA (P<0.05). Analyses of genetic distance revealed that the microbiota were distinctly different between TA and RA, and principal component analysis using 550 distinct taxonomically identifiable sequences revealed a clear separation of microbiota composition in the two groups. Phylogenetic analysis of major microbiota indicated clustering of microbial groups at different major branch points for TAs and RAs. Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  11. Medication, rehabilitation and health care consumption in adults with cerebral palsy: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Christelle; Brochard, Sylvain; Gallien, Philippe; Nicolas, Benoit; Duruflé, Aurélie; Roquet, Marion; Rémy-Néris, Olivier; Garlantezec, Ronan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate medication, rehabilitation and healthcare consumption in adults with CP as a function of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Brittany, a French county. Adults with cerebral palsy. Questionnaires relating to drugs, orthotic devices, mobility aids, rehabilitation and medical input were sent to 435 members of a unique regional French network dedicated to adults with cerebral palsy. The questionnaire was completed by the participant or a helper if necessary. Of the 282 responders, 7.8% had a GMFCS level of I, 14.2% II, 17.7% III, 29.1% IV and 31.2% V. Participants consumed a large amount of healthcare. Almost three-quarters took orally administered drugs, of which antispastic and antiepileptic drugs were among the most frequent. Nearly all patients had at least one type of rehabilitation, 87.2% had physiotherapy, 78% used at least one mobility aid and 69.5% used at least one orthotic device. The frequency of numerous inputs increased with GMFCS level. Specificities were found for each GMFCS level, e.g. participants with GMFCS level IV and V had a high level of medical input and a greater use of trunk-supporting devices, antireflux and laxative. Profiles could be established based on GMFCS levels. Adults with cerebral palsy use a large amount of drugs, mobility aids, orthotic devices, rehabilitation and medical input. Healthcare is targeted at cerebral palsy-related issues. GMFCS is a determinant of healthcare consumption and thus a useful tool for clinical practice to target care appropriately.

  12. Beneficial effects of gluten free diet in potential coeliac disease in adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Capone, Pietro; Gerbino, Nicolò; Donetto, Sara; Testa, Anna; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    To date, potential coeliac disease (PCD) occurring in adults remains an almost unexplored condition. To explore the prognostic role of Marsh grade in adult PCD patients, and to evaluate the effects of gluten-containing diet (GCD) in asymptomatic PCD patients. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive adult PCD patients followed-up for at least 6 years. Patients were divided into: Group A (patients with Marsh 0 histology) and Group B (Marsh 1 patients). Symptomatic patients were started gluten-free diet (GFD), while asymptomatic subjects were kept on GCD and were followed-up. 56 PCD patients were enrolled (21 in Group A and 35 in Group B). Forty-three patients were symptomatic and started GFD. Of these, none of 15 patients in Group A and 8 of 28 patients in Group B developed immune-mediated disorders (IMD) during follow-up (P=0.03; OR=4.2). The 13 asymptomatic PCD patients were kept on GCD. During the follow-up, 9 patients developed CD-related symptoms, 6 villous atrophy and 8 IMD. At the end, patients kept on GCD were at higher risk of developing IMD than those following a GFD (61% vs 18%, P=0.03, OR=3.3). Although PCD with normal mucosa seems to be a milder disease, the continuation of GCD places patients at a high risk of developing villous atrophy and IMD compared to commencement of GFD. Adult PCD patients should start GFD even if not symptomatic. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary inflammatory potential is linked to cardiovascular disease risk burden in the US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Kotsakis, Georgios A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-08-01

    Dietary guidelines are a key tool in the public health quiver. Single nutrients have been linked to cardiovascular diseases, but existing metrics do not capture the overall effect of diet on inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and cardiovascular diseases risk factors (CVD-RFs) in a nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized US adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2012). A sample of 7880 non-institutionalized US adults aged ≥20years provided data on dietary habits and CVD-RFs (obesity; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; hypercholesterolemia). The total number of CVD-RFs was summed for each individual to create a CVD-RF morbidity index (range 0-4) as the outcome variable, used both as ordinal and dichotomous (no CVD-RFs versus at least one CVD-RF) variables. The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and at least one CVD-RF was dose-dependent, with participants in the 3rd and 4th quartile of DII (i.e., more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) being 1.37 (95%CI=1.11-1.68) and 1.50 (95%CI=1.19-1.90) times more likely, respectively, to have at least one CVD-RF, as compared to participants in the 1st quartile of DII scores. Similar results were obtained for the ordinal logistic regression using the CVD-RF morbidity index as the outcome. Among US adults aged ≥20years, pro-inflammatory dietary patterns, as assessed by the DII, were associated with increased odds for CVD-RFs. Dietary guidelines aimed at lowering the DII may reduce the CVD-RF burden in US adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (Preference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the

  15. Online sexual solicitation by adults and peers - Results from a population based German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarova, Halina; Schulz, Anja; Schuhmann, Petya; Osterheider, Michael; Neutze, Janina

    2018-02-01

    Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents' online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14-17 (N=2238) was recruited using online survey panel. The sample was representative for gender and education. Subjects completed an online survey reporting their online sexual activities (i.e., sexual conversation, exchanging pictures, and cybersex) with peers (14-17y.) and/or adults (≥18y.). Findings illustrated that 51.3% (n=1148) of adolescents had experienced online sexual activity, which mostly involved peers (n=969; 84.4%). In contrast, 23.2% (n=519) of the adolescents experienced OSS with 2.6% (n=57) reporting subjectively negative online sexual interactions with peers and 22.2% (n=490) reporting online sexual interactions with adults, of which 10.4% (n=51) were perceived as negative. The findings suggest that adolescents frequently engage in sexual interactions on the Internet with only a relatively small number perceiving such contacts as exploitative. In addition, females and adolescents with incomplete family situation, foreign nationality, higher education, homo- or bisexual orientation, and those without perceived social support reported OSS significantly more often. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood development and adult longevity in an archaeological