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Sample records for adult neurogenesis modulating

  1. NeuroD Modulates Opioid Agonist-Selective Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Contextual Memory Extinction

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    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate o...

  2. Factors That Modulate Neurogenesis: A Top-Down Approach.

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    LaDage, Lara D

    2016-08-24

    Although hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain has been conserved across the vertebrate lineage, laboratory studies have primarily examined this phenomenon in rodent models. This approach has been successful in elucidating important factors and mechanisms that can modulate rates of hippocampal neurogenesis, including hormones, environmental complexity, learning and memory, motor stimulation, and stress. However, recent studies have found that neurobiological research on neurogenesis in rodents may not easily translate to, or explain, neurogenesis patterns in nonrodent systems, particularly in species examined in the field. This review examines some of the evolutionary and ecological variables that may also modulate neurogenesis patterns. This 'top-down' and more naturalistic approach, which incorporates ecology and natural history, particularly of nonmodel species, may allow for a more comprehensive understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Neurotransmitter regulation of adult neurogenesis: putative therapeutic targets.

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    Vaidya, V A; Vadodaria, K C; Jha, S

    2007-10-01

    The evidence that new neuron addition takes place in the mammalian brain throughout adult life has dramatically altered our perspective of the potential for plasticity in the adult CNS. Although several recent reports suggest a latent neurogenic capacity in multiple brain regions, the two major neurogenic niches that retain the ability to generate substantial numbers of new neurons in adult life are the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal formation. The discovery of adult neurogenesis has also unveiled a novel therapeutic target for the repair of damaged neuronal circuits. In this regard, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis holds promise both for a deeper understanding of this form of structural plasticity, as well as the identification of pathways that can serve as therapeutic targets to manipulate adult neurogenesis. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the regulation of adult neurogenesis by neurotransmitters and to highlight the relevance of these endogenous regulators as targets to modulate adult neurogenesis in a clinical context.

  4. NeuroD modulates opioid agonist-selective regulation of adult neurogenesis and contextual memory extinction.

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    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-04-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate or magnitude. Fentanyl-induced CPP required much longer time for extinction than morphine-induced CPP. We observed a parallel decrease in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis after morphine-induced CPP, but not after fentanyl-induced CPP. Increasing NeuroD activities with NeuroD-lentivirus (nd-vir) injection at the dentate gyrus before CPP training reversed morphine-induced decreases in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis, and prolonged the time required for extinction of morphine-induced CPP. On the other hand, decreasing NeuroD activities via injection of miRNA-190-virus (190-vir) reversed the fentanyl effect on NeuroD and neurogenesis and shortened the time required for extinction of fentanyl-induced CPP. Another contextual memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM), was affected similarly by alteration of NeuroD activities. The reduction in NeuroD activities either by morphine treatment or 190-vir injection decreased MWM task retention, while the increase in NeuroD activities by nd-vir prolonged MWM task retention. Thus, by controlling NeuroD activities, opioid agonists differentially regulate adult neurogenesis and subsequent contextual memory retention. Such drug-related memory regulation could have implications in eventual context-associated relapse.

  5. Adult Neurogenesis and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systems Biology Perspective

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    Horgusluoglu, Emrin; Nudelman, Kelly; Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain, the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and are incorporated into the hippocampal network circuitry; disruption of this process has been postulated to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Known modulators of adult neurogenesis include signal transduction pathways, the vascular and immune systems, metabolic factors, and epigenetic regulation. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotrophic factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle regulators control neural stem cell proliferation, maintenance in the adult neurogenic niche, and differentiation into mature neurons; these factors act in networks of signaling molecules that influence each other during construction and maintenance of neural circuits, and in turn contribute to learning and memory. The immune system and vascular system are necessary for neuronal formation and neural stem cell fate determination. Inflammatory cytokines regulate adult neurogenesis in response to immune system activation, whereas the vasculature regulates the neural stem cell niche. Vasculature, immune/support cell populations (microglia/astrocytes), adhesion molecules, growth factors, and the extracellular matrix also provide a homing environment for neural stem cells. Epigenetic changes during hippocampal neurogenesis also impact memory and learning. Some genetic variations in neurogenesis related genes may play important roles in the alteration of neural stem cells differentiation into new born neurons during adult neurogenesis, with important therapeutic implications. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of and interactions between these modulators of adult neurogenesis, as well as implications for neurodegenerative disease and current therapeutic research. PMID:26879907

  6. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

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    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  7. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

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    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. Prion diseases and adult neurogenesis: how do prions counteract the brain's endogenous repair machinery?

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    Relaño-Ginés, Aroa; Lehmann, Sylvain; Crozet, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Scientific advances in stem cell biology and adult neurogenesis have raised the hope that neurodegenerative disorders could benefit from stem cell-based therapy. Adult neurogenesis might be part of the physiological regenerative process, however it might become impaired by the disease's mechanism and therefore contribute to neurodegeneration. In prion disorders this endogenous repair system has rarely been studied. Whether adult neurogenesis plays a role or not in brain repair or in the propagation of prion pathology remains unclear. We have recently investigated the status of adult neural stem cells isolated from prion-infected mice. We were able to show that neural stem cells accumulate and replicate prions thus resulting in an alteration of their neuronal destiny. We also reproduced these results in adult neural stem cells, which were infected in vitro. The fact that endogenous adult neurogenesis could be altered by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein represents another great challenge. Inhibiting prion propagation in these cells would thus help the endogenous neurogenesis to compensate for the injured neuronal system. Moreover, understanding the endogenous modulation of the neurogenesis system would help develop effective neural stem cell-based therapies.

  9. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

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    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  10. NF-κB Mediated Regulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Relevance to Mood Disorders and Antidepressant Activity

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    Valeria Bortolotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a peculiar form of process of neuroplasticity that in recent years has gained great attention for its potential implication in cognition and in emotional behavior in physiological conditions. Moreover, a vast array of experimental studies suggested that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be altered in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression, where its disregulation may contribute to cognitive impairment and/or emotional aspects associated with those diseases. An intriguing area of interest is the potential influence of drugs on adult neurogenesis. In particular, several psychoactive drugs, including antidepressants, were shown to positively modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Among molecules which could regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis the NF-κB family of transcription factors has been receiving particular attention from our and other laboratories. Herein we review recent data supporting the involvement of NF-κB signaling pathways in the regulation of adult neurogenesis and in the effects of drugs that are endowed with proneurogenic and antidepressant activity. The potential implications of these findings on our current understanding of the process of adult neurogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions and on the search for novel antidepressants are also discussed.

  11. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience

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    Brunno R. Levone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  12. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

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    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  13. α2δ ligands act as positive modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and prevent depression-like behavior induced by chronic restraint stress.

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    Valente, Maria Maddalena; Bortolotto, Valeria; Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Ubezio, Federica; Meneghini, Vasco; Francese, Maria Teresa; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-08-01

    Although the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains to be fully elucidated, several studies suggested that the process is involved in cognitive and emotional functions and is deregulated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression. Several psychoactive drugs, including antidepressants, can modulate adult neurogenesis. Here we show for the first time that the α2δ ligands gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid] and pregabalin (PGB) [(S)-(+)-3-isobutyl-GABA or (S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid] can produce concentration-dependent increases in the numbers of newborn mature and immature neurons generated in vitro from adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells and, in parallel, a decrease in the number of undifferentiated precursor cells. These effects were confirmed in vivo, because significantly increased numbers of adult cell-generated neurons were observed in the hippocampal region of mice receiving prolonged treatment with PGB (10 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days), compared with vehicle-treated mice. We demonstrated that PGB administration prevented the appearance of depression-like behaviors induced by chronic restraint stress and, in parallel, promoted hippocampal neurogenesis in adult stressed mice. Finally, we provided data suggesting involvement of the α2δ1 subunit and the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in drug-mediated proneurogenic effects. The new pharmacological activities of α2δ ligands may help explain their therapeutic activity as supplemental therapy for major depression and depressive symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorders. These data contribute to the identification of novel molecular pathways that may represent potential targets for pharmacological modulation in depression.

  14. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

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    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus

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    Taruna eIkrar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell layer (GCL is conducive for pattern separation. A sparse coding scheme is thought to facilitate the distribution of similar entorhinal inputs across the GCL to decorrelate overlapping representations and minimize interference. Here we used fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging combined with laser photostimulation and electrical stimulation to examine how selectively increasing adult DG neurogenesis influences local circuit activity and excitability. We show that DG of mice with more adult-born neurons exhibits decreased strength of neuronal activation and more restricted excitation spread in GCL while maintaining effective output to CA3c. Conversely, blockade of adult hippocampal neurogenesis changed excitability of the DG in the opposite direction. Analysis of GABAergic inhibition onto mature dentate granule neurons in the DG of mice with more adult-born neurons shows a modest readjustment of perisomatic inhibitory synaptic gain without changes in overall inhibitory tone, presynaptic properties or GABAergic innervation pattern. Retroviral labeling of connectivity in mice with more adult-born neurons showed increased number of excitatory synaptic contacts of adult-born neurons onto hilar interneurons. Together, these studies demonstrate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies excitability of mature dentate granule neurons and that this non-cell autonomous effect may be mediated by local circuit mechanisms such as excitatory drive onto hilar interneurons. Modulation of DG excitability by adult-born dentate granule neurons may enhance sparse coding in the GCL to influence pattern

  17. Adult Neurogenesis in Sheep: Characterization and Contribution to Reproduction and Behavior

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    Lévy, Frederic; Batailler, Martine; Meurisse, Maryse; Migaud, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics. The present review reveals the distinctive features of the hippocampal, olfactory, and hypothalamic neurogenesis in sheep. In particular, the organization of the subventricular zone and the dynamic of neuronal maturation differs from that of rodents. In addition, we show that various physiological conditions, such as seasonal reproduction, gestation, and lactation differently modulate these three neurogenic niches. Last, we discuss recent evidence indicating that hypothalamic neurogenesis acts as an important regulator of the seasonal control of reproduction and that olfactory neurogenesis could be involved in odor processing in the context of maternal behavior. PMID:29109674

  18. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

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    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  19. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

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    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  20. Organotypic Cultures as a Model to Study Adult Neurogenesis in CNS Disorders

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    Fabio Cavaliere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural regeneration resides in certain specific regions of adult CNS. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life, especially from the subgranular zone of hippocampus and the subventricular zone, and can be modulated in physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models. Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques. Here, we review the use of organotypic cultures as a reliable and well defined method to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cerebral ischemia.

  1. Adult Neurogenesis Supports Short-Term Olfactory Memory

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    Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis towar...

  2. Adult neurogenesis supports short-term olfactory memory.

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    Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2010-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis toward forming short-term olfactory memories.

  3. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

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    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Müller Anke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. Therefore we here focused on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD fed to female C57Bl/6 and Nestin-GFP-reporter mice on proliferation and maturation of neuronal progenitor cells and spatial learning performance. In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. Results THC and CBD differed in their effects on spatial learning and adult neurogenesis. CBD did not impair learning but increased adult neurogenesis, whereas THC reduced learning without affecting adult neurogenesis. We found the neurogenic effect of CBD to be dependent on the CB1 receptor, which is expressed over the whole dentate gyrus. Similarly, the neurogenic effect of environmental enrichment and voluntary wheel running depends on the presence of the CB1 receptor. We found that in the absence of CB1 receptors, cell proliferation was increased and neuronal differentiation reduced, which could be related to CB1 receptor mediated signaling in Doublecortin (DCX-expressing intermediate progenitor cells. Conclusion CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. The pro-neurogenic effects of CBD might explain some of the positive therapeutic features of CBD-based compounds.

  5. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

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    Lorena Varela-Nallar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (ANDRO is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  6. Divergent Roles of Central Serotonin in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Ning-Ning Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The central serotonin (5-HT system is the main target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, the first-line antidepressants widely used in current general practice. One of the prominent features of chronic SSRI treatment in rodents is the enhanced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which has been proposed to contribute to antidepressant effects. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to decipher how central 5-HT regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review how changes in the central serotonergic system alter adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We focus on data obtained from three categories of genetically engineered mouse models: (1 mice with altered central 5-HT levels from embryonic stages, (2 mice with deletion of 5-HT receptors from embryonic stages, and (3 mice with altered central 5-HT system exclusively in adulthood. These recent findings provide unique insights to interpret the multifaceted roles of central 5-HT on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated effects on depression.

  7. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

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    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  8. Opposing Effects of α2- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation on Quiescent Neural Precursor Cell Activity and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Prosper, Boris W.; Marathe, Swanand; Husain, Basma F. A.; Kernie, Steven G.; Bartlett, Perry F.; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Norepinephrine regulates latent neural stem cell activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and has an important role in modulating hippocampal functions such as learning, memory and mood. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a multi-stage process, spanning from the activation and proliferation of hippocampal stem cells, to their differentiation into neurons. However, the stage-specific effects of noradrenergic receptors in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we used transgenic Nestin-GFP mice and neurosphere assays to show that modulation of α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity directly affects Nestin-GFP/GFAP-positive precursor cell population albeit in an opposing fashion. While selective stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors decreases precursor cell activation, proliferation and immature neuron number, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors activates the quiescent precursor pool and enhances their proliferation in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, our data indicate no major role for α1-adrenergic receptors, as we did not observe any change in either the activation and proliferation of hippocampal precursors following selective stimulation or blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that under physiological as well as under conditions that lead to enhanced norepinephrine release, the balance between α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity regulates precursor cell activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24922313

  9. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

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    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  10. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  11. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  12. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

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    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  13. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

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    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei; Bai, Yun

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  15. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

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    He Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors.

  16. Olfactory memory is enhanced in mice exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields via Wnt/β-catenin dependent modulation of subventricular zone neurogenesis.

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    Mastrodonato, Alessia; Barbati, Saviana Antonella; Leone, Lucia; Colussi, Claudia; Gironi, Katia; Rinaudo, Marco; Piacentini, Roberto; Denny, Christine A; Grassi, Claudio

    2018-01-10

    Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEF) influences the expression of key target genes controlling adult neurogenesis and modulates hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we assayed whether ELFEF stimulation affects olfactory memory by modulating neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that 30 days after the completion of an ELFEF stimulation protocol (1 mT; 50 Hz; 3.5 h/day for 12 days), mice showed enhanced olfactory memory and increased SVZ neurogenesis. These effects were associated with upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding for key regulators of adult neurogenesis and were mainly dependent on the activation of the Wnt pathway. Indeed, ELFEF stimulation increased Wnt3 mRNA expression and nuclear localization of its downstream target β-catenin. Conversely, inhibition of Wnt3 by Dkk-1 prevented ELFEF-induced upregulation of neurogenic genes and abolished ELFEF's effects on olfactory memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that ELFEF stimulation increases olfactory memory via enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the SVZ and point to ELFEF as a promising tool for enhancing SVZ neurogenesis and olfactory function.

  17. Neogenin, a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents depressive-like behavior.

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    Sun, Dong; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Lu; Lee, Dae-Hoon; Hu, Jin-Xia; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-08

    Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a role for neogenin to positively regulate Gli1, a crucial downstream transcriptional factor of sonic hedgehog, and expression of Gli1 into neogenin depleted NSCs/NPCs restores their proliferation. Further morphological and functional studies showed additional abnormities, including reduced dendritic branches and spines, and impaired glutamatergic neuro-transmission, in neogenin-depleted new-born DG neurons; and mice with depletion of neogenin in NSCs/NPCs exhibited depressive-like behavior. These results thus demonstrate unrecognized functions of neogenin in adult hippocampal NSCs/NPCs-promoting NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis and preventing astrogliogenesis and depressive-like behavior, and suggest neogenin regulation of Gli1 signaling as a possible underlying mechanism.

  18. The impact of cocaine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Potential neurobiological mechanisms and contributions to maladaptive cognition in cocaine addiction disorder.

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    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2017-10-01

    After discovering that addictive drugs alter adult neurogenesis, the potential role of adult-born hippocampal neurons in drug addiction has become a promising research field, in which cocaine is the most frequently investigated drug. Although a substantial amount of pre-clinical evidence has accumulated, additional studies are required to reveal the mechanisms by which cocaine modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and determine whether these adult-born neurons have a role in cocaine-related behaviors, such as cocaine-mediated cognitive symptoms. First, this review will summarize the cocaine-induced alterations in a number of neurobiological factors (neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, glucocorticoids, inflammatory mediators) that likely regulate both hippocampal-dependent learning and adult hippocampal neurogenesis after cocaine exposure. A separate section will provide a detailed review of the available literature that challenges the common view that cocaine reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In fact, cocaine has a short-term anti-proliferative role, but the young adult-born neurons are apparently spared, or even enhanced, following certain cocaine protocols. Thus, we will try to reconcile this evidence with the hippocampal-dependent cognitive symptoms that are typically observed in cocaine addicts, and we will propose new directions for future studies to test the relevant hypothesis. Based on the evidence presented here, the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of the many mechanisms by which cocaine sculpts hippocampus-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Odette Leiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus—a region crucial for learning and memory.

  20. The mammalian adult neurogenesis gene ontology (MANGO provides a structural framework for published information on genes regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not a single phenotype, but consists of a number of sub-processes, each of which is under complex genetic control. Interpretation of gene expression studies using existing resources often does not lead to results that address the interrelatedness of these processes. Formal structure, such as provided by ontologies, is essential in any field for comprehensive interpretation of existing knowledge but, until now, such a structure has been lacking for adult neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have created a resource with three components 1. A structured ontology describing the key stages in the development of adult hippocampal neural stem cells into functional granule cell neurons. 2. A comprehensive survey of the literature to annotate the results of all published reports on gene function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (257 manuscripts covering 228 genes to the appropriate terms in our ontology. 3. An easy-to-use searchable interface to the resulting database made freely available online. The manuscript presents an overview of the database highlighting global trends such as the current bias towards research on early proliferative stages, and an example gene set enrichment analysis. A limitation of the resource is the current scope of the literature which, however, is growing by around 100 publications per year. With the ontology and database in place, new findings can be rapidly annotated and regular updates of the database will be made publicly available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resource we present allows relevant interpretation of gene expression screens in terms of defined stages of postnatal neuronal development. Annotation of genes by hand from the adult neurogenesis literature ensures the data are directly applicable to the system under study. We believe this approach could also serve as an example to other fields in a 'bottom-up' community effort complementing the already

  1. Forebrain neurogenesis: From embryo to adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Daniel; Picketts, David; Slack, Ruth S; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-01-01

    A satellite symposium to the Canadian Developmental Biology Conference 2016 was held on March 16-17, 2016 in Banff, Alberta, Canada, entitled Forebrain Neurogenesis : From embryo to adult . The Forebrain Neurogenesis symposium was a focused, high-intensity meeting, bringing together the top Canadian and international researchers in the field. This symposium reported the latest breaking news, along with 'state of the art' techniques to answer fundamental questions in developmental neurobiology. Topics covered ranged from stem cell regulation to neurocircuitry development, culminating with a session focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying causes of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great interest as diagnoses of these conditions are climbing at alarming rates. For instance, in 2012, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the prevalence rate of ASD in the U.S. was 1 in 88; while more recent data indicate that the number is as high as 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR Surveillance Summaries. Vol. 63. No. 2). Similarly, the incidence of ASD is on the rise in Canada, increasing from 1 in 150 in 2000 to 1 in 63 in 2012 in southeastern Ontario (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Currently very little is known regarding the deficits underlying these neurodevelopmental conditions. Moreover, the development of effective therapies is further limited by major gaps in our understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate forebrain development and adult neurogenesis. The Forebrain Neurogenesis satellite symposium was thus timely, and it played a key role in advancing research in this important field, while also fostering collaborations between international leaders, and inspiring young researchers.

  2. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: an important target associated with antidepressant effects of exercise.

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    Sun, Lina; Sun, Qingshan; Qi, Jinshun

    2017-10-26

    Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress. However, how exercise improves the brain functions and reaches the antidepressant target needs systematic summarization due to the complexity and heterogeneous feature of depression. Brain plasticity, especially adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, is an important neurophysiology to facilitate animals for neurogenesis can occur in not only humans. Many studies indicated that an appropriate level of exercise can promote neurogenesis in the adult brains. In this article, we provide information about the antidepressant effects of exercise and its implications in adult neurogenesis. From the neurogenesis perspective, we summarize evidence about the effects of exercise in enhancing neurogenesis in the hippocampus through regulating growth factors, neurotrophins, neurotransmitters and metabolism as well as inflammations. Taken together, a large number of published works indicate the multiple benefits of exercise in the brain functions of animals, particularly brain plasticity like neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Therefore, a new treatment method for depression therapy can be developed by regulating the exercise activity.

  3. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

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    Suk-yu Yau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain.

  4. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  5. SREB2/GPR85, a schizophrenia risk factor, negatively regulates hippocampal adult neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory.

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    Chen, Qian; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Gross, Adam K; Zhou, Yuan; Walton, Noah M; Shin, Rick; Heusner, Carrie L; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Tamura, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    SREB2/GPR85, a member of the super-conserved receptor expressed in brain (SREB) family, is the most conserved G-protein-coupled receptor in vertebrate evolution. Previous human and mouse genetic studies have indicated a possible link between SREB2 and schizophrenia. SREB2 is robustly expressed in the hippocampal formation, especially in the dentate gyrus, a structure with an established involvement in psychiatric disorders and cognition. However, the function of SREB2 in the hippocampus remains elusive. Here we show that SREB2 regulates hippocampal adult neurogenesis, which impacts on cognitive function. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and immunohistochemistry were conducted in SREB2 transgenic (Tg, over-expression) and knockout (KO, null-mutant) mice to quantitatively assay adult neurogenesis and newborn neuron dendritic morphology. Cognitive responses associated with adult neurogenesis alteration were evaluated in SREB2 mutant mice. In SREB2 Tg mice, both new cell proliferation and new neuron survival were decreased in the dentate gyrus, whereas an enhancement of new neuron survival occurred in SREB2 KO mouse dentate gyrus. Doublecortin staining revealed dendritic morphology deficits of newly generated neurons in SREB2 Tg mice. In a spatial pattern separation task, SREB2 Tg mice displayed a decreased ability to discriminate spatial relationships, whereas SREB2 KO mice had enhanced abilities in this task. Additionally, SREB2 Tg and KO mice had reciprocal phenotypes in a Y-maze working memory task. Our results indicate that SREB2 is a negative regulator of adult neurogenesis and consequential cognitive functions. Inhibition of SREB2 function may be a novel approach to enhance hippocampal adult neurogenesis and cognitive abilities to ameliorate core symptoms of psychiatric patients. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

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    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The satiating hormone amylin enhances neurogenesis in the area postrema of adult rats

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    Claudia G. Liberini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone and subventricular zone is generally accepted, but its existence in other brain areas is still controversial. Circumventricular organs, such as the area postrema (AP have recently been described as potential neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The AP is the major site of action of the satiating hormone amylin. Amylin has been shown to promote the formation of neuronal projections originating from the AP in neonatal rodents but the role of amylin in adult neurogenesis remains unknown. Methods: To test this, we first performed an RNA-sequencing of the AP of adult rats acutely injected with either amylin (20 μg/kg, amylin plus the amylin receptor antagonist AC187 (500 μg/kg or vehicle. Second, animals were subcutaneously equipped with minipumps releasing either amylin (50 μg/kg/day or vehicle for 3 weeks to assess cell proliferation and differentiation with the 5′-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU technique. Results: Acute amylin injections affected genes involved in pathways and processes that control adult neurogenesis. Amylin consistently upregulated NeuroD1 transcript and protein in the adult AP, and this effect was blocked by the co-administration of AC187. Further, chronic amylin treatment increased the number of newly proliferated AP-cells and significantly promoted their differentiation into neurons rather than astrocytes. Conclusion: Our findings revealed a novel role of the satiating hormone amylin in promoting neurogenesis in the AP of adult rats. Keywords: Amylin, Adult neurogenesis, Area postrema, BrdU, Circumventricular organs

  8. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects on adult neurogenesis?

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    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder...

  9. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  10. Amyloid β Is Not the Major Factor Accounting for Impaired Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein

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    Hongyu Pan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in several Alzheimer's disease models overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP. However, the effects of wild-type hAPP on adult neurogenesis and whether the impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis was caused by amyloid β (Aβ or APP remained unclear. Here, we found that neurogenesis was impaired in the dentate gyrus (DG of adult mice overexpressing wild-type hAPP (hAPP-I5 compared with controls. However, the adult hippocampal neurogenesis was more severely impaired in hAPP-I5 than that in hAPP-J20 mice, which express similar levels of hAPP mRNA but much higher levels of Aβ. Furthermore, reducing Aβ levels did not affect the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the DG of hAPP-J20 mice. Our results suggested that hAPP was more likely an important factor inhibiting adult neurogenesis, and Aβ was not the major factor affecting neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of hAPP mice.

  11. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Alexander eGarthe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis.In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons.We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the DG facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places.In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

  12. The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro.

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    Morales-García, Jose A; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Feilding, Amanda; Perez-Castillo, Ana; Riba, Jordi

    2017-07-13

    Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro. In neurospheres prepared from progenitor cells obtained from the subventricular and the subgranular zones of adult mice brains, all compounds stimulated neural stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into adult neurons. These findings suggest that modulation of brain plasticity could be a major contribution to the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca. They also expand the potential application of B. caapi alkaloids to other brain disorders that may benefit from stimulation of endogenous neural precursor niches.

  13. Exposure to swainsonine impairs adult neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory.

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    Wang, Jiutao; Song, Lingzhen; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wei; An, Lei; Zhang, Yamei; Tong, Dewen; Zhao, Baoyu; Chen, Shulin; Zhao, Shanting

    2015-01-05

    Swainsonine (SW) is an indolizidine triol plant alkaloid isolated from the species Astragalus, colloquially termed locoweed. Ingestion induces severe neurological symptoms of livestock and wildlife, including ataxia, trembling, exaggerated fright reactions. Toxicity to the central and peripheral nervous system is caused by inhibition of lysosomal a-mannosidase (AMA) and accumulation of intracellular oligosaccharide. However, the effects of SW on adult neurogenesis and cognition have remained unclear. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the effects of SW on adult neurogenesis and learning as well as memory performance in adult mice. SW (10μg/mL in drinking water) was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. Our results showed that SW reduced proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of adult mice. In addition, exposure to SW led to down-regulation of doublecortin (DCX) and synaptophysin (SYP) in the hippocampus. However, caspase 3 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels were significantly increased in SW-treated mice. Finally, SW-treated mice exhibited deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggest that SW affects adult neurogenesis and cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated homocysteine by levodopa is detrimental to neurogenesis in parkinsonian model.

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    Jin Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modulation of neurogenesis that acts as an endogenous repair mechanism would have a significant impact on future therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD. Several studies demonstrated dopaminergic modulation of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult brain. Levodopa, the gold standard therapy for PD, causes an increase in homocysteine levels that induces neuronal death via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. The present study investigated whether elevated homocysteine by levodopa treatment in a parkinsonian model would modulate neurogenesis via NMDA receptor signal cascade and compared the effect of levodopa and pramipexol (PPX on neurogenic activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neurogenesis was assessed in vitro using neural progenitor cells (NPCs isolated from the SVZ and in vivo with the BrdU-injected animal model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Modulation of homocysteine levels was evaluated using co-cultures of NPCs and astrocytes and PD animals. Immunochemical and Western blot analyses were used to measure neurogenesis and determine the cell death signaling. Levodopa treatment increased release of homocysteine on astrocytes culture media as well as in plasma and brain of PD animals. Increased homocysteine by levodopa led to increased apoptosis of NPCs through the NMDA receptor-dependent the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. The administration of a NMDA antagonist significantly attenuated apoptotic cell death in levodopa-treated NPCs and markedly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of levodopa-treated PD animals. Comparative analysis revealed that PPX treatment significantly increased the number of NPCs and BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of PD animals compared to levodopa treatment. Our present study demonstrated that increased homocysteine by levodopa has a detrimental effect on neurogenesis through NMDA receptor

  15. BIRDS AS A MODEL TO STUDY ADULT NEUROGENESIS: BRIDGING EVOLUTIONARY, COMPARATIVE AND NEUROETHOLOGICAL APPROCHES

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    BARNEA, ANAT; PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. Such diversity of naturally-occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications. PMID:21929623

  16. Mice with ablated adult brain neurogenesis are not impaired in antidepressant response to chronic fluoxetine.

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    Jedynak, Paulina; Kos, Tomasz; Sandi, Carmen; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K

    2014-09-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of major depression has two main facets. One states that the illness results from decreased neurogenesis while the other claims that the very functioning of antidepressants depends on increased neurogenesis. In order to verify the latter, we have used cyclin D2 knockout mice (cD2 KO mice), known to have virtually no adult brain neurogenesis, and we demonstrate that these mice successfully respond to chronic fluoxetine. After unpredictable chronic mild stress, mutant mice showed depression-like behavior in forced swim test, which was eliminated with chronic fluoxetine treatment, despite its lack of impact on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cD2 KO mice. Our results suggest that new neurons are not indispensable for the action of antidepressants such as fluoxetine. Using forced swim test and tail suspension test, we also did not observe depression-like behavior in control cD2 KO mice, which argues against the link between decreased adult brain neurogenesis and major depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

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    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Plasticity by (Early) Stress, Glucocorticoids, and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; van Dam, A.M.; Czeh, B.; Korosi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to stress is one of the best-known negative regulators of adult neurogenesis (AN). We discuss changes in neurogenesis in relation to exposure to stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and inflammation, with a particular focus on early development and on lasting effects of stress. Although the

  19. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  20. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system shapes odor memory and perception.

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    Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory. After outlining the properties of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system, and after describing their regulation by internal and environmental factors, we ask how the process of odorant perception can be influenced by constant neuronal turnover. We then explore the possible functional roles that newborn neurons might have for olfactory memory. Throughout this review, and as we concentrate almost exclusively on mammalian models, we stress the idea that adult neurogenesis is yet another form of plasticity used by the brain to copes with a constantly changing olfactory world. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

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    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  2. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Impaired by Transient and Moderate Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deprivation during development impairs neurogenesis throughout the brain. The hippocampus also maintains a capacity for neurogenesis throughout life which is reduced in adult-onset hypothyroidism. This study examined hippocampal volume in the neonate a...

  3. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

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    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  4. Effects of amphetamine administration on neurogenesis in adult rats

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    Tomasz Stępień

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study expression of phospho-(Ser-10-histone H3 (pH3S10, a marker for the early stage of neurogenesis, and cellular early response genes were investigated using c-Fos protein as an example of a transcription factor in the neurogenic process in rats. Neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated by endo- and exogenous factors, which influence the proliferation potential of progenitor cells and accelerate the dendritic development of newborn neurons. D-amphetamine, a psychoactive substance, is one of the exogenous factors able to influence the process of neurogenesis. The rats were injected with D-amphetamine at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/body weight (b.w. under one administration scheme. Analysis of the pH3S10 and c-Fos expression levels in the group of D-amphetamine administered rats provided evidence of enhanced expression of these proteins in the regions of neurogenesis occurrence in rats. However, conclusions concerning stimulant effects of amphetamine on neurogenesis should be formulated with great caution, taking into account amphetamine dosage and the administration scheme. It should also be remembered that doses of psychoactive substances used in animal models can be lethal to humans.

  5. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  6. Chemotherapy disrupts learning, neurogenesis and theta activity in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Anderson, Megan L; Shors, Tracey J

    2012-12-01

    Chemotherapy, especially if prolonged, disrupts attention, working memory and speed of processing in humans. Most cancer drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier also decrease adult neurogenesis. Because new neurons are generated in the hippocampus, this decrease may contribute to the deficits in working memory and related thought processes. The neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits are generally unknown. A possible mediator is hippocampal oscillatory activity within the theta range (3-12 Hz). Theta activity predicts and promotes efficient learning in healthy animals and humans. Here, we hypothesised that chemotherapy disrupts learning via decreases in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity. Temozolomide was administered to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in a cyclic manner for several weeks. Treatment was followed by training with different types of eyeblink classical conditioning, a form of associative learning. Chemotherapy reduced both neurogenesis and endogenous theta activity, as well as disrupted learning and related theta-band responses to the conditioned stimulus. The detrimental effects of temozolomide only occurred after several weeks of treatment, and only on a task that requires the association of events across a temporal gap and not during training with temporally overlapping stimuli. Chemotherapy did not disrupt the memory for previously learned associations, a memory independent of (new neurons in) the hippocampus. In conclusion, prolonged systemic chemotherapy is associated with a decrease in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity that may explain the selective deficits in processes of learning that describe the 'chemobrain'. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

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    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning-dependent neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb determines long-term olfactory memory.

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    Sultan, S; Mandairon, N; Kermen, F; Garcia, S; Sacquet, J; Didier, A

    2010-07-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the olfactory bulb are subjected to permanent adult neurogenesis. Their number is modulated by learning, suggesting that they could play a role in plastic changes of the bulbar network associated with olfactory memory. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were trained in an associative olfactory task, and we analyzed long-term retention of the task 5, 30, and 90 d post-training. In parallel, we assessed the fate of these newborn cells, mapped their distribution in the olfactory bulb and measured their functional implication using the immediate early gene Zif268. In a second set of experiments, we pharmacologically modulated glutamatergic transmission and using the same behavioral task assessed the consequences on memory retention and neurogenesis. Finally, by local infusion of an antimitotic drug, we selectively blocked neurogenesis during acquisition of the task and looked at the effects on memory retention. First we demonstrated that retrieval of an associative olfactory task recruits the newborn neurons in odor-specific areas of the olfactory bulb selected to survive during acquisition of the task and that it does this in a manner that depends on the strength of learning. We then demonstrated that acquisition is not dependent on neurogenesis if long-term retention of the task is abolished by blocking neurogenesis. Adult-born neurons are thus involved in changes in the neural representation of an odor; this underlies long-term olfactory memory as the strength of learning is linked to the duration of this memory. Neurogenesis thus plays a crucial role in long-term olfactory memory.

  9. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  10. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination.

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    Astha Malik

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis creates new neurons and glia from stem cells in the human brain throughout life. It is best understood in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ. Circadian rhythms have been identified in the hippocampus, but the role of any endogenous circadian oscillator cells in hippocampal neurogenesis and their importance in learning or memory remains unclear. Any study of stem cell regulation by intrinsic circadian timing within the DG is complicated by modulation from circadian clocks elsewhere in the brain. To examine circadian oscillators in greater isolation, neurosphere cultures were prepared from the DG of two knockout mouse lines that lack a functional circadian clock and from mPer1::luc mice to identify circadian oscillations in gene expression. Circadian mPer1 gene activity rhythms were recorded in neurospheres maintained in a culture medium that induces neurogenesis but not in one that maintains the stem cell state. Although the differentiating neural stem progenitor cells of spheres were rhythmic, evidence of any mature neurons was extremely sparse. The circadian timing signal originated in undifferentiated cells within the neurosphere. This conclusion was supported by immunocytochemistry for mPER1 protein that was localized to the inner, more stem cell-like neurosphere core. To test for effects of the circadian clock on neurogenesis, media conditions were altered to induce neurospheres from BMAL1 knockout mice to differentiate. These cultures displayed unusually high differentiation into glia rather than neurons according to GFAP and NeuN expression, respectively, and very few BetaIII tubulin-positive, immature neurons were observed. The knockout neurospheres also displayed areas visibly devoid of cells and had overall higher cell death. Neurospheres from arrhythmic mice lacking two other core clock genes, Cry1 and Cry2, showed significantly reduced growth and increased astrocyte

  11. Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain of the Pulse Type Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus omarorum

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    Valentina Olivera-Pasilio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days

  12. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

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    Klaus Fabel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  13. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

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    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Deficient plasticity in the hippocampus and the spiral of addiction: focus on adult neurogenesis.

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    Canales, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder which causes disruption at multiple levels, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. Traditional biological theories of addiction have focused on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and the nucleus accumbens as anatomical substrates mediating addictive-like behaviors. More recently, we have begun to recognize the engagement and dynamic influence of a much broader circuitry which encompasses the frontal cortex, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. In particular, neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has become a major focus of attention due to its ability to influence memory, motivation, and affect, all of which are disrupted in addiction. First, I summarize toxicological data that reveal strongly suppressive effects of drug exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Then, I discuss the impact of deficient neurogenesis on learning and memory function, stress responsiveness and affective behavior, as they relate to addiction. Finally, I examine recent behavioral observations that implicate neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus in the emergence and maintenance of addictive behavior. The evidence reviewed here suggests that deficient neurogenesis is associated with several components of the downward spiraling loop that characterizes addiction, including elevated sensitivity to drug-induced reward and reinforcement, enhanced neurohormonal responsiveness, emergence of a negative affective state, memory impairment, and inflexible behavior.

  15. Neurogenesis and The Effect of Antidepressants

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    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence that neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS suggests that the CNS has the potential for self-repair. Beside this potential, the function of newly generated neuronal cells in the adult brain remains the focus of intense research. The hippocampus of patients with depression show signs of atrophy and neuronal loss. This suggests that adult neurogenesis may contribute to the biology of depression. The observations that antidepressants, like fluoxetine, increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG and neurogenesis is required for the behavioral effect of antidepressants, lead to a new theory for depression and the design of new strategies and drugs for the treatment of depression. However, the role of adult neurogenesis in the etiology of depression remains the source of controversies and debates.

  16. Neurogenesis and the Effect of Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence that neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS suggests that the CNS has the potential for self-repair. Beside this potential, the function of newly generated neuronal cells in the adult brain remains the focus of intense research. The hippocampus of patients with depression show signs of atrophy and neuronal loss. This suggests that adult neurogenesis may contribute to the biology of depression. The observations that antidepressants, like fluoxetine, increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG and neurogenesis is required for the behavioral effect of antidepressants, lead to a new theory for depression and the design of new strategies and drugs for the treatment of depression. However, the role of adult neurogenesis in the etiology of depression remains the source of controversies and debates.

  17. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

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    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  18. Absence of the calcium-binding protein calretinin, not of calbindin D-28k, causes a permanent impairment of murine adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Kiran eTodkar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calretinin (CR and calbindin D-28k (CB are cytosolic EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins and function as Ca2+ buffers affecting the spatiotemporal aspects of Ca2+ transients and possibly also as Ca2+ sensors modulating signaling cascades. In the adult hippocampal circuitry, CR and CB are expressed in specific principal neurons and subsets of interneurons. In addition, CR is transiently expressed within the neurogenic dentate gyrus (DG niche. CR and CB expression during adult neurogenesis mark critical transition stages, onset of differentiation for CR and the switch to adult-like connectivity for CB. Absence of either protein during these stages in null-mutant mice may have functional consequences and contribute to some aspects of the identified phenotypes. We report the impact of CR- and CB-deficiency on the proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells within the subgranular zone (SGZ neurogenic niche of the DG. Effects were evaluated I 2 and 4 weeks postnatally, during the transition period of the proliferative matrix to the adult state, and II in adult animals (3 months to trace possible permanent changes in adult neurogenesis. The absence of CB from differentiated DG granule cells has no retrograde effect on the proliferative activity of progenitor cells, nor affects survival or migration/differentiation of newborn neurons in the adult DG including the SGZ. On the contrary, lack of CR from immature early postmitotic granule cells causes an early loss in proliferative capacity of the SGZ that is maintained into adult age, when it has a further impact on the migration/survival of newborn granule cells. The transient CR expression at the onset of adult neurogenesis differentiation may thus have two functions: I to serve as a self-maintenance signal for the pool of cells at the same stage of neurogenesis contributing to their survival/differentiation, and II it may contribute to retrograde signaling required for maintenance of the progenitor

  19. Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized in the brain by amyloid plaque deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. It is the most common form of dementia among older people. There is at present no cure for AD, and current treatments consist mainly in drug therapy. Potential therapies for AD involve gene and cellular therapy. The recent confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS provide new opportunities for cellular therapy in the CNS, particularly for AD, and to better understand brain physiopathology. Hence, researchers have aimed at characterizing neurogenesis in patients with AD. Studies show that neurogenesis is increased in these patients, and in animal models of AD. The effect of drugs used to treat AD on neurogenesis is currently being investigated, to identify whether neurogenesis contributes to their therapeutic activities.

  20. Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized in the brain by amyloid plaque deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. It is the most common form of dementia among older people. There is at present no cure for AD, and current treatments consist mainly in drug therapy. Potential therapies for AD involve gene and cellular therapy. The recent confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS provide new opportunities for cellular therapy in the CNS, particularly for AD, and to better understand brain physiopathology. Hence, researchers have aimed at characterizing neurogenesis in patients with AD. Studies show that neurogenesis is increased in these patients, and in animal models of AD. The effect of drugs used to treat AD on neurogenesis is currently being investigated, to identify whether neurogenesis contributes to their therapeutic activities.

  1. Recent Advances on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain: Therapeutic Potential in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radad, Khaled; Moldzio, Rudolf; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Kranner, Barbara; Krewenka, Christopher; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus. These discoveries question a long standing dogma on nervous system regeneration and provide medical science with potential new strategies to harness the process of neurogenesis for treating neurological disabilities and neurodegenerative diseases. In this current review, we address the most recent advances on the role of neurogenesis in the adult brain and therapeutic potential in the two most common neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Correlations between Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Metabolic Indices in Adult Nonhuman Primates

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    Tarique D. Perera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased neurogenesis in feeding centers of the murine hypothalamus is associated with weight loss in diet-induced obese rodents (Kokoeva et al., 2005 and Matrisciano et al., 2010, but this relationship has not been examined in other species. Postmortem hippocampal neurogenesis rates and premortem metabolic parameters were statistically analyzed in 8 chow-fed colony-reared adult bonnet macaques. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis, reflected by the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin (DCX, and expression of the antiapoptotic gene factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2, but not the precursor proliferation mitotic marker, Ki67, was inversely correlated with body weight and crown-rump length. DCX and BCL-2 each correlated positively with blood glucose level and lipid ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. This study demonstrates that markers of dentate gyrus neuroplasticity correlate with metabolic parameters in primates.

  3. Discovery of efficient stimulators for adult hippocampal neurogenesis based on scaffolds in dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Liang; Wu, Si; Liu, Si-Si; Cushman, Mark; Tian, Jing; Li, Nuo-Min; Yang, Qing-Hu; Zhang, He-Ao; Qiu, Yun-Jie; Xiang, Lin; Ma, Cong-Xuan; Li, Xue-Meng; Qing, Hong

    2017-08-18

    Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring. Immunohistochemical staining and biochemical analysis indicate, in contrast to previously reported neuroprotective chemicals, N-stilbenyl carboxamides have extra capacity for neuroproliferation-type neurogenesis, thereby providing a foundation for improving the plasticity of the adult mammalian brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Galectin-1 is expressed in early-type neural progenitor cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

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    Imaizumi Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs and implicated in the proliferation of the NPCs in the DG. However, little is known about its detailed expression profile in the NPCs and functions in adult neurogenesis in the DG. Results Our immunohistochemical and morphological analysis showed that Galectin-1 was expressed in the type 1 and 2a cells, which are putative NSCs, in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult mouse DG. To study Galectin-1's function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we made galectin-1 knock-out mice on the C57BL6 background and characterized the effects on neurogenesis. In the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, increased numbers of type 1 cells, DCX-positive immature progenitors, and NeuN-positive newborn neurons were observed. Using triple-labeling immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses, we found that the proliferation of the type-1 cells was increased in the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, and we propose that this proliferation is the mechanism for the net increase in the adult neurogenesis in these knock-out mice DG. Conclusions Galectin-1 is expressed in the neural stem cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

  5. Age-dependent role for Ras-GRF1 in the late stages of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Michael J; Trouche, Stéphanie; Jin, Shan-Xue; Feig, Larry A

    2014-03-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in pattern separation, a process required for the behavioral task of contextual discrimination. One unique feature of the dentate gyrus that contributes to pattern separation is adult neurogenesis, where newly born neurons play a distinct role in neuronal circuitry. Moreover,the function of neurogenesis in this brain region differs in adolescent and adult mice. The signaling mechanisms that differentially regulate the distinct steps of adult neurogenesis in adolescence and adulthood remain poorly understood. We used mice lacking RASGRF1(GRF1), a calcium-dependent exchange factor that regulates synaptic plasticity and participates in contextual discrimination performed by mice, to test whether GRF1 plays a role in adult neurogenesis.We show Grf1 knockout mice begin to display a defect in neurogenesis at the onset of adulthood (~2 months of age), when wild-type mice first acquire the ability to distinguish between closely related contexts. At this age, young hippocampal neurons in Grf1 knockout mice display severely reduced dendritic arborization. By 3 months of age, new neuron survival is also impaired. BrdU labeling of new neurons in 2-month-old Grf1 knockout mice shows they begin to display reduced survival between 2 and 3 weeks after birth, just as new neurons begin to develop complex dendritic morphology and transition into using glutamatergic excitatory input. Interestingly, GRF1 expression appears in new neurons at the developmental stage when GRF1 loss begins to effect neuronal function. In addition, we induced a similar loss of new hippocampal neurons by knocking down expression of GRF1 solely in new neurons by injecting retrovirus that express shRNA against GRF1 into the dentate gyrus. Together, these findings show that GRF1 expressed in new neurons promotes late stages of adult neurogenesis. Overall our findings show GRF1 to be an age-dependent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which

  6. Effect of Metformin on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Comparison with Donepezil and Links to Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Mahmood, Zahra; Javed, Aneela; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyer; Zerr, Inga; Zafar, Saima; Zahid, Saadia

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have uncovered evidence suggesting that interference with hippocampal adult neurogenesis contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence supporting that AD is a metabolic disease with derangements in brain glucose utilization implies the use of anti-diabetics as an alternate therapeutic strategy. The present study drew comparison between the pro-neurogenic potential of metformin and donepezil in AlCl 3 -induced mouse model of neurodegeneration. Morris water maze task and subsequent immunohistochemical evaluation for NeuN was conducted. Expression of neurogenesis markers and hippocampal proteome analysis was determined by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE, respectively, followed by ESI-QTOFF MS/MS identification. The results demonstrated impaired spatial memory and differential expression of eight proteins in the AlCl 3 group as compared to the controls. Interestingly, treatment with metformin normalized the proteome profile and expression levels of neurogenesis markers along with improvement in the spatial memory. Moreover, as compared to donepezil, metformin-treated mice exhibited an enhanced number of post-mitotic NeuN-positive neurons. It is suggested that underlying molecular mechanisms of metformin-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis may have implications in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Adult Mammalian Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis: Five Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison M.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult somatic stem cells in various organs maintain homeostatic tissue regeneration and enhance plasticity. Since its initial discovery five decades ago, investigations of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cells have led to an established and expanding field that has significantly influenced many facets of neuroscience, developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Here we review recent progress and focus on questions related to adult mammalian neural stem cells that also apply to other somatic stem cells. We further discuss emerging topics that are guiding the field toward better understanding adult neural stem cells and ultimately applying these principles to improve human health. PMID:26431181

  8. In vivo transcriptional profile analysis reveals RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling as prominent processes for adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Naef, Felix; Hacker, Coleen R; Menn, Benedicte; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Magnasco, Marcelo; Patil, Nila; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells and neurogenesis persist in the adult mammalian brain subventricular zone (SVZ). Cells born in the rodent SVZ migrate to the olfactory bulb (Ob) where they differentiate into interneurons. To determine the gene expression and functional profile of SVZ neurogenesis, we performed three complementary sets of transcriptional analysis experiments using Affymetrix GeneChips: (1) comparison of adult mouse SVZ and Ob gene expression profiles with those of the striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus; (2) profiling of SVZ stem cells and ependyma isolated by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); and (3) analysis of gene expression changes during in vivo SVZ regeneration after anti-mitotic treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of data from these three separate approaches showed that in adult SVZ neurogenesis, RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling are biological processes as statistically significant as cell proliferation, transcription, and neurogenesis. In non-neurogenic brain regions, RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling were not prominent processes. Fourteen mRNA splicing factors including Sf3b1, Sfrs2, Lsm4, and Khdrbs1/Sam68 were detected along with 9 chromatin remodeling genes including Mll, Bmi1, Smarcad1, Baf53a, and Hat1. We validated the transcriptional profile data with Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. The data greatly expand the catalogue of cell cycle components, transcription factors, and migration genes for adult SVZ neurogenesis and reveal RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling as prominent biological processes for these germinal cells.

  9. Is forebrain neurogenesis a potential repair mechanism after stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Inta, Dragos; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The use of adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis as brain repair strategy after stroke represents a hot topic in neurologic research. Recent radiocarbon-14 dating has revealed a lack of poststroke neurogenesis in the adult human neocortex; however, adult neurogenesis has been shown to occur, even under physiologic conditions, in the human striatum. Here, these results are contrasted with experimental poststroke neurogenesis in the murine brain. Both in humans and in rodents, the SVZ ge...

  10. Adult neurogenesis affects motivation to obtain weak, but not strong, reward in operant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Wang, Alice S; Sonti, Anup N; Cameron, Heather A

    2018-04-16

    Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice. Rats and mice lacking adult neurogenesis showed normal lever press responding during fixed ratio training, reward devaluation, and Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer, suggesting no impairment in learning. However, on an exponentially progressive ratio schedule, or when regular chow was freely available in the testing chamber, TK rats and mice showed less effort to gain sucrose tablets. When working for balanced food tablets, which rats and mice of both genotypes strongly preferred over sucrose, the genotype effects on behavior were lost. This decrease in effort under conditions of low reward suggests that loss of adult neurogenesis decreases motivation to seek reward in a manner that may model behavioral apathy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

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    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  12. Caffeine alters proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Wentz, Christian T.; Magavi, Sanjay S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues through adulthood in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mammals. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in learning and memory, and linked with depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis is increased in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure to an enriched environment, increased locomotor activity, and administration of antidepressants. Adult neurogenesis is depressed in response to aging, stress and sleep deprivation. Intriguingly, caffeine modulates a number...

  13. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Parkinson’s Disease: Impact on Neuronal Survival and Plasticity

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    Martin Regensburger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD and other synucleinopathies, chronic neurodegeneration occurs within different areas of the central nervous system leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The symptomatic treatment options that are currently available do not slow or halt disease progression. This highlights the need of a better understanding of disease mechanisms and disease models. The generation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and in the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system is affected by many different regulators and possibly involved in memory processing, depression, and olfaction, symptoms which commonly occur in PD. The pathology of the adult neurogenic niches in human PD patients is still mostly elusive, but different preclinical models have shown profound alterations of adult neurogenesis. Alterations in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival as well as neurite outgrowth and spine formation have been related to different aspects in PD pathogenesis. Therefore, neurogenesis in the adult brain provides an ideal model to study disease mechanisms and compounds. In addition, adult newborn neurons have been proposed as a source of endogenous repair. Herein, we review current knowledge about the adult neurogenic niches in PD and highlight areas of future research.

  14. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1 voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2 a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects; and (3 neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  15. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  16. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  17. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

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    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  18. Early Postnatal but Not Late Adult Neurogenesis Is Impaired in the Pitx3-Mutant Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

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    Moritz D. Brandt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus has functional implications for hippocampal formation. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in various animal models of hippocampal dysfunction such as dementia and depression, which are both common non-motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. As dopamine plays an important role in regulating precursor cell proliferation, the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN in PD may be related to the reduced neurogenesis observed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain: subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG. Here we examined adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the Pitx3-mutant mouse model of PD (aphakia mice, which phenotypically shows a selective embryonic degeneration of dopamine neurons within the SN and to a smaller extent in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Proliferating cells were labeled with BrdU in aphakia mice and healthy controls from 3 to 42 weeks of age. Three weeks old mutant mice showed an 18% reduction of proliferating cells in the DG and of 26% in the SVZ. Not only proliferation but also the number of new neurons was impaired in young aphakia mice resulting in 33% less newborn cells 4 weeks after BrdU-labeling. Remarkably, however, the decline in the number of proliferating cells in the neurogenic regions vanished in older animals (8–42 weeks indicating that aging masks the effect of dopamine depletion on adult neurogenesis. Region specific reduction in precursor cells proliferation correlated with the extent of dopaminergic degeneration in mesencephalic subregions (VTA and SN, which supports the theory of age- and region-dependent regulatory effects of dopaminergic projections. Physiological stimulation of adult neurogenesis by physical activity (wheel running almost doubled the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of 8 weeks old aphakia mice to a number comparable to that of wild-type mice, abolishing the slight

  19. Paradox of pattern separation and adult neurogenesis: A dual role for new neurons balancing memory resolution and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen T; Shtrahman, Matthew; Parylak, Sarah; Gonçalves, J Tiago; Gage, Fred H

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is thought to subserve pattern separation, the process by which similar patterns of neuronal inputs are transformed into distinct neuronal representations, permitting the discrimination of highly similar stimuli in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the mechanism by which immature adult-born dentate granule neurons cells (abDGCs) perform this function remains unknown. Two theories of abDGC function, one by which abDGCs modulate and sparsify activity in the dentate gyrus and one by which abDGCs act as autonomous coding units, are generally suggested to be mutually exclusive. This review suggests that these two mechanisms work in tandem to dynamically regulate memory resolution while avoiding memory interference and maintaining memory robustness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  1. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

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    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  2. Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis through ERK5 knockdown Impairs Complex Hippocampus-dependent Spatial Memory Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimons, C.P.; Vreugdenhil, E.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the identification of the extracellular MAPK ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The authors use an inducible and conditional mouse line to knockout ERK5 expression, specifically in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain and provide

  3. Oppositional effects of serotonin receptors 5-HT1a, 2 and 2c in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Klempin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT appears to play a major role in controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis and thereby it is relevant for theories linking failing adult neurogenesis to the pathogenesis of major depression and the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. Serotonergic drugs lack acute effects on adult neurogenesis in many studies, which suggests a surprising long latency phase. Here we report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, which has no acute effect on precursor cell proliferation, causes the well-described increase in net neurogenesis upon prolonged treatment partly by promoting the survival and maturation of new postmitotic neurons. We hypothesized that this result is the cumulative effect of several 5-HT-dependent events in the course of adult neurogenesis. Thus, we used specific agonists and antagonists to 5-HT1a, 2, and 2c receptor subtypes to analyze their impact on different developmental stages. We found that 5-HT exerts acute and opposing effects on proliferation and survival or differentiation of precursor cells by activating the diverse receptor subtypes on different stages within the neuronal lineage in vivo. This was confirmed in vitro by demonstrating that 5-HT1a receptors are involved in self-renewal of precursor cells, whereas 5-HT2 receptors effect both proliferation and promote neuronal differentiation. We propose that under acute conditions 5-HT2 effects counteract the positive proliferative effect of 5-HT1a receptor activation. However, prolonged 5-HT2c receptor activation fosters an increase in late stage progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons, leading to a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Our data indicate that serotonin does not show effect latency in the adult dentate gyrus. Rather, the delayed response to serotonergic drugs with respect to endpoints downstream of the immediate receptor activity is largely due to the initially antagonistic and un-balanced action of different 5-HT

  4. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu., E-mail: khodanovich@mail.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics, Laboratory of Neurobiology (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  5. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  6. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors

  7. Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Results Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically. Conclusions Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models. PMID:24512669

  8. A possible role for the immune system in adult neurogenesis: new insights from an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, Steffen; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain of both vertebrates and invertebrates was previously considered to be driven by self-renewing neuronal stem cells of ectodermal origin. Recent findings in an invertebrate model challenge this view and instead provide evidence for a recruitment of neuronal precursors from a non-neuronal source. In the brain of adult crayfish, a neurogenic niche was identified that contributes progeny to the adult central olfactory pathway. The niche may function in attracting cells from the hemolymph and transforming them into cells with a neuronal fate. This finding implies that the first-generation neuronal precursors located in the crayfish neurogenic niche are not self-renewing. Evidence is summarized in support of a critical re-evaluation of long-term self-renewal of mammalian neuronal stem cells. Latest findings suggest that a tight link between the immune system and the system driving adult neurogenesis may not only exist in the crayfish but also in mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Interplay between DISC1 and GABA signaling regulates neurogenesis in mice and risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Young; Liu, Cindy Y; Zhang, Fengyu; Duan, Xin; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Juan; Feighery, Emer; Lu, Bai; Rujescu, Dan; St Clair, David; Christian, Kimberly; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2012-03-02

    How extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors interact to regulate continuous neurogenesis in the postnatal mammalian brain is unknown. Here we show that regulation of dendritic development of newborn neurons by Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires neurotransmitter GABA-induced, NKCC1-dependent depolarization through a convergence onto the AKT-mTOR pathway. In contrast, DISC1 fails to modulate early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis when conversion of GABA-induced depolarization to hyperpolarization is accelerated. Extending the period of GABA-induced depolarization or maternal deprivation stress restores DISC1-dependent dendritic regulation through mTOR pathway during early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, DISC1 and NKCC1 interact epistatically to affect risk for schizophrenia in two independent case control studies. Our study uncovers an interplay between intrinsic DISC1 and extrinsic GABA signaling, two schizophrenia susceptibility pathways, in controlling neurogenesis and suggests critical roles of developmental tempo and experience in manifesting the impact of susceptibility genes on neuronal development and risk for mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implantation of Neuronal Stem Cells Enhances Object Recognition without Increasing Neurogenesis after Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ngwenya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis. We performed lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI in adult mice and transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (NPC. Our data confirm an injury-induced cognitive deficit in novel object recognition, a hippocampal-dependent learning task, which is reversed one week after NPC transplantation. While LFPI alone promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, as revealed by doublecortin immunolabeling of immature neurons, subsequent NPC transplantation prevents increased neurogenesis and is not associated with morphological maturation of endogenous injury-induced immature neurons. Thus, NPC transplantation enhances cognitive recovery early after LFPI without a concomitant increase in neuron numbers or maturation.

  11. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  12. Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation: Implications for depression and antidepressant action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Meerlo, P.; Naylor, A.S.; van Dam, A.M.; Dayer, A.G.; Fuchs, E.; Oomen, C.A.; Czéh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on

  13. Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation : Implications for depression and antidepressant action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P. J.; Meerlo, P.; Naylor, A. S.; van Dam, A.M.; Dayer, A. G.; Fuchs, E.; Oomen, C. A.; Czeh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Adult hippocampal. neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on

  14. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kolb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. : A hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its strong dependence on physiological stimuli and environmental signals. Schulte and colleagues show that the nuclear localization and activity of a transcriptional regulator of adult neurogenesis is controlled by posttranslational modification. Their results link intrinsic control over neuron production to external signals and help to explain how adult neurogenesis can occur “on demand.” Keywords: subventricular zone, stem cell niche, posttranslational modification, controlled nuclear import, TALE-homdomain protein, MEIS2, PBX1, CRM1, neurogenesis, stem cell niche

  15. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Václavů, Lena; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Reneman, Liesbeth; Lucassen, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  16. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  17. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Zochowski, Michal R; Sander, Leonard M; Parent, Jack M; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells

  18. The helix-loop-helix protein id1 controls stem cell proliferation during regenerative neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Diotel, Nicolas; Ferg, Marco; Armant, Olivier; Eich, Julia; Alunni, Alessandro; März, Martin; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    The teleost brain has the remarkable ability to generate new neurons and to repair injuries during adult life stages. Maintaining life-long neurogenesis requires careful management of neural stem cell pools. In a genome-wide expression screen for transcription regulators, the id1 gene, encoding a negative regulator of E-proteins, was found to be upregulated in response to injury. id1 expression was mapped to quiescent type I neural stem cells in the adult telencephalic stem cell niche. Gain and loss of id1 function in vivo demonstrated that Id1 promotes stem cell quiescence. The increased id1 expression observed in neural stem cells in response to injury appeared independent of inflammatory signals, suggesting multiple antagonistic pathways in the regulation of reactive neurogenesis. Together, we propose that Id1 acts to maintain the neural stem cell pool by counteracting neurogenesis-promoting signals. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  19. The neurogenic factor NeuroD1 is expressed in post-mitotic cells during juvenile and adult Xenopus neurogenesis and not in progenitor or radial glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Anne D'Amico

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals that have limited proliferation and neurogenesis capacities, the Xenopus frog exhibit a great potential regarding proliferation and production of new cells in the adult brain. This ability makes Xenopus a useful model for understanding the molecular programs required for adult neurogenesis. Transcriptional factors that control adult neurogenesis in vertebrate species undergoing widespread neurogenesis are unknown. NeuroD1 is a member of the family of proneural genes, which function during embryonic neurogenesis as a potent neuronal differentiation factor. Here, we study in detail the expression of NeuroD1 gene in the juvenile and adult Xenopus brains by in situ hybridization combined with immunodetections for proliferation markers (PCNA, BrdU or in situ hybridizations for cell type markers (Vimentin, Sox2. We found NeuroD1 gene activity in many brain regions, including olfactory bulbs, pallial regions of cerebral hemispheres, preoptic area, habenula, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. We also demonstrated by double staining NeuroD1/BrdU experiments, after long post-BrdU administration survival times, that NeuroD1 gene activity was turned on in new born neurons during post-metamorphic neurogenesis. Importantly, we provided evidence that NeuroD1-expressing cells at this brain developmental stage were post-mitotic (PCNA- cells and not radial glial (Vimentin+ or progenitors (Sox2+ cells.

  20. Adult neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of dendrobranchiate and caridean shrimps: New insights into the evolution of the deutocerebral proliferative system in reptant decapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittfoth, Christin; Harzsch, Steffen

    2018-04-16

    Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters. While numerous studies have focussed on these mechanisms and regulation of adult neurogenesis, investigations about the phylogenetic distribution are missing. To contribute an evolutionary perspective on adult neurogenesis in decapods, we investigated two representatives of basally diverging lineages, the dendrobranchiate Penaeus vannamei and the caridean Crangon crangon using the thymidine analogue Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as marker for the S phase of cycling cells. Compared to reptant decapods, our results suggest a simpler mechanism of neurogenesis in the adult brain of dendrobranchiate and caridean shrimps. Observed differences in the rate of proliferation and spatial dimensions are suggested to correlate with the complexity of the olfactory system. We assume that a more complex and mitotically more active proliferative system in reptant decapods evolved with the emergence of another processing neuropil, the accessory lobes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis, Integration, and microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Luikart, Bryan W; Perederiy, Julia V; Westbrook, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Neurons are born and become a functional part of the synaptic circuitry in adult brains. The proliferative phase of neurogenesis has been extensively reviewed. We therefore focus this review on a few topics addressing the functional role of adult-generated newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. We discuss the evidence for a link between neurogenesis and behavior. We then describe the steps in the integration of newborn neurons into a functioning mature synaptic circuit. Given the profound effe...

  2. Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus From a Perspective of Discrimination and Generalization: A Hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pištíková, Adéla; Brožka, Hana; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 441-448 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04047S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adult neurogenesis * function * discrimination * generalization * spatial memory * pattern separation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  3. Of Mice and Men: Neurogenesis, Cognition and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eLazarov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are maintained in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone in the adult mammalian brain throughout life. Neurogenesis is continuous, but its extent is tightly regulated by environmental factors, behavior, hormonal state, age and brain health. Increasing evidence supports a role for new neurons in cognitive function in rodents. Recent evidence delineates potential significant differences between adult neurogenesis in rodents and humans. Being context-dependent, neurogenesis in the human brain might be manifested differently than in the rodent brain. Decline in neurogenesis may play a role in cognitive deterioration, leading to the development of progressive learning and memory disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. This review discusses the different observations concerning neurogenesis in the rodent and human brain, and their functional implications for the healthy and diseased brain.

  4. Neurogenesis dan Faktor-Faktor yang Berpengaruh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nerve tissue is known as neurogenesis. Vertebrate neve system has various functional capabilities from sensory perception, motor coordination, to the ability in producing motivation, spatial abilities, learning and memorizing due to various cell types that accurately connected and interact to each other. The connections between various nerve cells are continuously developed from the embryonic time until the early period of life. Recent studies have showed that neurogenesis in certain regions of nerve tissue can still be found in adults. This article reviews the cellular mechanism of neurogenesis and conditions that have role in the process.

  5. Persistent Adult Neuroimmune Activation and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Following Adolescent Ethanol Exposure: Blockade by Exercise and the Anti-inflammatory Drug Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Vetreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55, we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood. We found that AIE caused upregulation of multiple proinflammatory Toll-like receptors (TLRs, increased expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (pNF-κB p65 and the cell death marker cleaved caspase 3, and reduced markers of neurogenesis in the adult (P80 hippocampus, which is consistent with persistently increased neuroimmune signaling reducing neurogenesis. We observed a similar increase of pNF-κB p65-immunoreactive cells in the post-mortem human alcoholic hippocampus, an effect that was negatively correlated with age of drinking onset. Voluntary wheel running from P24 to P80 prevented the AIE-induced loss of neurogenesis markers (i.e., nestin and doublecortin in the adult hippocampus that was paralleled by blockade of increased expression of the cell death marker cleaved caspase 3. Wheel running also prevented the AIE-induced increase of hippocampal pNF-κB p65 and induction of neuroimmune NF-κB target genes, including TNFα and IκBα in the adult brain. Administration of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin during AIE prevented the loss of neurogenesis markers (i.e., nestin and doublecortin and the concomitant increase of cleaved caspase 3, an effect that was accompanied by blockade of the increase of pNF-κB p65. Similarly, administration of the proinflammatory TLR4 activator lipopolysaccharide resulted in a loss of doublecortin that was paralleled by increased

  6. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  7. Ongoing neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus mediates behavioral responses to ambiguous threat cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R Glover

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning is highly adaptive if utilized in appropriate situations but can lead to generalized anxiety if applied too widely. A role of predictive cues in inhibiting fear generalization has been suggested by stress and fear learning studies, but the effects of partially predictive cues (ambiguous cues and the neuronal populations responsible for linking the predictive ability of cues and generalization of fear responses are unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus decreases hippocampal network activation and reduces defensive behavior to ambiguous threat cues but has neither of these effects if the same negative experience is reliably predicted. Additionally, we find that this ambiguity related to negative events determines their effect on fear generalization, that is, how the events affect future behavior under novel conditions. Both new neurons and glucocorticoid hormones are required for the enhancement of fear generalization following an unpredictably cued threat. Thus, adult neurogenesis plays a central role in the adaptive changes resulting from experience involving unpredictable or ambiguous threat cues, optimizing behavior in novel and uncertain situations.

  8. Depression, Antidepressants, and Neurogenesis: A Critical Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Nicola D; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression posits (1) that neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus is regulated negatively by stressful experiences and positively by treatment with antidepressant drugs and (2) that alterations in the rate of neurogenesis play a fundamental role in the pathology and treatment of major depression. This hypothesis is supported by important experimental observations, but is challenged by equally compelling contradictory reports. This review summarizes the phenomenon of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the initial and continued evidence leading to the development of the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression, and the recent studies that have disputed and/or qualified those findings, to conclude that it can be affected by stress and antidepressants under certain conditions, but that these effects do not appear in all cases of psychological stress, depression, and antidepressant treatment. PMID:21937982

  9. Neurogenesis and brain injury: managing a renewable resource for repair

    OpenAIRE

    Hallbergson, Anna F.; Gnatenco, Carmen; Peterson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The brain shows limited ability to repair itself, but neurogenesis in certain areas of the adult brain suggests that neural stem cells may be used for structural brain repair. It will be necessary to understand how neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated to develop strategies that harness neural stem cells for therapeutic use.

  10. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  11. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  12. Nutrients, neurogenesis and brain ageing: From disease mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaleo, Marco; Cavallucci, Virve; Pani, Giovambattista

    2017-10-01

    Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis has also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies points to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process. While the cellular and molecular circuitries underlying metabolic regulation of neurogenesis are still incompletely understood, the key role of mitochondrial activity and dynamics, and the importance of autophagy have begun to be fully appreciated; moreover, nutrient-sensitive pathways and transducers such as the insulin-IGF cascade, the AMPK/mTOR axis and the transcription regulators CREB and Sirt-1 have been included, beside more established "developmental" signals like Notch and Wnt, in the molecular networks that dictate neural-stem-cell self-renewal, migration and differentiation in response to local and systemic inputs. Many of these nutrient-related cascades are deregulated in the contest of metabolic diseases and in ageing, and may contribute to impaired neurogenesis and thus to cognition defects observed in these conditions. Importantly, accumulating knowledge on the metabolic control of neurogenesis provides a theoretical framework for the trial of new or repurposed drugs capable of interfering with nutrient sensing as enhancers of neurogenesis in the context of neurodegeneration and brain senescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of hypertension on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in young adult spontaneously hypertensive rats and Dahl rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pištíková, Adéla; Brožka, Hana; Bencze, Michal; Radostová, Dominika; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 881-887 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adult neurogenesis * Captopril * hypertension * Dahl rats * SHR * young animals Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  14. Maintaining appearances-The role of p53 in adult neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, Silvia; Scrable, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, neuronal turnover continues to replenish cells in existing neuronal circuits, such as those involved either in odor discrimination or in learning and memory, throughout life. With age, however, the capacity for neurogenesis diminishes and these functions become impaired. Neuronal turnover is a two-step process, which first generates excess neuronal progenitors and then eliminates all but the few that differentiate into fully functional neurons. This process requires a fine balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Altered activity of the tumor suppressor p53 can upset this balance by affecting the rate of cell proliferation, but not the rate of cell death, in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. Genetically engineered mice in which p53 activity is increased demonstrate that premature loss of neurogenic capacity is linked to accelerated organismal aging

  15. The Circadian Molecular Clock Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Controlling the Timing of Cell-Cycle Entry and Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Bouchard-Cannon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult hippocampus contains a pool of quiescent neural progenitor cells (QNPs that are capable of entering the cell cycle and producing newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control the timing and extent of adult neurogenesis are not well understood. Here, we show that QNPs of the adult SGZ express molecular-clock components and proliferate in a rhythmic fashion. The clock proteins PERIOD2 and BMAL1 are critical for proper control of neurogenesis. The absence of PERIOD2 abolishes the gating of cell-cycle entrance of QNPs, whereas genetic ablation of bmal1 results in constitutively high levels of proliferation and delayed cell-cycle exit. We use mathematical model simulations to show that these observations may arise from clock-driven expression of a cell-cycle inhibitor that targets the cyclin D/Cdk4-6 complex. Our findings may have broad implications for the circadian clock in timing cell-cycle events of other stem cell populations throughout the body.

  16. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  17. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jasmine; Anders-Maurer, Marie; Müller, Tanja; Hau, Ann-Christin; Grebbin, Britta Moyo; Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Wiebke; Behrends, Christian; Schulte, Dorothea

    2018-04-10

    Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as Predictor of Body Mass Index and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis: Neuroplasticity and the Metabolic Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Coplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and promotes neurogenesis. We reported an inverse correlation between adult body mass and neurogenesis in nonhuman primates. Here we examine relationships between physiological levels of the neurotrophic incretin, plasma GLP-1 (pGLP-1, and body mass index (BMI in adolescence to adult neurogenesis and associations with a diabesity diathesis and infant stress. Morphometry, fasting pGLP-1, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles were measured in early adolescence in 10 stressed and 4 unstressed male bonnet macaques. As adults, dentate gyrus neurogenesis was assessed by doublecortin staining. High pGLP-1, low body weight, and low central adiposity, yet peripheral insulin resistance and high plasma lipids, during adolescence were associated with relatively high adult neurogenesis rates. High pGLP-1 also predicted low body weight with, paradoxically, insulin resistance and high plasma lipids. No rearing effects for neurogenesis rates were observed. We replicated an inverse relationship between BMI and neurogenesis. Adolescent pGLP-1 directly predicted adult neurogenesis. Two divergent processes relevant to human diabesity emerge—high BMI, low pGLP-1, and low neurogenesis and low BMI, high pGLP-1, high neurogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid elevations. Diabesity markers putatively reflect high nutrient levels necessary for neurogenesis at the expense of peripheral tissues.

  19. Major unsolved points in adult neurogenesis: doors open on a translational future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo ePeretto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of exploiting adult neurogenesis (AN as a source of cell replacement is far from being achieved. In spite of many data gathered during the last two decades on homeostatic and reactive neurogenesis, it is evident that such knowledge is not sufficient for granting translational outcomes. By asking the question whether AN research field has to be considered as a dead end in such a perspective, here we review some major unresolved issues: multifaceted evolutionary constraints emerged in mammals, stem/progenitor cell type/availability and tissue permissivity, the possible impact on other brain functions and/or interplay with other forms of plasticity, and relevance in humans. We suggest that full understanding of AN biological processes is an essential step to their possible exploitation for brain repair, and that further fundamental, multidisciplinary research is required before translational outcomes can be reached. Scientist's attitude and their communication skills are also important. To avoid overestimation of AN reparative potential, more distant goals of cell replacement should be kept clearly distinct from restorative approaches involving AN plasticity, both representing translational perspectives.

  20. Neurogenesis in the septal and temporal part of the adult rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Chryssa; Giannakopoulou, Aggeliki; Siskos, Nikistratos; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Michaloudi, Helen; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2015-04-01

    Structural and functional dissociation between the septal and the temporal part of the dentate gyrus predispose for possible differentiations in the ongoing neurogenesis process of the adult hippocampus. In this study, BrdU-dated subpopulations of the rat septal and temporal dentate gyrus (coexpressing GFAP, DCX, NeuN, calretinin, calbindin, S100, caspase-3 or fractin) were quantified comparatively at 2, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days after BrdU administration in order to examine the successive time-frames of the neurogenesis process, the glial or neuronal commitment of newborn cells and the occurring apoptotic cell death. Newborn neurons' migration from the neurogenic subgranular zone to the inner granular cell layer and expression of glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors were also studied. BrdU immunocytochemistry revealed comparatively higher numbers of BrdU(+) cells in the septal part, but stereological analysis of newborn and total granule cells showed an identical ratio in the two parts, indicating an equivalent neurogenic ability, and a common topographical pattern along each part's longitudinal and transverse axis. Similarly, both parts exhibited extremely low levels of newborn glial and apoptotic cells. However, despite the initially equal division rate and pattern of the septal and temporal proliferating cells, their later proliferative profile diverged in the two parts. Dynamic differences in the differentiation, migration and maturation process of the two BrdU-incorporating subpopulations of newborn neurons were also detected, along with differences in their survival pattern. Therefore, we propose that various factors, including developmental date birth, local DG microenvironment and distinct functionality of the two parts may be the critical regulators of the ongoing neurogenesis process, leading the septal part to a continuous, rapid, and less-disciplined genesis rate, whereas the quiescent temporal microenvironment preserves a quite steady, less

  1. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  2. IGF-I: A key growth factor that regulates neurogenesis and synaptogenesis from embryonic to adult stages of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa eNieto-Estévez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs. This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB. By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also, by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis and neuron integration in synaptic circuits.

  3. IGF-I: A Key Growth Factor that Regulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis from Embryonic to Adult Stages of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Defterali, Çağla; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type, and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB). By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis, and neuron integration in synaptic circuits. PMID:26941597

  4. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Fang Tan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  5. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

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    Ansorg Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2 has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that

  6. Adult neurogenesis reduction by a cytostatic treatment improves spatial reversal learning in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožka, Hana; Pištíková, Adéla; Radostová, Dominika; Valeš, Karel; Svoboda, Jan; Grzyb, A. N.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, May (2017), s. 93-100 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : active avoidance * hippocampus * adult neurogenesis * discrimination * generalization * reversal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  7. Life-long stability of neurons: a century of research on neurogenesis, neuronal death and neuron quantification in adult CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlejski, Kris; Djavadian, Ruzanna

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter we provide an extensive review of 100 years of research on the stability of neurons in the mammalian brain, with special emphasis on humans. Although Cajal formulated the Neuronal Doctrine, he was wrong in his beliefs that adult neurogenesis did not occur and adult neurons are dying throughout life. These two beliefs became accepted "common knowledge" and have shaped much of neuroscience research and provided much of the basis for clinical treatment of age-related brain diseases. In this review, we consider adult neurogenesis from a historical and evolutionary perspective. It is concluded, that while adult neurogenesis is a factor in the dynamics of the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb, it is probably not a major factor during the life-span in most brain areas. Likewise, the acceptance of neuronal death as an explanation for normal age-related senility is challenged with evidence collected over the last fifty years. Much of the problem in changing this common belief of dying neurons was the inadequacies of neuronal counting methods. In this review we discuss in detail implications of recent improvements in neuronal quantification. We conclude: First, age-related neuronal atrophy is the major factor in functional deterioration of existing neurons and could be slowed down, or even reversed by various pharmacological interventions. Second, in most cases neuronal degeneration during aging is a pathology that in principle may be avoided. Third, loss of myelin and of the white matter is more frequent and important than the limited neuronal death in normal aging.

  8. Early life stress- and sex-dependent effects on hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.; Krugers, H.J.; Oomen, C.A.; Fink, G.

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis refers to the birth of new neurons in an adult brain, a form of structural plasticity that has been implicated in cognition, mood, and anxiety, and is well regulated by environmental and hormonal factors. Exposure to stress (hormones) generally inhibits neurogenesis. Here, we discuss

  9. Hypocellularity in the Murine Model for Down Syndrome Ts65Dn Is Not Affected by Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hidalgo, Rosa; Ballestín, Raul; Vega, Jessica; Blasco-Ibáñez, José M.; Crespo, Carlos; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of the chromosome 21 and it is the most common aneuploidy producing intellectual disability. Neural mechanisms underlying this alteration may include defects in the formation of neuronal networks, information processing and brain plasticity. The murine model for DS, Ts65Dn, presents reduced adult neurogenesis. This reduction has been suggested to underlie the hypocellularity of the hippocampus as well as the deficit in olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mice. Similar alterations have also been observed in individuals with DS. To determine whether the impairment in adult neurogenesis is, in fact, responsible for the hypocellularity in the hippocampus and physiology of the olfactory bulb, we have analyzed cell proliferation and neuronal maturation in the two major adult neurogenic niches in the Ts656Dn mice: the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Additionally, we carried out a study to determine the survival rate and phenotypic fate of newly generated cells in both regions, injecting 5′BrdU and sacrificing the mice 21 days later, and analyzing the number and phenotype of the remaining 5′BrdU-positive cells. We observed a reduction in the number of proliferating (Ki67 positive) cells and immature (doublecortin positive) neurons in the subgranular and SVZ of Ts65Dn mice, but we did not observe changes in the number of surviving cells or in their phenotype. These data correlated with a lower number of apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase 3 positive) in Ts65Dn. We conclude that although adult Ts65Dn mice have a lower number of proliferating cells, it is compensated by a lower level of cell death. This higher survival rate in Ts65Dn produces a final number of mature cells similar to controls. Therefore, the reduction of adult neurogenesis cannot be held responsible for the neuronal hypocellularity in the hippocampus or for the olfactory learning deficit of Ts65Dn mice

  10. The circadian molecular clock regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis by controlling the timing of cell-cycle entry and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Cannon, Pascale; Mendoza-Viveros, Lucia; Yuen, Andrew; Kærn, Mads; Cheng, Hai-Ying M

    2013-11-27

    The subgranular zone (SGZ) of the adult hippocampus contains a pool of quiescent neural progenitor cells (QNPs) that are capable of entering the cell cycle and producing newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control the timing and extent of adult neurogenesis are not well understood. Here, we show that QNPs of the adult SGZ express molecular-clock components and proliferate in a rhythmic fashion. The clock proteins PERIOD2 and BMAL1 are critical for proper control of neurogenesis. The absence of PERIOD2 abolishes the gating of cell-cycle entrance of QNPs, whereas genetic ablation of bmal1 results in constitutively high levels of proliferation and delayed cell-cycle exit. We use mathematical model simulations to show that these observations may arise from clock-driven expression of a cell-cycle inhibitor that targets the cyclin D/Cdk4-6 complex. Our findings may have broad implications for the circadian clock in timing cell-cycle events of other stem cell populations throughout the body. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive side effects of cancer therapy demonstrate a functional role for adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle; Dietrich, Jörg

    2012-02-14

    Cancer therapies frequently result in a spectrum of neurocognitive deficits that include impaired learning, memory, attention and speed of information processing. Damage to dynamic neural progenitor cell populations in the brain are emerging as important etiologic factors. Radiation and chemotherapy-induced damage to neural progenitor populations responsible for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and for maintenance of subcortical white matter integrity are now believed to play major roles in the neurocognitive impairment many cancer survivors experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurogenesis Inhibition Prevents Enriched Environment to Prolong and Strengthen Social Recognition Memory, But Not to Increase BDNF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caixeta, Ana Raquel; Guarnieri, Leonardo O; Pena, Roberta R; Dias, Thomáz L; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2017-07-01

    Hippocampus-dependent memories, such as social recognition (SRM), are modulated by neurogenesis. However, the precise role of newborn neurons in social memory processing is still unknown. We showed previously that 1 week of enriched environment (EE) is sufficient to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus (HIP) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1 week of EE would enhance SRM persistence and strength. In addition, as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate some of the neurogenesis effects on memory, we also tested if 1 week of EE would increase BDNF expression in the HIP and OB. We also predicted that neurogenesis inhibition would block the gain of function caused by EE on both SRM and BDNF expression. We found that EE increased BDNF expression in the HIP and OB of mice; at the same time, it allowed SRM to last longer. In addition, mice on EE had their SRM unaffected by memory consolidation interferences. As we predicted, treatment with the anti-mitotic drug AraC blocked EE effects on SRM. Surprisingly, neurogenesis inhibition did not affect the BDNF expression, increased by EE. Together, our results suggest that newborn neurons improve SRM persistence through a BDNF-independent mechanism. Interestingly, this study on social memory uncovered an unexpected dissociation between the effect of adult neurogenesis and BDNF expression on memory persistence, reassuring the idea that not all neurogenesis effects on memory are BDNF-dependent.

  13. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis, causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12 was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9 stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding, or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level.

  14. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

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    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  16. Impact of glucocorticoid on neurogenesis

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    Haruki Odaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is currently an area of great interest in neuroscience. It is closely linked to brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodevelopmental disease. Both embryonic and adult neurogeneses are influenced by glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal glands in response to a variety of stressors. Moreover, proliferation/differentiation of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs is affected by glucocorticoids through intracellular signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, hedgehog, and Wnt. Our review presents recent evidence of the impact of glucocorticoids on NSPC behaviors and the underlying molecular mechanisms; this provides important information for understanding the pathological role of glucocorticoids on neurogenesis-associated brain diseases.

  17. Juvenile neurogenesis makes essential contributions to adult brain structure and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories

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    Jesse Daniel Cushman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal-neurogenesis (PNN contributes neurons to olfactory bulb (OB and dentate gyrus (DG throughout juvenile development, but the quantitative amount, temporal dynamics and functional roles of this contribution have not been defined. By using transgenic mouse models for cell lineage tracing and conditional cell ablation, we found that juvenile neurogenesis gradually increased the total number of granule neurons by approximately 40% in OB, and by 25% in DG, between two weeks and two months of age, and that total numbers remained stable thereafter. These findings indicate that the overwhelming majority of net postnatal neuronal addition in these regions occurs during the juvenile period and that adult neurogenesis contributes primarily to replacement of granule cells in both regions. Behavioral analysis in our conditional cell ablation mouse model showed that complete loss of PNN throughout both the juvenile and adult period produced a specific set of sex-dependent cognitive changes. We observed normal hippocampus-independent delay fear conditioning, but excessive generalization of fear to a novel auditory stimulus, which is consistent with a role for PNN in psychopathology. Standard contextual fear conditioning was intact, however, pre-exposure dependent contextual fear was impaired suggesting a specific role for PNN in incidental contextual learning. Contextual discrimination between two highly similar contexts was enhanced; suggesting either enhanced contextual pattern separation or impaired temporal integration. We also observed a reduced reliance on olfactory cues, consistent with a role for OB PNN in the efficient processing of olfactory information. Thus, juvenile neurogenesis adds substantively to the total numbers of granule neurons in OB and DG during periods of critical juvenile behavioral development, including weaning, early social interactions and sexual maturation, and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories.

  18. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  19. Ramipril mitigates radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenrow, Kenneth A; Brown, Stephen L; Liu, Jianguo; Kolozsvary, Andrew; Lapanowski, Karen; Kim, Jae Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sublethal doses of whole brain irradiation (WBI) are commonly administered therapeutically and frequently result in late delayed radiation injuries, manifesting as severe and irreversible cognitive impairment. Neural progenitors within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus are among the most radiosensitive cell types in the adult brain and are known to participate in hippocampal plasticity and normal cognitive function. These progenitors and the specialized SZG microenvironment required for neuronal differentiation are the source of neurogenic potential in the adult dentate gyrus, and provide a continuous supply of immature neurons which may then migrate into the adjacent granule cell layer to become mature granule cell neurons. The extreme radiosensitivity of these progenitors and the SGZ microenvironment suggests the hippocampus as a prime target for radiation-induced cognitive impairment. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has previously been implicated as a potent modulator of neurogenesis within the SGZ and selective RAS inhibitors have been implicated as mitigators of radiation brain injury. Here we investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation injury in this context. Adult male Fisher 344 rats received WBI at doses of 10 Gy and 15 Gy. Ramipril was administered beginning 24 hours post-WBI and maintained continuously for 12 weeks. Ramipril produced small but significant reductions in the deleterious effects of radiation on progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the rat dentate gyrus following 10 Gy-WBI, but was not effective following 15 Gy-WBI. Ramipril also reduced the basal rate of neurogenesis within the SGZ in unirradiated control rats. Our results indicate that chronic ACE inhibition with ramipril, initiated 24 hours post-irradiation, may reduce apoptosis among SGZ progenitors and/or inflammatory disruption of neurogenic signaling within SGZ microenvironment, and

  20. Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Cognitive Impairments following Prenatal Treatment of the Antiepileptic Drug Valproic Acid

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    Berry Juliandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, an established antiepileptic drug, has been reported to impair postnatal cognitive function in children born to VPA-treated epileptic mothers. However, how these defects arise and how they can be overcome remain unknown. Using mice, we found that comparable postnatal cognitive functional impairment is very likely correlated to the untimely enhancement of embryonic neurogenesis, which led to depletion of the neural precursor cell pool and consequently a decreased level of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Moreover, hippocampal neurons in the offspring of VPA-treated mice showed abnormal morphology and activity. Surprisingly, these impairments could be ameliorated by voluntary running. Our study suggests that although prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs such as VPA may have detrimental effects that persist until adulthood, these effects may be offset by a simple physical activity such as running.

  1. Doc Title: Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Impaired by Transient Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deprivation during development impairs neurogenesis throughout the brain. The hippocampus also maintains a capacity for neurogenesis...

  2. Hypertension impairs hippocampus-related adult neurogenesis, CA1 neuron dendritic arborization and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y-H; Tsai, S-F; Huang, S-H; Chiang, Y-T; Hughes, M W; Wu, S-Y; Lee, C-W; Yang, T-T; Kuo, Y-M

    2016-05-13

    Hypertension is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Several studies using spontaneous hypertensive rats to study the effect of hypertension on memory performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have reached inconsistent conclusions. The contradictory findings may be related to the genetic variability of spontaneous hypertensive rats due to the conventional breeding practices. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of hypertension on hippocampal structure and function in isogenic mice. Hypertension was induced by the '2 kidneys, 1 clip' method (2K1C) which constricted one of the two renal arteries. The blood pressures of 2K1C mice were higher than the sham group on post-operation day 7 and remained high up to day 28. Mice with 2K1C-induced hypertension had impaired long-term, but not short-term, memory. Dendritic complexity of CA1 neurons and hippocampal neurogenesis were reduced by 2K1C-induced hypertension on post-operation day 28. Furthermore, 2K1C decreased the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, while blood vessel density and activation status of astrocytes and microglia were not affected. In conclusion, hypertension impairs hippocampus-associated long-term memory, dendritic arborization and neurogenesis, which may be caused by down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klomp, A.; Václavů, L.; Meerhoff, G.F.; Reneman, L.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal developm...

  4. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

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    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  5. Adolescent social isolation stress unmasks the combined effects of adolescent exercise and adult inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, Cara M; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2017-12-04

    Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive behaviors are regulated by a number of factors including stress, inflammation, and exercise. However, the interplay between these factors remains relatively unexplored, especially across the lifespan. In the current study, the effect of social isolation stress during the adolescent period on neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive behaviors was examined. This period of the lifespan has been demonstrated to be an important time for hippocampal growth and plasticity, during which changes to hippocampal neurogenesis may have long lasting effects. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether a 'dual-hit' of adolescent stress and adult chronic neuroinflammation would potentiate any negative effects of either insult alone. Lastly, the potential positive effects of exercise during adolescence was examined to determine whether exercise could attenuate any negative impacts of these insults on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. The results from the current study demonstrate that social isolation stress during adolescence followed by intra-hippocampal exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in early adulthood produces deficits in both spontaneous alternations and novel object recognition. Exercise attenuated deficits in neurogenesis and novel object recognition in mice that had been exposed to the 'dual-hit' of stress and neuroinflammation. These findings indicate that adolescence represents a key period of the lifespan during which external factors such as stress and exercise can impact on hippocampal development, and may alter the response to challenges such as neuroinflammation in later life. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of neural progenitors from embryogenesis to juvenile adult in Xenopus laevis reveals biphasic neurogenesis and continuous lengthening of the cell cycle

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    Raphaël Thuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis is a prominent model system for studying neural development, but our understanding of the long-term temporal dynamics of neurogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we present the first continuous description of neurogenesis in X. laevis, covering the entire period of development from the specification of neural ectoderm during gastrulation to juvenile frog. We have used molecular markers to identify progenitors and neurons, short-term bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation to map the generation of newborn neurons and dual pulse S-phase labelling to characterise changes in their cell cycle length. Our study revealed the persistence of Sox3-positive progenitor cells from the earliest stages of neural development through to the juvenile adult. Two periods of intense neuronal generation were observed, confirming the existence of primary and secondary waves of neurogenesis, punctuated by a period of quiescence before metamorphosis and culminating in another period of quiescence in the young adult. Analysis of multiple parameters indicates that neural progenitors alternate between global phases of differentiation and amplification and that, regardless of their behaviour, their cell cycle lengthens monotonically during development, at least at the population level.

  7. Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice after exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress may counteract some of the effects of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Luka; Surget, Alexandre; Bourdey, Marlene; Khemissi, Wahid; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Vogel, Elise; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René; Belzung, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Major depression is hypothesized to be associated with dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult-born hippocampal neurons are required for several effects of antidepressants and increasing the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) before exposure to chronic corticosterone is sufficient to protect against its harmful effects on behavior. However, it is an open question if increasing AHN after the onset of chronic stress exposure would be able to rescue behavioral deficits and which mechanisms might be involved in recovery. We investigated this question by using a 10-week unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model on a transgenic mouse line (iBax mice), in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax can be inducibly ablated in neural stem cells following Tamoxifen injection, therefore enhancing the survival of newborn neurons in the adult brain. We did not observe any effect of our treatment in non-stress conditions, but we did find that increasing AHN after 2 weeks of UCMS is sufficient to counteract the effects of UCMS on certain behaviors (splash test and changes in coat state) and endocrine levels and thus to display some antidepressant-like effects. We observed that increasing AHN lowered the elevated basal corticosterone levels in mice exposed to UCMS. This was accompanied by a tamoxifen-induced reversal of the lack of stress-induced decrease in neuronal activation in the anteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMA) after intrahippocampal dexamethasone infusion, pointing to a possible mechanism through which adult-born neurons might have exerted their effects. Our results contribute to the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression by suggesting that increasing AHN may be beneficial not just before, but also after exposure to stress by counteracting several of its effects, in part through regulating the HPA axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

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    Mengtao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation.

  9. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

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    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  10. Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgerner, Hannah; Zeisel, Amit; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten

    2018-02-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a brain region in which neurogenesis persists into adulthood; however, the relationship between developmental and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis has not been examined in detail. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the molecular dynamics and diversity of dentate gyrus cell types in perinatal, juvenile, and adult mice. We found distinct quiescent and proliferating progenitor cell types, linked by transient intermediate states to neuroblast stages and fully mature granule cells. We observed shifts in the molecular identity of quiescent and proliferating radial glia and granule cells during the postnatal period that were then maintained through adult stages. In contrast, intermediate progenitor cells, neuroblasts, and immature granule cells were nearly indistinguishable at all ages. These findings demonstrate the fundamental similarity of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and pinpoint the early postnatal transformation of radial glia from embryonic progenitors to adult quiescent stem cells.

  11. Ramipril mitigates radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus

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    Lapanowski Karen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sublethal doses of whole brain irradiation (WBI are commonly administered therapeutically and frequently result in late delayed radiation injuries, manifesting as severe and irreversible cognitive impairment. Neural progenitors within the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus are among the most radiosensitive cell types in the adult brain and are known to participate in hippocampal plasticity and normal cognitive function. These progenitors and the specialized SZG microenvironment required for neuronal differentiation are the source of neurogenic potential in the adult dentate gyrus, and provide a continuous supply of immature neurons which may then migrate into the adjacent granule cell layer to become mature granule cell neurons. The extreme radiosensitivity of these progenitors and the SGZ microenvironment suggests the hippocampus as a prime target for radiation-induced cognitive impairment. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS has previously been implicated as a potent modulator of neurogenesis within the SGZ and selective RAS inhibitors have been implicated as mitigators of radiation brain injury. Here we investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation injury in this context. Methods Adult male Fisher 344 rats received WBI at doses of 10 Gy and 15 Gy. Ramipril was administered beginning 24 hours post-WBI and maintained continuously for 12 weeks. Results Ramipril produced small but significant reductions in the deleterious effects of radiation on progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the rat dentate gyrus following 10 Gy-WBI, but was not effective following 15 Gy-WBI. Ramipril also reduced the basal rate of neurogenesis within the SGZ in unirradiated control rats. Conclusions Our results indicate that chronic ACE inhibition with ramipril, initiated 24 hours post-irradiation, may reduce apoptosis among SGZ progenitors and/or inflammatory

  12. Toll-like receptor 2 promotes neurogenesis from the dentate gyrus after photothrombotic cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kyung-Joo; Kim, Hyeong-Jun; Cai, Bangrong; Kook, Min-Suk; Jung, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Won-Jae

    2018-03-01

    The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia. At 7 days after photothrombotic ischemic injury, the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was increased in both TLR2 knock-out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. However, the increment rate of BrdU-positive cells was lower in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The number of doublecortin (DCX) and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells in HDG was decreased after photothrombotic ischemia in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The survival rate of cells in HDG was decreased in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. In contrast, the number of cleaved-caspase 3 (apoptotic marker) and the number of GFAP (glia marker)/BrdU double-positive cells in TLR2 KO mice were higher than that in WT mice. These results suggest that TLR2 can promote adult neurogenesis from neural stem cell of hippocampal dentate gyrus through increasing proliferation, differentiation, and survival from neural stem cells after ischemic injury of the brain.

  13. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica): racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2017-07-01

    Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  14. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica: racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  15. Neuronal Rac1 Is Required for Learning-Evoked Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P.; Freewoman, Julia; Cord, Branden; Babu, Harish; Brakebusch, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus primarily by enhancing the survival of neurons produced just before the learning event. Loss of Rac1 in mature projection neurons did reduce learning-evoked neurogenesis but, contrary to our expectations, these effects were not mediated by altering the survival of young neurons in the hippocampus. Instead, loss of neuronal Rac1 activation selectively impaired a learning-evoked increase in the proliferation and accumulation of neural precursors generated during the learning event itself. This indicates that experience-induced alterations in neurogenesis can be mechanistically resolved into two effects: (1) the well documented but Rac1-independent signaling cascade that enhances the survival of young postmitotic neurons; and (2) a previously unrecognized Rac1-dependent signaling cascade that stimulates the proliferative production and retention of new neurons generated during learning itself. PMID:23884931

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  17. [Brain repair after ischemic stroke: role of neurotransmitters in post-ischemic neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Bellver-Landete, Víctor; González, María Pilar; Merino, José Joaquín; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Brain ischemia and reperfusion produce alterations in the microenvironment of the parenchyma, including ATP depletion, ionic homeostasis alterations, inflammation, release of multiple cytokines and abnormal release of neurotransmitters. As a consequence, the induction of proliferation and migration of neural stem cells towards the peri-infarct region occurs. The success of new neurorestorative treatments for damaged brain implies the need to know, with greater accuracy, the mechanisms in charge of regulating adult neurogenesis, both under physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence demonstrates that many neurotransmitters, glutamate in particular, control the subventricular zone, thus being part of the complex signalling network that influences the production of new neurons. Neurotransmitters provide a link between brain activity and subventricular zone neurogenesis. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of the role of neurotransmitters systems, such as glutamate and its transporters, in adult neurogenesis, may provide a valuable tool to be used as a neurorestorative therapy in this pathology.

  18. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles

    2013-12-01

    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1—which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells—regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  19. Estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb is required for the learning of the male odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Maïna; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Hellier, Vincent; Bakker, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Odors processed by the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB) are important for sexual behavior. Interestingly, both structures continue to receive new neurons during adulthood. A role for olfactory neurogenesis in sexual behavior in female mice has recently been shown and gonadal hormones such as estradiol can modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, we wanted to determine the role of estradiol in learning the odors of sexual partners and in the adult neurogenesis of female aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), unable to produce estradiol. Female wild-type (WT) and ArKO mice were exposed to male odors during 7 days, and olfactory preferences, cell proliferation, cell survival and functional involvement of newborn neurons were analyzed, using BrdU injections, in combination with a marker of cell activation (Zif268) and neuronal fate (doublecortin, NeuN). Behavioral tasks indicated that both WT and ArKO females were able to discriminate between the odors of two different males, but ArKO mice failed to learn the familiar male odor. Proliferation of newborn cells was reduced in ArKO mice only in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Olfactory exposure decreased cell survival in the AOB in WT females, suggesting a role for estradiol in a structure involved in sexual behavior. Finally, newborn neurons do not seem to be functionally involved in the AOB of ArKO mice compared with WT, when females were exposed to the odor of a familiar male, suggesting that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the AOB is required for the learning of the male odor in female mice. Aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) presented deficits in olfactory preferences without affecting their olfactory discrimination abilities, and showed no functional involvement of newborn neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to the odor of a familiar male. These results suggest that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female AOB is required for the learning of the male odor. © 2016 International

  20. Neurogenesis in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Solano-Fonseca, Rene; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair. In this review, we describe NSCs and their niches during tissue homeostasis and how they undergo age-associated remodeling and dysfunction. We also discuss some of the functional ramifications in the brain from NSC aging. Finally, we discuss some recent insights from interventions in NSC aging that could eventually translate into therapies for healthy brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear deterrents: Intrinsic regulators of IL-1β-induced effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Léime, Ciarán S; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2017-11-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are born and develop into the host circuitry, begins during embryonic development and persists throughout adulthood. Over the last decade considerable insights have been made into the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function and the cellular mechanisms behind this process. Additionally, an increasing amount of evidence exists on the impact of environmental factors, such as stress and neuroinflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis and subsequent impairments in cognition. Elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampus is established as a significant contributor to the neuronal demise evident in many neurological and psychiatric disorders and is now known to negatively regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. In order to prevent the deleterious effects of IL-1β on neurogenesis it is necessary to identify signalling pathways and regulators of neurogenesis within neural progenitor cells that can interact with IL-1β. Nuclear receptors are ligand regulated transcription factors that are involved in modulating a large number of cellular processes including neurogenesis. In this review we focus on the signalling mechanisms of specific nuclear receptors involved in regulating neurogenesis (glucocorticoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, estrogen receptors, and nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 1 (NR2E1 or TLX)). We propose that these nuclear receptors could be targeted to inhibit neuroinflammatory signalling pathways associated with IL-1β. We discuss their potential to be therapeutic targets for neuroinflammatory disorders affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Absence of the neurogenesis-dependent nuclear receptor TLX induces inflammation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; Ó'Léime, Ciarán S; Crotty, Suzanne; Dockery, Peter; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2017-08-20

    The orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) is a key regulator of hippocampal neurogenesis. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions including dementia and stress-related depression. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in the neuropathology of these disorders, and has been shown to negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis. To investigate a role for TLX in hippocampal neuroinflammation, we assessed microglial activation in the hippocampus of mice with a spontaneous deletion of TLX. Results from our study suggest that a lack of TLX is implicated in deregulation of microglial phenotype and that consequently, the survival and function of newborn cells in the hippocampus is impaired. TLX may be an important target in understanding inflammatory-associated impairments in neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ghrelin-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of GH/IGF-1 axis: lessons from the spontaneous dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Endan; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sehee; Park, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    We recently have reported that ghrelin modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, there is a possibility that the action of ghrelin on hippocampal neurogenesis could be, in part, due to the ability of ghrelin to stimulate the GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, where both GH and IGF-1 infusions are known to increase hippocampal neurogenesis. To explore this possibility, we assessed the impact of ghrelin on progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of spontaneous dwarf rats (SDRs), a dwarf strain with a mutation of the GH gene resulting in total loss of GH. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that Ki-67-positive progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts in the DG of the SDRs expressed ghrelin receptors. We found that ghrelin treatment in the SDRs significantly increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- and BrdU-labeled cells in the DG. The number of DCX-labeled cells in the DG of ghrelin-treated SDRs was also significantly increased compared with the vehicle-treated controls. To test whether ghrelin has a direct effect on cognitive performance independently of somatotropic axis, hippocampus-dependent learning and memory were assessed using the Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) test in the SDRs. Ghrelin treatment for 4 weeks by subcutaneous osmotic pump significantly increased alternation rates in the Y-maze and exploration time for novel object in the NOR test compared to vehicle-treated controls. Our results indicate that ghrelin-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of somatotropic axis.

  4. Juvenile social defeat stress exposure persistently impairs social behaviors and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Akihiro; Ukai, Mayu; Uchida, Mizuki; Hasegawa, Sho; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Takahiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kunimoto, Shohko; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Adverse juvenile experiences, including physical abuse, often have negative health consequences later in life. We investigated the influence of social defeat stress exposure as juveniles on neuropsychological behaviors, and the causal role of glucocorticoids in abnormal behaviors and impairment of neurogenesis in mice exposed to the stress. The juvenile (24-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress induced by an aggressive ICR mouse. Social defeat stress exposure as juveniles, even for 1 day, induced persistent social avoidance to the unfamiliar ICR mouse in the social interaction test, but that was not observed in mice exposed to the stress as adults. Social avoidance by the stress exposure as juveniles for 10 consecutive days was observed, when the target mouse was not only unfamiliar ICR but also another C57BL/J mouse, but not an absent or an anesthetized ICR mouse. The stress exposure did not induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus-maze test, marble-burying test, forced swimming test, or sucrose preference test. Serum corticosterone levels increased immediately after the stress exposure. The hippocampal neurogenesis was suppressed 1 day and 4 weeks after the stress exposure. Administration of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to each stress exposure, blocked the persistent social avoidance and suppression of neurogenesis. In conclusion, social avoidance induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles are more persistent than that as adults. These social avoidances are associated with suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis via glucocorticoid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  6. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation and Completion of Episodic Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James Bradley; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Verzi, Stephen Joseph.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus region of the brain is a neurobiological process that is believed to contribute to the brain's advanced abilities in complex pattern recognition and cognition. Here, we describe how realistic scale simulations of the neurogenesis process can offer both a unique perspective on the biological relevance of this process and confer computational insights that are suggestive of novel machine learning techniques. First, supercomputer based scaling studies of the neurogenesis process demonstrate how a small fraction of adult-born neurons have a uniquely larger impact in biologically realistic scaled networks. Second, we describe a novel technical approach by which the information content of ensembles of neurons can be estimated. Finally, we illustrate several examples of broader algorithmic impact of neurogenesis, including both extending existing machine learning approaches and novel approaches for intelligent sensing.

  7. Synergic Functions of miRNAs Determine Neuronal Fate of Adult Neural Stem Cells

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    Meritxell Pons-Espinal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus. Moreover, we identify 11 miRNAs, of which 9 have not been previously characterized in neurogenesis, that determine neurogenic lineage fate choice of aNSCs at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Finally, we propose that the 11 miRNAs sustain adult hippocampal neurogenesis through synergistic modulation of 26 putative targets from different pathways. : In this article, the authors demonstrate that Dicer-dependent miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult hippocampus in vivo and in vitro. The authors identify a new set of 11 miRNAs that synergistically converge on multiple targets in different pathways to sustain neurogenic lineage fate commitment in aNSCs. Keywords: mouse, hippocampus, neural stem cells, fate choice, adult neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, DICER, microRNAs, synergy

  8. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.

  9. Fluoxetine Regulates Neurogenesis In Vitro Through Modulation of GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jiaojie; Zhang, Jianping; Kim, Hoon; Tong, Chang; Ying, Qilong; Li, Zaiwang; Mao, Xuqiang; Shi, Guofeng; Yan, Jie; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is generally accepted that chronic treatment with antidepressants increases hippocampal neurogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their effects are unknown. Recently, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling was shown to be involved in the mechanism of how antidepressants might influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine whether GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling is involved in the alteration of neurogenesis as a result of treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The mechanisms involved in fluoxetine’s regulation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were also examined. Results: Our results demonstrated that fluoxetine increased the proliferation of embryonic neural precursor cells (NPCs) by up-regulating the phosphorylation of Ser9 on GSK-3β and increasing the level of nuclear β-catenin. The overexpression of a stabilized β-catenin protein (ΔN89 β-catenin) significantly increased NPC proliferation, while inhibition of β-catenin expression in NPCs led to a significant decrease in the proliferation and reduced the proliferative effects induced by fluoxetine. The effects of fluoxetine-induced up-regulation of both phosphorylation of Ser9 on GSK-3β and nuclear β-catenin were significantly prevented by the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that fluoxetine may increase neurogenesis via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway that links postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor activation. PMID:25522429

  10. S 47445 Produces Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Effects through Neurogenesis Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mendez-David

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic dysfunctions are observed in the pathophysiology of depression. The glutamatergic synapse as well as the AMPA receptor’s (AMPAR activation may represent new potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the context of major depressive disorders. S 47445 is a novel AMPARs positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM possessing procognitive, neurotrophic properties and enhancing synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects of S 47445 in a mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration (CORT and in the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS model in rats. Four doses of S 47445 (0.3 to 10 mg/kg, oral route, 4 and 5 weeks, respectively were assessed in both models. In mouse, behavioral effects were tested in various anxiety-and depression-related behaviors : the elevated plus maze (EPM, open field (OF, splash test (ST, forced swim test (FST, tail suspension test (TST, fur coat state and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF as well as on hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization in comparison to chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg, p.o.. In rats, behavioral effects of S 47445 were monitored using sucrose consumption and compared to those of imipramine or venlafaxine (10 mg/kg, i.p. during the whole treatment period and after withdrawal of treatments. In a mouse model of genetic ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis (GFAP-Tk model, neurogenesis dependent/independent effects of chronic S 47445 treatment were tested, as well as BDNF hippocampal expression. S 47445 reversed CORT-induced depressive-like state by increasing grooming duration and reversing coat state’s deterioration. S 47445 also decreased the immobility duration in TST and FST. The highest doses (3 and 10 mg/kg seem the most effective for antidepressant-like activity in CORT mice. Furthermore, S 47445 significantly reversed the anxiety phenotype observed in OF (at 1 mg/kg and EPM (from 1 mg/kg. In the CMS

  11. Interaction Effect of Social Isolation and High Dose Corticosteroid on Neurogenesis and Emotional Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jackie N.-M.; Lee, Jada C.-D.; Lee, Sylvia S. P.; Hui, Katy K. Y.; Chan, Alan H. L.; Fung, Timothy K.-H.; S?nchez-Vida?a, Dalinda I.; Lau, Benson W.-M.; Ngai, Shirley P.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disor...

  12. Evaluation of a C57BL/6J × 129S1/SvImJ Hybrid Nestin-Thymidine Kinase Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Functional Significance of Exercise-Induced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G F; Majdak, P; Miller, D S; Bucko, P J; Merritt, J R; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the adult hippocampus but their function remains a mystery. The nestin thymidine kinase (nestin-TK) transgenic method has been used for selective and conditional reduction of neurogenesis for the purpose of testing the functional significance of new neurons in learning, memory and motor performance. Here we explored the nestin-TK model on a hybrid genetic background (to increase heterozygosity, and "hybrid vigor"). Transgenic C57BL/6J (B6) were crossed with 129S1/SvImJ (129) producing hybrid offspring (F1) with the B6 half of the genome carrying a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) transgene regulated by a modified nestin promoter. In the presence of exogenously administered valganciclovir, new neurons expressing TK undergo apoptosis. Female B6 nestin-TK mice ( n = 80) were evaluated for neurogenesis reduction as a positive control. Male and female F1 nestin-TK mice ( n = 223) were used to determine the impact of neurogenesis reduction on the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod. All mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells and either valganciclovir or control chow, with or without a running wheel for 30 days. Both the F1 and B6 background displayed approximately 50% reduction in neurogenesis, a difference that did not impair learning and memory on the MWM or rotarod performance. Running enhanced neurogenesis and performance on the rotarod but not MWM suggesting the F1 background may not be suitable for studying pro-cognitive effects of exercise on MWM. Greater reduction of neurogenesis may be required to observe behavioral impacts. Alternatively, new neurons may not play a critical role in learning, or compensatory mechanisms in pre-existing neurons could have masked the deficits. Further work using these and other models for selectively reducing neurogenesis are needed to establish the functional significance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in behavior.

  13. Neurogenesis-mediated forgetting minimizes proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Jonathan R; Silva Mera, Rudy; Köhler, Stefan; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2016-02-26

    Established memories may interfere with the encoding of new memories, particularly when existing and new memories overlap in content. By manipulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis, here we show that neurogenesis regulates this form of proactive interference. Increasing hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories and, in doing so, facilitates the encoding of new, conflicting (but not non-conflicting) information in mice. Conversely, decreasing neurogenesis stabilizes existing memories, and impedes the encoding of new, conflicting information. These results suggest that reduced proactive interference is an adaptive benefit of neurogenesis-induced forgetting.

  14. Surveillance, Phagocytosis, and Inflammation: How Never-Resting Microglia Influence Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sierra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia cells are the major orchestrator of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they are traditionally studied in various contexts of trauma, injury, and disease, where they are well-known for regulating a wide range of physiological processes by their release of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and trophic factors, among other crucial mediators. In the last few years, however, this classical view of microglia was challenged by a series of discoveries showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain functions. In light of these discoveries, surveillant microglia are now emerging as an important effector of cellular plasticity in the healthy brain, alongside astrocytes and other types of inflammatory cells. Here, we will review the roles of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their regulation by inflammation during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional consequences for learning and memory.

  15. Lithium improves hippocampal neurogenesis, neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP mutant mice.

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    Anna Fiorentini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles within neocortex and hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in learning and memory processes and its abnormal regulation might account for cognitive impairments associated with AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The double transgenic (Tg CRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 2 and 6 months, were used to examine in vivo the effects of 5 weeks lithium treatment. BrdU labelling showed a decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of Tg mice compared to non-Tg mice. The decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis was accompanied by behavioural deficits and worsened with age and pathology severity. The differentiation into neurons and maturation of the proliferating cells were also markedly impaired in the Tg mice. Lithium treatment to 2-month-old Tg mice significantly stimulated the proliferation and neuron fate specification of newborn cells and fully counteracted the transgene-induced impairments of cognitive functions. The drug, by the inhibition of GSK-3β and subsequent activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, the data show that the lithium's ability to stimulate neurogenesis and cognitive functions was lost in the aged Tg mice, thus indicating that the lithium-induced facilitation of neurogenesis and cognitive functions declines as brain Aβ deposition and pathology increases. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium, when given on time, stimulates neurogenesis and counteracts AD-like pathology.

  16. Nootropic agents stimulate neurogenesis. Brain Cells, Inc.: WO2007104035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    The application is in the field of adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells and cellular therapy. It aims to characterize the activity of nootropic agents on adult neurogenesis in vitro. Nootropic agents are substances improving cognitive and mental abilities. AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) and nootropic agents were assessed for the potential to differentiate human neural progenitor and stem cells into neuronal cells in vitro. They were also tested for their behavioural activity on the novel object recognition task. AMPA, piracetam, FK-960 and SGS-111 induce and stimulate neuronal differentiation of human-derived neural progenitor and stem cells. SGS-111 increases the number of visits to the novel object. The neurogenic activity of piracetam and SGS-111 is mediated through AMPA receptor. The neurogenic activity of SGS-111 may contribute and play a role in its nootropic activity. These results suggest that nootropic agents may elicit some of their effects through their neurogenic activity. The application claims the use of nootropic agents for their neurogenic activity and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating or increasing the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain.

  17. Regulation by commensal bacteria of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Naoki; Kotani, Takenori; Konno, Tasuku; Setiawan, Jajar; Nishigaito, Yuka; Saito, Yasuyuki; Murata, Yoji; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Matozaki, Takashi

    2018-04-15

    In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB. In addition, the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of germ-free (GF) mice was markedly reduced compared to that apparent for SPF mice. In contrast, the reduced incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of GF mice was recovered by their co-housing with SPF mice, suggesting that commensal bacteria promote the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells. Finally, we found that administration of ampicillin markedly attenuated the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of SPF mice. Our results thus suggest that ampicillin-sensitive commensal bacteria regulate the neurogenesis in the SVZ of adult mouse brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Stephen L; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Carta, Eloisa M; Chinoy, Amish; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G

    2007-01-01

    Increased endogenous neurogenesis has a significant regenerative role in many experimental models of cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been very few studies in humans. We therefore examined whether there was evidence of altered endogenous neurogenesis in an 84-year-old patient who suffered a cerebrovascular accident 1 week prior to death. Using antibodies that specifically label neural stem/neural progenitor cells, we examined the presence of immunopositive cells around and distant from the infarcted area, and compared this with a control, age-matched individual. Interestingly, a large number of neural stem cells, vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive cells and new blood vessels were observed only around the region of infarction, and none in the corresponding brain areas of the healthy control. In addition, an increased number of neural stem cells was observed in the neurogenic region of the lateral ventricle wall. Our results suggest increased endogenous neurogenesis associated with neovascularization and migration of newly-formed cells towards a region of cerebrovascular damage in the adult human brain and highlight possible mechanisms underlying this process.

  19. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deletion of TLX and social isolation impairs exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adolescent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozareva, Danka A; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences can have profound effects on the brain. Hippocampal neurogenesis, the neurodevelopmental process of generating functional new neurons from neural stem cells, occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain. While mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been widely studied, less is known on how hippocampal neurogenesis is affected during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both TLX and isolation stress on exercise-induced increases in neurogenesis in running and sedentary conditions during adolescence. Single- (isolation stress) wild type and Nr2e1 -/- mice or pair-housed wild type mice were housed in sedentary conditions or allowed free access to running wheels for 3 weeks during adolescence. A reduction of neuronal survival was evident in mice lacking TLX, and exercise did not increase hippocampal neurogenesis in these Nr2e1 -/- mice. This suggests that TLX is necessary for the pro-neurogenic effects of exercise during adolescence. Interestingly, although social isolation during adolescence did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis, it prevented an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus. Together these data demonstrate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in promoting an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis at this key point in life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurogenesis in the brain auditory pathway of a marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitkin, L.; Nelson, J.; Farrington, M.; Swann, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the marsupial Dasyurus hallucatus was studied. Intraperitoneal injections of tritiated thymidine (20-40 microCi) were made into pouch-young varying from 1 to 56 days pouch-life. Animals were killed as adults and brain sections were prepared for autoradiography and counterstained with a Nissl stain. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus were generated prior to 3 days pouch-life, in the superior olive at 5-7 days, and in the dorsal cochlear nucleus over a prolonged period. Inferior collicular neurogenesis lagged behind that in the medial geniculate, the latter taking place between days 3 and 9 and the former between days 7 and 22. Neurogenesis began in the auditory cortex on day 9 and was completed by about day 42. Thus neurogenesis was complete in the medullary auditory nuclei before that in the midbrain commenced, and in the medial geniculate before that in the auditory cortex commenced. The time course of neurogenesis in the auditory pathway of the native cat was very similar to that in another marsupial, the brushtail possum. For both, neurogenesis occurred earlier than in eutherian mammals of a similar size but was more protracted

  3. ACTIONS OF PROLACTIN IN THE BRAIN: FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO STRESS AND NEUROGENESIS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz eTorner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin is one of the most versatile hormones known. It is considered an adaptive hormone due to the key roles it plays in the modulation of the stress response and during pregnancy and lactation. Within the brain, prolactin acts as a neuropeptide to promote physiological responses related to reproduction, stress adaptation, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. The action of prolactin on the nervous system contributes to the wide array of changes that occur in the female brain during pregnancy and result in the attenuation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Together, all these changes promote behavioral and physiological adaptations of the new mother to enable reproductive success. Brain adaptations driven by prolactin are also important for the regulation of maternal emotionality and wellbeing Prolactin also affects the male brain during the stress response but its effects have been less studied. Prolactin regulates neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus. Therefore, alterations in the prolactin system due to stress, or exposure to substances that reduce neurogenesis or other conditions, could contribute to maladaptive responses and pathological behavioral outcomes. Here we review the prolactin system and the role it plays in the modulation of stress response and emotion regulation. We discuss the effects of prolactin on neurogenesis and neuroprotection, the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects, and their contribution to the onset of psychopathological states like depression.

  4. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  5. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  6. Variability of doublecortin-associated dendrite maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is independent of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation

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    Jessberger Sebastian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis most regulation takes place during the phase of doublecortin (DCX expression, either as pro-proliferative effect on precursor cells or as survival-promoting effect on postmitotic cells. We here obtained quantitative data about the proliferative population and the dynamics of postmitotic dendrite development during the period of DCX expression. The question was, whether any indication could be obtained that the initiation of dendrite development is timely bound to the exit from the cell cycle. Alternatively, the temporal course of morphological maturation might be subject to additional regulatory events. Results We found that (1 20% of the DCX population were precursor cells in cell cycle, whereas more than 70% were postmitotic, (2 the time span until newborn cells had reached the most mature stage associated with DCX expression varied between 3 days and several weeks, (3 positive or negative regulation of precursor cell proliferation did not alter the pattern and dynamics of dendrite development. Dendrite maturation was largely independent of close contacts to astrocytes. Conclusion These data imply that dendrite maturation of immature neurons is initiated at varying times after cell cycle exit, is variable in duration, and is controlled independently of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation. We conclude that in addition to the major regulatory events in cell proliferation and selective survival, additional micro-regulatory events influence the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  7. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  8. P2X7 receptor inhibition increases CNTF in the subventricular zone, but not neurogenesis or neuroprotection after stroke in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew Phillip; Hagg, Theo

    2013-10-01

    Increasing endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression with a pharmacological agent might be beneficial after stroke as CNTF both promotes neurogenesis and, separately, is neuroprotective. P2X7 purinergic receptor inhibition is neuroprotective in rats and increases CNTF release in rat CMT1A Schwann cells. We, first, investigated the role of P2X7 in regulating CNTF and neurogenesis in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). CNTF expression was increased by daily intravenous injections of the P2X7 antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in naïve C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice over 3 days. Despite the ∼40-60 % increase or decrease in CNTF with BBG or the agonist BzATP, respectively, the number of proliferated BrdU+SVZ nuclei did not change. BBG failed to increase FGF2, which is involved in CNTF-regulated neurogenesis, but induced IL-6, LIF, and EGF, which are known to reduce SVZ proliferation. Injections of IL-6 next to the SVZ induced CNTF and FGF2, but not proliferation, suggesting that IL-6 counteracts their neurogenesis-inducing effects. Following ischemic injury of the striatum by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a 3-day BBG treatment increased CNTF in the medial penumbra containing the SVZ. BBG also induced CNTF and LIF, which are known to be protective following stroke, in the whole striatum after MCAO, but not GDNF or BDNF. However, BBG treatment did not reduce the lesion area or apoptosis in the penumbra. Even so, this study shows that P2X7 can be targeted with systemic drug treatments to differentially regulate neurotrophic factors in the brain following stroke.

  9. TLX-Its Emerging Role for Neurogenesis in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Praveen K; Funa, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor TLX, also called NR2E1, is a factor important in the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal, neurogenesis, and maintenance. As a transcription factor, TLX is vital for the expression of genes implicated in neurogenesis, such as DNA replication, cell cycle, adhesion and migration. It acts by way of repressing or activating target genes, as well as controlling protein-protein interactions. Growing evidence suggests that dysregulated TLX acts in the initiation and progression of human disorders of the nervous system. This review describes recent knowledge about TLX expression, structure, targets, and biological functions, relevant to maintaining adult neural stem cells related to both neuropsychiatric conditions and certain nervous system tumours.

  10. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  11. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis ablation via cranial irradiation enhances morphine self-administration and locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulin, Sarah E; Mendoza, Matthew L; Richardson, Devon R; Song, Kwang H; Solberg, Timothy D; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-03-01

    Adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, but the role of new neurons in addiction-relevant learning and memory is unclear. To test the hypothesis that neurogenesis is involved in the vulnerability to morphine addiction, we ablated adult DG neurogenesis and examined morphine self-administration (MSA) and locomotor sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hippocampal-focused, image-guided X-ray irradiation (IRR) to eliminate new DG neurons or sham treatment (Sham). Six weeks later, rats underwent either MSA (Sham = 16, IRR = 15) or locomotor sensitization (Sham = 12, IRR = 12). Over 21 days of MSA, IRR rats self-administered ~70 percent more morphine than Sham rats. After 28 days of withdrawal, IRR rats pressed the active lever 40 percent more than Sham during extinction. This was not a general enhancement of learning or locomotion, as IRR and Sham groups had similar operant learning and inactive lever presses. For locomotor sensitization, both IRR and Sham rats sensitized, but IRR rats sensitized faster and to a greater extent. Furthermore, dose-response revealed that IRR rats were more sensitive at a lower dose. Importantly, these increases in locomotor activity were not apparent after acute morphine administration and were not a byproduct of irradiation or post-irradiation recovery time. Therefore, these data, along with other previously published data, indicate that reduced hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability for multiple classes of drugs. Thus, therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  13. Selective alteration of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial pattern separation performance in the RSK2-deficient mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Charlotte; Lunion, Steeve; Desvignes, Nathalie; Hanauer, André; Laroche, Serge; Poirier, Roseline

    2018-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. We report that the absence of RSK2 does not affect basal proliferation, differentiation and survival of dentate gyrus adult-born neurons but alters the maturation progression of young immature newborn neurons. Moreover, when RSK2-deficient mice were submitted to spatial learning, in contrast to wild-type mice, proliferation of adult generated neurons was decreased and no pro-survival effect of learning was observed. Thus, learning failed to recruit a selective population of young newborn neurons in association with deficient long-term memory recall. Given the proposed role of the dentate gyrus and of adult-generated newborn neurons in hippocampal-dependent pattern separation function, we explored this function in a delayed non-matching to place task and in an object-place pattern separation task and report severe deficits in spatial pattern separation in Rsk2-KO mice. Together, this study reveals a previously unknown role for RSK2 in the early stages of maturation and learning-dependent involvement of adult-born dentate gyrus neurons. These alterations associated with a deficit in the ability of RSK2-deficient mice to finely discriminate relatively similar spatial configurations, may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in CLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of rapamycin treatment after controlled cortical impact injury on neurogenesis and synaptic reorganization in the mouse dentate gyrus

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    Corwin R Butler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE is one consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI. A prominent cell signaling pathway activated in animal models of both TBI and epilepsy is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has shown promise as a potential modulator of epileptogenesis in several animal models of epilepsy, but cellular mechanisms linking mTOR expression and epileptogenesis are unclear. In this study, the role of mTOR in modifying functional hippocampal circuit reorganization after focal TBI induced by controlled cortical impact was investigated. Rapamycin (3 or 10 mg/kg, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, was administered by intraperitoneal injection beginning on the day of injury and continued daily until tissue collection. Relative to controls, rapamycin treatment reduced dentate granule cell area in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injury two weeks post-injury. Brain injury resulted in a significant increase in doublecortin immunolabeling in the dentate gyrus ipsilateral to the injury, indicating increased neurogenesis shortly after TBI. Rapamycin treatment prevented the increase in doublecortin labeling, with no overall effect on Fluoro-Jade B staining in the ipsilateral hemisphere, suggesting that rapamycin treatment reduced posttraumatic neurogenesis but did not prevent cell loss after injury. At later times post-injury (8-13 weeks, evidence of mossy fiber sprouting and increased recurrent excitation of dentate granule cells was detected, which were attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin treatment also diminished seizure prevalence relative to vehicle-treated controls after TBI. Collectively, these results support a role for adult neurogenesis in PTE development and suggest that suppression of epileptogenesis by mTOR inhibition includes effects on post-injury neurogenesis.

  15. Effects of psilocybin on hippocampal neurogenesis and extinction of trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, Briony J; Song, Shijie; Paredes, Daniel A; Kirstein, Cheryl L; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Drugs that modulate serotonin (5-HT) synaptic concentrations impact neurogenesis and hippocampal (HPC)-dependent learning. The primary objective is to determine the extent to which psilocybin (PSOP) modulates neurogenesis and thereby affects acquisition and extinction of HPC-dependent trace fear conditioning. PSOP, the 5-HT2A agonist 25I-NBMeO and the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin were administered via an acute intraperitoneal injection to mice. Trace fear conditioning was measured as the amount of time spent immobile in the presence of the conditioned stimulus (CS, auditory tone), trace (silent interval) and post-trace interval over 10 trials. Extinction was determined by the number of trials required to resume mobility during CS, trace and post-trace when the shock was not delivered. Neurogenesis was determined by unbiased counts of cells in the dentate gyrus of the HPC birth-dated with BrdU co-expressing a neuronal marker. Mice treated with a range of doses of PSOP acquired a robust conditioned fear response. Mice injected with low doses of PSOP extinguished cued fear conditioning significantly more rapidly than high-dose PSOP or saline-treated mice. Injection of PSOP, 25I-NBMeO or ketanserin resulted in significant dose-dependent decreases in number of newborn neurons in hippocampus. At the low doses of PSOP that enhanced extinction, neurogenesis was not decreased, but rather tended toward an increase. Extinction of "fear conditioning" may be mediated by actions of the drugs at sites other than hippocampus such as the amygdala, which is known to mediate the perception of fear. Another caveat is that PSOP is not purely selective for 5-HT2A receptors. PSOP facilitates extinction of the classically conditioned fear response, and this, and similar agents, should be explored as potential treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and related conditions.

  16. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Daniel M Iascone

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  17. The reduction of adult neurogenesis in depression impairs the retrieval of new as well as remote episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Demic, Selver; Cheng, Sen

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before. Also, unlike previous models of adult neurogenesis, which consider memories as static patterns, we model episodic memory as sequences of neural activity patterns. In our model, AN adds additional random components to the memory patterns, which results in the decorrelation of similar patterns. Consistent with previous studies, higher rates of AN lead to higher memory accuracy in our model, which implies that memories stored in the depressive state are impaired. Intriguingly, our model makes the novel prediction that memories stored in an earlier asymptomatic state are also impaired by a later depressive episode. This retrograde effect exacerbates with increased duration of the depressive episode. Finally, pattern separation at the sensory processing stage does not improve, but rather worsens, the accuracy of episodic memory retrieval, suggesting an explanation for why AN is found in brain areas serving memory rather than sensory function. In conclusion, while cognitive retrieval biases might contribute to episodic memory deficits in MDD, our model suggests a mechanistic explanation that affects all episodic memories, regardless of emotional relevance.

  18. The reduction of adult neurogenesis in depression impairs the retrieval of new as well as remote episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Demic, Selver; Cheng, Sen

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before. Also, unlike previous models of adult neurogenesis, which consider memories as static patterns, we model episodic memory as sequences of neural activity patterns. In our model, AN adds additional random components to the memory patterns, which results in the decorrelation of similar patterns. Consistent with previous studies, higher rates of AN lead to higher memory accuracy in our model, which implies that memories stored in the depressive state are impaired. Intriguingly, our model makes the novel prediction that memories stored in an earlier asymptomatic state are also impaired by a later depressive episode. This retrograde effect exacerbates with increased duration of the depressive episode. Finally, pattern separation at the sensory processing stage does not improve, but rather worsens, the accuracy of episodic memory retrieval, suggesting an explanation for why AN is found in brain areas serving memory rather than sensory function. In conclusion, while cognitive retrieval biases might contribute to episodic memory deficits in MDD, our model suggests a mechanistic explanation that affects all episodic memories, regardless of emotional relevance. PMID:29879169

  19. Prolonged Running, not Fluoxetine Treatment, Increases Neurogenesis, but does not Alter Neuropathology, in the 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Potter, M.C.; Bayer, T.A.; van Praag, H.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we

  20. Nuclear receptor TLX stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances learning and memory in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kiyohito; Qu, Qiuhao; Sun, GuoQiang; Ye, Peng; Li, Wendong; Asuelime, Grace; Sun, Emily; Tsai, Guochuan E; Shi, Yanhong

    2014-06-24

    The role of the nuclear receptor TLX in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition has just begun to be explored. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model that expresses TLX under the control of the promoter of nestin, a neural precursor marker. Transgenic TLX expression led to mice with enlarged brains with an elongated hippocampal dentate gyrus and increased numbers of newborn neurons. Specific expression of TLX in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus via lentiviral transduction increased the numbers of BrdU(+) cells and BrdU(+)NeuN(+) neurons. Furthermore, the neural precursor-specific expression of the TLX transgene substantially rescued the neurogenic defects of TLX-null mice. Consistent with increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, the TLX transgenic mice exhibited enhanced cognition with increased learning and memory. These results suggest a strong association between hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition, as well as significant contributions of TLX to hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory.

  1. Effects of exercise on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and ability of learning and memory after hippocampus lesion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHEN; Shan GONG; Li-Dong SHAN; Wei-Ping XU; Yue-Jin ZHANG; Shi-Yu GUO; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Qi-Zhang YIN; Xing-Hong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of exercise on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned adult rats. Methods Hippocampus lesion was produced by intrahippocampal microinjection of kainic acid (KA). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label dividing cells. Y maze test was used to evaluate the ability of learning and memory. Exercise was conducted in the form of forced running in a motor-driven running wheel. The speed of wheel revolution was regulated at 3 kinds of intensity: lightly running, moderately running, or heavily running. Results Hippocampus lesion could increase the number of BrdU-labeled DG cells, moderately running after lesion could further enhance the number of BrdU-labeled cells and decrease the error number (EN) in Y maze test,while neither lightly running, nor heavily running had such effects. There was a negative correlation between the number of DG BrdU-labeled cells and the EN in the Y maze test after running. Conclusion Moderate exercise could enhance the DG neurogenesis and ameliorate the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned rats.

  2. Do depression, stress, sleep disruption, and inflammation alter hippocampal apoptosis and neurogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Meerlo, P.; Naylor, A.S.; van Dam, A.M.; Dayer, A.G.; Czeh, B.; Oomen, C.A.; Pariante, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the regulation of cellular plasticity, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in the adult hippocampus, by stress, sleep, inflammation, and depression. This is the fourth of five chapters in this book that present not only clinical data but also experimental evidence from animal models

  3. Temporal Discontiguity Is neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Learning-Induced Effects on Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Benedetta; Waddell, Jaylyn; Gould, Elizabeth; Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    Some, but not all, types of learning and memory can influence neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Trace eyeblink conditioning has been shown to enhance the survival of new neurons, whereas delay eyeblink conditioning has no such effect. The key difference between the two training procedures is that the conditioning stimuli are separated in time during trace but not delay conditioning. These findings raise the question of whether temporal discontiguity is necessary for enhancing the survival of new neurons. Here we used two approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we examined the influence of a delay conditioning task in which the duration of the conditioned stimulus (CS) was increased nearly twofold, a procedure that critically engages the hippocampus. Although the CS and unconditioned stimulus are contiguous, this very long delay conditioning procedure increased the number of new neurons that survived. Second, we examined the influence of learning the trace conditioned response (CR) after having acquired the CR during delay conditioning, a procedure that renders trace conditioning hippocampal-independent. In this case, trace conditioning did not enhance the survival of new neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that associative learning increases the survival of new neurons in the adult hippocampus, regardless of temporal contiguity. PMID:17192426

  4. Effects of curcumin on short-term spatial and recognition memory, adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Taysa B; Turnes, Joelle M; Moura, Eric L R; Bonato, Jéssica M; Cóppola-Segovia, Valentín; Zanata, Silvio M; Oliveira, Rúbia M M W; Vital, Maria A B F

    2017-09-29

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with evidence of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Recent evidence also suggests that curcumin increases cognitive performance in animal models of dementia, and this effect would be related to its capacity to enhance adult neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that curcumin treatment would be able to preserve cognition by increasing neurogenesis and decreasing neuroinflammation in the model of dementia of Alzheimer's type induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in Wistar rats. The animals were injected with ICV-STZ or vehicle and curcumin treatments (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, gavage) were performed for 30days. Four weeks after surgery, STZ-lesioned animals exhibited impairments in short-term spatial memory (Object Location Test (OLT) and Y maze) and short-term recognition memory (Object Recognition Test - ORT), decreased cell proliferation and immature neurons (Ki-67- and doublecortin-positive cells, respectively) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, and increased immunoreactivity for the glial markers GFAP and Iba-1 (neuroinflammation). Curcumin treatment in the doses of 50 and 100mg/kg prevented the deficits in recognition memory in the ORT, but not in spatial memory in the OLT and Y maze. Curcumin treatment exerted only slight improvements in neuroinflammation, resulting in no improvements in hippocampal and subventricular neurogenesis. These results suggest a positive effect of curcumin in object recognition memory which was not related to hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Implication of neuro-genesis during brain development in behavior disorders caused by depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to neurotoxic compounds in the environment. The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds and modifications in its growth could lead to disorders in adulthood. Uranium (U) is an environmental heavy metal and induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry. The aim of my thesis was to investigate whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neuro-genesis processes, which are implicated in brain development and in synaptic plasticity in adults. While DU increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal neuro-epithelium and decreased cell death at prenatal stages, DU lead to opposite effects in the dentate gyrus at postnatal stages. Moreover, DU had an inhibitory effect on the transition toward neuronal differentiation pathway during development. At adult stage, DU induced a decrease in neuronal differentiation but has no impact in cell proliferation. Finally, DU exposure during brain development caused depressive like behavior at late postnatal and adult stage, and decreased spatial memory at adult stage. Consequently, DU exposure during brain development caused modification in neuro-genesis processes associated to cognitive and emotional disorders at adult age. U could present a threat to human health, especially in pregnant women and children. (author)

  6. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh

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    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  7. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  8. Cerebroventricular Microinjection (CVMI) into Adult Zebrafish Brain Is an Efficient Misexpression Method for Forebrain Ventricular Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Caghan; Brand, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The teleost fish Danio rerio (zebrafish) has a remarkable ability to generate newborn neurons in its brain at adult stages of its lifespan-a process called adult neurogenesis. This ability relies on proliferating ventricular progenitors and is in striking contrast to mammalian brains that have rather restricted capacity for adult neurogenesis. Therefore, investigating the zebrafish brain can help not only to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of widespread adult neurogenesis in a vertebrate species, but also to design therapies in humans with what we learn from this teleost. Yet, understanding the cellular behavior and molecular programs underlying different biological processes in the adult zebrafish brain requires techniques that allow manipulation of gene function. As a complementary method to the currently used misexpression techniques in zebrafish, such as transgenic approaches or electroporation-based delivery of DNA, we devised a cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI)-assisted knockdown protocol that relies on vivo morpholino oligonucleotides, which do not require electroporation for cellular uptake. This rapid method allows uniform and efficient knockdown of genes in the ventricular cells of the zebrafish brain, which contain the neurogenic progenitors. We also provide data on the use of CVMI for growth factor administration to the brain – in our case FGF8, which modulates the proliferation rate of the ventricular cells. In this paper, we describe the CVMI method and discuss its potential uses in zebrafish. PMID:22076157

  9. Development of the adult neurogenic niche in the hippocampus of mice

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    Zeina eNicola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When does adult hippocampal neurogenesis begin? We describe the development of the neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We did so from the perspective of the situation in the adult.Ontogeny of the dentate gyrus is complex and results in an ectopic neurogenic niche that lifelong generates new granule cells. Neurogenesis during the fetal and early postnatal periods builds the dentate gyrus and gives way to activity-dependent adult neurogenesis. We used markers most relevant to adult neurogenesis research to describe this transition: Nestin, Sox2, BLBP, GFAP, Tbr2, Doublecortin (DCX, NeuroD1 and Prox1. We found that massive changes and a local condensation of proliferating precursor cells occurs between postnatal day 7 (P7, near the peak in proliferation, and P14. Before and around P7, the spatial distribution of cells and the co-localization of markers were distinct from the situation in the adult. Unlike the adult SGZ, the marker pair Nestin/Sox2 and the radial glial marker BLBP were not overlapping during embryonic development, presumably indicating different types of radial glia-like cells. Before P7 GFAP-positive cells in the hilus lacked the radial orientation that is characteristic of the adult type-1 cells. DCX, which is concentrated in type-2b and type-3 progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons in the adult, showed diffuse expression before P7. Intermediate progenitor cell marker Tbr2 became restricted to the SGZ but was found in the granule cell layer and hilus before. Lineage markers NeuroD1 and Prox1 confirmed this pattern.We conclude that the neurogenic niche of adult neurogenesis is in place well before true adulthood. This might indicate that consistent with the hypothesized function of adult neurogenesis in activity-dependent plasticity, the early transition from postnatal neurogenesis to adult neurogenesis coincides with the time, when the young mice start to become active themselves.

  10. Abrogation of Early Apoptosis Does Not Alter Late Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuqing; Aubert, Isabelle; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the adult brain results in acute apoptosis of neural progenitors and vascular endothelial cells, as well as late dysfunction of neural progenitors and inhibition of neurogenesis. We sought to determine whether the early apoptotic response has a causative role in late inhibition of neurogenesis after cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: Using a genetic approach with p53 and smpd1 transgenic mice and a pharmacologic approach with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to abrogate the early apoptotic response, we evaluated the late inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after cranial irradiation. Results: In dentate gyrus, subgranular neural progenitors underwent p53-dependent apoptosis within 24 h after irradiation. Despite a near abrogation of neural progenitor apoptosis in p53-/- mice, the reduction in newborn neurons in dentate gyrus at 9 weeks after irradiation in p53-/- mice was not different from that observed in wildtype controls. Endothelial cell apoptosis after radiation is mediated by membrane damage initiated by activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). Deletion of the smpd1 gene (which encodes ASMase) attenuated the apoptotic response of endothelial cells. At 9 weeks after irradiation, the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was not rescued by ASMase deficiency. Intravenous administration of bFGF protected both endothelial cells and neural progenitors against radiation-induced apoptosis. There was no protection against inhibition of neurogenesis at 9 weeks after irradiation in bFGF-treated mice. Conclusion: Early apoptotic death of neural progenitors, endothelial cells, or both does not have a causative association with late inhibition of neurogenesis after irradiation.

  11. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

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    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  12. Ex vivo study of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in human pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, M; Fernández, M; Del Vecchio, G; Lizzo, G; Marucci, G; Giulioni, M; Pozzati, E; Antonelli, T; Lanzoni, G; Bagnara, G P; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2010-10-01

    Neurogenesis in adult humans occurs in at least two areas of the brain, the subventricular zone of the telencephalon and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. We studied dentate gyrus subgranular layer neurogenesis in patients subjected to tailored antero-mesial temporal resection including amygdalohippocampectomy due to pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using the in vitro neurosphere assay. Sixteen patients were enrolled in the study; mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was present in eight patients. Neurogenesis was investigated by ex vivo neurosphere expansion in the presence of mitogens (epidermal growth factor + basic fibroblast growth factor) and spontaneous differentiation after mitogen withdrawal. Growth factor synthesis was investigated by qRT-PCR in neurospheres. We demonstrate that in vitro proliferation of cells derived from dentate gyrus of TLE patients is dependent on disease duration. Moreover, the presence of MTS impairs proliferation. As long as in vitro proliferation occurs, neurogenesis is maintained, and cells expressing a mature neurone phenotype (TuJ1, MAP2, GAD) are spontaneously formed after mitogen withdrawal. Finally, formed neurospheres express mRNAs encoding for growth (vascular endothelial growth factor) as well as neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor). We demonstrated that residual neurogenesis in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in TLE is dependent on diseases duration and absent in MTS. © 2010 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2010 British Neuropathological Society.

  13. Chronic unpredictable mild stress alters an anxiety-related defensive response, Fos immunoreactivity and hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J S; Céspedes, I C; Abrão, R O; Dos Santos, T B; Diniz, L; Britto, L R G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Ortolani, D; Melo-Thomas, L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2013-08-01

    Previous results show that elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses are facilitated by acute restraint. Escape, on the other hand, was unaltered. To examine if the magnitude of the stressor is an important factor influencing these results, we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on ETM avoidance and escape measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by stress exposure in response to ETM avoidance and escape performance. Additionally, the effects of the UCMS protocol on the number of cells expressing the marker of migrating neuroblasts doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were investigated. Corticosterone serum levels were also measured. Results showed that UCMS facilitates ETM avoidance, not altering escape. In unstressed animals, avoidance performance increases Fos-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus) and basomedial amygdala, and escape increases Fos-ir in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. In stressed animals submitted to ETM avoidance, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, ventrolateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal and median raphe nuclei. In stressed animals submitted to ETM escape, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Also, UCMS exposure decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and increased corticosterone serum levels. These data suggest that the anxiogenic effects of UCMS are related to the activation of specific neurobiological circuits that modulate anxiety and confirm that this stress protocol activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreases hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

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    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  15. The role of additive neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal memory model with grid-cell like input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Appleby

    Full Text Available Recently, we presented a study of adult neurogenesis in a simplified hippocampal memory model. The network was required to encode and decode memory patterns despite changing input statistics. We showed that additive neurogenesis was a more effective adaptation strategy compared to neuronal turnover and conventional synaptic plasticity as it allowed the network to respond to changes in the input statistics while preserving representations of earlier environments. Here we extend our model to include realistic, spatially driven input firing patterns in the form of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. We compare network performance across a sequence of spatial environments using three distinct adaptation strategies: conventional synaptic plasticity, where the network is of fixed size but the connectivity is plastic; neuronal turnover, where the network is of fixed size but units in the network may die and be replaced; and additive neurogenesis, where the network starts out with fewer initial units but grows over time. We confirm that additive neurogenesis is a superior adaptation strategy when using realistic, spatially structured input patterns. We then show that a more biologically plausible neurogenesis rule that incorporates cell death and enhanced plasticity of new granule cells has an overall performance significantly better than any one of the three individual strategies operating alone. This adaptation rule can be tailored to maximise performance of the network when operating as either a short- or long-term memory store. We also examine the time course of adult neurogenesis over the lifetime of an animal raised under different hypothetical rearing conditions. These growth profiles have several distinct features that form a theoretical prediction that could be tested experimentally. Finally, we show that place cells can emerge and refine in a realistic manner in our model as a direct result of the sparsification performed by the dentate gyrus

  16. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Roda, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@shmu.edu.cn [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China)

    2010-01-08

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  17. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao; Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  18. Contribution of constitutively proliferating precursor cell subtypes to dentate neurogenesis after cortical infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberland Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion. Results Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14. These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct. Conclusions Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.

  19. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  20. The Tlx gene regulates the timing of neurogenesis in the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kristine; Kuznicki, Kathleen; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Zhuoxin; Bock, Dagmar; Schutz, Gunther; Vranich, Nancy; Monaghan, A Paula

    2004-09-22

    The tailless (tlx) gene is a forebrain-restricted transcription factor. Tlx mutant animals exhibit a reduction in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and associated structures (Monaghan et al., 1997). Superficial cortical layers are specifically reduced, whereas deep layers are relatively unaltered (Land and Monaghan, 2003). To determine whether the adult laminar phenotype has a developmental etiology and whether it is associated with a change in proliferation/differentiation decisions, we examined the cell cycle and neurogenesis in the embryonic cortex. We found that there is a temporal and regional requirement for the Tlx protein in progenitor cells (PCs). Neurons prematurely differentiate at all rostrocaudal levels up to mid-neurogenesis in mutant animals. Heterozygote animals have an intermediate phenotype indicating there is a threshold requirement for Tlx in early cortical neurogenesis. Our studies indicate that PCs in the ventricular zone are sensitive to loss of Tlx in caudal regions only; however, PCs in the subventricular zone are altered at all rostrocaudal levels in tlx-deficient animals. Furthermore, we found that the cell cycle is shorter from embryonic day 9.5 in tlx-/- embryos. At mid-neurogenesis, the PC population becomes depleted, and late PCs have a longer cell cycle in tlx-deficient animals. Consequently, later generated structures, such as upper cortical layers, the dentate gyrus, and the olfactory bulbs, are severely reduced. These studies indicate that tlx is an essential intrinsic regulator in the decision to proliferate or differentiate in the developing forebrain.

  1. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation......, initial dendritic development, and dendritic spine maturation. In contrast, Rac1 is dispensable for early steps of neuronal development but is important for late steps of dendritic growth and spine maturation. These results establish cell-autonomous and stage-specific functions for the small Rho GTPases...

  2. The effects of hormones and physical exercise on hippocampal structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Paredes, Juan; Patten, Anna R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an integral role in certain aspects of cognition. Hippocampal structural plasticity and in particular adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we review how hormones (i.e., intrinsic modulators) and physical exercise (i.e., an extrinsic modulator) can differentially modulate hippocampal plasticity in general and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in particular. Specifically, we provide an overview of the effects of sex hormones, stress hormones, and metabolic hormones on hippocampal structural plasticity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, we also discuss how physical exercise modulates these forms of hippocampal plasticity, giving particular emphasis on how this modulation can be affected by variables such as exercise regime, duration, and intensity. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the modulation of hippocampal structural plasticity by intrinsic and extrinsic factors will impact the design of new therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring hippocampal plasticity following brain injury or neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypothalamic neurogenesis persists in the aging brain and is controlled by energy-sensing IGF-I pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Zayna; George, Caroline; Petrovska, Marija; Caron, Jean-Baptiste; Lacube, Philippe; Caillé, Isabelle; Holzenberger, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the third ventricle. They are recently identified as adult stem and/or progenitor cells, able to self-renew and give rise to new neurons postnatally. However, the long-term neurogenic potential of tanycytes and the pathways regulating lifelong cell replacement in the adult hypothalamus are largely unexplored. Using inducible nestin-CreER(T2) for conditional mutagenesis, we performed lineage tracing of adult hypothalamic stem and/or progenitor cells (HySC) and demonstrated that new neurons continue to be born throughout adult life. This neurogenesis was targeted to numerous hypothalamic nuclei and produced different types of neurons in the dorsal periventricular regions. Some adult-born neurons integrated the median eminence and arcuate nucleus during aging and produced growth hormone releasing hormone. We showed that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis was tightly controlled by insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Knockout of IGF-1 receptor from hypothalamic stem and/or progenitor cells increased neuronal production and enhanced α-tanycyte self-renewal, preserving this stem cell-like population from age-related attrition. Our data indicate that adult hypothalamus retains the capacity of cell renewal, and thus, a substantial degree of structural plasticity throughout lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult neurogenesis is reduced in the dorsal hippocampus of rats displaying learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Wang, S

    2010-11-24

    Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the hippocampus has a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. In the learned helplessness (LH) animal model of depression after inescapable shocks (ISs) animals that display LH behavior have reduced cell proliferation in the hippocampus; this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. Using this model, we compared rats that displayed LH behavior and rats that did not show LH behavior (NoLH) after ISs to determine whether reduced hippocampal cell proliferation is associated with the manifestation of LH behavior or is a general response to stress. Specifically, we examined cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic function in dorsal and ventral hippocampus of LH and NoLH animals and control rats that were not shocked. The LH rats had showed reduced cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic transmission in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas no changes were seen in the ventral hippocampus. These changes were not observed in the NoLH animals. In a group of NoLH rats that received the same amount of electrical shock as the LH rats to control for the unequal shocks received in these two groups, we observed changes in Ki-67(+) cells associated with acute stress. We conclude that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with the manifestation of LH behavior and that the dorsal hippocampus is the most affected area. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative regulation of TLX by IL-1β correlates with an inhibition of adult hippocampal neural precursor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sinead M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Connor, Caitriona; Keeshan, Karen; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2013-10-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors including local signalling molecules, exercise, aging and inflammation. Inflammation is also a major contributor to several hippocampal-associated disorders. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the most predominant pro-inflammatory cytokine in the brain, and an increase in its concentration is known to decrease the proliferation of both embryonic and adult hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). Recent research has focused on the role of nuclear receptors as intrinsic regulators of neurogenesis, and it is now established that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is crucial in maintaining the NPC pool in neurogenic brain regions. To better understand the involvement of TLX in IL-1β-mediated effects on hippocampal NPC proliferation, we examined hippocampal NPC proliferation and TLX expression in response to IL-1β treatment in an adult rat hippocampal neurosphere culture system. We demonstrate that IL-1β reduced the proliferation of hippocampal NPCs and TLX expression in a dose and time-dependent manner and that co-treatment with IL-1β receptor antagonist or IL-1 receptor siRNA prevented these effects. We also report a dose-dependent effect of IL-1β on the composition of cell phenotypes in the culture and on expression of TLX in these cells. This study thus provides evidence of an involvement of TLX in IL-1β-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and offers mechanistic insight into disorders in which neuroinflammation and alterations in neurogenesis are characteristic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction Effect of Social Isolation and High Dose Corticosteroid on Neurogenesis and Emotional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie N-M; Lee, Jada C-D; Lee, Sylvia S P; Hui, Katy K Y; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Timothy K-H; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda I; Lau, Benson W-M; Ngai, Shirley P-C

    2017-01-01

    Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression. Furthermore, social isolation is regarded as a stressor to social animals including experimental rodents. Hence, this study aims to examine if social isolation would induce further emotional or anxiety-like behavior disturbance and suppress neurogenesis in an experimental model that was repeatedly treated with CORT. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to determine the effects of different housing conditions, either social isolated or group housing, in vehicle-treated control and CORT-treated animals. Forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and social interaction test (SIT) were used to assess depression-like, anxiety-like and social behaviors respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of proliferative cells and immature neurons in the hippocampus, while dendritic maturation of immature neurons was analyzed by Sholl analysis. Social isolation reduced latency to immobility in FST. Furthermore, social isolation could significantly reduce the ratio of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells of the neurogenesis assay under CORT-treated condition. The current findings suggested that the behavioral and neurological effect of social isolation is dependent on the condition of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, social isolation may

  7. Extremely weak magnetic field exposure may inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis of Sprague Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals brains and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors. Lines of evidences have shown that the magnetic field is an important physics environmental factor influencing many animals' growth and development, and extremely weak magnetic field exposures have been proved having serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in some animals, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we experimentally examined the extremely weak magnetic field effects on neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, an extremely weak magnetic field (≤ 0.5μT) and the geomagnetic fields (strength 31-58μT) as controls. Thirty-two SD rats (3-weeks old) were used in this study. New cell survival in hippocampus was assessed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days after a 7-day intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Meanwhile, the amounts of immature neurons and mature neurons which are both related to hippocampal neurogenesis, as documented by labeling with doublecortin (DCX) and neuron (NeuN), respectively, were also analyzed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days. Compared with geomagnetic field exposure groups, numbers of BrdU-, DCX-positive cells of DG of hippocampus in tested rats reduces monotonously and more rapidly after 14 days, and NeuN-positive cells significantly decreases after 28days when exposed in the extremely weak magnetic field condition. Our data suggest that the exposure to an extremely weak magnetic field may suppress the neurogenesis in DG of SD rats.

  8. Increased radial glia quiescence, decreased reactivation upon injury and unaltered neuroblast behavior underlie decreased neurogenesis in the aging zebrafish telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Kathrin; Glashauser, Lena; Sprungala, Susanne; Hesl, Birgit; Fritschle, Maike; Ninkovic, Jovica; Godinho, Leanne; Chapouton, Prisca

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish has recently become a source of new data on the mechanisms of neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and ongoing neurogenesis in adult brains. In this vertebrate, neurogenesis occurs at high levels in all ventricular regions of the brain, and brain injuries recover successfully, owing to the recruitment of radial glia, which function as NSCs. This new vertebrate model of adult neurogenesis is thus advancing our knowledge of the molecular cues in use for the activation of NSCs and fate of their progeny. Because the regenerative potential of somatic stem cells generally weakens with increasing age, it is important to assess the extent to which zebrafish NSC potential decreases or remains unaltered with age. We found that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone, in the olfactory bulb, and in a newly identified parenchymal zone of the telencephalon indeed declines as the fish ages and that oligodendrogenesis also declines. In the ventricular zone, the radial glial cell population remains largely unaltered morphologically but enters less frequently into the cell cycle and hence produces fewer neuroblasts. The neuroblasts themselves do not change their behavior with age and produce the same number of postmitotic neurons. Thus, decreased neurogenesis in the physiologically aging zebrafish brain is correlated with an increasing quiescence of radial glia. After injuries, radial glia in aged brains are reactivated, and the percentage of cell cycle entry is increased in the radial glia population. However, this reaction is far less pronounced than in younger animals, pointing to irreversible changes in aging zebrafish radial glia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Alterations in Brain Inflammation, Synaptic Proteins, and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis during Epileptogenesis in Mice Lacking Synapsin2.

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    Deepti Chugh

    Full Text Available Synapsins are pre-synaptic vesicle-associated proteins linked to the pathogenesis of epilepsy through genetic association studies in humans. Deletion of synapsins causes an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, exemplified by the epileptic phenotype of synapsin knockout mice. These mice develop handling-induced tonic-clonic seizures starting at the age of about 3 months. Hence, they provide an opportunity to study epileptogenic alterations in a temporally controlled manner. Here, we evaluated brain inflammation, synaptic protein expression, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the epileptogenic (1 and 2 months of age and tonic-clonic (3.5-4 months phase of synapsin 2 knockout mice using immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. In the epileptogenic phase, region-specific microglial activation was evident, accompanied by an increase in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a decrease in chemokine keratinocyte chemoattractant/ growth-related oncogene. Both post-synaptic density-95 and gephyrin, scaffolding proteins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, showed a significant up-regulation primarily in the cortex. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the inhibitory adhesion molecules neuroligin-2 and neurofascin and potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. Decreased expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-δ subunit and cholecystokinin was also evident. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in the epileptogenic phase. Taken together, we report molecular alterations in brain inflammation and excitatory/inhibitory balance that could serve as potential targets for therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers. In addition, the regional differences in brain inflammation and synaptic protein expression indicate an epileptogenic zone from where the generalized seizures in synapsin 2 knockout mice may be initiated or spread.

  10. Plasticity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells to enhance neurogenesis in response to kainate-induced injury is lost by middle age

    OpenAIRE

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S.; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable up-regulation of neurogenesis through increased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) is a well-known plasticity displayed by the young dentate gyrus (DG) following brain injury. To ascertain whether this plasticity is preserved during aging, we quantified DG neurogenesis in the young adult, middle-aged and aged F344 rats after kainic acid induced hippocampal injury. Measurement of new cells that are added to the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) between post-injury...

  11. Maturation and integration of adult born hippocampal neurons: signal convergence onto small Rho GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna eVadodaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, restricted to specific regions in the mammalian brain, represents one of the most interesting forms of plasticity in the mature nervous system. Adult-born hippocampal neurons play important roles in certain forms of learning and memory, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression and epilepsy. Newborn neurons go through distinct developmental steps from a dividing neurogenic precursor to a synaptically integrated mature neuron. Previous studies have uncovered several molecular signaling pathways involved in distinct steps of this maturational process. In this context, the small Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA have recently been shown to regulate the morphological and synaptic maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells in vivo. Distinct upstream regulators, including several growth factors that modulate maturation and integration of newborn neurons have been shown to also recruit the small Rho GTPases. Here we review recent findings and highlight the possibility that small Rho GTPases may act as central assimilators, downstream of critical input onto adult-born hippocampal neurons contributing to their maturation and integration into the existing dentate gyrus circuitry.

  12. Behavioural Effects of Adult Vitamin D Deficiency in BALB/c Mice Are not Associated with Proliferation or Survival of Neurons in the Adult Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Groves

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that up to one third of adults have insufficient levels of vitamin D and there is an association between low vitamin D concentrations and adverse brain outcomes, such as depression. Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in processes associated with neurogenesis during development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency in BALB/c mice was associated with (a adult hippocampal neurogenesis at baseline, b following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running and (c a depressive-like phenotype on the forced swim test (FST, which may be linked to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. We assessed proliferation and survival of adult born hippocampal neurons by counting the number of cells positive for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX, and incorporation of 5-Bromo-2'-Deoxyuridine (BrdU within newly born mature neurons using immunohistochemistry. There were no significant effects of diet on number of Ki67+, DCX+ or BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus. All mice showed significantly increased number of Ki67+ cells and BrdU incorporation, and decreased immobility time in the FST, after voluntary wheel running. A significant correlation was found in control mice between immobility time in the FST and level of hippocampal neurogenesis, however, no such correlation was found for AVD-deficient mice. We conclude that AVD deficiency was not associated with impaired proliferation or survival of adult born neurons in BALB/c mice and that the impact on rodent behaviour may not be due to altered neurogenesis per se, but to altered function of new hippocampal neurons or processes independent of adult neurogenesis.

  13. Astrocytes at the Hub of the Stress Response: Potential Modulation of Neurogenesis by miRNAs in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, Alejandro; Cisternas, Pablo; Caviedes, Ariel; Batiz, Luis Federico; Lafourcade, Carlos; Wyneken, Ursula; Henzi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive stress negatively affects several brain functions and neuronal networks. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is consistently impaired in chronic stress models and in associated human diseases such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, while it is restored by effective antidepressant treatments. The adult neurogenic niche contains neural progenitor cells in addition to amplifying progenitors, neuroblasts, immature and mature neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and microglial cells. Because of their particular and crucial position, with their end feet enwrapping endothelial cells and their close communication with the cells of the niche, astrocytes might constitute a nodal point to bridge or transduce systemic stress signals from peripheral blood, such as glucocorticoids, to the cells involved in the neurogenic process. It has been proposed that communication between astrocytes and niche cells depends on direct cell-cell contacts and soluble mediators. In addition, new evidence suggests that this communication might be mediated by extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, and in particular, by their miRNA cargo. Here, we address some of the latest findings regarding the impact of stress in the biology of the neurogenic niche, and postulate how astrocytic exosomes (and miRNAs) may play a fundamental role in such phenomenon.

  14. Astrocytes at the Hub of the Stress Response: Potential Modulation of Neurogenesis by miRNAs in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Luarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive stress negatively affects several brain functions and neuronal networks. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is consistently impaired in chronic stress models and in associated human diseases such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, while it is restored by effective antidepressant treatments. The adult neurogenic niche contains neural progenitor cells in addition to amplifying progenitors, neuroblasts, immature and mature neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and microglial cells. Because of their particular and crucial position, with their end feet enwrapping endothelial cells and their close communication with the cells of the niche, astrocytes might constitute a nodal point to bridge or transduce systemic stress signals from peripheral blood, such as glucocorticoids, to the cells involved in the neurogenic process. It has been proposed that communication between astrocytes and niche cells depends on direct cell-cell contacts and soluble mediators. In addition, new evidence suggests that this communication might be mediated by extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, and in particular, by their miRNA cargo. Here, we address some of the latest findings regarding the impact of stress in the biology of the neurogenic niche, and postulate how astrocytic exosomes (and miRNAs may play a fundamental role in such phenomenon.

  15. Chinese herbal medicine for Alzheimer's disease: Clinical evidence and possible mechanism of neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Shan, Chun-Shuo; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Jia-Zhen; Bao, Xiao-Yi; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is lack of cure or disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is purported to ameliorate AD progression, perhaps by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for AD based on high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviewed its possible mechanisms of neurogenesis according to animal-based researches. Twenty eligible studies with 1767 subjects were identified in eight database searches from inception to February 2017. The studies investigated the CHM versus placebo (n=3), CHM versus donepezil (n=9 with 10 comparisons), CHM plus donepezil versus donepezil (n=3), CHM versus a basic treatment (n=3), and CHM plus basic treatment versus basic treatment (n=2). Adverse events were reported in 11 studies, analyzed but not observed in 3 studies, and not analyzed in 6 studies. The main findings of present study are that CHM as adjuvant therapy exerted an additive anti-AD benefit, whereas the efficacy of CHM as a monotherapy was inconclusive. Additionally, CHMs were generally safe and well tolerated in AD patients. Active molecules in frequent constituents of CHMs can alter multiple critical signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis. Thus, the present evidence supports, to a limited extent, the conclusion that CHM can be recommended for routine use in AD patients and its possible mechanism enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis through activating the multi-signal pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hippocampal neurogenesis and cortical cellular plasticity in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatome, Catherine W; Mwangi, Deter K; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Amrein, Irmgard

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific characteristics of neuronal plasticity emerging from comparative studies can address the functional relevance of hippocampal or cortical plasticity in the light of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history of a given species. Here, we present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of neurogenesis in young and adult free-living Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats. Using the markers for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX) and polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), our findings in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortical regions are described and compared to reports in other mammals. Expressed as a percentage of the total number of granule cells, PCNA- and BrdU-positive cells accounted for 0.04 in young to 0.01% in adult animals; DCX-positive cells for 0.05 (young) to 0.01% (adult); PSA-NCAM-positive cells for 0.1 (young) to 0.02% (adult), and pyknotic cells for 0.007 (young) to 0.005% (adult). The numbers were comparable to other long-lived, late-maturing mammals such as primates. A significant increase in the total granule cell number from young to adult animals demonstrated the successful formation and integration of new cells. In adulthood, granule cell number appeared stable and was surprisingly low in comparison to other species. Observations in the olfactory bulb and rostral migratory stream were qualitatively similar to descriptions in other species. In the ventral horn of the lateral ventricle, we noted prominent expression of DCX and PSA-NCAM forming a temporal migratory stream targeting the piriform cortex, possibly reflecting the importance of olfaction to these species. Low, but persistent hippocampal neurogenesis in non-echolocating fruit bats contrasted the findings in echolocating microbats, in which hippocampal neurogenesis was largely absent. Together with the observed intense cortical plasticity in the olfactory system of fruit bats we suggest a

  17. Impaired Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Neurogenesis in Diet-Induced Premature Aging

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    Alexander J. Stankiewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic high caloric intake (HCI is a risk factor for multiple major human disorders, from diabetes to neurodegeneration. Mounting evidence suggests a significant contribution of circadian misalignment and sleep alterations to this phenomenon. An inverse temporal relationship between sleep, activity, food intake, and clock mechanisms in nocturnal and diurnal animals suggests that a search for effective therapeutic approaches can benefit from the use of diurnal animal models. Here, we show that, similar to normal aging, HCI leads to the reduction in daily amplitude of expression for core clock genes, a decline in sleep duration, an increase in scoliosis, and anxiety-like behavior. A remarkable decline in adult neurogenesis in 1-year old HCI animals, amounting to only 21% of that in age-matched Control, exceeds age-dependent decline observed in normal 3-year old zebrafish. This is associated with misalignment or reduced amplitude of daily patterns for principal cell cycle regulators, cyclins A and B, and p20, in brain tissue. Together, these data establish HCI in zebrafish as a model for metabolically induced premature aging of sleep, circadian functions, and adult neurogenesis, allowing for a high throughput approach to mechanistic studies and drug trials in a diurnal vertebrate.

  18. Conditional reduction of adult born doublecortin-positive neurons reversibly impairs selective behaviours

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    Lillian eGarrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB - and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM, results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months and middle (from 10 months aged mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the tamoxifen treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior.

  19. Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, M.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2012-01-01

    to the whole-brain irradiation that is part of standard management. Neurogenesis is very sensitive to radiation, and limiting the radiation dose to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) may preserve neurocognitive function. Radiotherapy plans were created using 4 techniques: standard opposing...... fields, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Mean dose to the hippocampus and SVZ (mean for both sites) could be limited to 88.3% (range, 83.6%-91.0%), 77.1% (range, 71.5%-81.3%), and 42.3% (range, 26......-modulated proton therapy, thus making this an attractive option to be tested in a prospective clinical trial....

  20. Aminopropyl carbazole analogues as potent enhancers of neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Jin; Kong, Sun-Young; Park, Min-Hye; Cho, Yongsung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Jae-Yeon; Jung, Sunghye; Lee, Jiyoun; Farhanullah; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jeewoo

    2013-11-15

    Neural stem cells are multipotent and self-renewing cells that can differentiate into new neurons and hold great promise for treating various neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Small molecules that can trigger neurogenesis and neuroprotection are particularly useful not only because of their therapeutic implications but also because they can provide an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis. In this report, we have developed and screened 25 aminopropyl carbazole derivatives that can enhance neurogenesis of cultured neural stem cells. Among these analogues, compound 9 demonstrated an excellent proneurogenic and neuroprotective activity with no apparent toxicity. We believe that compound 9 can serve as an excellent lead to develop various analogues and to study the underlying mechanisms of neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc and Neurogenesis: Making New Neurons from Development to Adulthood12

    OpenAIRE

    Levenson, Cathy W.; Morris, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, cell survival, and migration in the central nervous system are all important steps in the normal process of neurogenesis. These mechanisms are highly active during gestational and early neonatal brain development. Additionally, in select regions of the brain, stem cells give rise to new neurons throughout the human lifespan. Recent work has revealed key roles for the essential trace element zinc in the control of both developmental and adult ...

  2. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Brand, Michael

    2013-03-01

    At birth or after hatching from the egg, vertebrate brains still contain neural stem cells which reside in specialized niches. In some cases, these stem cells are deployed for further postnatal development of parts of the brain until the final structure is reached. In other cases, postnatal neurogenesis continues as constitutive neurogenesis into adulthood leading to a net increase of the number of neurons with age. Yet, in other cases, stem cells fuel neuronal turnover. An example is protracted development of the cerebellar granular layer in mammals and birds, where neurogenesis continues for a few weeks postnatally until the granular layer has reached its definitive size and stem cells are used up. Cerebellar growth also provides an example of continued neurogenesis during adulthood in teleosts. Again, it is the granular layer that grows as neurogenesis continues and no definite adult cerebellar size is reached. Neuronal turnover is most clearly seen in the telencephalon of male canaries, where projection neurons are replaced in nucleus high vocal centre each year before the start of a new mating season--circuitry reconstruction to achieve changes of the song repertoire in these birds? In this review, we describe these and other examples of adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate taxa. We also compare the structure of the stem cell niches to find common themes in their organization despite different functions adult neurogenesis serves in different species. Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

  3. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  4. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Florence; Sultan, Sébastien; Sacquet, Joëlle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2010-08-13

    It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days), but not a massed (within day), learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  5. TLX: A master regulator for neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed M; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-02-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor TLX, also known as NR2E1, is an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal, maintenance, and neurogenesis. In vertebrates, TLX is specifically localized to the neurogenic regions of the forebrain and retina throughout development and adulthood. TLX regulates the expression of genes involved in multiple pathways, such as the cell cycle, DNA replication, and cell adhesion. These roles are primarily performed through the transcriptional repression or activation of downstream target genes. Emerging evidence suggests that the misregulation of TLX might play a role in the onset and progression of human neurological disorders making this factor an ideal therapeutic target. Here, we review the current understanding of TLX function, expression, regulation, and activity significant to NSC maintenance, adult neurogenesis, and brain plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed behavioral dysfunctions following exposure to ionising radiation: role of neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridas, Seenu; Kumar, Mayank; Manda, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Being a terminally differentiated organ, the brain has been considered to be a radioresistant one. Traditionally, delayed radiation-induced CNS damage was hypothesized as chiefly attributable to impaired vascular endothelial system and neuroinflammatory glial cell populations. In the recent decades, preclinical studies have focused on the hippocampal dentate gyrus, one of two discrete sites of the brain where adult neurogenesis takes place. Neurogenesis, in such area of the brain takes place throughout the adulthood and makes the brain highly vulnerable to the radiation. Recent investigations, including our own reports indicated that radiation ablates hippocampal neurogenesis, alters neuronal function, and induces neuroinflammation. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory, behavioral adaptation and HPA axis regulation, damage by radiation leads to severe behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study aimed at evaluating the delayed effects of gamma-irradiation on the cognitive and affective functions, which were further corroborated to changes in neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to whole body irradiation as well as cranial irradiation by gamma-rays at different sub-lethal doses. The behavioral tests, consisting spontaneous motor activity, open field test, novel object recognition test, forced swim test and Morris water maze were performed at 1 month and 5 months post-exposure. Neurogenic potential was evaluated using flow-cytometry (FC) and immuno-histo-chemistry (IHC). The results indicated the significant changes in the affective and cognitive functions at delayed time points of radiation exposure. Profound alteration in the anxiety and depressive phenotype was observed following irradiation. Additionally, both long term and short term memory functions were disrupted, which were attributable to changes in the neurogenic potential as reported in the terms of BrdU positive cells using FC and IHC. Present investigation clearly

  7. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

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    Shanu eGeorge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

  8. RNA-seq of the aging brain in the short-lived fish N. furzeri - conserved pathways and novel genes associated with neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Priebe, Steffen; Savino, Aurora; Testa, Giovanna; Dix, Andreas; Ripa, Roberto; Spallotta, Francesco; Gaetano, Carlo; Ori, Michela; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Guthke, Reinhard; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    The brains of teleost fish show extensive adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. The patterns of gene regulation during fish brain aging are unknown. The short-lived teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows markers of brain aging including reduced learning performances, gliosis, and reduced adult neurogenesis. We used RNA-seq to quantify genome-wide transcript regulation and sampled five different time points to characterize whole-genome transcript regulation during brain aging of N. furzeri. Comparison with human datasets revealed conserved up-regulation of ribosome, lysosome, and complement activation and conserved down-regulation of synapse, mitochondrion, proteasome, and spliceosome. Down-regulated genes differ in their temporal profiles: neurogenesis and extracellular matrix genes showed rapid decay, synaptic and axonal genes a progressive decay. A substantial proportion of differentially expressed genes (~40%) showed inversion of their temporal profiles in the last time point: spliceosome and proteasome showed initial down-regulation and stress-response genes initial up-regulation. Extensive regulation was detected for chromatin remodelers of the DNMT and CBX families as well as members of the polycomb complex and was mirrored by an up-regulation of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark. Network analysis showed extensive coregulation of cell cycle/DNA synthesis genes with the uncharacterized zinc-finger protein ZNF367 as central hub. In situ hybridization showed that ZNF367 is expressed in neuronal stem cell niches of both embryonic zebrafish and adult N. furzeri. Other genes down-regulated with age, not previously associated with adult neurogenesis and with similar patterns of expression are AGR2, DNMT3A, KRCP, MEX3A, SCML4, and CBX1. CBX7, on the other hand, was up-regulated with age. © 2014 The Authors. Aging cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

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    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  10. Exosomes as novel regulators of adult neurogenic niches

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    Luis Federico Batiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles. SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate rostrally into the olfactory bulb. The process of adult neurogenesis persists throughout life and is supported by a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs, which reside in a unique and specialized microenvironment known as neurogenic niche. Neurogenic niches are structured by a complex organization of different cell types, including the NSC-neuron lineage, glial cells and vascular cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication plays a key role in the dynamic modulation of homeostasis and plasticity of the adult neurogenic process. Specific cell-cell contacts and extracellular signals originated locally provide the necessary support and regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Furthermore, extracellular signals originated at distant locations, including other brain regions or systemic organs, may reach the niche through the cerebrospinal fluid or the vasculature and influence its nature. The role of several secreted molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, in the biology of adult NSCs, has been systematically addressed. Interestingly, in addition to these well-recognized signals, a novel type of intercellular messengers has been identified recently: the extracellular vesicles (EVs. EVs, and particularly exosomes, are implicated in the transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, proteins and lipids between cells and thus are able to modify the function of recipient cells. Exosomes appear to play a significant role in different stem cell niches such as the mesenchymal stem cell niche, cancer stem cell niche and pre-metastatic niche; however, their roles in adult

  11. Modulation of Hippocampal Neural Plasticity by Glucose-Related Signaling

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    Marco Mainardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones and peptides involved in glucose homeostasis are emerging as important modulators of neural plasticity. In this regard, increasing evidence shows that molecules such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin impact on the function of the hippocampus, which is a key area for learning and memory. Indeed, all these factors affect fundamental hippocampal properties including synaptic plasticity (i.e., synapse potentiation and depression, structural plasticity (i.e., dynamics of dendritic spines, and adult neurogenesis, thus leading to modifications in cognitive performance. Here, we review the main mechanisms underlying the effects of glucose metabolism on hippocampal physiology. In particular, we discuss the role of these signals in the modulation of cognitive functions and their potential implications in dysmetabolism-related cognitive decline.

  12. Neurotoxic effect of 2,5-hexanedione on neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee Ra; Park, Mikyung; Kim, So Jung; Kwon, Mugil; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kang, Tae Seok; Kim, Seung Hee; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD), a metabolite of n-hexane, causes central and peripheral neuropathy leading to motor neuron deficits. Although chronic exposure to n-hexane is known to cause gradual sensorimotor neuropathy, there are no reports on the effects of low doses of HD on neurogenesis in the central nervous system. In the current study, we explored HD toxicity in murine neural progenitor cells (NPC), primary neuronal culture and young adult mice. HD (500 nM∼50 μM) dose-dependently suppressed NPC proliferation and cell viability, and also increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). HD (10 or 50 mg/kg for 2 weeks) inhibited hippocampal neuronal and NPC proliferation in 6-week-old male ICR mice, as measured by BrdU incorporation in the dentate gyrus, indicating HD impaired hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, elevated microglial activation was observed in the hippocampal CA3 region and lateral ventricles of HD-treated mice. Lastly, HD dose-dependently decreased the viability of primary cultured neurons. Based on biochemical and histochemical evidence from both cell culture and HD-treated animals, the neurotoxic mechanisms by which HD inhibits NPC proliferation and hippocampal neurogenesis may relate to its ability to elicit an increased generation of deleterious ROS.

  13. Neuronal Subtype Generation During Postnatal Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Alexandra; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Cremer, Harold; Beclin, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production. High-resolution gene expression analyses of different lineages revealed that the zinc finger proteins, Zic1 and Zic2, are postnatally induced in the dorsal olfactory bulb neuron lineage. Functional studies demonstrated that these factors confer a GABAergic and calretinin-positive phenotype to neural stem cells while repressing dopaminergic fate. Based on these findings, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that allow acquisition of new traits during the transition from embryonic to adult neurogenesis. We focus on the involvement of epigenetic marks and emphasize why the identification of master transcription factors, that instruct the fate of postnatally generated neurons, can help in deciphering the mechanisms driving fate transition from embryonic to adult neuron production.

  14. Neuronal Subtype Generation During Postnatal Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis

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    Alexandra Angelova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production. High-resolution gene expression analyses of different lineages revealed that the zinc finger proteins, Zic1 and Zic2, are postnatally induced in the dorsal olfactory bulb neuron lineage. Functional studies demonstrated that these factors confer a GABAergic and calretinin-positive phenotype to neural stem cells while repressing dopaminergic fate. Based on these findings, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that allow acquisition of new traits during the transition from embryonic to adult neurogenesis. We focus on the involvement of epigenetic marks and emphasize why the identification of master transcription factors, that instruct the fate of postnatally generated neurons, can help in deciphering the mechanisms driving fate transition from embryonic to adult neuron production.

  15. Early-Life Stress Does Not Aggravate Spatial Memory or the Process of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult and Middle-Aged APP/PS1 Mice

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    Lianne Hoeijmakers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Life-time experiences are thought to influence the risk to develop the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In particular, early-life stress (ES may modulate the onset and progression of AD. There is recent evidence by our group and others that AD-related neuropathological progression and the associated neuroimmune responses are modulated by ES in the classic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for AD. We here extend our previous study on ES mediated modulation of neuropathology and neuroinflammation and address in the same cohort of mice whether ES accelerates and/or aggravates AD-induced cognitive decline and alterations in the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN, a form of brain plasticity. Chronic ES was induced by limiting bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal week and is known to induce cognitive deficits by 4 months in wild type (WT mice. The onset of cognitive decline in APP/PS1 mice generally starts around 6 months of age. We here tested mice at ages 2–4 months to study acceleration and at ages 8–10 months for aggravation of the APP/PS1 phenotype. ES-exposed WT and APP/PS1 mice were able to perform the object recognition (ORT and location tasks (OLT at 2 months of age. Interestingly, at 3 months, ES induced impairments in the performance of the OLT in WT, but not in APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice exhibited alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation, but ES exposure did not further change this. At 9 months, APP/PS1 mice exhibited impaired performance in the Morris Water Maze (MWM task, as well as reductions in markers of the AHN process, which were not further modulated by ES exposure. In addition, we observed a so far unreported hyperactivity in ES-exposed mice at 8 months of age, which hampered assessment of cognitive functions in the ORT and OLT. In conclusion, while ES has been reported to modulate AD neuropathology and neuroinflammation before, it failed to accelerate or

  16. Temporal dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Stefano; Vargas-Caballero, Mariana; Fransen, Nina L.; Al-Malki, Hussain; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Perry, V. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The study of neurogenesis during chronic neurodegeneration is crucial in order to understand the intrinsic repair mechanisms of the brain, and key to designing therapeutic strategies. In this study, using an experimental model of progressive chronic neurodegeneration, murine prion disease, we define the temporal dynamics of the generation, maturation and integration of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, using dual pulse-chase, multicolour γ-retroviral tracing, transmission electron microscopy and patch-clamp. We found increased neurogenesis during the progression of prion disease, which partially counteracts the effects of chronic neurodegeneration, as evidenced by blocking neurogenesis with cytosine arabinoside, and helps to preserve the hippocampal function. Evidence obtained from human post-mortem samples, of both variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer’s disease patients, also suggests increased neurogenic activity. These results open a new avenue into the exploration of the effects and regulation of neurogenesis during chronic neurodegeneration, and offer a new model to reproduce the changes observed in human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24941947

  17. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

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    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  18. The interplay between the hippocampus and the amygdala in regulating aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis during protracted abstinence from alcohol dependence

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    Chitra D Mandyam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of alcohol dependence involves elevated anxiety, low mood, and increased sensitivity to stress, collectively labeled negative affect. Particularly interesting is the recent accumulating evidence that sensitized extrahypothalamic stress systems (e.g., hyperglutamatergic activity, blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] hormonal levels, altered corticotropin-releasing factor signaling, and altered glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the extended amygdala are evident in withdrawn dependent rats, supporting the hypothesis that pathological neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala contribute to the negative affective state. Notably, hippocampal neurotoxicity observed as aberrant dentate gyrus (DG neurogenesis (neurogenesis is a process where neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone generate DG granule cell neurons and DG neurodegeneration are observed in withdrawn dependent rats. These correlations between withdrawal and aberrant neurogenesis in dependent rats suggest that alterations in the DG could be hypothesized to be due to compromised HPA axis activity and associated hyperglutamatergic activity originating from the basolateral amygdala in withdrawn dependent rats. This review discusses a possible link between the neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala stress systems and the resulting pathological plasticity that could facilitate recruitment of new emotional memory circuits in the hippocampus as a function of aberrant DG neurogenesis.

  19. Effects of Strain and Species on the Septo-Temporal Distribution of Adult Neurogenesis in Rodents

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    Franziska Wiget

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional septo-temporal (dorso-ventral differentiation of the hippocampus is accompanied by gradients of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN in laboratory rodents. An extensive septal AHN in laboratory mice suggests an emphasis on a relation of AHN to tasks that also depend on the septal hippocampus. Domestication experiments indicate that AHN dynamics along the longitudinal axis are subject to selective pressure, questioning if the septal emphasis of AHN in laboratory mice is a rule applying to rodents in general. In this study, we used C57BL/6 and DBA2/Crl mice, wild-derived F1 house mice and wild-captured wood mice and bank voles to look for evidence of strain and species specific septo-temporal differences in AHN. We confirmed the septal > temporal gradient in C57BL/6 mice, but in the wild species, AHN was low septally and high temporally. Emphasis on the temporal hippocampus was particularly strong for doublecortin positive (DCX+ young neurons and more pronounced in bank voles than in wood mice. The temporal shift was stronger in female wood mice than in males, while we did not see sex differences in bank voles. AHN was overall low in DBA and F1 house mice, but they exhibited the same inversed gradient as wood mice and bank voles. DCX+ young neurons were usually confined to the subgranular zone and deep granule cell layer. This pattern was seen in all animals in the septal and intermediate dentate gyrus. In bank voles and wood mice however, the majority of temporal DCX+ cells were radially dispersed throughout the granule cell layer. Some but not all of the septo-temporal differences were accompanied by changes in the DCX+/Ki67+ cell ratios, suggesting that new neuron numbers can be regulated by both proliferation or the time course of maturation and survival of young neurons. Some of the septo-temporal differences we observe have also been found in laboratory rodents after the experimental manipulation of the molecular mechanisms

  20. Adolescent but not adult-born neurons are critical for susceptibility to chronic social defeat

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    Greer S Kirshenbaum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs across the lifespan, however the rate of cell birth is up to 300% higher in adolescent mice compared to adults. Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. Therefore neurogenesis occurring during adolescence may be particularly important for emotional behavior. However, little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons born during adolescence. In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior, we transiently reduced cell proliferation either during adolescence, or during adulthood in GFAP-Tk mice. We found that the intervention in adolescence did not change baseline behavioral responses in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test or social affiliation test, and did not change corticosterone responses to an acute stressor. However following chronic social defeat, adult mice with reduced adolescent neurogenesis showed a resilient phenotype. A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. Our study demonstrates that hippocampal neurons born during adolescence, but not in adulthood are important to confer susceptibility to chronic social defeat.

  1. Specific radiosensitivy and postnatal neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, Gerard.

    1982-09-01

    Adult and young rabbits were delivered a gamma exposure of 4.5 Gy. A light and electron microscope cytological investigation of the hippocampal region in the early hours following the exposure showed the particular radiosensitivity of the dentate gyrus which was demonstrated by: 1) pycnotic cells to be found at the basis of the granular cell layer (subgranular zone) exclusively; 2) a more discrete injury of the granular layer where most nuclei showed a lighter chromatin appearing as ''light spots''. Both radioinduced injuries are described, especially their kinetics, importance, and the effects of dose and age of the animal. The presence of pycnotic cells in the subgranular zone was related to the late postnatal neurogenesis occurring in this zone. The pattern and chronology of this late postnatal neurogenesis was investigated by autoradiography following 3 H thymidine injection. Finally, two series of investigations combining autoradiography and irradiation brought further data on the radiosensitivity and radioresistance of the dental gyrus cells and demonstrated the recovery capacity of the subgranular zone [fr

  2. Tet2 Rescues Age-Related Regenerative Decline and Enhances Cognitive Function in the Adult Mouse Brain

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    Geraldine Gontier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoring adult stem cell function provides an exciting approach for rejuvenating the aging brain. However, molecular mechanisms mediating neurogenic rejuvenation remain elusive. Here we report that the enzyme ten eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2, which catalyzes the production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, rescues age-related decline in adult neurogenesis and enhances cognition in mice. We detected a decrease in Tet2 expression and 5hmC levels in the aged hippocampus associated with adult neurogenesis. Mimicking an aged condition in young adults by abrogating Tet2 expression within the hippocampal neurogenic niche, or adult neural stem cells, decreased neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. In a heterochronic parabiosis rejuvenation model, hippocampal Tet2 expression was restored. Overexpressing Tet2 in the hippocampal neurogenic niche of mature adults increased 5hmC associated with neurogenic processes, offset the precipitous age-related decline in neurogenesis, and enhanced learning and memory. Our data identify Tet2 as a key molecular mediator of neurogenic rejuvenation.

  3. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

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    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  4. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  5. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

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    Yuping Luo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs. We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  6. Effects of Neurotrophic Support and Amyloid-Targeted Combined Therapy on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Christopher D Morrone

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that multi-drug therapies may be necessary to combat AD, there is a paucity of preclinical proof of concept studies. We present a combination treatment paradigm, which temporally affects different aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD-like pathology, specifically Aβ-toxicity and neurogenesis. At early stages of AD-like pathology, in TgCRND8 mice, we found that combating Aβ pathology with scyllo-inositol ameliorated deficits in neurogenesis. Older TgCRND8 mice with established amyloid load had decreased progenitor cell proliferation and survival compared to non-transgenic mice, regardless of scyllo-inositol treatment. The prolonged exposure to Aβ-pathology leads to deficits in the neurogenic niche, thus targeting Aβ alone is insufficient to rescue neurogenesis. To support the neurogenic niche, we combined scyllo-inositol treatment with leteprinim potassium (neotrofin, the latter of which stimulates neurotrophin expression. We show that the combination treatment of scyllo-inositol and neotrofin enhances neuronal survival and differentiation. We propose this proof of concept combination therapy of targeting Aβ-pathology and neurotrophin deficits as a potential treatment for AD.

  7. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

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    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  8. Oxygen, a key factor regulating cell behaviour during neurogenesis and cerebral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan eZhang; Lingling eZhu; Ming eFan

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is vital to maintain the normal functions of alomost all the organs, especially for brain which is one of the heaviest oxygen consumers in the body. The important roles of oxygen on the brain are not only reflected in the development, but also showed in the pathological processes of many cerebral diseases. In the current review, we summarized the oxygen levels in brain tissues tested by real-time measurements during the embryonic and adult neurogenesis, the cerebral diseases or in the ...

  9. Therapeutic Intervention of Learning and Memory Decays by Salidroside Stimulation of Neurogenesis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huijuan; Pei, Lei; Shu, Xiaogang; Yang, Xin; Yan, Tianhua; Wu, Yan; Wei, Na; Yan, Honglin; Wang, Shan; Yao, Chengye; Liu, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Lin; Lu, Youming

    2016-03-01

    Cognition in all mammals including human beings declines during aging. The cellular events responsible for this decay involve a reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Here, we show that treatment with a nature product from a traditional Chinese medicine, namely salidroside restores the capacity of the dentate gyrus to generate new neurons and intercepts learning and memory decays in mice during aging. We uncover that new neurons in aging mice have functional features of an adult granule neuron by forming excitatory synapses with their putative targeting neurons. Genetic inhibition of synaptic transmission from new neurons abolishes the therapeutic effects of salidroside in behavioral tests. We also identify that salidroside targets CREB transcription for the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of old mice. Thus, salidroside is therapeutically effective against learning and memory decays via stimulation of CREB-dependent functional neurogenesis in aging.

  10. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  11. Running throughout middle-age improves memory function, hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels in female C57Bl/6J mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Potter, M.C.; Lucassen, P.J.; van Praag, H.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related memory loss is considered to commence at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin levels. Consistent physical activity at midlife may preserve brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, new cell genesis and learning. In the present

  12. Microglia and their CX3CR1 signaling are involved in hippocampal- but not olfactory bulb-related memory and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ronen; Kreisel, Tirzah; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Yirmiya, Raz

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that microglia play an important role in cognitive and neuroplasticity processes, at least partly via microglial CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling. Furthermore, microglia are responsive to environmental enrichment (EE), which modulates learning, memory and neurogenesis. In the present study we examined the role of microglial CX3CR1 signaling in hippocampal- and olfactory-bulb (OB)-related memory and neurogenesis in homozygous mice with microglia-specific transgenic expression of GFP under the CX3CR1 promoter (CX3CR1(-/-) mice), in which the CX3CR1 gene is functionally deleted, as well as heterozygous CX3CR1(+/-) and WT controls. We report that the CX3CR1-deficient mice displayed better hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and olfactory recognition, along with increased number and soma size of hippocampal microglia, suggestive of mild activation status, but no changes in OB microglia. A similar increase in hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and microglia number was also induced by pharmacological inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling, using chronic (2weeks) i.c.v. administration of CX3CR1 blocking antibody. In control mice, EE improved hippocampal-dependent memory and neurogenesis, and increased hippocampal microglia number and soma size, whereas odor enrichment (OE) improved olfactory recognition and OB neurogenesis without changing OB microglia status. In CX3CR1-deficient mice, EE and OE did not produce any further improvement in memory functioning or neurogenesis and had no effect on microglial status. These results support the notion that in the hippocampus microglia and their interactions with neurons via the CX3CR1 play an important role in memory functioning and neurogenesis, whereas in the OB microglia do not seem to be involved in these processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of neural stem cell niches and neurogenic complexes maintaining adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D

    2011-08-15

    New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a "neurogenic complex." Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast's microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The role of genes involved in neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the observation of a gene-environment interaction (GxE) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease characterized by a high heritability. Several candidate genes have been suggested, with the strongest evidences for genes encoding dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), neuregulin 1 receptor (ERBB4) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), as well as several neurotrophic factors. These genes are involved in neuronal plasticity and play also a role in adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the genetic basis of schizophrenia could involve different factors more or less specifically required for neuroplasticity, including the synapse maturation, potentiation and plasticity as well as neurogenesis. Following the model of Knudson in tumors, we propose a two-hit hypothesis of schizophrenia. In this model of gene-environment interaction, a variant in a gene related to neurogenesis is transmitted to the descent (first hit), and, secondarily, an environmental factor occurs during the development of the central nervous system (second hit). Both of these vulnerability and trigger factors are probably necessary to generate a deficit in neurogenesis and therefore to cause schizophrenia. The literature supporting this gene x environment hypothesis is reviewed, with emphasis on some molecular pathways, raising the possibility to propose more specific molecular medicine.

  15. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1 at the crossroads of diverse pathways during adult neural fate specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eStergiopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, adult neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a fundamental process underlying physiology and disease. Recent evidence indicates that the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is a critical intrinsic regulator of neurogenesis in the embryonic CNS and adult dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, acting in multiple ways and instructed by extrinsic cues and intrinsic factors. In the embryonic CNS, Prox1 is mechanistically involved in the regulation of proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs, promoting cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation, while inhibits astrogliogenesis. During the complex differentiation events in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, Prox1 is required for maintenance of intermediate progenitors (IPs, differentiation and maturation of glutamatergic interneurons, as well as specification of DG cell identity over CA3 pyramidal fate. The mechanism by which Prox1 exerts multiple functions involves distinct signaling pathways currently not fully highlighted. In this mini-review, we thoroughly discuss the Prox1-dependent phenotypes and molecular pathways in adult neurogenesis in relation to different upstream signaling cues and cell fate determinants. In addition, we discuss the possibility that Prox1 may act as a cross-talk point between diverse signaling cascades to achieve specific outcomes during adult neurogenesis.

  16. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)–CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal–cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  18. Gamma radiation-induced Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis, comparison of single and fractionated dose regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshbin khoshnazar, A. R; Jahanshahi, M; Azami, N. S

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy of the brain is associated with many consequences, including cognitive disorders. Pathogenesis of radiation induced cognitive disorder is not clear, but reduction of neurogenesis in hippocampus may be an underlying reason. 24 adult male rats entered to study. Radiation absorbed dose to midbrain was 10 Gy, delivered by routine cobalt radiotherapy machine which its output was measured 115.24 cGy/min. The rats were divided in four groups of sixes, including groups of control, single fraction 10 Gy, fractionated 10 Gy and finally anaesthesia sham group. Number of pyramidal nerve cells was counted in two regions of hippocampus formation (CA1 and CA3). The radiation could reduce the number of cells in two regions of hippocampus significantly (p=0.000). It seems fractionated 10 Gy irradiation to more efficient than single fraction, while role of anaesthesia drug should be cautiously assessed. Moreover the rate of neurogenesis reduction was determined the same in these regions of hippocampus meaning the same radiosensitivity of cells

  19. Fast neutron irradiation deteriorates hippocampus-related memory ability in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Hwanseong; Kim, Juhwan; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Joong-Sun; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2012-03-01

    Object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cranial fast neutron irradiation (0.8 Gy) were examined to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following acute exposure to relatively low doses of fast neutrons. In addition, hippocampal neurogenesis changes in adult murine brain after cranial irradiation were analyzed using the neurogenesis immunohistochemical markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In the object recognition memory test and contextual fear conditioning, mice trained 1 and 7 days after irradiation displayed significant memory deficits compared to the sham-irradiated controls. The number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells decreased significantly 24 h post-irradiation. These results indicate that acute exposure of the adult mouse brain to a relatively low dose of fast neutrons interrupts hippocampal functions, including learning and memory, possibly by inhibiting neurogenesis.

  20. Noncanonical Adult Human Neurogenesis and Axonal Growth as Possible Structural Basis of Recovery From Traumatic Vegetative State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vainshenker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient recovering from traumatic vegetative state has suddenly died from cardiac arrest. In-life improvement of consciousness appeared after reduction of generalized spasticity due to botulinum toxin administration. Neuropathologic examination revealed Musashi1+, Nestin+, PCNA+, and Ki67+ cells in the hippocampus, frontal, parietal and occipital cortex, caudate, thalamus, mammillary bodies, brainstem, cerebellum, and near the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle. New neurons with neurite growth (TUC4+ appeared in corpus callosum. At the same time, axonal growth was detected in all areas of interest. New cells whose functional state was continuously improving, as revealed by in-life neurologic and positron emission tomography monitoring, have mainly been found in brain areas without neuropathologic signs of damage. We suggest that the possible role of neurogenesis consists in improvement of the microenvironment and interneuron interactions, whereas the activation of neurogenesis and the induction of neurite growth may be associated with reduction of spasticity.

  1. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-04-22

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).

  2. Spreading depression and focal venous cerebral ischemia enhance cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or “enriched environment” as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham, induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO. As an additional control, 15 naïve rats received no intervention except 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU treatment for 7 days. Sagittal brain slices (40 μm thick were co-stained for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX; new immature neuronal cells on day 9 or NeuN (new mature neuronal cells on day 28. On day 9 after sham operation, cell proliferation and neurogenesis occurred in the cortex in rats. The sole induction of CSD had no effect. But on days 9 and 28, more proliferating cells and newly formed neurons in the ipsilateral cortex were observed in rats subjected to CSD + 2VO than in rats subjected to sham operation. On days 9 and 28, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus was increased in sham-operated rats than in naïve rats. Our data supports the hypothesis that induced cortical neurogenesis after CSD + 2-VO is a direct effect of ischemia, rather than of CSD alone.

  3. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  4. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 + apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB + interneurons, although the number of reelin + interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of cholinergic

  5. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  6. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates amygdalar neurogenesis and extinction of fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chi; Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Gean, Po-Wu

    2015-10-01

    It is now recognized that neurogenesis occurs throughout life predominantly in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between neurogenesis in the amygdala and extinction of fear memory. Mice received 15 tone-footshock pairings. Twenty-four hours after training, the mice were given 15 tone-alone trials (extinction training) once per day for 7 days. Two hours before extinction training, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-3-deoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-positive and NeuN-positive cells were analyzed 52 days after the training. A group of mice that received tone-footshock pairings but no extinction training served as controls (FC+No-Ext). The number of BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells was significantly higher in the extinction (FC+Ext) than in the FC+No-Ext mice. Proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) or DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) reduced neurogenesis and retarded extinction. Silencing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene with short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) by means of a retrovirus expression system to knockdown Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons reduced neurogenesis and retarded extinction. By contrast, over-expression of Shh increased neurogenesis and facilitated extinction. These results suggest that amygdala neurogenesis and Shh signaling are involved in the extinction of fear memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Scopolamine and Melatonin Cotreatment on Cognition, Neuronal Damage, and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kang, Il Jun; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hong, Seongkweon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Young Joo

    2018-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that melatonin plays important roles in memory improvement and promotes neurogenesis in experimental animals. We examined effects of melatonin on cognitive deficits, neuronal damage, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and neuronal maturation in the mouse dentate gyrus after cotreatment of scopolamine (anticholinergic agent) and melatonin. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 and/or 4 weeks to 8-week-old mice. Scopolamine treatment induced significant cognitive deficits 2 and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, however, cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly improved spatial learning and short-term memory impairments. Two and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, neurons were not damaged/dead in the dentate gyrus, in addition, no neuronal damage/death was shown after cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin. Ki67 (a marker for cell proliferation)- and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast differentiation)-positive cells were significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus 2 and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, however, cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly increased Ki67- and doublecortin-positive cells compared with scopolamine-treated group. However, double immunofluorescence for NeuN/BrdU, which indicates newly-generated mature neurons, did not show double-labeled cells (adult neurogenesis) in the dentate gyrus 2 and 4 weeks after cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin. Our results suggest that melatonin treatment recovers scopolamine-induced spatial learning and short-term memory impairments and restores or increases scopolamine-induced decrease of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, but does not lead to adult neurogenesis (maturation of neurons) in the mouse dentate gyrus following scopolamine treatment.

  8. Long-lasting memory deficits in mice withdrawn from cocaine are concomitant with neuroadaptations in hippocampal basal activity, GABAergic interneurons and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction disorder is notably aggravated by concomitant cognitive and emotional pathology that impedes recovery. We studied whether a persistent cognitive/emotional dysregulation in mice withdrawn from cocaine holds a neurobiological correlate within the hippocampus, a limbic region with a key role in anxiety and memory but that has been scarcely investigated in cocaine addiction research. Mice were submitted to a chronic cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 12 days or vehicle treatment followed by 44 drug-free days. Some mice were then assessed on a battery of emotional (elevated plus-maze, light/dark box, open field, forced swimming and cognitive (object and place recognition memory, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, continuous spontaneous alternation behavioral tests, while other mice remained in their home cage. Relevant hippocampal features [basal c-Fos activity, GABA+, parvalbumin (PV+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY+ interneurons and adult neurogenesis (cell proliferation and immature neurons] were immunohistochemically assessed 73 days after the chronic cocaine or vehicle protocol. The cocaine-withdrawn mice showed no remarkable exploratory or emotional alterations but were consistently impaired in all the cognitive tasks. All the cocaine-withdrawn groups, independent of whether they were submitted to behavioral assessment or not, showed enhanced basal c-Fos expression and an increased number of GABA+ cells in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, the cocaine-withdrawn mice previously submitted to behavioral training displayed a blunted experience-dependent regulation of PV+ and NPY+ neurons in the dentate gyrus, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Results highlight the importance of hippocampal neuroplasticity for the ingrained cognitive deficits present during chronic cocaine withdrawal.

  9. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R.; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  10. Current Opinion on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Ischemic Stroke; Considering Neuronal Voiding Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hoon Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports.

  11. Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelle, Carla; Polese, Gianluca; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization. It is considered the most "intelligent" invertebrate for its advanced cognitive capabilities, as learning and memory, and its sophisticated behaviors. The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration. Furthermore, we showed how enriched environmental conditions affect adult neurogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

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    Dae Young Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3 plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX, we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  13. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb induced by paced mating in the female rat is opioid dependent.

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    Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo

    Full Text Available The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NX could reduce the increase in neurogenesis in the AOB induced by paced mating. Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided in 5 different groups: 1 Control (not mated treated with saline, 2 control (not mated treated with naloxone, 3 females that mated without controlling the sexual interaction (no-pacing, 4 females injected with saline before pacing the sexual interaction and 5 females injected with NX before a paced mating session. We found, as previously described, that paced mating induced a higher number of new cells in the granular layer of the AOB. The administration of NX before paced mating, blocked the increase in the number of newborn cells and prevented these cells from differentiating into neurons. These data suggest that opioid peptides play a fundamental role in the neurogenesis induced by paced mating in female rats.

  14. Adult neural stem cells: The promise of the future

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    Philippe Taupin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe TaupinNational Neuroscience Institute, National University of SingaporeAbstract: Stem cells are self-renewing undifferentiated cells that give rise to multiple types of specialized cells of the body. In the adult, stem cells are multipotents and contribute to homeostasis of the tissues and regeneration after injury. Until recently, it was believed that the adult brain was devoid of stem cells, hence unable to make new neurons and regenerate. With the recent evidences that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS, the adult brain has the potential to regenerate and may be amenable to repair. The function(s of NSCs in the adult CNS remains the source of intense research and debates. The promise of the future of adult NSCs is to redefine the functioning and physiopathology of the CNS, as well as to treat a broad range of CNS diseases and injuries.Keywords: neurogenesis, transdifferentiation, plasticity, cellular therapy

  15. Studies of HVC Plasticity in Adult Canaries Reveal Social Effects and Sex Differences as Well as Limitations of Multiple Markers Available to Assess Adult Neurogenesis.

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    Olesya T Shevchouk

    Full Text Available In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M, with a female (M-F or with another male (M-M while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M. All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX, which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.

  16. Studies of HVC Plasticity in Adult Canaries Reveal Social Effects and Sex Differences as Well as Limitations of Multiple Markers Available to Assess Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchouk, Olesya T; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M), with a female (M-F) or with another male (M-M) while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M). All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX), which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.

  17. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hao; D, Dhananjaya; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  19. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  20. A developmental sex difference in hippocampal neurogenesis is mediated by endogenous oestradiol

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    Bowers J Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oestradiol is a steroid hormone that exerts extensive influence on brain development and is a powerful modulator of hippocampal structure and function. The hippocampus is a critical brain region regulating complex cognitive and emotional responses and is implicated in the aetiology of several mental health disorders, many of which exhibit some degree of sex difference. Many sex differences in the adult rat brain are determined by oestradiol action during a sensitive period of development. We had previously reported a sex difference in rates of cell genesis in the developing hippocampus of the laboratory rat. Males generate more new cells on average than females. The current study explored the effects of both exogenous and endogenous oestradiol on this sex difference. Methods New born male and female rat pups were injected with the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and oestradiol or agents that antagonize oestradiol action. The effects on cell number, proliferation, differentiation and survival were assessed at several time points. Significant differences between groups were determined by two- or thee-Way ANOVA. Results Newborn males had higher rates of cell proliferation than females. Oestradiol treatment increased cell proliferation in neonatal females, but not males, and in the CA1 region many of these cells differentiated into neurons. The increased rate of proliferation induced by neonatal oestradiol persisted until at least 3 weeks of age, suggesting an organizational effect. Administering the aromatase inhibitor, formestane, or the oestrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, significantly decreased the number of new cells in males but not females. Conclusion Endogenous oestradiol increased the rate of cell proliferation observed in newborn males compared to females. This sex difference in neonatal neurogenesis may have implications for adult differences in learning strategy, stress responsivity or vulnerability

  1. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation

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    Gabriela López-Armas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1 control, (2 REMSD, (3 melatonin (10 mg/kg plus REMSD, (4 melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg plus REMSD, and (5 luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P<0.021. The melatonin-treated REMSD group also showed the highest expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD.

  2. Epigenetic control of hippocampal stem cells: modulation by hyperactivation, glucocorticoids and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.

    2015-01-01

    The adult brain has the ability to structurally and functionally adapt to changes in its environment. Examples of these adaptations are the addition of new neurons to neurogenic regions such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus, termed adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and alterations in neuronal

  3. Mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of neurogenesis: From development to the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacho, Mireille; Slack, Ruth S

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions. In this review, we will highlight the recent findings that illustrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in neurodevelopment and neural stem cell function. Developmental Dynamics 247:47-53, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurogênese e depressão: etiologia ou nova ilusão? Neurogenesis and depression: etiology or new ilusion?

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    Fulvio Alexandre Scorza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos neurônios continuam sendo gerados no cérebro adulto de diversas espécies animais. Muitos estudos têm demonstrado que diversos fatores ambientais, inclusive o estresse, influenciam a proliferação de células hipocampais. Nesse sentido, a diminuição da neurogênese induzida pelo estresse parece ser um importante fator na etiologia da depressão. Nessa revisão, a relação entre neurogênese e depressão é enfatizada.New hippocampal neurons are continuously generated in the adult brain of several animal species. Several studies have demonstrated that a variety of enviromental factors, including stress, influence the proliferation of hippocampal cells. Thus, stress induced decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis seem to be an important factor in the etiology of depression. In this review the relationship between neurogenesis and depression has been emphasized.

  6. Neurogenesis in the brain stem of the rabbit: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblinger, M.M.; Das, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of ( 3 H)-thymidine autoradiography, neurogenesis was documented in the nuclear groups of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mid-brain, as well as in the brain stem reticular formation of the rabbit. Following single injections of ( 3 H)-thymidine, counts were taken of intensely labeled neurons within the nuclei of the functional columns related to the cranial nerves, nuclei of several other functional classifications, and nuclei that did not fit into a functional category. In the brain stem as a whole, neurogenesis was found to occur between days 10.0 and 18.5 of gestation: however, the majority of nuclei studied contained intensely neurons only between days 12.0 and 15.0. Only in the pontine nucleus and the tectum were intensely labeled cells observed as late as day 18.5. Directional gradients of histogenesis were often observed within, as well as between, various nuclei. Within the nuclear columns related to the cranial nerves, a clear mediolateral spread of neurogenesis was observable such that nuclei of the motor columns reached a peak in neurogenesis before those in the sensory columns. Likewise, a mediolateral proliferation pattern was seen in the brain stem reticular formation. Other individual directional gradients were discernible; however, in the brain stem as a whole, distinct overall gradients were not observable. In many individual nuclei, gradients in neuron size were observed such that large neurons preferentially arose prior to smaller neurons. Information pertaining to gradients in neurogenesis, as well as to relationships among functionally related nuclei, are discussed

  7. Chronic Exposure to Uranium from Gestation: Effects on Behavior and Neurogenesis in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinocourt, Céline; Culeux, Cécile; Legrand, Marie; Elie, Christelle; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2017-05-17

    Uranium exposure leads to cerebral dysfunction involving for instance biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects. Most studies have focused on mechanisms in uranium-exposed adult animals. However, recent data on developing animals have shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to uranium. Models of uranium exposure during brain development highlight the need to improve our understanding of the effects of uranium. In a model in which uranium exposure began from the first day of gestation, we studied the neurobehavioral consequences as well as the progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in animals from dams exposed to uranium. Our results show that 2-month-old rats exposed to uranium from gestational day 1 displayed deficits in special memory and a prominent depressive-like phenotype. Cell proliferation was not disturbed in these animals, as shown by 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU)/neuronal specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunostaining in the dentate gyrus. However, in some animals, the pyramidal cell layer was dispersed in the CA3 region. From our previous results with the same model, the hypothesis of alterations of neurogenesis at prior stages of development is worth considering, but is probably not the only one. Therefore, further investigations are needed to correlate cerebral dysfunction and its underlying mechanistic pathways.

  8. Interleukin-1β: A New Regulator of the Kynurenine Pathway Affecting Human Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunszain, Patricia A; Anacker, Christoph; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Choudhury, Shanas; Musaelyan, Ksenia; Myint, Aye Mu; Thuret, Sandrine; Price, Jack; Pariante, Carmine M

    2012-01-01

    Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in the number of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts (−28%), and mature, microtubule-associated protein-2-positive neurons (−36%). Analysis of the enzymes that regulate the kynurenine pathway showed that IL-1β induced an upregulation of transcripts for indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (42-, 12- and 30-fold increase, respectively, under differentiating conditions), the enzymes involved in the neurotoxic arm of the kynurenine pathway. Moreover, treatment with IL-1β resulted in an increase in kynurenine, the catabolic product of IDO-induced tryptophan metabolism. Interestingly, co-treatment with the KMO inhibitor Ro 61-8048 reversed the detrimental effects of IL-1β on neurogenesis. These observations indicate that IL-1β has a critical role in regulating neurogenesis whereas affecting the availability of tryptophan and the production of enzymes conducive to toxic metabolites. Our results suggest that inhibition of the kynurenine pathway may provide a new therapy to revert inflammatory-induced reduction in neurogenesis. PMID:22071871

  9. Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Kim, Hak-Jin; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2007-05-18

    Caffeine is one of the most extensively consumed psychostimulants in the world. However, compared to short-term effects of caffeine, the long-term effects of caffeine consumption on learning and memory are poorly characterized. The present study found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine (0.3 g/L) slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory. Caffeine consumption for 4 weeks also significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis compared to controls. From these results, we concluded that long-term consumption of caffeine could inhibit hippocampus-dependent learning and memory partially through inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  10. Deletion of running-induced hippocampal neurogenesis by irradiation prevents development of an anxious phenotype in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fuss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety.

  11. Acupuncture for neurogenesis in experimental ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Zhong, Linda L D; Chen, Zi-xian; Li, Yan; Zheng, Guo-qing; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2016-01-20

    Acupuncture has been used for patients with stroke and post-stroke rehabilitation for thousands of years. Previous studies reported that acupuncture enhanced stroke recovery through neurogenesis. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for acupuncture effect on neurogenesis in treating ischaemic stroke. Studies were obtained from six databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP information database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Ultimately, 34 studies containing 1617 animals were identified. Neurogenesis markers of Brdu, Nestin, PSA-NCAM, NeuN and GFAP were selected as major outcomes. The pooled results of 15 studies marked with Brdu showed significant effects of acupuncture for improving proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for increasing proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for enhancing migration when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for stimulating differentiation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture is a prospective therapy targeting neurogenesis for ischemic stroke.

  12. IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Rona; Nemirovsky, Anna; Harpaz, Idan

    2008-01-01

    the spatial learning and memory performance of the animals. In older mice, the effect of IFN-gamma is more pronounced in both wild-type mice and mice with Alzheimer's-like disease and is associated with neuroprotection. In addition, IFN-gamma reverses the increase in oligodendrogenesis observed in a mouse...... mechanisms can generate immunity to such deficits in neuronal repair. We demonstrate that in contrast to primarily innate immunity cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the adaptive immunity cytokine IFN-gamma enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice and improves...

  13. An Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative Induces Neurogenesis by Increasing Final Cell Division in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Yeon; Kong, Sun-Young; Yoon, Hye Jin; Ann, Jihyae; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    P7C3 and its derivatives, 1-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3-(p-tolylamino)propan-2-ol (1) and N-(3-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), were previously reported to increase neurogenesis in rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Although P7C3 is known to increase neurogenesis by protecting newborn neurons, it is not known whether its derivatives also have protective effects to increase neurogenesis. In the current study, we examined how 1 induces neurogenesis. The treatment of 1 in NSCs increased numbers of cells in the absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), while not affecting those in the presence of growth factors. Compound 1 did not induce astrocytogenesis during NSC differentiation. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulsing experiments showed that 1 significantly enhanced BrdU-positive neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that 1 promotes neurogenesis by the induction of final cell division during NSC differentiation.

  14. Hard-Diet Feeding Recovers Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone and Olfactory Functions of Mice Impaired by Soft-Diet Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Chizuru; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Osada, Kazumi; Sasajima, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) generates an immense number of neurons even during adulthood. These neurons migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and differentiate into granule cells and periglomerular cells. The information broadcast by general odorants is received by the olfactory sensory neurons and transmitted to the OB. Recent studies have shown that a reduction of mastication impairs both neurogenesis in the hippocampus and brain functions. To examine these effects, we first measured the difference in Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) at the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Pr5), which receives intraoral touch information via the trigeminal nerve, when female adult mice ingested a hard or soft diet to explore whether soft-diet feeding could mimic impaired mastication. Ingestion of a hard diet induced greater expression of Fos-ir cells at the Pr5 than did a soft diet or no diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-ir) structures in sagittal sections of the SVZ and in the OB of mice fed a soft or hard diet were studied to explore the effects of changes in mastication on newly generated neurons. After 1 month, the density of BrdU-ir cells in the SVZ and OB was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The odor preferences of individual female mice to butyric acid were tested in a Y-maze apparatus. Avoidance of butyric acid was reduced by the soft-diet feeding. We then explored the effects of the hard-diet feeding on olfactory functions and neurogenesis in the SVZ of mice impaired by soft-diet feeding. At 3 months of hard-diet feeding, avoidance of butyric acid was reversed and responses to odors and neurogenesis were recovered in the SVZ. The present results suggest that feeding with a hard diet improves neurogenesis in the SVZ, which in turn enhances olfactory function at the OB. PMID:24817277

  15. Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Amar; Wilson, Donald A; Hen, René

    2011-05-26

    While adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus have fundamentally different properties, they may have more in common than meets the eye. Here, we propose that new granule cells in the OB and DG may function as modulators of principal neurons to influence pattern separation and that adult neurogenesis constitutes an adaptive mechanism to optimally encode contextual or olfactory information. See the related Perspective from Aimone, Deng, and Gage, "Resolving New Memories: A Critical Look at the Dentate Gyrus, Adult Neurogenesis, and Pattern Separation," in this issue of Neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoxetine Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Induces Epigenetic Factors But Does Not Improve Functional Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Neumann, Melanie; Hansen, Katharina; Hong, Shuwhey M.; Kim, Sharon; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine induces hippocampal neurogenesis, stimulates maturation and synaptic plasticity of adult hippocampal neurons, and reduces motor/sensory and memory impairments in several CNS disorders. In the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), its effects on neuroplasticity and function have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here we examined the efficacy of fluoxetine after a moderate to severe TBI, produced by a controlled cortical impact. Three days after TBI or sham surgery, mice were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 4 weeks. To evaluate the effects of fluoxetine on neuroplasticity, hippocampal neurogenesis and epigenetic modification were studied. Stereologic analysis of the dentate gyrus revealed a significant increase in doublecortin-positive cells in brain-injured animals treated with fluoxetine relative to controls, a finding consistent with enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Epigenetic modifications, including an increase in histone 3 acetylation and induction of methyl-CpG-binding protein, a transcription factor involved in DNA methylation, were likewise seen by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western immunoblots, respectively, in brain-injured animals treated with fluoxetine. To determine if fluoxetine improves neurological outcomes after TBI, gait function and spatial learning and memory were assessed by the CatWalk-assisted gait test and Barnes maze test, respectively. No differences in these parameters were seen between fluoxetine- and vehicle-treated animals. Thus while fluoxetine enhanced neuroplasticity in the hippocampus after TBI, its chronic administration did not restore locomotor function or ameliorate memory deficits. PMID:21175261

  17. The Relationship Between Spectral Modulation Detection and Speech Recognition: Adult Versus Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, René H; Noble, Jack H; Camarata, Stephen M; Sunderhaus, Linsey W; Dwyer, Robert T; Dawant, Benoit M; Dietrich, Mary S; Labadie, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients demonstrate a reliable relationship between spectral modulation detection and speech understanding. Prior studies documenting this relationship have focused on postlingually deafened adult CI recipients-leaving an open question regarding the relationship between spectral resolution and speech understanding for adults and children with prelingual onset of deafness. Here, we report CI performance on the measures of speech recognition and spectral modulation detection for 578 CI recipients including 477 postlingual adults, 65 prelingual adults, and 36 prelingual pediatric CI users. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between spectral modulation detection and various measures of speech understanding for 542 adult CI recipients. For 36 pediatric CI recipients, however, there was no significant correlation between spectral modulation detection and speech understanding in quiet or in noise nor was spectral modulation detection significantly correlated with listener age or age at implantation. These findings suggest that pediatric CI recipients might not depend upon spectral resolution for speech understanding in the same manner as adult CI recipients. It is possible that pediatric CI users are making use of different cues, such as those contained within the temporal envelope, to achieve high levels of speech understanding. Further investigation is warranted to investigate the relationship between spectral and temporal resolution and speech recognition to describe the underlying mechanisms driving peripheral auditory processing in pediatric CI users.

  18. Ankle muscle activity modulation during single-leg stance differs between children, young adults and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Incomplete maturation and aging-induced declines of the neuromuscular system affect postural control both in children and older adults and lead to high fall rates. Age-specific comparisons of the modulation of ankle muscle activation and behavioral center of pressure (COP) indices during upright stance have been rarely conducted. The objective of the present study was to quantify aging effects on a neuromuscular level. Thus, surface electromyography (SEMG) modulation and co-activity of ankle muscles during single-leg standing was compared in healthy children, young adults and seniors. Postural steadiness (velocity and mean sway frequency of COP), relative muscle activation (SEMG modulation) and co-activation of two ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, TA; soleus, SO) were examined during single-leg stance in 19 children [age, 9.7 (SD 0.5) years], 30 adults [23.3 (1.5) years] and 29 seniors [62.7 (6.1) years]. Velocity of COP in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, mean sway frequency in anterior-posterior direction, relative muscle activation (TA and SO) and co-activation revealed large age effects (P  0.14). Post-hoc comparisons indicated higher COP velocities, anterior-posterior frequencies, relative SO activation and co-activation in children and seniors when compared with adults. Relative TA activation was higher in children and adults compared with seniors (P seniors seems to be counteracted with higher TA/SO co-activity and SO modulation. However, TA modulation is higher in children and adults, whereas seniors' TA modulation capacity is diminished. An aging-induced decline of TA motor units might account for deteriorations of TA modulation in seniors.

  19. Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E-L; Avemary, J; Zellinger, C; Algermissen, D; Bock, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Potschka, H

    2012-08-01

    Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and

  20. Chronic fluoxetine treatment in middle-aged rats induces changes in the expression of plasticity-related molecules and in neurogenesis

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    Guirado Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressants promote neuronal structural plasticity in young-adult rodents, but little is known of their effects on older animals. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM may mediate these structural changes through its anti-adhesive properties. PSA-NCAM is expressed in immature neurons and in a subpopulation of mature interneurons and its expression is modulated by antidepressants in the telencephalon of young-adult rodents. Results We have analyzed the effects of 14 days of fluoxetine treatment on the density of puncta expressing PSA-NCAM and different presynaptic markers in the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of middle-aged (8 months old rats. The density of puncta expressing PSA-NCAM increased in the dorsal cingulate cortex, as well as in different hippocampal and amygdaloid regions. In these later regions there were also increases in the density of puncta expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD6, synaptophysin (SYN, PSA-NCAM/SYN and PSA-NCAM/GAD6, but a decrease of those expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1. Since there is controversy on the effects of antidepressants on neurogenesis during aging, we analyzed the number of proliferating cells expressing Ki67 and that of immature neurons expressing doublecortin or PSA-NCAM. No significant changes were found in the subgranular zone, but the number of proliferating cells decreased in the subventricular zone. Conclusions These results indicate that the effects of fluoxetine in middle-aged rats are different to those previously described in young-adult animals, being more restricted in the mPFC and even following an opposite direction in the amygdala or the subventricular zone.

  1. UV irradiation to mouse skin decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic protein expression via HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mira; Ban, Jae-Jun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-11-14

    The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus. Moreover, we observed that UV irradiation to the skin down-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and ERK signaling in the hippocampus, which are known to modulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The cutaneous and central HPA axes were activated by UV, which resulted in significant increases in serum levels of corticosterone. Subsequently, UV irradiation to the skin activated the glucocorticoid-signaling pathway in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Interestingly, after 6 weeks of UV irradiation, mice showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test. Taken together, our data suggest that repeated UV exposure through the skin may negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity along with HPA axis activation.

  2. Blue light potentiates neurogenesis induced by retinoic acid-loaded responsive nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Raquel; Quartin, Emanuel; Boto, Carlos; Saraiva, Cláudia; Bragança, José; Peça, João; Rodrigues, Cecília; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2017-09-01

    Neurogenic niches constitute a powerful endogenous source of new neurons that can be used for brain repair strategies. Neuronal differentiation of these cells can be regulated by molecules such as retinoic acid (RA) or by mild levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are also known to upregulate RA receptor alpha (RARα) levels. Data showed that neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) exposed to blue light (405nm laser) transiently induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS, resulting in β-catenin activation and neuronal differentiation, and increased RARα levels. Additionally, the same blue light stimulation was capable of triggering the release of RA from light-responsive nanoparticles (LR-NP). The synergy between blue light and LR-NP led to amplified neurogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while offering a temporal and spatial control of RA release. In conclusion, this combinatory treatment offers great advantages to potentiate neuronal differentiation, and provides an innovative and efficient application for brain regenerative therapies. Controlling the differentiation of stem cells would support the development of promising brain regenerative therapies. Blue light transiently increased reactive oxygen species, resulting in neuronal differentiation and increased retinoic acid receptor (RARα) levels. Additionally, the same blue light stimulation was capable of triggering the release of RA from light-responsive nanoparticles (LR-NP). The synergy between blue light and LR-NP led to amplified neurogenesis, while offering a temporal and spatial control of RA release. In this sense, our approach relying on the modulation of endogenous stem cells for the generation of new neurons may support the development of novel clinical therapies. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Progranulin regulates neurogenesis in the developing vertebrate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Caroline E; Hitchcock, Peter F

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the expression and function of the microglia-specific growth factor, Progranulin-a (Pgrn-a) during developmental neurogenesis in the embryonic retina of zebrafish. At 24 hpf pgrn-a is expressed throughout the forebrain, but by 48 hpf pgrn-a is exclusively expressed by microglia and/or microglial precursors within the brain and retina. Knockdown of Pgrn-a does not alter the onset of neurogenic programs or increase cell death, however, in its absence, neurogenesis is significantly delayed-retinal progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle at the appropriate developmental time and postmitotic cells do not acquire markers of terminal differentiation, and microglial precursors do not colonize the retina. Given the link between Progranulin and cell cycle regulation in peripheral tissues and transformed cells, we analyzed cell cycle kinetics among retinal progenitors following Pgrn-a knockdown. Depleting Pgrn-a results in a significant lengthening of the cell cycle. These data suggest that Pgrn-a plays a dual role during nervous system development by governing the rate at which progenitors progress through the cell cycle and attracting microglial progenitors into the embryonic brain and retina. Collectively, these data show that Pgrn-a governs neurogenesis by regulating cell cycle kinetics and the transition from proliferation to cell cycle exit and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1114-1129, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Paracrine control of vascularization and neurogenesis by neurotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanueli, Costanza; Schratzberger, Peter; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Madeddu, Paolo

    2003-10-01

    The neuronal system plays a fundamental role in the maturation of primitive embryonic vascular network by providing a paracrine template for blood vessel branching and arterial differentiation. Furthermore, postnatal vascular and neural regeneration cooperate in the healing of damaged tissue. Neurogenesis continues in adulthood although confined to specific brain regions. Following ischaemic insult, neural staminal cells contribute towards the healing process through the stimulation of neurogenesis and vasculogenesis. Evidence indicates that nerves and blood vessels exert a reciprocal control of their own growth by paracrine mechanisms. For instance, guidance factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and semaphorins, which share the ability of binding neuropilin receptors, play a pivotal role in the tridimensional growth pattern of arterial vessels and nerves. Animal models and clinical studies have demonstrated a role of VEGF-A in the pathogenesis of ischaemic and diabetic neuropathies. Further, supplementation with VEGF-A ameliorates neuronal recovery by exerting protective effects on nerves and stimulating reparative neovascularization. Human tissue kallikrein, a recently discovered angiogenic and arteriogenic factor, accelerates neuronal recovery by stimulating the growth of vasa nervorum. Conversely, the neurotrophin nerve growth factor, known to regulate neuronal survival and differentiation, is now regarded as a stimulator of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. These results indicate that angiogenesis and neurogenesis are paracrinally regulated by growth factors released by endothelial cells and neurons. Supplementation of these growth factors, alone or in combination, could benefit the treatment of ischaemic diseases and neuropathies.

  5. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

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    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  6. Multipotency of Adult Hippocampal NSCs In Vivo Is Restricted by Drosha/NFIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Chiara; Erni, Andrea; Grison, Alice; Beattie, Robert; Engler, Anna; Gokhale, Paul J; Milo, Marta; Wegleiter, Thomas; Jessberger, Sebastian; Taylor, Verdon

    2016-11-03

    Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their inherent capacity to self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In vivo, however, hippocampal NSCs do not generate oligodendrocytes for reasons that have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that deletion of Drosha in adult dentate gyrus NSCs activates oligodendrogenesis and reduces neurogenesis at the expense of gliogenesis. We further find that Drosha directly targets NFIB to repress its expression independently of Dicer and microRNAs. Knockdown of NFIB in Drosha-deficient hippocampal NSCs restores neurogenesis, suggesting that the Drosha/NFIB mechanism robustly prevents oligodendrocyte fate acquisition in vivo. Taken together, our findings establish that adult hippocampal NSCs inherently possess multilineage potential but that Drosha functions as a molecular barrier preventing oligodendrogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting Food Safety Awareness for Older Adults by Using Online Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amber; Francis, Sarah L.; Shaw, Angela; Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are susceptible to and at greater risk for food-borne illness in comparison to those in other adult age groups. Online education is an underused method for the delivery of food safety information to this population. Three online mini-modules, based on social marketing theory (SMT), were created for and pilot-tested with older adults.…

  8. Mouse embryonic retina delivers information controlling cortical neurogenesis.

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    Ciro Bonetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms to cortical development is an intensely debated issue and an outstanding question in neurobiology. Currently, the emerging view is that interplay between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and extrinsic information shape different stages of cortical development. Yet, whereas the intrinsic program of early neocortical developmental events has been at least in part decoded, the exact nature and impact of extrinsic signaling are still elusive and controversial. We found that in the mouse developing visual system, acute pharmacological inhibition of spontaneous retinal activity (retinal waves-RWs during embryonic stages increase the rate of corticogenesis (cell cycle withdrawal. Furthermore, early perturbation of retinal spontaneous activity leads to changes of cortical layer structure at a later time point. These data suggest that mouse embryonic retina delivers long-distance information capable of modulating cell genesis in the developing visual cortex and that spontaneous activity is the candidate long-distance acting extrinsic cue mediating this process. In addition, these data may support spontaneous activity to be a general signal coordinating neurogenesis in other developing sensory pathways or areas of the central nervous system.

  9. Neurogenesis paradoxically decreases both pattern separation and memory interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory eFinnegan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been the focus of memory research for decades. While the functional role of this structure is not fully understood, it is widely recognized as being vital for rapid yet accurate encoding of associative memories. Since the discovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by Altman and Das in the 1960's, many theories and models have been put forward to explain the functional role it plays in learning and memory. These models postulate different ways new in which neurons are introduced into the dentate gyrus and their functional importance for learning and memory. Few if any previous models have incorporated the full range of unique properties of young adult-born dentate granule cells and their developmental trajectory. In this paper, we propose a novel computational model of the dentate gyrus that incorporates the developmental trajectory of the adult-born dentate granule cells, including changes in synaptic plasticity, connectivity, excitability and lateral inhibition, using a modified version of the Restricted Boltzmann machine. Our results show superior performance on memory reconstruction tasks for both recent and distally learned items, when the unique characteristics of young dentate granule cells are taken into account. Even though the hyperexcitability of the young neurons generates more overlapping neural codes, reducing pattern separation, the unique properties of the young neurons nonetheless contribute to reducing retroactive and proactive interference, at both short and long time scales. The sparse connectivity is particularly important for generating distinct memory traces for highly overlapping patterns that are learned within the same context.

  10. DNA synthesis and cell division in the adult primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakic, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the adult human brain is incapable of producing new neuron. Even cursory examination of neurologic, neuropathologic, or neurobiological textbooks published during the past 50 years will testify that this belief is deeply entrenched. In his classification of cell populations on the basis of their proliferative behavior, Leblond regarded neurons of the central nervous system as belonging to a category of static, nonrenewing epithelial tissue incapable of expanding or replenishing itself. This belief, however needs to re reexamined for two major reasons: First, as reviewed below, a number of reports have provided evidence of neurogenesis in adult brain of several vertebrate species. Second, the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult primate central nervous system has never been examined by modern methods. In this article the author described recent results from an extensive autoradiographic analysis performed on twelve rhesus monkeys injected with the specific DNA precursor [ 3 H] thymidine at ages ranging from 6 postnatal months to 17 years

  11. Neurogenesis and Helplessness are Mediated by Controllability in Males but not in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J.; Mathew, Jason; Sisti, Helene M.; Edgecomb, Carol; Beckoff, Steven; Dalla, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have implicated neurogenesis in the hippocampus in animal models of depression, especially those related to controllability and learned helplessness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable stress would reduce cell proliferation in the hippocampus of male and female rats, and would relate to the expression of helplessness behavior. Methods To manipulate controllability, groups of male and female rats were trained in one session (acute stress) or over seven sessions (repeated stress) to escape a footshock, while yoked controls could not escape, but were exposed to the same amount of stress. Cell proliferation was assessed with immunohistochemistry of BrdU and immunofluorescence of BrdU and NeuN. Separate groups were exposed to either controllable or uncontrollable stress and their ability to learn to escape during training on a more difficult task was used as a behavioral measure of helplessness. Results Acute stress reduced cell proliferation in males, but did not affect proliferation in the female hippocampus. When animals were given the opportunity to learn to control the stress over days, males produced more cells than the yoked males without control. Repeated training with controllable stress did not influence proliferation in females. Under all conditions, males were more likely than females to express helplessness behavior, even males that were not previously stressed. Conclusions The modulation of neurogenesis by controllability was evident in males but not in females, as was the expression of helplessness behavior, despite the fact that men are less likely than women to experience depression. PMID:17306770

  12. Impaired neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus is associated with pattern separation deficits: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    The separation of input patterns received from the entorhinal cortex (EC) by the dentate gyrus (DG) is a well-known critical step of information processing in the hippocampus. Although the role of interneurons in separation pattern efficiency of the DG has been theoretically known, the balance of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons and interneurons as well as its potential role in information processing in the DG is not fully understood. In this work, we study separation efficiency of the DG for different rates of neurogenesis of interneurons and excitatory neurons using a novel computational model in which we assume an increase in the synaptic efficacy between excitatory neurons and interneurons and then its decay over time. Information processing in the EC and DG was simulated as information flow in a two layer feed-forward neural network. The neurogenesis rate was modeled as the percentage of new born neurons added to the neuronal population in each time bin. The results show an important role of an optimal neurogenesis rate of interneurons and excitatory neurons in the DG in efficient separation of inputs from the EC in pattern separation tasks. The model predicts that any deviation of the optimal values of neurogenesis rates leads to different decreased levels of the separation deficits of the DG which influences its function to encode memory.

  13. Mechano growth factor, a splice variant of IGF-1, promotes neurogenesis in the aging mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jason J; Podratz, Jewel L; Lange, Miranda; Scrable, Heidi J; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Windebank, Anthony J

    2017-07-07

    Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a splice variant of IGF-1 first described in skeletal muscle. MGF induces muscle cell proliferation in response to muscle stress and injury. In control mice we found endogenous expression of MGF in neurogenic areas of the brain and these levels declined with age. To better understand the role of MGF in the brain, we used transgenic mice that constitutively overexpressed MGF from birth. MGF overexpression significantly increased the number of BrdU+ proliferative cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVG). Although MGF overexpression increased the overall rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis at the proliferation stage it did not alter the distribution of neurons at post-mitotic maturation stages. We then used the lac-operon system to conditionally overexpress MGF in the mouse brain beginning at 1, 3 and 12 months with histological and behavioral observation at 24 months of age. With conditional overexpression there was an increase of BrdU+ proliferating cells and BrdU+ differentiated mature neurons in the olfactory bulbs at 24 months when overexpression was induced from 1 and 3 months of age but not when started at 12 months. This was associated with preserved olfactory function. In vitro, MGF increased the size and number of neurospheres harvested from SVZ-derived neural stem cells (NSCs). These findings indicate that MGF overexpression increases the number of neural progenitor cells and promotes neurogenesis but does not alter the distribution of adult newborn neurons at post-mitotic stages. Maintaining youthful levels of MGF may be important in reversing age-related neuronal loss and brain dysfunction.

  14. A septo-temporal molecular gradient of sfrp3 in the dentate gyrus differentially regulates quiescent adult hippocampal neural stem cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaqi; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Jun, Heechul; Guo, Junjie U; Sun, Gerald J; Will, Brett; Yang, Zhengang; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-09-04

    A converging body of evidence indicates that levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis vary along the septo-temporal axis of the dentate gyrus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regional heterogeneity are not known. We previously identified a niche mechanism regulating proliferation and neuronal development in the adult mouse dentate gyrus resulting from the activity-regulated expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (sfrp3) by mature neurons, which suppresses activation of radial glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs) through inhibition of Wingless/INT (WNT) protein signaling. Here, we show that activation rates within the quiescent RGL population decrease gradually along the septo-temporal axis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus, as defined by MCM2 expression in RGLs. Using in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified an inverse septal-to-temporal increase in the expression of sfrp3 that emerges during postnatal development. Elimination of sfrp3 and its molecular gradient leads to increased RGL activation, preferentially in the temporal region of the adult dentate gyrus. Our study identifies a niche mechanism that contributes to the graded distribution of neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus and has important implications for understanding functional differences associated with adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the septo-temporal axis.

  15. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G 2 /M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system. The DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for prevention of a broad spectrum of different human neurologic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of the DDR at a physiological level is lacking. In contrast to many in

  16. Does social distance modulate adults' egocentric biases when reasoning about false beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Benjamin G; Ostojić, Ljerka

    2018-01-01

    When given privileged information of an object's true location, adults often overestimate the likelihood that a protagonist holding a false belief will search in the correct location for that object. This type of egocentric bias is often labelled the 'curse of knowledge'. Interestingly, the magnitude of this bias may be modulated by the social distance between the perspective taker and target. However, this social distance effect has yet to be fully demonstrated when adults reason about false beliefs. Using a continuous false belief task, we investigated i) whether adults were biased by their own knowledge when reasoning about another's false belief, ii) whether the magnitude of this egocentric bias was modulated by social distance, and iii) whether this social distance effect extended to a heterospecific out-group, namely a dog. To test these hypotheses we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1 (N = 283), we used an established continuous false belief task, in Experiment 2 (N = 281) we modified this task, and Experiment 3 (N = 744) was a direct replication of Experiment 2. Across these experiments, the curse of knowledge effect was reliably replicated when adults mentalised about an in-group protagonist, and replicated in two of the three studies (Experiments 1 and 3) when adults mentalised about out-group protagonists. In an internal-meta analysis, the curse of knowledge effect was present across all conditions, and there was no effect of social distance. Hence, overall these data are not consistent with the hypothesis that social distance modulates adults' egocentric biases when reasoning about false beliefs. The finding that egocentric biases of a similar magnitude were observed when adults mentalised about an in-group protagonist and a dog suggests that interpersonal dissimilarity is not in itself sufficient to reduce egocentric bias when reasoning about false beliefs.

  17. Late maturation of adult-born neurons in the temporal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason S; Ferrante, Sarah C; Cameron, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal (dorsal) pole more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory and the temporal (ventral) pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. One feature that varies across these subregions is adult neurogenesis. New neurons are more numerous in the septal hippocampus but are more active in the temporal hippocampus during water maze training. However, many other aspects of adult neurogenesis remain unexplored in the context of septal versus temporal subregions. In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the suprapyramidal blade showing greater experience-related activity than the infrapyramidal blade. Here we ask whether new neurons differ in their rates of survival and maturation along the septotemporal and transverse axes. We found that neurogenesis is initially higher in the infrapyramidal than suprapyramidal blade, but these cells are less likely to survive, resulting in similar densities of neurons in the two blades by four weeks. Across the septotemporal axis, neurogenesis was higher in septal than temporal pole, while the survival rate of new neurons did not differ. Maturation was assessed by immunostaining for the neuronal marker, NeuN, which increases in expression level with maturation, and for the immediate-early gene, Arc, which suggests a neuron is capable of undergoing activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Maturation occurred approximately 1-2 weeks earlier in the septal pole than in the temporal pole. This suggests that septal neurons may contribute to function sooner; however, the prolonged maturation of new temporal neurons may endow them with a longer window of plasticity during which their functions could be distinct from those of the mature granule cell population. These data point to subregional differences in new neuron maturation and suggest that changes in neurogenesis could alter

  18. Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradazzi, Marino; Gulino, Rosario; Fieramosca, Francesco; Falzacappa, Lucia Verga; Riggi, Margherita; Leanza, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired, as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls. Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance (i.e., working memory) possibly via newly generated progenitors in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increase in neurogenesis and behavioural benefit after chronic fluoxetine treatment in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Flagstad, P; Kristjansen, P E G

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in hippocampal neurogenesis may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and it has been argued that an increase in the generation of new nerve cells in the hippocampus is involved in the mechanism of action of antidepressants.......Disturbances in hippocampal neurogenesis may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and it has been argued that an increase in the generation of new nerve cells in the hippocampus is involved in the mechanism of action of antidepressants....

  20. Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-01-28

    Greatly waned neurogenesis, diminished microvasculature, astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia are among the most conspicuous structural changes in the aged hippocampus. Because these alterations can contribute to age-related memory and mood impairments, strategies efficacious for mitigating these changes may preserve cognitive and mood function in old age. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in the skin of red grapes having angiogenic and antiinflammatory properties, appears ideal for easing these age-related changes. Hence, we examined the efficacy of resveratrol for counteracting age-related memory and mood impairments and the associated detrimental changes in the hippocampus. Two groups of male F344 rats in late middle-age having similar learning and memory abilities were chosen and treated with resveratrol or vehicle for four weeks. Analyses at ~25 months of age uncovered improved learning, memory and mood function in resveratrol-treated animals but impairments in vehicle-treated animals. Resveratrol-treated animals also displayed increased net neurogenesis and microvasculature, and diminished astrocyte hypertrophy and microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age. Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.

  1. Low-Dose Sevoflurane Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Facilitates the Development of Dentate Gyrus-Dependent Learning in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8% sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4–6 were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  2. A role for adult TLX-positive neural stem cells in learning and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Li; Zou, Yuhua; He, Weimin; Gage, Fred H; Evans, Ronald M

    2008-02-21

    Neurogenesis persists in the adult brain and can be regulated by a plethora of external stimuli, such as learning, memory, exercise, environment and stress. Although newly generated neurons are able to migrate and preferentially incorporate into the neural network, how these cells are molecularly regulated and whether they are required for any normal brain function are unresolved questions. The adult neural stem cell pool is composed of orphan nuclear receptor TLX-positive cells. Here, using genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that TLX (also called NR2E1) regulates adult neural stem cell proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner by controlling a defined genetic network implicated in cell proliferation and growth. Consequently, specific removal of TLX from the adult mouse brain through inducible recombination results in a significant reduction of stem cell proliferation and a marked decrement in spatial learning. In contrast, the resulting suppression of adult neurogenesis does not affect contextual fear conditioning, locomotion or diurnal rhythmic activities, indicating a more selective contribution of newly generated neurons to specific cognitive functions.

  3. Peripheral Etanercept Administration Normalizes Behavior, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Hippocampal Reelin and GABAA Receptor Expression in a Preclinical Model of Depression

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    Kyle J. Brymer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder frequently comorbid with autoimmune disorders. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that repeated corticosterone (CORT injections in rats reliably increase depressive-like behavior, impair hippocampal-dependent memory, reduce the number and complexity of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus, decrease hippocampal reelin expression, and alter markers of GABAergic function. We hypothesized that peripheral injections of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept could exert antidepressant effects through a restoration of many of these neurobiological changes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of repeated CORT injections and concurrent injections of etanercept on measures of object-location and object-in-place memory, forced-swim test behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis, and reelin and GABA β2/3 immunohistochemistry. CORT increased immobility behavior in the forced swim test and impaired both object-location and object-in-place memory, and these effects were reversed by etanercept. CORT also decreased both the number and complexity of adult-generated neurons, but etanercept restored these measures back to control levels. Finally, CORT decreased the number of reelin and GABA β2/3-ir cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and etanercept restored these to control levels. These novel results demonstrate that peripheral etanercept has antidepressant effects that are accompanied by a restoration of cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and GABAergic plasticity, and suggest that a normalization of reelin expression in the dentate gyrus could be a key component underlying these novel antidepressant effects.

  4. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

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    Sanberg Paul R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain.

  7. Doublecortin (DCX is not essential for survival and differentiation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse dentate gyrus

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    Jagroop eDhaliwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX.

  8. Abrogated inflammatory response promotes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.

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    Sulagna Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV induces neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. The detrimental effects of inflammation on neurogenesis have been reported in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated whether JEV-induced inflammation has similar adverse effects on neurogenesis and whether those effects can be reversed using an anti-inflammatory compound minocycline.Here, using in vitro studies and mouse models, we observed that an acute inflammatory milieu is created in the subventricular neurogenic niche following Japanese encephalitis (JE and a resultant impairment in neurogenesis occurs, which can be reversed with minocycline treatment. Immunohistological studies showed that proliferating cells were replenished and the population of migrating neuroblasts was restored in the niche following minocycline treatment. In vitro, we checked for the efficacy of minocycline as an anti-inflammatory compound and cytokine bead array showed that production of cyto/chemokines decreased in JEV-activated BV2 cells. Furthermore, mouse neurospheres grown in the conditioned media from JEV-activated microglia exhibit arrest in both proliferation and differentiation of the spheres compared to conditioned media from control microglia. These effects were completely reversed when conditioned media from JEV-activated and minocycline treated microglia was used.This study provides conclusive evidence that JEV-activated microglia and the resultant inflammatory molecules are anti-proliferative and anti-neurogenic for NSPCs growth and development, and therefore contribute to the viral neuropathogenesis. The role of minocycline in restoring neurogenesis may implicate enhanced neuronal repair and attenuation of the neuropsychiatric sequelae in JE survivors.

  9. LRRK2: an éminence grise of Wnt-mediated neurogenesis?

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    Daniel C Berwick

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2 to mature neurons is well-established, since mutations in PARK8, the gene encoding LRRK2, are the most common known cause of Parkinson’s disease. Nonetheless, despite the LRRK2 knockout mouse having no overt neurodevelopmental defect, numerous lines of in vitro data point towards a central role for this protein in neurogenesis. Roles for LRRK2 have been described in many key processes, including neurite outgrowth and the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Moreover, LRRK2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, suggesting additional roles in neurogenesis that precede terminal differentiation. However, we contend that the suggested function of LRRK2 as a scaffolding protein at the heart of numerous Wnt signaling cascades provides the most tantalizing link to neurogenesis in the developing brain. Numerous lines of evidence show a critical requirement for multiple Wnt pathways in the development of certain brain regions, not least the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral mid-brain. In conclusion, these observations indicate a function of LRRK2 as a subtle yet critical mediator of the action of Wnt ligands on developing neurons. We suggest that LRRK2 loss- or gain-of-function are likely modifiers of developmental phenotypes seen in animal models of Wnt signaling deregulation, a hypothesis that can be tested by cross-breeding relevant genetically modified experimental strains.

  10. On the Role of Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity in the Evolution of Animal Personalities and Stress Coping Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overli, Oyvind; Sorensen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    and neurogenesis have received recent attention. This work reveals that brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with heritable variation in stress coping style, and they are also differentially affected by short- and long-term stress in a biphasic manner. Routine-dependent and inflexible behavior...... are conserved throughout the vertebrate subphylum, including factors affecting perception, learning, and memory of stimuli and events. Here we review conserved aspects of the contribution of neurogenesis and other aspects of neural plasticity to stress coping. In teleost fish, brain cell proliferation...

  11. Regenerative medicine using adult neural stem cells: the potential for diabetes therapy and other pharmaceutical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoko Kuwabara; Makoto Asashima

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs),which are responsible for continuous neurogenesis during the adult stage,are present in human adults.The typical neurogenic regions are the hippocampus and the subventricular zone; recent studies have revealed that NSCs also exist in the olfactory bulb.Olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OB NSCs) have the potential to be used in therapeutic applications and can be easily harvested without harm to the patient.Through the combined influence of extrinsic cues and innate programming,adult neurogenesis is a finely regulated process occurring in a specialized cellular environment,a niche.Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of adult NSCs and their cellular niche is not only important to understand the physiological roles of neurogenesis in adulthood,but also to provide the knowledge necessary for developing new therapeutic applications using adult NSCs in other organs with similar regulatory environments.Diabetes is a devastating disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide.Numerous diabetic patients suffer increased symptom severity after the onset,involving complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy.Therefore,the development of treatments for fundamental diabetes is important.The utilization of autologous cells from patients with diabetes may address challenges regarding the compatibility of donor tissues as well as provide the means to naturally and safely restore function,reducing future risks while also providing a long-term cure.Here,we review recent findings regarding the use of adult OB NSCs as a potential diabetes cure,and discuss the potential of OB NSC-based pharmaceutical applications for neuronal diseases and mental disorders.

  12. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Learning an operant conditioning task differentially induces gliogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex and neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

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    Maximiliano Rapanelli

    Full Text Available Circuit modification associated with learning and memory involves multiple events, including the addition and remotion of newborn cells trough adulthood. Adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis were mainly described in models of voluntary exercise, enriched environments, spatial learning and memory task; nevertheless, it is unknown whether it is a common mechanism among different learning paradigms, like reward dependent tasks. Therefore, we evaluated cell proliferation, neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and neuronal maturation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the hippocampus (HIPP during learning an operant conditioning task. This was performed by using endogenous markers of cell proliferation, and a bromodeoxiuridine (BrdU injection schedule in two different phases of learning. Learning an operant conditioning is divided in two phases: a first phase when animals were considered incompletely trained (IT, animals that were learning the task when they performed between 50% and 65% of the responses, and a second phase when animals were considered trained (Tr, animals that completely learned the task when they reached 100% of the responses with a latency time lower than 5 seconds. We found that learning an operant conditioning task promoted cell proliferation in both phases of learning in the mPFC and HIPP. Additionally, the results presented showed that astrogliogenesis was induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in both phases, however, the first phase promoted survival of these new born astrocytes. On the other hand, an increased number of new born immature neurons was observed in the HIPP only in the first phase of learning, whereas, decreased values were observed in the second phase. Finally, we found that neuronal maturation was induced only during the first phase. This study shows for the first time that learning a reward-dependent task, like the operant conditioning, promotes neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and

  14. Transcriptional role of androgen receptor in the expression of long non-coding RNA Sox2OT in neurogenesis.

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    Valentina Tosetti

    Full Text Available The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined. Here, using Bicalutamide in order to pharmacologically inactivated AR, we investigated whether AR participates in the regulation of the transcription of the lncRNASox2OTat early embryonic stage. We identified a new DNA binding region upstream of Sox2 locus containing three androgen response elements (ARE, and found that AR binds such a sequence in embryonic neural stem cells and in mouse embryonic brain. Our data suggest that through this binding, AR can promote the RNA polymerase II dependent transcription of Sox2OT. Our findings also suggest that AR participates in embryonic neurogenesis through transcriptional control of the long non-coding RNA Sox2OT.

  15. Central proliferation and neurogenesis is impaired in type 2 diabetes and prediabetes animal models.

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    Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, and some neuropathological features observed in dementia could be mediated by T2D metabolic alterations. Since brain atrophy and impaired neurogenesis have been observed both T2D and AD we analyzed central nervous system (CNS morphological alterations in the db/db mice (leptin receptor KO mice, as a model of long-term insulin resistance and T2D, and in C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat diet (HFD, as a model of diet induced insulin resistance and prediabetes. Db/db mice showed an age-dependent cortical and hippocampal atrophy, whereas in HFD mice cortex and hippocampus were preserved. We also detected increased neurogenesis and cell proliferation rates in young db/db mice when compared with control littermates. Our study shows that metabolic parameters serve as predictors of both atrophy and altered proliferation and neurogenesis in the CNS. Moreover in the cortex, atrophy, cell proliferation and neurogenesis were significantly correlated. Our data suggest that T2D may underline some of the pathological features observed in the dementia process. They also support that blood glucose control in elderly patients could help to slow down dementia evolution and maybe, improve its prognosis.

  16. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

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    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  17. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

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    Bruno P. Carreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO. In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons.

  18. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

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    Jorge M. Barcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes.

  19. Electroacupuncture Improved Hippocampal Neurogenesis following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice through Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling Pathway

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    Yuqin Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective role of electroacupuncture (EA treatment in diverse neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke is well acknowledged. However, whether and how EA act on hippocampal neurogenesis following traumatic brain injury (TBI remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the effect of EA on hippocampal neurogenesis and neurological functions, as well as its underlying association with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling in TBI mice. BrdU/NeuN immunofluorescence was performed to label newborn neurons in the hippocampus after EA treatment. Water maze test and neurological severity score were used to evaluate neurological function posttrauma. The hippocampal level of TLR4 and downstream molecules and inflammatory cytokines were, respectively, detected by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EA enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibited TLR4 expression at 21, 28, and 35 days after TBI, but the beneficial effects of EA on posttraumatic neurogenesis and neurological functions were attenuated by lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 activation. In addition, EA exerted an inhibitory effect on both TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB and TLR4/TRIF/NF-κB pathways, as well as the inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus following TBI. In conclusion, EA promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and neurological recovery through inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway posttrauma, which may be a potential approach to improve the outcome of TBI.

  20. Influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Won, Ran; Shin, Hye-Sook; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-03-01

    During the prenatal period, the development of individual is influenced by the environmental factors. In the present study, the influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats was investigated. The exposure to the noise during pregnancy caused growth retardation, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and impaired spatial learning ability in pups. The exposure to music during pregnancy, on the other hand, caused increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning ability in pups. The present study has shown the importance of the prenatal environmental conditions for the cognition and brain development.

  1. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information - Sandia researchers developed novel methods and metrics for studying the computational function of neurogenesis, thus generating substantial impact to the neuroscience and neural computing communities. This work could benefit applications in machine learning and other analysis activities.

  2. Whole-Body Exposure to 28Si-Radiation Dose-Dependently Disrupts Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis and Proliferation in the Short Term and New Neuron Survival and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoolery, Cody W; Walker, Angela K; Richardson, Devon R; Lucero, Melanie J; Reynolds, Ryan P; Beddow, David H; Clark, K Lyles; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Ahn, Francisca; Bulin, Sarah E; DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Chen, Benjamin P C; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2017-11-01

    Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles. 56 Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as 28 Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function. To compare the influence of 28 Si exposure on indices of neurogenesis and hippocampal function with previous studies on 56 Fe exposure, 9-week-old C57BL/6J and Nestin-GFP mice (NGFP; made and maintained for 10 or more generations on a C57BL/6J background) received whole-body 28 Si-particle-radiation exposure (0, 0.2 and 1 Gy, 300 MeV/n, LET 67 KeV/μ, dose rate 1 Gy/min). For neurogenesis assessment, the NGFP mice were injected with the mitotic marker BrdU at 22 h postirradiation and brains were examined for indices of hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis, including Ki67 + , BrdU + , BrdU + NeuN + and DCX + cell numbers at short- and long-term time points (24 h and 3 months postirradiation, respectively). In the short-term group, stereology revealed fewer Ki67 + , BrdU + and DCX + cells in 1-Gy-irradiated group relative to nonirradiated control mice, fewer Ki67 + and DCX + cells in 0.2 Gy group relative to control group and fewer BrdU + and DCX + cells in 1 Gy group relative to 0.2 Gy group. In contrast to the clearly observed radiation-induced, dose-dependent reductions in the short-term group across all markers, only a few neurogenesis indices were changed in the long-term irradiated groups. Notably, there were fewer surviving BrdU + cells in the 1 Gy group relative to 0- and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice in the long-term group. When the short- and long-term groups were analyzed by sex, exposure to radiation had a similar effect on neurogenesis indices

  3. BET bromodomain inhibition promotes neurogenesis while inhibiting gliogenesis in neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjun Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers. Through screening small molecule libraries with annotated targets, we identified BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel mechanism for enhancing neurogenesis. BET bromodomain proteins, Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4 were found to be downregulated in NPCs upon differentiation, while their levels remain unaltered in proliferating NPCs. Consistent with the pharmacological study using bromodomain selective inhibitor (+-JQ-1, knockdown of each BET protein resulted in an increase in the number of neurons with simultaneous reduction in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Gene expression profiling analysis demonstrated that BET bromodomain inhibition induced a broad but specific transcription program enhancing directed differentiation of NPCs into neurons while suppressing cell cycle progression and gliogenesis. Together, these results highlight a crucial role of BET proteins as epigenetic regulators in NPC development and suggest a therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in treating brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Selenomethionine promoted hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β-Wnt pathway in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Zhong-Hao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yao; Jia, Shi-Zheng; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Song, Guo-Li

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice. In this study, we reported that the therapeutic effect of Se-Met on AD could also be due to neurogenesis modulation. By using the cultured hippocampal NSCs from 3xTg AD mice, we discovered that Se-Met (1–10 μM) with low concentration could promote NSC proliferation, while the one with a high concentration (50,100 μM) inhibiting proliferation. In subsequent studies, we also found that Se-Met activated the signaling pathway of PI3K/Akt, and thereby inhibited the GSK3β activity, which would further activated the β-catenin/Cyclin-D signaling pathway and promote NSC proliferation. Besides, after the induction of Se-Met, the number of neurons differentiated from NSCs significantly increased, and the number of astrocytes decreased. After a 90-day treatment with Se-Met (6 μg/mL), the number of hippocampal neurons in 4-month-old AD mice increased significantly, while the one of astrocyte saw a sharp drop. Thus, Se-Met treatment promoted NSCs differentiation into neurons, and subsequently repaired damaged neural systems in AD mice. Being consistent with our in vitro studies, Se-Met acts through the PI3K-Akt- GSK3β-Wnt signaling pathway in vivo. This study provides an unparalleled evidence that selenium (Se) compounds are, to some extent, effective

  5. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  6. The endogenous regenerative capacity of the damaged newborn brain: boosting neurogenesis with mesenchymal stem cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Vanessa; van Velthoven, Cindy T J; Nijboer, Cora H; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2013-05-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood. The neurogenic capacity of the brain increases after injury by, e.g., hypoxia-ischemia. However, it is well known that in many cases brain damage does not resolve spontaneously, indicating that the endogenous regenerative capacity of the brain is insufficient. Neonatal encephalopathy leads to high mortality rates and long-term neurologic deficits in babies worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies. The latest findings indicate that stem cells represent a novel therapeutic possibility to improve outcome in models of neonatal encephalopathy. Transplanted stem cells secrete factors that stimulate and maintain neurogenesis, thereby increasing cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and functional integration. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis after an insult is crucial for developing tools to enhance the neurogenic capacity of the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the endogenous capacity of the neonatal brain to regenerate after a cerebral ischemic insult. We present an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying endogenous regenerative processes during development as well as after a cerebral ischemic insult. Furthermore, we will consider the potential to use stem cell transplantation as a means to boost endogenous neurogenesis and restore brain function.

  7. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selenomethionine promoted hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β-Wnt pathway in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Zhong-Hao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yao; Jia, Shi-Zheng; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Song, Guo-Li

    2017-03-25

    The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice. In this study, we reported that the therapeutic effect of Se-Met on AD could also be due to neurogenesis modulation. By using the cultured hippocampal NSCs from 3xTg AD mice, we discovered that Se-Met (1-10 μM) with low concentration could promote NSC proliferation, while the one with a high concentration (50,100 μM) inhibiting proliferation. In subsequent studies, we also found that Se-Met activated the signaling pathway of PI3K/Akt, and thereby inhibited the GSK3β activity, which would further activated the β-catenin/Cyclin-D signaling pathway and promote NSC proliferation. Besides, after the induction of Se-Met, the number of neurons differentiated from NSCs significantly increased, and the number of astrocytes decreased. After a 90-day treatment with Se-Met (6 μg/mL), the number of hippocampal neurons in 4-month-old AD mice increased significantly, while the one of astrocyte saw a sharp drop. Thus, Se-Met treatment promoted NSCs differentiation into neurons, and subsequently repaired damaged neural systems in AD mice. Being consistent with our in vitro studies, Se-Met acts through the PI3K-Akt- GSK3β-Wnt signaling pathway in vivo. This study provides an unparalleled evidence that selenium (Se) compounds are, to some extent, effective in

  9. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  10. Novel insights into the role of NF-κB p50 in astrocyte-mediated fate specification of adult neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bortolotto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit. NF-κB p50KO mice display a remarkable reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis which correlates with a selective defect in hippocampal-dependent short-term memory. Moreover absence of NF-κB p50 can profoundly affect the in vitro proneurogenic response of adult hippocampal NPC (ahNPC to several endogenous signals and drugs. Herein we briefly review the current knowledge on the pivotal role of NF-κB p50 in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition we discuss more recent data that further extend the relevance of NF-κB p50 to novel astroglia-derived signals which can influence neuronal specification of ahNPC and to astrocyte-NPC cross-talk.

  11. Female mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors have compromised neurogenesis, and fewer dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eSui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG. We examined whether cholecystokinin (CCK through actions mediated by CCK1 receptors (CCK1R is involved in regulating neurogenesis. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU injected 2 hours prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 37% and 42%, respectively, in female (but not male mice lacking CCK1Rs (CCK1R-/- compared to wild-type (WT. Generation of neuroblasts in the SVZ and rostral migratory stream was also affected, since the number of doublecortin (DCX-immunoreactive (ir neuroblasts in these regions decreased by 29%. In the SGZ of female CCK1R-/- mice, BrdU-positive (+ and Ki67-ir cells were reduced by 38% and 56%, respectively, while DCX-ir neuroblasts were down 80%. Subsequently, the effect of reduced SVZ/SGZ proliferation on the generation and survival of mature adult-born cells in female CCK1R-/- mice was examined. In the OB granule cell layer (GCL, the number of neuronal nuclei (NeuN-ir and calretinin-ir cells was stable compared to WT, and 42 days after BrdU injections, the number of BrdU+ cells co-expressing GABA- or NeuN-like immunoreactivity (LI was similar. Compared to WT, the granule cell layer of the DG in female CCK1R-/- mice had a similar number of calbindin-ir cells and BrdU+ cells co-expressing calbindin-LI 42 days after BrdU injections. However, the OB glomerular layer (GL of CCK1R-/- female mice had 11% fewer NeuN-ir cells, 23% less TH-ir cells, and a 38% and 29% reduction in BrdU+ cells that co-expressed TH-LI or GABA-LI, respectively. We conclude that CCK, via CCK1Rs, is involved in regulating the generation of proliferating cells and neuroblasts in the adult female mouse brain, and mechanisms are in place to maintain steady neuronal populations in the OB and DG when the rate of proliferation is

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

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    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  13. Oxygen, a Key Factor Regulating Cell Behavior during Neurogenesis and Cerebral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhu, Lingling; Fan, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is vital to maintain the normal functions of almost all the organs, especially for brain which is one of the heaviest oxygen consumers in the body. The important roles of oxygen on the brain are not only reflected in the development, but also showed in the pathological processes of many cerebral diseases. In the current review, we summarized the oxygen levels in brain tissues tested by real-time measurements during the embryonic and adult neurogenesis, the cerebral diseases, or in the hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Oxygen concentration is low in fetal brain (0.076-7.6 mmHg) and in adult brain (11.4-53.2 mmHg), decreased during stroke, and increased in hyperbaric oxygen environment. In addition, we reviewed the effects of oxygen tensions on the behaviors of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro cultures at different oxygen concentration (15.2-152 mmHg) and in vivo niche during different pathological states and in hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Moderate hypoxia (22.8-76 mmHg) can promote the proliferation of NSCs and enhance the differentiation of NSCs into the TH-positive neurons. Next, we briefly presented the oxygen-sensitive molecular mechanisms regulating NSCs proliferation and differentiation recently found including the Notch, Bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt pathways. Finally, the future perspectives about the roles of oxygen on brain and NSCs were given.

  14. Oxygen, a key factor regulating cell behaviour during neurogenesis and cerebral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan eZhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is vital to maintain the normal functions of alomost all the organs, especially for brain which is one of the heaviest oxygen consumers in the body. The important roles of oxygen on the brain are not only reflected in the development, but also showed in the pathological processes of many cerebral diseases. In the current review, we summarized the oxygen levels in brain tissues tested by real-time measurements during the embryonic and adult neurogenesis, the cerebral diseases or in the hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Oxygen concentration is low in fetal brain (0.01%- 1% and in adult brain (1.5%-7%, decreased during stroke, and increased in hyperbaric oxygen environment. In addition, we reviewed the effects of oxygen tensions on the behaviors of neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro cultures at different oxygen concentration (2%-20% and in vivo niche during different pathological states and in hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Moderate hypoxia (3%-10% is known can promote the proliferation of NSCs and enhance the differentiation of NSCs into the TH-positive neurons. Next, we briefly presented the oxygen-sensitive molecular mechanisms regulating NSCs proliferation and differentiation recently found including the Notch, BMP and Wnt pathways. Finally, the future perspectives about the roles of oxygen on brain and NSCs were given.

  15. Aging increases microglial proliferation, delays cell migration, and decreases cortical neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Ana; Pradillo, Jesús M; García-Culebras, Alicia; Palma-Tortosa, Sara; Ballesteros, Ivan; Hernández-Jiménez, Macarena; Moro, María A; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2015-05-10

    Aging is not just a risk factor of stroke, but it has also been associated with poor recovery. It is known that stroke-induced neurogenesis is reduced but maintained in the aged brain. However, there is no consensus on how neurogenesis is affected after stroke in aged animals. Our objective is to determine the role of aging on the process of neurogenesis after stroke. We have studied neurogenesis by analyzing proliferation, migration, and formation of new neurons, as well as inflammatory parameters, in a model of cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in young- (2 to 3 months) and middle-aged mice (13 to 14 months). Aging increased both microglial proliferation, as shown by a higher number of BrdU(+) cells and BrdU/Iba1(+) cells in the ischemic boundary and neutrophil infiltration. Interestingly, aging increased the number of M1 monocytes and N1 neutrophils, consistent with pro-inflammatory phenotypes when compared with the alternative M2 and N2 phenotypes. Aging also inhibited (subventricular zone) SVZ cell proliferation by decreasing both the number of astrocyte-like type-B (prominin-1(+)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)(+)/nestin(+)/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) cells) and type-C cells (prominin-1(+)/EGFR(+)/nestin(-)/Mash1(+) cells), and not affecting apoptosis, 1 day after stroke. Aging also inhibited migration of neuroblasts (DCX(+) cells), as indicated by an accumulation of neuroblasts at migratory zones 14 days after injury; consistently, aged mice presented a smaller number of differentiated interneurons (NeuN(+)/BrdU(+) and GAD67(+) cells) in the peri-infarct cortical area 14 days after stroke. Our data confirm that stroke-induced neurogenesis is maintained but reduced in aged animals. Importantly, we now demonstrate that aging not only inhibits proliferation of specific SVZ cell subtypes but also blocks migration of neuroblasts to the damaged area and decreases the number of new interneurons in

  16. Intermittent fasting attenuates increases in neurogenesis after ischemia and reperfusion and improves recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanero, Silvia; Erion, Joanna R; Santro, Tomislav; Steyn, Frederik J; Chen, Chen; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2014-05-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is neuroprotective across a range of insults, but the question of whether extending the interval between meals alters neurogenesis after ischemia remains unexplored. We therefore measured cell proliferation, cell death, and neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery (SHAM) in mice fed ad libitum (AL) or maintained on IF for 3 months. IF was associated with twofold reductions in circulating levels of the adipocyte cytokine leptin in intact mice, but also prevented further reductions in leptin after MCAO. IF/MCAO mice also exhibit infarct volumes that were less than half those of AL/MCAO mice. We observed a 30% increase in basal cell proliferation in the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) in IF/SHAM, relative to AL/SHAM mice. However, cell proliferation after MCAO was limited in IF mice, which showed twofold increases in cell proliferation relative to IF/SHAM, whereas AL/MCAO mice exhibit fivefold increases relative to AL/SHAM. Attenuation of stroke-induced neurogenesis was correlated with reductions in cell death, with AL/MCAO mice exhibiting twice the number of dying cells relative to IF/MCAO mice. These observations indicate that IF protects against neurological damage in ischemic stroke, with circulating leptin as one possible mediator.

  17. Long-term cognitive deficits accompanied by reduced neurogenesis after soman poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Jousma, E.; van den Boom, T.M.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Smit, A.B.; Lucassen, P.J.; van Helden, H.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    To date, treatment of organophosphate (OP) poisoning shows several shortcomings, and OP-victims might suffer from lasting cognitive deficits and sleep-wake disturbances. In the present study, long-term effects of soman poisoning on learning ability, memory and neurogenesis were investigated in rats,

  18. The level of the transcription factor Pax6 is essential for controlling the balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N Sansom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell self-renewal, neurogenesis, and cell fate determination are processes that control the generation of specific classes of neurons at the correct place and time. The transcription factor Pax6 is essential for neural stem cell proliferation, multipotency, and neurogenesis in many regions of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. We used Pax6 as an entry point to define the cellular networks controlling neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis in stem cells of the developing mouse cerebral cortex. We identified the genomic binding locations of Pax6 in neocortical stem cells during normal development and ascertained the functional significance of genes that we found to be regulated by Pax6, finding that Pax6 positively and directly regulates cohorts of genes that promote neural stem cell self-renewal, basal progenitor cell genesis, and neurogenesis. Notably, we defined a core network regulating neocortical stem cell decision-making in which Pax6 interacts with three other regulators of neurogenesis, Neurog2, Ascl1, and Hes1. Analyses of the biological function of Pax6 in neural stem cells through phenotypic analyses of Pax6 gain- and loss-of-function mutant cortices demonstrated that the Pax6-regulated networks operating in neural stem cells are highly dosage sensitive. Increasing Pax6 levels drives the system towards neurogenesis and basal progenitor cell genesis by increasing expression of a cohort of basal progenitor cell determinants, including the key transcription factor Eomes/Tbr2, and thus towards neurogenesis at the expense of self-renewal. Removing Pax6 reduces cortical stem cell self-renewal by decreasing expression of key cell cycle regulators, resulting in excess early neurogenesis. We find that the relative levels of Pax6, Hes1, and Neurog2 are key determinants of a dynamic network that controls whether neural stem cells self-renew, generate cortical neurons, or generate basal progenitor cells

  19. Histopathologic characterization of the BTBR mouse model of autistic-like behavior reveals selective changes in neurodevelopmental proteins and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Stephenson Diane T

    2011-05-01

    doublecortin, PSA-NCAM and NeuroD immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and a marked reduction in the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU positive progenitors. Furthermore, a significant and profound reduction in BDNF mRNA was seen in the BTBR dentate gyrus. No significant differences were seen in the expression of AchE, mossy fiber synapses or immunoreactivities of microtubule-associated protein MAP2, parvalbumin and glutamate decarboxylase GAD65 or GAD67 isoforms. Conclusions We documented modest and selective alterations in glia, neurons and synapses in BTBR forebrain, along with reduced neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Of all markers examined, the most distinctive changes were seen in the neurodevelopmental proteins NG2, PSA-NCAM, NeuroD and DCX. Our results are consistent with aberrant development of the nervous system in BTBR mice, and may reveal novel substrates to link callosal abnormalities and autistic behaviors. The changes that we observed in the BTBR mice suggest potential novel therapeutic strategies for intervention in autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults : the Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a

  1. Proliferating neuronal progenitors in the postnatal hippocampus transiently express the proneural gene Ngn2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Ilknur; Galichet, Christophe; Watts, Colin; Parras, Carlos; Guillemot, François; Raineteau, Olivier

    2007-05-01

    Little is known of the transcription factors expressed by adult neural progenitors produced in the hippocampal neurogenic niche. Here, we study the expression of the proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurogenin-2 (Ngn2) in the adult hippocampus. We have characterized the pattern of expression of Ngn2 in the adult hippocampus using immunostaining for Ngn2 protein and a Ngn2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mouse strain. A significant proportion of Ngn2-expressing cells were mitotically active. Ngn2-GFP expression was restricted to the subgranular zone and declined with age. Neuronal markers were used to determine the phenotype of Ngn2-expressing cells. The vast majority of Ngn2-GFP-positive cells expressed the immature neuronal markers, doublecortin (DCX) and polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). Finally, the pattern of Ngn2 expression was studied following seizure induction. Our data show an increase in neurogenesis, detected in these animals by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and DCX staining that was contemporaneous with a marked increase in Ngn2-GFP-expression. Taken together, our results show that Ngn2-GFP represents a specific marker for neurogenesis and its modulation in the adult hippocampus. Ngn2 transient expression in proliferating neuronal progenitors supports the idea that it plays a significant role in adult neurogenesis.

  2. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and the Brain Repair Response to Brief Stereotaxic Insertion of a Microneedle

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    Shijie Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that transient microinjury to the brain elicits cellular and humoral responses that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Brief stereotaxic insertion and removal of a microneedle into the right hippocampus resulted in (a significantly increased expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the chemokine MIP-1a, and the proinflammatory cytokine IL12p40; (b pronounced activation of microglia and astrocytes; and (c increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. This study describes immediate and early humoral and cellular mechanisms of the brain’s response to microinjury that will be useful for the investigation of potential neuroprotective and deleterious effects of deep brain stimulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Unlocking mechanisms in interleukin-1β-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis--a role for GSK-3β and TLX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H F; Nolan, Y M

    2012-11-20

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and the orphan nuclear receptor tailless homolog (TLX) are key regulators of hippocampal neurogenesis, which has been reported to be dysregulated in both neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Inflammation is also implicated in the neuropathology of these disorders because of increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the brain. At elevated levels, IL-1β signaling through the IL-1 receptor type 1 has been shown to be detrimental to hippocampal neurogenesis. TLX is required to maintain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in an undifferentiated state and is involved in NSPC fate determination, while GSK-3β negatively regulates Wnt signaling, a vital pathway promoting neurogenesis. This study shows that GSK-3β inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor and the mood stabilizer lithium restores the IL-1β-induced decrease in NSPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation of embryonic rat hippocampal NSPCs to control levels. The IL-1β-induced effect on NSPCs is paralleled by a decrease in TLX expression that can be prevented by GSK-3β inhibition. The present results suggest that GSK-3β ameliorates the anti-proliferative and pro-gliogenic effects of IL-1β, and that TLX is vulnerable to inflammatory insult. Strategies to reduce GSK-3β activity or to increase TLX expression may facilitate the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis in neuroinflammatory conditions where neurogenesis is impaired.

  4. Enhanced IL-1beta production in response to the activation of hippocampal glial cells impairs neurogenesis in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzumaki, Naoko; Ikegami, Daigo; Imai, Satoshi; Narita, Michiko; Tamura, Rie; Yajima, Marie; Suzuki, Atsuo; Miyashita, Kazuhiko; Niikura, Keiichi; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Ando, Takayuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    A variety of mechanisms that contribute to the accumulation of age-related damage and the resulting brain dysfunction have been identified. Recently, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been recognized as one of the mechanisms of age-related brain dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanism of decreased neurogenesis with aging is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether aging decreases neurogenesis accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes, which increases the expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus, and whether in vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells directly impairs neurogenesis. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes were increased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of 28-month-old mice. Furthermore, the mRNA level of IL-1beta was significantly increased without related histone modifications. Moreover, a significant increase in lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9) trimethylation at the promoter of NeuroD (a neural progenitor cell marker) was observed in the hippocampus of aged mice. In vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells prepared from whole brain of E14.5 mice significantly increased H3K9 trimethylation at the NeuroD promoter. These findings suggest that aging may decrease hippocampal neurogenesis via epigenetic modifications accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes with the increased expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus.

  5. Magnetic resonance beacon to detect intracellular microRNA during neurogenesis.

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    Lee, Jonghwan; Jin, Yeon A; Ko, Hae Young; Lee, Yong Seung; Heo, Hyejung; Cho, Sujeong; Kim, Soonhag

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers great spatial resolution for viewing deep tissues and anatomy. We developed a self-assembling signal-on magnetic fluorescence nanoparticle to visualize intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) during neurogenesis using MRI. The self-assembling nanoparticle (miR124a MR beacon) was aggregated by the incubation of three different oligonucleotides: a 3' adaptor, a 5' adaptor, and a linker containing miR124a-binding sequences. The T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the self-assembled nanoparticle was quenched when miR124a was absent from test tubes or was minimally expressed in cells and tissues. When miR124a was present in test tubes or highly expressed in vitro and in vivo during P19 cell neurogenesis, it hybridized with the miR124a MR beacon, causing the linker to detach, resulting in increased signal-on MRI intensity. This MR beacon can be used as a new imaging probe to monitor the miRNA-mediated regulation of cellular processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Schmidt, Manfred; Walthall, William W.; Tai, Phang C.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    achaete-scute complex (ASC) genes, which encode basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulate embryonic and adult neurogenesis in many animals. In adult arthropods, including crustaceans, ASC homologs have been identified but rarely functionally characterized. We took advantage of the recently identified crustacean homolog, splash (spiny lobster achaete scute homolog), in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus to examine its role in adult neurogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that splash is associated with but not restricted to sensory neuron formation in the olfactory organ, the antennular lateral flagellum (LF), of adult spiny lobsters. We demonstrated splash labeling in epithelial cells across LF developmental zones (i.e., proliferation and mature zones), in auxiliary cells surrounding dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and in immature and mature ORNs, but not in granulocytes or chromatophores. Since ORN proliferation varies with molt stage, we examined splash expression across molt stages and found that molt stage affected splash expression in the ORN mature zone but not in the proliferation zone. In vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) showed no correlation in the cellular pattern of splash expression and BrdU labeling. The intensity of splash labeling was dramatically enhanced in the proliferation zones following LF damage, suggesting enhanced splash expression during repair and/or regeneration. We conclude that splash is not closely associated with the formation of sensory neurons under normal physiological conditions, and we propose that splash is involved in repair and regeneration. We also propose that splash has additional roles other than neurogenesis in adult crustaceans. PMID:21394934

  7. Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Klintsova, Anna; Savage, Lisa M

    2011-05-19

    Alcohol-induced Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was conducted to determine whether PTD treatment altered hippocampal neurogenesis in a stage-dependent fashion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of 4 stages of thiamine deficiency based on behavioral symptoms: pre-symptomatic stage, ataxic stage, early post-opisthotonus stage, or the late post-opisthotonus stage. The S-phase mitotic marker 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered at the conclusion of each stage following thiamine restoration and subjects were perfused 24 hours or 28 days after BrdU to assess cellular proliferation or neurogenesis and survival, respectively. Dorsal hippocampal sections were immunostained for BrdU (proliferating cell marker), NeuN (neurons), GFAP (astrocytes), Iba-1 (microglia), and O4 (oligodendrocytes). The PTD treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early post-opisthotonus stage. However, levels of neurogenesis were reduced during this stage as well as the late post-opisthotonus stage where there was also an increase in astrocytogenesis. The diminished numbers of newly generated neurons (BrdU/NeuN co-localization) was paralleled by increased BrdU cells that did not co-localize with any of the phenotypic markers during these later stages. These data demonstrate that long-term alterations in neurogenesis and gliogenesis might contribute to the observed hippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model and human WKS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Haploinsufficiency for Core Exon Junction Complex Components Disrupts Embryonic Neurogenesis and Causes p53-Mediated Microcephaly.

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    Hanqian Mao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exon junction complex (EJC is an RNA binding complex comprised of the core components Magoh, Rbm8a, and Eif4a3. Human mutations in EJC components cause neurodevelopmental pathologies. Further, mice heterozygous for either Magoh or Rbm8a exhibit aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly. Yet despite the requirement of these genes for neurodevelopment, the pathogenic mechanisms linking EJC dysfunction to microcephaly remain poorly understood. Here we employ mouse genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for each of the 3 core EJC components causes microcephaly via converging regulation of p53 signaling. Using a new conditional allele, we first show that Eif4a3 haploinsufficiency phenocopies aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly of Magoh and Rbm8a mutant mice. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of embryonic brains at the onset of neurogenesis identifies common pathways altered in each of the 3 EJC mutants, including ribosome, proteasome, and p53 signaling components. We further demonstrate all 3 mutants exhibit defective splicing of RNA regulatory proteins, implying an EJC dependent RNA regulatory network that fine-tunes gene expression. Finally, we show that genetic ablation of one downstream pathway, p53, significantly rescues microcephaly of all 3 EJC mutants. This implicates p53 activation as a major node of neurodevelopmental pathogenesis following EJC impairment. Altogether our study reveals new mechanisms to help explain how EJC mutations influence neurogenesis and underlie neurodevelopmental disease.

  9. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  10. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  11. Comparative lophotrochozoan neurogenesis and larval neuroanatomy: recent advances from previously neglected taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, A

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a number of neurodevelopmental studies of hitherto neglected taxa have become available, contributing to questions relating to the evolution of the nervous system of Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia + Lophophorata). As an example, neurogenesis of echiurans showed that these worm-shaped spiralia...

  12. Properties of doublecortin-(DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex compared to the neurogenic dentate gyrus of adult mice.

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    Friederike Klempin

    Full Text Available The piriform cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and (via the entorhinal cortex sends efferents to the hippocampus, thereby connecting the two canonical neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain. Doublecortin (DCX is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that is expressed transiently in the course of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the adult piriform cortex, which is usually considered non-neurogenic (even though some reports exist that state otherwise, also contains an abundant population of DCX-positive cells. We asked how similar these cells would be to DCX-positive cells in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Using BAC-generated transgenic mice that express GFP under the DCX promoter, we studied DCX-expression and electrophysiological properties of DCX-positive cells in the mouse piriform cortex in comparison with the dentate gyrus. While one class of cells in the piriform cortex indeed showed features similar to newly generated immature granule neurons, the majority of DCX cells in the piriform cortex was mature and revealed large Na+ currents and multiple action potentials. Furthermore, when proliferative activity was assessed, we found that all DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex were strictly postmitotic, suggesting that no DCX-positive "neuroblasts" exist here as they do in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that DCX in the piriform cortex marks a unique population of postmitotic neurons with a subpopulation that retains immature characteristics associated with synaptic plasticity. DCX is thus, per se, no marker of neurogenesis but might be associated more broadly with plasticity.

  13. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Natalia; Cédile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression......, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here...

  14. A TRPV channel modulates C. elegans neurosecretion, larval starvation survival, and adult lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For most organisms, food is only intermittently available; therefore, molecular mechanisms that couple sensation of nutrient availability to growth and development are critical for survival. These mechanisms, however, remain poorly defined. In the absence of nutrients, newly hatched first larval (L1 stage Caenorhabditis elegans halt development and survive in this state for several weeks. We isolated mutations in unc-31, encoding a calcium-activated regulator of neural dense-core vesicle release, which conferred enhanced starvation survival. This extended survival was reminiscent of that seen in daf-2 insulin-signaling deficient mutants and was ultimately dependent on daf-16, which encodes a FOXO transcription factor whose activity is inhibited by insulin signaling. While insulin signaling modulates metabolism, adult lifespan, and dauer formation, insulin-independent mechanisms that also regulate these processes did not promote starvation survival, indicating that regulation of starvation survival is a distinct program. Cell-specific rescue experiments identified a small subset of primary sensory neurons where unc-31 reconstitution modulated starvation survival, suggesting that these neurons mediate perception of food availability. We found that OCR-2, a transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV channel that localizes to the cilia of this subset of neurons, regulates peptide-hormone secretion and L1 starvation survival. Moreover, inactivation of ocr-2 caused a significant extension in adult lifespan. These findings indicate that TRPV channels, which mediate sensation of diverse noxious, thermal, osmotic, and mechanical stimuli, couple nutrient availability to larval starvation survival and adult lifespan through modulation of neural dense-core vesicle secretion.

  15. Default network modulation and large-scale network interactivity in healthy young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    We investigated age-related changes in default, attention, and control network activity and their interactions in young and old adults. Brain activity during autobiographical and visuospatial planning was assessed using multivariate analysis and with intrinsic connectivity networks as regions of interest. In both groups, autobiographical planning engaged the default network while visuospatial planning engaged the attention network, consistent with a competition between the domains of internalized and externalized cognition. The control network was engaged for both planning tasks. In young subjects, the control network coupled with the default network during autobiographical planning and with the attention network during visuospatial planning. In old subjects, default-to-control network coupling was observed during both planning tasks, and old adults failed to deactivate the default network during visuospatial planning. This failure is not indicative of default network dysfunction per se, evidenced by default network engagement during autobiographical planning. Rather, a failure to modulate the default network in old adults is indicative of a lower degree of flexible network interactivity and reduced dynamic range of network modulation to changing task demands.

  16. Long-Term Mild, rather than Intense, Exercise Enhances Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Greatly Changes the Transcriptomic Profile of the Hippocampus.

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    Koshiro Inoue

    Full Text Available Our six-week treadmill running training (forced exercise model has revealed that mild exercise (ME with an intensity below the lactate threshold (LT is sufficient to enhance spatial memory, while intense exercise (IE above the LT negates such benefits. To help understand the unrevealed neuronal and signaling/molecular mechanisms of the intensity-dependent cognitive change, in this rat model, we here investigated plasma corticosterone concentration as a marker of stress, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN as a potential contributor to this ME-induced spatial memory, and comprehensively delineated the hippocampal transcriptomic profile using a whole-genome DNA microarray analysis approach through comparison with IE. Results showed that only IE had the higher corticosterone concentration than control, and that the less intense exercise (ME is better suited to improve AHN, especially in regards to the survival and maturation of newborn neurons. DNA microarray analysis using a 4 × 44 K Agilent chip revealed that ME regulated more genes than did IE (ME: 604 genes, IE: 415 genes, and only 41 genes were modified with both exercise intensities. The identified molecular components did not comprise well-known factors related to exercise-induced AHN, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Rather, network analysis of the data using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis algorithms revealed that the ME-influenced genes were principally related to lipid metabolism, protein synthesis and inflammatory response, which are recognized as associated with AHN. In contrast, IE-influenced genes linked to excessive inflammatory immune response, which is a negative regulator of hippocampal neuroadaptation, were identified. Collectively, these results in a treadmill running model demonstrate that long-term ME, but not of IE, with minimizing running stress, has beneficial effects on increasing AHN, and provides an ME-specific gene inventory containing some potential regulators

  17. Imaging popliteal artery disease in young adults with claudication: self-assessment module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T

    2007-09-01

    The educational objectives of this self-assessment module on imaging popliteal artery disease in young adults with intermittent claudication are for the participant to exercise, self-assess, and improve his or her knowledge of the imaging and clinical features of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, cystic adventitial disease,and masses associated with popliteal artery obstruction.

  18. Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2018-02-01

    Auditory modulation during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter (AWS), but the functional relevance of the phenomenon itself remains unknown. We investigated for AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (a) a potential relationship between pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory feedback contributions to speech motor learning and (b) the effect on pre-speech auditory modulation of real-time versus delayed auditory feedback. Experiment I used a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm to estimate auditory-motor speech learning. Using acoustic speech recordings, we quantified subjects' formant frequency adjustments across trials when continually exposed to formant-shifted auditory feedback. In Experiment II, we used electroencephalography to determine the same subjects' extent of pre-speech auditory modulation (reductions in auditory evoked potential N1 amplitude) when probe tones were delivered prior to speaking versus not speaking. To manipulate subjects' ability to monitor real-time feedback, we included speaking conditions with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Experiment I showed that auditory-motor learning was limited for AWS versus AWNS, and the extent of learning was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Experiment II yielded several key findings: (a) our prior finding of limited pre-speech auditory modulation in AWS was replicated; (b) DAF caused a decrease in auditory modulation for most AWNS but an increase for most AWS; and (c) for AWS, the amount of auditory modulation when speaking with DAF was positively correlated with stuttering frequency. Lastly, AWNS showed no correlation between pre-speech auditory modulation (Experiment II) and extent of auditory-motor learning (Experiment I) whereas AWS showed a negative correlation between these measures. Thus, findings suggest that AWS show deficits in both pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory-motor learning; however, limited pre

  19. p600 regulates spindle orientation in apical neural progenitors and contributes to neurogenesis in the developing neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Belzil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apical neural progenitors (aNPs drive neurogenesis by means of a program consisting of self-proliferative and neurogenic divisions. The balance between these two manners of division sustains the pool of apical progenitors into late neurogenesis, thereby ensuring their availability to populate the brain with terminal cell types. Using knockout and in utero electroporation mouse models, we report a key role for the microtubule-associated protein 600 (p600 in the regulation of spindle orientation in aNPs, a cellular event that has been associated with cell fate and neurogenesis. We find that p600 interacts directly with the neurogenic protein Ndel1 and that aNPs knockout for p600, depleted of p600 by shRNA or expressing a Ndel1-binding p600 fragment all display randomized spindle orientation. Depletion of p600 by shRNA or expression of the Ndel1-binding p600 fragment also results in a decreased number of Pax6-positive aNPs and an increased number of Tbr2-positive basal progenitors destined to become neurons. These Pax6-positive aNPs display a tilted mitotic spindle. In mice wherein p600 is ablated in progenitors, the production of neurons is significantly impaired and this defect is associated with microcephaly. We propose a working model in which p600 controls spindle orientation in aNPs and discuss its implication for neurogenesis.

  20. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

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    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  1. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse

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    Masayuki Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs.

  2. Post-stroke gaseous hypothermia increases vascular density but not neurogenesis in the ischemic penumbra of aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Uzoni, Adriana; Ciobanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    of several genes involved in protein degradation, thereby leading to better preservation of infarcted tissue. Further, hypothermia increased the density of newly formed blood vessels in the peri-lesional cortex did not enhance neurogenesis in the infarcted area of aged rats. Likewise, there was improved......-PCR and immunofluorescence, we assessed infarct size, vascular density, neurogenesis and as well as the expression of genes coding for proteasomal proteins as well as in post-stroke aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to H2S- induced hypothermia. Results: Two days exposure to mild hypothermia diminishes the expression...

  3. NMDA and kainate receptor expression, long-term potentiation, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Darland, Diane; Lei, Saobo; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2012-06-01

    In the current study, we investigated changes in N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate receptor expression, long-term potentiation (LTP), and neurogenesis in response to neurotoxic stress in long-living Ames dwarf mice. We hypothesized that Ames dwarf mice have enhanced neurogenesis that enables retention of spatial learning and memory with age and promotes neurogenesis in response to injury. Levels of the NMDA receptors (NR)1, NR2A, NR2B, and the kainate receptor (KAR)2 were increased in Ames dwarf mice, relative to wild-type littermates. Quantitative assessment of the excitatory postsynaptic potential in Schaffer collaterals in hippocampal slices from Ames dwarf mice showed an increased response in high-frequency induced LTP over time compared with wild type. Kainic acid (KA) injection was used to promote neurotoxic stress-induced neurogenesis. KA mildly increased the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in wild-type mice, but the response was significantly enhanced in the Ames dwarf mice. Collectively, these data support our hypothesis that the enhanced learning and memory associated with the Ames dwarf mouse may be due to elevated levels of NMDA and KA receptors in hippocampus and their ability to continue producing new neurons in response to neuronal damage.

  4. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  5. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  6. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-05-01

    Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults. In this prospective cohort study, we used one-week daily-life trunk acceleration data of 272 adults over 65 years of age. Sample entropy (SE) of the 3D acceleration signals was calculated to quantify daily life gait quality. To quantify perceived gait stability, the level of concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale international (FES-I) questionnaire and step length, estimated from the accelerometer data. A fall calendar was used to record fall incidence during a six-month follow up period. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between falling and SE, step length or FES-I score, and their interactions. High (i.e., poor) SE in vertical direction was significantly associated with falling. FES-I scores significantly modulated this association, whereas step length did not. Subgroup analyses based on FES-I scores showed that high SE in the vertical direction was a risk factor for falls only in older adults who had a high (i.e. poor) FES-I score. In conclusion, perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falls in older adults such that an association between gait quality and falling is only present when perceived gait stability is poor. The results of the present study indicate that the effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention, aimed at improving gait quality, may be affected by a modulating effect of perceived gait stability. Results indicate that interventions to reduce falls in older adults might sort most effectiveness in populations with both a poor physiological and psychological status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of neuronal differentiation by CD40 isoforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huayu; Obregon, Demian; Lou, Deyan; Ehrhart, Jared; Fernandez, Frank; Silver, Archie; Tan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Neuron differentiation is a complex process involving various cell-cell interactions, and multiple signaling pathways. We showed previously that CD40 is expressed and functional on mouse and human neurons. In neurons, ligation of CD40 protects against serum withdrawal-induced injury and plays a role in survival and differentiation. CD40 deficient mice display neuron dysfunction, aberrant neuron morphologic changes, and associated gross brain abnormalities. Previous studies by Tone and colleagues suggested that five isoforms of CD40 exist with two predominant isoforms expressed in humans: signal-transducible CD40 type I and a C-terminal truncated, non-signal-transducible CD40 type II. We hypothesized that differential expression of CD40 isoform type I and type II in neurons may modulate neuron differentiation. Results show that adult wild-type, and CD40 -/- deficient mice predominantly express CD40 type I and II isoforms. Whereas adult wild-type mice express mostly CD40 type I in cerebral tissues at relatively high levels, in age and gender-matched CD40 -/- mice CD40 type I expression was almost completely absent; suggesting a predominance of the non-signal-transducible CD40 type II isoform. Younger, 1 day old wild-type mice displayed less CD40 type I, and more CD40 type II, as well as, greater expression of soluble CD40 (CD40L/CD40 signal inhibitor), compared with 1 month old mice. Neuron-like N2a cells express CD40 type I and type II isoforms while in an undifferentiated state, however once induced to differentiate, CD40 type I predominates. Further, differentiated N2a cells treated with CD40 ligand express high levels of neuron specific nuclear protein (NeuN); an effect reduced by anti-CD40 type I siRNA, but not by control (non-targeting) siRNA. Altogether these data suggest that CD40 isoforms may act in a temporal fashion to modulate neuron differentiation during brain development. Thus, modulation of neuronal CD40 isoforms and CD40 signaling may represent

  8. Dynamic learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis: an update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, APR 1 (2014), s. 106 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : learning * memory * synaptic plasticity * neurogenesis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  9. Ascl1 Coordinately Regulates Gene Expression and the Chromatin Landscape during Neurogenesis

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    Alexandre A.S.F. Raposo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The proneural transcription factor Ascl1 coordinates gene expression in both proliferating and differentiating progenitors along the neuronal lineage. Here, we used a cellular model of neurogenesis to investigate how Ascl1 interacts with the chromatin landscape to regulate gene expression when promoting neuronal differentiation. We find that Ascl1 binding occurs mostly at distal enhancers and is associated with activation of gene transcription. Surprisingly, the accessibility of Ascl1 to its binding sites in neural stem/progenitor cells remains largely unchanged throughout their differentiation, as Ascl1 targets regions of both readily accessible and closed chromatin in proliferating cells. Moreover, binding of Ascl1 often precedes an increase in chromatin accessibility and the appearance of new regions of open chromatin, associated with de novo gene expression during differentiation. Our results reveal a function of Ascl1 in promoting chromatin accessibility during neurogenesis, linking the chromatin landscape at Ascl1 target regions with the temporal progression of its transcriptional program.

  10. Inhibition of Neurogenesis by Zika virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahim; Siddiqui, Amna; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sohrab, Sayed S

    2018-02-01

    The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States. Additionally, the virus can also be transmitted from males to females by sexual contact. The epidemiological investigations during the current outbreak found a causal link between infection in pregnant women and development of microcephaly in their unborn babies. This finding is a cause for grave concern since microcephaly is a serious neural developmental disorder that can lead to significant post-natal developmental abnormalities and disabilities. Recently, published data indicate that Zika virus infection affects the growth of fetal neural progenitor cells and cerebral neurons that results in malformation of cerebral cortex leading to microcephaly. Recently, it has been reported that Zika virus infection deregulates the signaling pathway of neuronal cell and inhibit the neurogenesis resulting into dementia. In this review we have discussed about the information about cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration of human neuronal cells and inhibit the neurogenesis. Additionally, this information will be very helpful further not only in neuro-scientific research but also designing and development of management strategies for microcephaly and other mosquito borne disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Curcumin enhances neurogenesis and cognition in aged rats: implications for transcriptional interactions related to growth and synaptic plasticity.

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    Suzhen Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity.

  12. Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. Siobhan; Xiu, Jin; Tiwari, Jyoti K.; Hu, Yinghe; Cao, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. Methodology We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. Conclusions The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity. PMID:22359574

  13. Radiation-induced disruption of hippocampal redox homeostasis, neurogenesis and cognitive function: protective role of melatonin and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, Kailash

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of neuronal tissues to ionizing radiation depends on the rate of differentiation and accompanying factors of the tissues as well as on the efficiency of the intrinsic antioxidative defense systems. Neurogenic area in the adult brain are reported be highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. While the pathogenesis of radiation induced cognitive impairment is not well understood, recent studies indicated that neuronal precursor cells in the hippocampus may be involved. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique in that it is one of two regions in the mammalian brain that continues to produce new neurons in adulthood. Moreover, brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage and in fact early studies demonstrating the ease of peroxidation of brain membranes supported this notion. Brain is enriched in the more easily peroxidizable fatty acids, consumes an inordinate fraction (20%) of the total oxygen consumption for its relatively small weight (2%), and is not particularly enriched in antioxidant defenses. Our recent findings showed an inverse relationship between mice cognitive performance and cellular indicators of oxidative stress or redox status which was reported in the term glutathione homeostasis (GSH/GSSG), DNA damage, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Radiation exposure severely impaired the hipocampal neurogenesis as measure in the terms of immunoreactivity of immature and proliferating neurons in dentate gyrus, the doublecortin (Dcx) and Ki-67 positive cells respectively. Our results showed a significant implication of hippocampus neurogenesis in cognitive functions and pre-treatment of melatonin and its metabolites significantly protected the neurogenic potential of brain and thereby the cognitive functions. (author)

  14. CXCL12-mediated feedback from granule neurons regulates generation and positioning of new neurons in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Philipp; Wüst, Hannah M; Arnold, Sebastian J; van de Pavert, Serge A; Stumm, Ralf

    2018-03-14

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in learning and memory processing. It is tightly controlled at several levels including progenitor proliferation as well as migration, differentiation and integration of new neurons. Hippocampal progenitors and immature neurons reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and are equipped with the CXCL12-receptor CXCR4 which contributes to defining the SGZ as neurogenic niche. The atypical CXCL12-receptor CXCR7 functions primarily by sequestering extracellular CXCL12 but whether CXCR7 is involved in adult neurogenesis has not been assessed. We report that granule neurons (GN) upregulate CXCL12 and CXCR7 during dentate gyrus maturation in the second postnatal week. To test whether GN-derived CXCL12 regulates neurogenesis and if neuronal CXCR7 receptors influence this process, we conditionally deleted Cxcl12 and Cxcr7 from the granule cell layer. Cxcl12 deletion resulted in lower numbers, increased dispersion and abnormal dendritic growth of immature GN and reduced neurogenesis. Cxcr7 ablation caused an increase in progenitor proliferation and progenitor numbers and reduced dispersion of immature GN. Thus, we provide a new mechanism where CXCL12-signals from GN prevent dispersion and support maturation of newborn GN. CXCR7 receptors of GN modulate the CXCL12-mediated feedback from GN to the neurogenic niche. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A dynamical systems approach to characterizing the contribution of neurogenesis to neural coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merav Stern

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain new neurons are being born throughout adult life in two specific regions: the dentate gyrus (Eriksson et al., 1998 and the olfactory bulb (Lazarini and Lledo, 2011. The neurogenesis process has been shown to play an important role in a number of memory tasks and learning behaviors (Aimone et al., 2011; Deng et al., 2010; Ming and Song, 2011; Sahay et al., 2011. In the olfactory bulb, impaired adult neurogenesis can also lead to a number of deficits in odor-guided behaviors (Lazarini and Lledo, 2011. Importantly, from a clinical standpoint, altered neurogenesis has been implicated in a number of cognitive disorders including early onset Alzheimer’s disease (Mu and Gage, 2011, in the regulation of emotion, and in mediating of some of the behavioral effects of antidepressants (Sahay et al., 2007; Sahay and Hen, 2007. However, despite the clinical importance and fundamental biological questions that neurogenesis embodies, the specific mechanisms of how adult-born neurons contribute to memory and cognitive function remain a matter of intense debate (Aimone et al., 2011; Lazarini and Lledo, 2011; Ming and Song, 2011; Sahay et al., 2011. In fact, a recent study pointed out that young neurons might not have a pre-determined function and acquire distinct responses depending on prior sensory experience and its behavioral context (Livneh et al., 2014. Here we use computational analyses to demonstrate how the relatively small number of newly added neurons can place a network in the regime where its ability to reproduce desired output signals, for example as part of pattern completion, is substantially enhanced. Specifically, we consider a recurrent firing rate network model with balanced excitation and inhibition and study how the addition of neurons changes its computational capacity. The simulation results (Figure 1 yielded estimates of the optimal number of young neurons and their hyperexcitatbility relatively to mature neurons

  16. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Natalia; Cedile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Bagnis, Claude; Durbec, Pascale; Boucraut, José

    2011-01-01

    Improving and controlling the capacity of endogenous or grafted adult neural stem cells to repair the nervous system relies on a better knowledge of interactions between immune cells and neural stem cells. Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family members comprise numerous proteins playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression of two MHC class I-related members by neural stem/progenitor cells: retinoic acid early induced transcript (RAE)-1 and CD1d. The expression of RAE-1 but not CD1d disappears when differentiation of neurosphere cells is induced. Interestingly, RAE-1 transcripts are expressed in the brain during development, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here, we do not detect any NKG2D expression in the SVZ either in physiological or in pathological conditions. Interestingly, inhibition of RAE-1 expression in neurosphere cells reduces cell proliferation without alteration of cell viability, which argues for a nonimmune role for RAE-1. These results reveal an unexpected role of RAE-1 in regulating adult SVZ neurogenesis by supporting stem/progenitor cells proliferation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults.

  18. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reverses the neurogenesis and behavioral recovery promoted by forced limb-use in stroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Qu, Huiling; Zhao, Yi; Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Mei; Li, Yong; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Cao, Yunpeng; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Forced limb-use can enhance neurogenesis and behavioral recovery as well as increasing the level of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in stroke rats. We examined whether the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway is involved in the enhanced neurogenesis and promoted behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use in the chronic phase of stroke. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was used to block the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway in the ischemic rats. Brain ischemia was induced by endothelin-1. One week after ischemia, the unimpaired forelimb of rats was immobilized for 3 weeks. The proliferation, migration, and survival of DCX-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the dendritic complexity of DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as the inflammatory response in the infarcted striatum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Functional recovery was assessed in beam-walking and water maze tests. Forced limb-use enhanced the proliferation, migration, dendritic complexity and the survival of newborn neurons. Furthermore, forced limb-use suppressed the inflammatory response and improved both motor and cognitive functions after stroke. AMD3100 significantly abrogated the enhanced neurogenesis and behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use without influencing the inflammatory response. SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway seems to be involved in the enhancement of neurogenesis and behavioral recovery induced by post-stroke forced limb-use.

  19. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro (ZC on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase or 45 (late phase days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes.

  20. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  1. Reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in the cochlear nuclei after cochlear deafferentation

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    Brahim Tighilet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the cochlear nucleus sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to one month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal cochlear nucleus and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e. microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and downregulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  2. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis/aims of study Two percent of adolescents and adults suffers from enuresis. In this age group, social problems can arise. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapy-resistant group of adolescents and adults with enuresis, provided by a

  3. Electrophysiological and gene expression characterization of the ontogeny of nestin-expressing cells in the adult mouse midbrain

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    Anupama Dey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the adult midbrain is important for progressing dopamine cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Most studies suggest newborn cells remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia within the adult midbrain. However, some studies suggest nestin + neural precursor cells (NPCs have a propensity to generate new neurons here. We sought to confirm this by administering tamoxifen to adult NesCreERT2/R26eYFP transgenic mice, which permanently labelled adult nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP. eYFP+ midbrain cells were then characterized 1–32 weeks later in acutely prepared brain slices using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology combined with single-cell RT-qPCR. Most eYFP+ cells exhibited a mature neuronal phenotype with large amplitude fast action potentials (APs, spontaneous post-synaptic currents (sPSCs, and expression of ‘mature’ neuronal genes (NeuN, Gad1, Gad2 and/or VGLUT2. This was the case even at the earliest time-point following tamoxifen (i.e. 1 week. In comparison to neighboring eYFP− (control cells, eYFP+ cells discharged more APs per unit current injection, and had faster AP time-to-peak, hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, smaller membrane capacitance and shorter duration sPSCs. eYFP+ cells were also differentiated from eYFP− cells by increased expression of ‘immature’ pro-neuronal genes (Pax6, Ngn2 and/or Msx1. However, further analyses failed to reveal evidence of a place of birth, neuronal differentiation, maturation and integration indicative of classical neurogenesis. Thus our findings do not support the notion that nestin + NPCs in the adult SNc and midbrain generate new neurons via classical neurogenesis. Rather, they raise the possibility that mature neurons express nestin under unknown circumstances, and that this is associated with altered physiology and gene expression.

  4. The Histamine H1 Receptor Participates in the Increased Dorsal Telencephalic Neurogenesis in Embryos from Diabetic Rats

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    Karina H. Solís

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased neuron telencephalic differentiation during deep cortical layer formation has been reported in embryos from diabetic mice. Transitory histaminergic neurons within the mesencephalon/rhombencephalon are responsible for fetal histamine synthesis during development, fibers from this system arrives to the frontal and parietal cortex at embryo day (E 15. Histamine is a neurogenic factor for cortical neural stem cells in vitro through H1 receptor (H1R which is highly expressed during corticogenesis in rats and mice. Furthermore, in utero administration of an H1R antagonist, chlorpheniramine, decreases the neuron markers microtubuline associated protein 2 (MAP2 and forkhead box protein 2. Interestingly, in the diabetic mouse model of diabetes induced with streptozotocin, an increase in fetal neurogenesis in terms of MAP2 expression in the telencephalon is reported at E11.5. Because of the reported effects on cortical neuron differentiation of maternal diabetes in one hand and of histamine in the other, here the participation of histamine and H1R on the increased dorsal telencephalic neurogenesis was explored. First, the increased neurogenesis in the dorsal telencephalon at E14 in diabetic rats was corroborated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Then, changes during corticogenesis in the level of histamine was analyzed by ELISA and in H1R expression by