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Sample records for adult muscle build-up

  1. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  2. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    I present a summary of topics relevant to the electron-cloud build-up and dissipation that were presented at the International Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects 'ECLOUD 07' (Daegu, S. Korea, April 9-12, 2007). This summary is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the talks. Rather, I focus on those developments that I found, in my personal opinion, especially interesting. The contributions, all excellent, are posted in http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ecloud07/

  3. Build-up and management of transuranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1984-01-01

    About 17,000,000 kW is generated by nuclear power station at present and this figure correspond to 20 % of total power generation in Japan, and is expected to increase year after year. Following the increase of power generation, build-up of Transuraium from nuclear power station will increase as a matter of course. In 2,000 AD; the build-up of Pu and TPu is expected to reach up to 200 T(TPu = 24 T). Effective management of TPu build-up is now an urgent problem Recycling of Pu and TPu including LWR-Pu recycling, ATR-Pu recycling and FBR-Pu recycling were investigated. In LWR-Pu recycling, recycling quantities of Pu and TPu, and generation of power increase following the repetition of recycling. In ATR-Pu recycling, the increase of TPu following recycling is more remakable than that of LWR-Pu recycling. On the contrary, in FBR-Pu recycling, TPu decreases following the repetition of recycling. The decrease of TPu is thought to be caused by extinction effect in FBR. All of these recycling are suitable for the utilization of Pu, but FBR-Pu recycling is most effective for utilization of Pu and decrease of TPu. Accordingly, when LWR or ATR recycling is applied, Pu shall be transferred to FBR after 1 - 2 recycling. For long-term management of TPu, recycling is not sufficient and some positive method such as oxtinction by strong neutron source like proton linear accelerator is necessary. Fundamental researches on nuclear fuel cycle, nuclide separation method and extinction process of TPu must be carried out. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  4. Heterogeneity among muscle precursor cells in adult skeletal muscles with differing regenerative capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlath, G K; Thaloor, D; Rando, T A; Cheong, M; English, A W; Zheng, B

    1998-08-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, although studies of muscle regeneration have heretofore been limited almost exclusively to limb musculature. Muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle are responsible for the repair of damaged muscle. Heterogeneity exists in the growth and differentiation properties of muscle precursor cell (myoblast) populations throughout limb development but whether the muscle precursor cells differ among adult skeletal muscles is unknown. Such heterogeneity among myoblasts in the adult may give rise to skeletal muscles with different regenerative capacities. Here we compare the regenerative response of a masticatory muscle, the masseter, to that of limb muscles. After exogenous trauma (freeze or crush injuries), masseter muscle regenerated much less effectively than limb muscle. In limb muscle, normal architecture was restored 12 days after injury, whereas in masseter muscle, minimal regeneration occurred during the same time period. Indeed, at late time points, masseter muscles exhibited increased fibrous connective tissue in the region of damage, evidence of ineffective muscle regeneration. Similarly, in response to endogenous muscle injury due to a muscular dystrophy, widespread evidence of impaired regeneration was present in masseter muscle but not in limb muscle. To explore the cellular basis of these different regenerative capacities, we analyzed the myoblast populations of limb and masseter muscles both in vivo and in vitro. From in vivo analyses, the number of myoblasts in regenerating muscle was less in masseter compared with limb muscle. Assessment of population growth in vitro indicated that masseter myoblasts grow more slowly than limb myoblasts under identical conditions. We conclude that the impaired regeneration in masseter muscles is due to differences in the intrinsic myoblast populations compared to limb muscles.

  5. Normal isometric strength of rotator cuff muscles in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for e...

  6. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  7. Pervasive satellite cell contribution to uninjured adult muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Pulliam, Crystal; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Kardon, Gabrielle; Olwin, Bradley B

    2015-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle adapts to functional needs, maintaining consistent numbers of myonuclei and stem cells. Although resident muscle stem cells or satellite cells are required for muscle growth and repair, in uninjured muscle, these cells appear quiescent and metabolically inactive. To investigate the satellite cell contribution to myofibers in adult uninjured skeletal muscle, we labeled satellite cells by inducing a recombination of LSL-tdTomato in Pax7(CreER) mice and scoring tdTomato+ myofibers as an indicator of satellite cell fusion. Satellite cell fusion into myofibers plateaus postnatally between 8 and 12 weeks of age, reaching a steady state in hindlimb muscles, but in extra ocular or diaphragm muscles, satellite cell fusion is maintained at postnatal levels irrespective of the age assayed. Upon recombination and following a 2-week chase in 6-month-old mice, tdTomato-labeled satellite cells fused into myofibers as 20, 50, and 80 % of hindlimb, extra ocular, and diaphragm myofibers, respectively, were tdTomato+. Satellite cells contribute to uninjured myofibers either following a cell division or directly without an intervening cell division. The frequency of satellite cell fusion into the skeletal muscle fibers is greater than previously estimated, suggesting an important functional role for satellite cell fusion into adult myofibers and a requirement for active maintenance of satellite cell numbers in uninjured skeletal muscle.

  8. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  9. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  10. Build Up Your Bones! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Build Up Your Bones! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Exercise ... who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis. The Best Bone-Building Exercise The best exercise for your bones ...

  11. Energy absorption and exposure build-up factors in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma and X-radiation are widely used in medical imaging and radiation therapy. The user of radioisotopes must have knowledge about how radiation interacts with matter, especially with the human body, because when photons enter the medium/body, they degrade their energy and build up in the medium, giving rise to secondary radiation which can be estimated by a factor which is called the 'build-up factor'. It is essential to study the exposure build up factor in radiation dosimetry. G.P. fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption and exposure build-up factor of teeth (enamel outer surface (EOS), enamel middle (EM), enamel dentin junction towards enamel (EDJE), enamel dentin junction towards dentin (EDJD), dentin middle (DM) and dentin inner surface (DIS)) for wide energy range (0.015 MeV-15 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 40 mean free path. The dependence of energy absorption and exposure build up factor on incident photon energy, Penetration depth and effective atomic number has also been assessed. The relative dose distribution at a distance r from the point source is also estimated. The computed exposure and absorption build-up factors are useful to estimate the gamma and Bremsstrahlung radiation dose distribution teeth which is useful in clinical dosimetry

  12. Energy absorption build-up factors in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2012-01-01

    Geometric progression fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption build-up factor of teeth [enamel outer surface, enamel middle, enamel dentin junction towards enamel, enamel dentin junction towards dentin, dentin middle and dentin inner surface] for wide energy range (0.015-15 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 40 mean free path. The dependence of energy absorption build-up factor on incident photon energy, penetration depth, electron density and effective atomic number has also been studied. The energy absorption build-up factors increases with the penetration depth and electron density of teeth. So that the degree of violation of Lambert-Beer (I = I 0 e -μt ) law is less for least penetration depth and electron density. The energy absorption build-up factors for different regions of teeth are not same hence the energy absorbed by the different regions of teeth is not uniform which depends on the composition of the medium. The relative dose of gamma in different regions of teeth is also estimated. Dosimetric implication of energy absorption build-up factor in teeth has also been discussed. The estimated absorption build up factors in different regions of teeth may be useful in the electron spin resonance dosimetry. (author)

  13. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  14. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  15. Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Eftestøl

    Full Text Available Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear.

  16. Intel Legend and CERN would build up high speed Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Intel, Legend and China Education and Research Network jointly announced on the 25th of April that they will be cooperating with each other to build up the new generation high speed internet, over the next three years (1/2 page).

  17. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  18. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  19. The lumbrical muscle: a novel in situ system to evaluate adult skeletal muscle proteolysis and anticatabolic drugs for therapeutic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantin, Leandro Bueno; Figueiredo, Leonardo Bruno; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    The molecular regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis and the pharmacological screening of anticatabolic drugs have been addressed by measuring tyrosine release from prepubertal rat skeletal muscles, which are thin enough to allow adequate in vitro diffusion of oxygen and substrates. However, the use of muscle at accelerated prepubertal growth has limited the analysis of adult muscle proteolysis or that associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we established the adult rat lumbrical muscle (4/hindpaw; 8/rat) as a new in situ experimental model for dynamic measurement of skeletal muscle proteolysis. By incubating lumbrical muscles attached to their individual metatarsal bones in Tyrode solution, we showed that the muscle proteolysis rate of adult and aged rats (3-4 to 24 mo old) is 45-25% of that in prepubertal animals (1 mo old), which makes questionable the usual extrapolation of proteolysis from prepubertal to adult/senile muscles. While acute mechanical injury or 1- to 7-day denervation increased tyrosine release from adult lumbrical muscle by up to 60%, it was reduced by 20-28% after 2-h incubation with β-adrenoceptor agonists, forskolin or phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. Using inhibitors of 26S-proteasome (MG132), lysosome (methylamine), or calpain (E64/leupeptin) systems, we showed that ubiquitin-proteasome is accountable for 40-50% of total lumbrical proteolysis of adult, middle-aged, and aged rats. In conclusion, the lumbrical model allows the analysis of muscle proteolysis rate from prepubertal to senile rats. By permitting eight simultaneous matched measurements per rat, the new model improves similar protocols performed in paired extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from prepubertal rats, optimizing the pharmacological screening of drugs for anticatabolic purposes.

  20. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O. [Vattenfall AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up.

  1. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up

  2. PyECLOUD and build-up simulations at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, G; Rumolo, G

    2013-01-01

    PyECLOUD is a newly developed code for the simulation of the electron cloud (EC) build-up in particle accelerators. Almost entirely written in Python, it is mostly based on the physical models already used in the ECLOUD code but, thanks to the implementation of new optimized algorithms, it exhibits a significantly improved performance in accuracy, speed, reliability and flexibility. Such new features of PyECLOUD have been already broadly exploited to study EC observations in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain as well as for the extrapolation to high luminosity upgrade scenarios. (author)

  3. Scintiscanning of arthritis and analysis of build-up curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tsuneo; Omori, Shigeo; Miyawaki, Haruo; Maniwa, Masato; Yoshizaki, Kenichi

    1975-01-01

    In the present study 40 knee joints with rheumatoid arthritis, 23 knee joints with osteoarthrosis deformans, 3 knee joints with non-synovitis, one knee joint with pyogenic arthritis and 4 normal knee joints were scanned. By analysis of build-up curves obtained immediately after the intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, the rate of accumulation of radioactivity (t 1/2) in the affected joints was simultaneously estimated in order to compare them with clinical findings. 1. Scintiscanning of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans of the knee joint, non-specific synovitis, and pyogenic arthritis of the knee joint, yielded a positive scan for all of the joint diseases. 2. In the scintigram of healthy knee joints, there are no areas of RI accumulation or right to left difference. 3. In some instances abnormal uptake of RI was seen on scintigrams of arthritis even after normal clinical and laboratory findings had been achieved with therapy. 4. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, a radionuclide with a short half-life, allows repeated scans and provides a useful radiologic means of evaluating therapeutic course and effectiveness. 5. Analysis of build-up curves revealed that the rate of accumulation of RI was faster in rheumatoid arthritis than in osteoarthrosis deformans. (auth.)

  4. Temperature rise and Heat build up inside a parked Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Rose; Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the heat build up inside a parked car under the hot summer Sun. Inside and outside temperatures were monitored every ten seconds from 9 AM to about 4 PM for a 2000 Toyota Camry parked in a Winthrop University parking lot without any shades or trees. Two PASCO temperature sensors, one inside the car and the other outside the car, are used along with PASCO-750 interface to collect the data. Data were collected under the following conditions while keeping track of the outside weather: fully closed windows, slightly open windows, half way open windows, fully open windows, and with window shades inside and outside. Inside temperatures reached as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit on a sunny day with outside high temperature of about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. These results will be presented along with results from car cover and window tint manufacturers and suggestions to keep your car cool next time you park it under the Sun.

  5. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Theory and Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a broad-brush survey of the phenomenology, history and importance of the electron-cloud effect (ECE). We briefly discuss the simulation techniques used to quantify the electron-cloud (EC) dynamics. Finally, we present in more detail an effective theory to describe the EC density build-up in terms of a few effective parameters. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire 'ECLOUD' series. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC.

  6. Dual role of delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) in skeletal muscle development and adult muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Laborda, Jorge; Baladron, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    skeletal muscle regeneration by substantial enhancement of the myogenic program and muscle function, possibly by means of an increased number of available myogenic precursor cells. By contrast, Dlk1 fails to alter the adipogenic commitment of muscle-derived progenitors in vitro, as well as intramuscular......Muscle development and regeneration is tightly orchestrated by a specific set of myogenic transcription factors. However, factors that regulate these essential myogenic inducers remain poorly described. Here, we show that delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1), an imprinted gene best known for its ability...... fat deposition during in vivo regeneration. Collectively, our results suggest a novel and surprising dual biological function of DLK1 as an enhancer of muscle development, but as an inhibitor of adult muscle regeneration....

  7. Study of Charge Build Up in UCN Storage Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Mark; Abney, Josh; Swank, Christopher; Filippone, Bradley; Yao, Weijun; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The neutron EDM collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source(ORNL) is using ultra-cold neutrons in superfluid helium to improve the nEDM limit by about two orders of magnitude. These neutrons will be stored in target cells located in a strong, stable electric field. Local radiation will generate charged particles which may build up on the target cell walls reducing field strength over time. The field changes need to be kept below 1%, making it necessary to study this cell charging behavior, determine its effect on the experiment and find ways to mitigate this. In order to study this cell charging effect, a compact test setup was designed. Using this scaled down model, charged particles are generated by a 137Cs source and the electric field is monitored via the electo-optic Kerr effect. Liquid nitrogen has a much stronger response to electric fields than helium, making it an ideal candidate for first tests. Cell charging effects have been observed in liquid nitrogen. These results along with the experimental technique and progress toward a superfluid helium measurement will also be presented. This research is supported by DOE Grants: DE-FG02-99ER41101, DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  8. Numerical Simulation of rivulet build up via lubrication equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, N.; Croce, G.

    2017-11-01

    A number of engineering problems involve the evolution of a thin layer of liquid over a non-wettable substrate. For example, CO2 chemical absorption is carried out in packed columns, where post-combustion CO2 flows up while liquid solvent falls down through a collection of corrugated sheets. Further application include, among others, in-flight icing simulations, moisture condensation on de-humidifier fins, fogging build up and removal. Here, we present a development of an in-house code solving numerically the 2D lubrication equation for a film flowing down an inclined plate. The disjoining pressure approach is followed, in order to model both the contact line discontinuity and the surface wettability. With respect to the original implementation, the full modeling of capillary pressure terms according to Young- Laplace relation allows to investigate contact angles close to π/2. The code is thus validated with literature numerical results, obtained by a fully 3D approach (VOF), showing satisfying agreement despite a strong reduction in terms of computational cost. Steady and unsteady wetting dynamics of a developing rivulet are investigated (and validated) under different load conditions and for different values of the contact angles.

  9. Build up of Radioactive Krypton and Xenon Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. K.; Choi, C. S.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, W.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, C. W.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to build up an analysis system to measure the activity of the atmospheric radioactive krypton and xenon in Korea. The work scopes of the project include the purchase and the installation of the analysis system to measure the activity of the radioactive krypton and xenon in air, and the establishment of the operation capability of the system through the training of the operator. The system consists of two air sampling systems, and one radioactivity analysis system, which incorporates the enrichment system, the gas chromatography to purify a mixture gas, and the gas proportional counter to count the activity of pure krypton and xenon gas. As planned originally, the establishment of the analysis system has been completed. At present, one air sampler is successfully being operated at a specific site of the South Korea to measure the background radioactivities of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in air. The other air sampler is being reserved at the KAERI in the Daejeon for a emergency like the second nuclear test of the North Korea. During the normal time, the reserved air sampler will be used to collect the air sample for the performance test of the analysis system and the cross analysis for the calibration of the system. The radioactivity analysis system has been installed at the KAERI, and is being used to measure the activity of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in the air sample from a domestic site

  10. Induction of GLUT-1 protein in adult human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Staehr, P

    2000-01-01

    Prompted by our recent observations that GLUT-1 is expressed in fetal muscles, but not in adult muscle fibers, we decided to investigate whether GLUT-1 expression could be reactivated. We studied different stimuli concerning their ability to induce GLUT-1 expression in mature human skeletal muscle...... fibers. Metabolic stress (obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), contractile activity (training), and conditions of de- and reinnervation (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) could not induce GLUT-1 expression in human muscle fibers. However, regenerating muscle fibers in polymyositis expressed...... GLUT-1. In contrast to GLUT-1, GLUT-4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibers. Although the significance of GLUT-1 in adult human muscle fibers appears limited, GLUT-1 may be of importance for the glucose supplies in immature and regenerating muscle....

  11. Orbital Floor Fracture with Atypical Extraocular Muscle Entrapment Pattern and Intraoperative Asystole in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Farhan I.; Grant, Michael P.; Mahoney, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscle entrapment in a nondisplaced orbital fracture, although a well-known entity in pediatric trauma, is atypical in adults. It can present with a triad of bradycardia, nausea, and in rare cases, syncope, and result in severe fibrosis of damaged and incarcerated muscle. We present a case of muscle entrapment in a partially nondisplaced two-wall orbital fracture with accompanying preoperative bradycardia and intraoperative asystole in an adult PMID:26576246

  12. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with osteoporosis in older Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ma

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, muscle strength rather than muscle mass is negatively associated with OS in older people; thus, we should pay more attention to muscle strength training in the early stage of the OS.

  13. Patterning Muscles Using Organizers: Larval Muscle Templates and Adult Myoblasts Actively Interact to Pattern the Dorsal Longitudinal Flight Muscles of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipto; VijayRaghavan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pattern formation in muscle development is often mediated by special cells called muscle organizers. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, a set of larval muscles function as organizers and provide scaffolding for the development of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles. These organizers undergo defined morphological changes and dramatically split into templates as adult fibers differentiate during pupation. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in the use of larval fibers as templates. Using molecular markers that label myoblasts and the larval muscles themselves, we show that splitting of the larval muscles is concomitant with invasion by imaginal myoblasts and the onset of differentiation. We show that the Erect wing protein, an early marker of muscle differentiation, is not only expressed in myoblasts just before and after fusion, but also in remnant larval nuclei during muscle differentiation. We also show that interaction between imaginal myoblasts and larval muscles is necessary for transformation of the larval fibers. In the absence of imaginal myoblasts, the earliest steps in metamorphosis, such as the escape of larval muscles from histolysis and changes in their innervation, are normal. However, subsequent events, such as the splitting of these muscles, fail to progress. Finally, we show that in a mutant combination, null for Erect wing function in the mesoderm, the splitting of the larval muscles is aborted. These studies provide a genetic and molecular handle for the understanding of mechanisms underlying the use of muscle organizers in muscle patterning. Since the use of such organizers is a common theme in myogenesis in several organisms, it is likely that many of the processes that we describe are conserved. PMID:9606206

  14. Effect of generalized joint hypermobility on knee function and muscle activation in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Olesen, Annesofie T.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated muscle activation strategy and performance of knee extensor and flexor muscles in children and adults with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and compared them with controls. Methods: Muscle activation, torque steadiness, electromechanical delay, and muscle strength...... were evaluated in 39 children and 36 adults during isometric knee extension and flexion. Subjects performed isometric maximum contractions, submaximal contractions at 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and explosive contractions. Results: Agonist activation was reduced, and coactivation ratio...... was greater in GJH during knee flexion compared with controls. Torque steadiness was impaired in adults with GJH during knee flexion. No effect of GJH was found on muscle strength or electromechanical delay. Correlation analysis revealed an association between GJH severity and function in adults. Conclusions...

  15. FASHIONABLY LATE? BUILDING UP THE MILKY WAY'S INNER HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 246 metal-poor stars (RR Lyraes, red giants, and red horizontal branch stars) which is remarkable for the accuracy of its six-dimensional kinematical data, we find, by examining the distribution of stellar orbital angular momenta, a new component for the local halo which has an axial ratio c/a ∼ 0.2, a similar flattening to the thick disk. It has a small prograde rotation but is supported by velocity anisotropy, and contains more intermediate-metallicity stars (with -1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0) than the rest of our sample. We suggest that this component was formed quite late, during or after the formation of the disk. It formed either from the gas that was accreted by the last major mergers experienced by the Galaxy, or by dynamical friction of massive infalling satellite(s) with the halo and possibly the stellar disk or thick disk. The remainder of the halo stars in our sample, which are less closely confined to the disk plane, exhibit a clumpy distribution in energy and angular momentum, suggesting that the early, chaotic conditions under which the inner halo formed were not violent enough to erase the record of their origins. The clumpy structure suggests that a relatively small number of progenitors were responsible for building up the inner halo, in line with theoretical expectations. We find a difference in mean binding energy between the RR Lyrae variables and the red giants in our sample, suggesting that more of the RR Lyraes in the sample belong to the outer halo, and that the outer halo may be somewhat younger, as first suggested by Searle and Zinn. We also find that the RR Lyrae mean rotation is more negative than the red giants, which is consistent with the recent result of Carollo et al. that the outer halo has a retrograde rotation and with the difference in kinematics seen between RR Lyraes and blue horizontal branch stars by Kinman et al. (2007).

  16. Contribution of school to building up the partnership with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the way in which headmasters and class masters perceive and estimate the factors, obstacles and incentives to building up a partnership between school and parents. The sample consists of 60 headmasters and 305 class masters from 60 schools (37 urban and 23 rural in Serbia. Headmasters and teachers filled in separate, but parallel questionnaires (modified only in the segment of different roles that were created for the purposes of research. Questionnaire items inquire about the factors contributing to the inclusion of parents, the obstacles in developing the cooperation between parents and school and the peculiarities of school environment that can contribute to the development of that cooperation, as well as about the peculiarities of the communication with parents. Research findings indicate that headmasters and teachers assess the importance of different components in the field of cooperation with parents in a similar, but not identical way. Most similarities are found in the perception of obstacles for establishing cooperation (the problems of coordinating time periods for meetings, previous bad experiences of parents regarding cooperation. The majority of differences lie in perceiving the importance of cooperation factors (headmasters emphasise the "parent factor", while teachers do so both for the "parent factor" and "child factor", as well as in perceiving the necessary incentives for the improvement of cooperation between school and parents (headmasters emphasise the spatial-temporal organization components, and teachers do so for spatial components and personal initiatives. In the assessments of both the headmasters and teachers we obtained differences marked by gender, the longitude of years of service, size of the settlement where the school is located (town-village. The general conclusion indicates that the topic of cooperation between school and parents is highly and in many ways context sensitive, and that the

  17. Opacity Build-up in Impulsive Relativistic Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Jonathan; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Silva, Eduardo do Couto e

    2007-01-01

    Opacity effects in relativistic sources of high-energy gamma-rays, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or Blazars, can probe the Lorentz factor of the outflow as well as the distance of the emission site from the source, and thus help constrain the composition of the outflow (protons, pairs, magnetic field) and the emission mechanism. Most previous works consider the opacity in steady state. Here we study the effects of the time dependence of the opacity to pair production (γγ → e + e - ) in an impulsive relativistic source, which may be relevant for the prompt gamma-ray emission in GRBs or flares in Blazars. We present a simple, yet rich, semi-analytic model for the time and energy dependence of the optical depth, τγγ, in which a thin spherical shell expands ultra-relativistically and emits isotropically in its own rest frame over a finite range of radii, R 0 (le) R (le) R 0 +ΔR. This is particularly relevant for GRB internal shocks. We find that in an impulsive source (ΔR ∼ 0 ), while the instantaneous spectrum (which is typically hard to measure due to poor photon statistics) has an exponential cutoff above the photon energy (var e psilon)1(T) where tγγ((var e psilon)1) = 1, the time integrated spectrum (which is easier to measure) has a power-law high-energy tail above the photon energy (var e psilon)1* ∼ (var e psilon)1(ΔT) where ΔT is the duration of the emission episode. Furthermore, photons with energies (var e psilon) > (var e psilon)1* are expected to arrive mainly near the onset of the spike in the light curve or flare, which corresponds to the short emission episode. This arises since in such impulsive sources it takes time to build-up the (target) photon field, and thus the optical depth τγγ((var e psilon)) initially increases with time and (var e psilon)1(T) correspondingly decreases with time, so that photons of energy (var e psilon) > (var e psilon)1* are able to escape the source mainly very early on while (var e psilon)1(T) > (var

  18. Normal values for quantitative muscle ultrasonography in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Pillen, S.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Overeem, S.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes caused by neuromuscular disease. Quantitative analysis is the preferred method to determine if ultrasound findings are within normal limits, but normative data are incomplete. The purpose of this study was to provide normative muscle

  19. Cell fate determination in zebrafish embryonic and adult muscle development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tee, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in how the genetic basis of muscle precursor cells determines the outcome of the muscle cell fate, and thus leading to disruption in muscle formation and maintenance. We utilized the zebrafish carrying mutations in both Axin1 and Apc1, resulting in overactivation of the

  20. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; female symbol = male symbol. We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging.

  1. Muscle Weakness Thresholds for Prediction of Diabetes in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark D; Zhang, Peng; Choksi, Palak; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the known links between weakness and early mortality, what remains to be fully understood is the extent to which strength preservation is associated with protection from cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes. The purposes of this study were to determine the association between muscle strength and diabetes among adults, and to identify age- and sex-specific thresholds of low strength for detection of risk. A population-representative sample of 4066 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets. Strength was assessed using a handheld dynamometer, and the single highest reading from either hand was normalized to body mass. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between normalized grip strength and risk of diabetes, as determined by haemoglobin A1c levels ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol), while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and television viewing time. For every 0.05 decrement in normalized strength, there were 1.26 times increased adjusted odds for diabetes in men and women. Women were at lower odds of having diabetes (odds ratio 0.49; 95 % confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Age, waist circumference and lower income were also associated with diabetes. The optimal sex- and age-specific weakness thresholds to detect diabetes were 0.56, 0.50 and 0.45 for men at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively, and 0.42, 0.38 and 0.33 for women at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively. We present thresholds of strength that can be incorporated into a clinical setting for identifying adults who are at risk of developing diabetes and might benefit from lifestyle interventions to reduce risk.

  2. Understanding the build-up of SMBH and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Georgakakis, Antonis; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akylas, Thanassis; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Castello, N.

    2015-09-01

    . The excellent survey capabilities of Athena/WFI (effective area, angular resolution, field of view) will allow to measure the incidence of feedback in the shape of warm absorbers and Ultra Fast Outflows among the general population of AGN, as well as to complete the census of black hole growth by detecting and characterising significant samples of the most heavily obscured (including Compton thick) AGN, to redshifts z~3-4. The outstanding spectral throughput and resolution of Athena/X-IFU will permit measuring the energetics of those outflows to assess their influence on their host galaxies. The demographics of the heavily obscured and outflowing populations relative to their hosts are fundamental for understanding how major black hole growth events relate to the build-up of galaxies.

  3. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  4. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. Characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon build-up processes on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Dunzhu; Zhang, Lixun; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    Reliable prediction models are essential for modeling pollutant build-up processes on urban road surfaces. Based on successive samplings of road deposited sediments (RDS), this study presents empirical models for mathematical replication of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) build-up processes on urban road surfaces. The contaminant build-up behavior was modeled using saturation functions, which are commonly applied in US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). Accurate fitting results were achieved in three typical urban land use types, and the applicability of the models was confirmed based on their acceptable relative prediction errors. The fitting results showed high variability in PAH saturation value and build-up rate among different land use types. Results of multivariate data and temporal-based analyses suggested that the quantity and property of RDS significantly influenced PAH build-up. Furthermore, pollution sources, traffic parameters, road surface conditions, and sweeping frequency could synthetically impact the RDS build-up and RDS property change processes. Thus, changes in these parameters could be the main reason for variations in PAH build-up in different urban land use types. - Highlights: • Sufficient robust prediction models were established for analysis of PAH build-up on urban road surfaces. • PAH build-up processes showed high variability among different land use types. • Pollution sources as well as the quantity and property of RDS mainly influenced PAH build-up. - Sufficient robust prediction models were established for analysis of PAH build-up on urban road surfaces. Pollution sources as well as the quantity and property of RDS mainly influenced PAH build-up.

  6. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish.

  8. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  9. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise capacity in adults with a Fontan circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael; O'Meagher, Shamus; Gould, Haslinda; Rae, Caroline; Kemp, Graham; Pasco, Julie A; Celermajer, David S; Singh, Nalin

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral muscle pump is key in promoting cardiac filling during exercise, especially in subjects who lack a subpulmonary ventricle (the Fontan circulation). A muscle-wasting syndrome exists in acquired heart failure but has not been assessed in Fontan subjects. We sought to investigate whether adults with the Fontan circulation exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or metabolic abnormalities. Sixteen New York Heart Association Class I/II Fontan adults (30±2 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lean mass quantification with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); eight had calf muscle (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy as did eight healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. DXA results were compared with Australian reference data. Single tertiary referral centre. Peak VO2 was 1.9±0.1 L/min (66±3% of predicted values). Skeletal muscle mass assessed by relative appendicular lean mass index was significantly reduced compared with age-matched and sex-matched reference values (Z-score -1.46±0.22, pskeletal muscle mass correlated with poorer VO2 max (r=0.67, p=0.004). Overall, skeletal muscle mass T-score (derived from comparison with young normal reference mean) was -1.47±0.21; 4/16 Fontan subjects had sarcopenic range muscle wasting (T-score Muscle aerobic capacity, measured by the rate constant (k) of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis, was significantly impaired in Fontan adults versus controls (1.48±0.13 vs 2.40±0.33 min(-1), p=0.02). Fontan adults have reduced skeletal muscle mass and intrinsic muscle metabolic abnormalities.

  10. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  11. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2016-02-05

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.

  12. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  13. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  14. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  15. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  16. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Bessems, Paul J. C.; Lamberts, Marcel L.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  18. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Bessems, P.J.C.; Lamberts, M.L.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  19. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikai, Masahiko; Akiya, Kumiko [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  20. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikai, Masahiko; Akiya, Kumiko

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  1. The expression of NFATc1 in adult rat skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, Gabriel

    2008-03-01

    Although numerous studies have recently implicated the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Cn-NFAT) signalling pathway in the regulation of activity-dependent fibre type switching in adult mammalian skeletal muscles, little is known about the endogenous expression of NFAT proteins in the various fibre types present in these muscles. In this study, the immunolocalization of NFATc1 (also known as NFATc or NFAT2) in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL; a mainly fast-twitch muscle) and the soleus (a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) muscles of adult ( approximately 90-day-old) Wistar rats was investigated. The results show that NFATc1 is expressed only in oxidative fibres (i.e. type I and type IIA fibres) that stain intensely for succinate dehydrogenase activity irrespective of whether they are from the fast- or slow-twitch muscle. Thus, 99 +/- 4% (n = 7 rats) of the muscle fibres in the soleus and 42 +/- 2% (n = 7 rats) of those in the EDL expressed NFATc1. In the soleus muscle fibres, NFATc1 was localized mainly in the fibre nuclei, whereas in the EDL fibres it was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei. However, no difference in its localization was observed between type I and type IIA fibres in both muscles. Western blot experiments showed that the soleus expressed more NFATc1 proteins than the EDL. From these results, we suggest that NFATc1 controls the number and distribution of both type I and type IIA fibres, as well as the oxidative capacity of adult mammalian skeletal muscles.

  2. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  3. Slow early growers have more muscle in relation to adult activity: evidence from Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M; McDade, T W; Adair, L S; Kuzawa, C W

    2015-12-01

    Adult skeletal muscle mass (SMM) protects against type 2 diabetes, but little is known about its developmental antecedents. We examined whether pace of early weight gain predicted adult SMM in a birth cohort from Cebu City, Philippines. In addition, we examined whether increases in SMM associated with adult muscle-building exercise varied according to the early growth. Data came from 1472 participants of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Weight was measured at birth and at 6-month intervals through the age of 24 months. Adult SMM was estimated from anthropometric measurements when participants were 20-22-years old. Interviews provided the information on adult exercise/lifestyle habits. SMM (mean ± s.d.) was 20.8 ± 3.9 kg (men) and 13.6 ± 3.4 kg (women). Faster early weight gain predicted a higher adult SMM. After adjustment for height and lifestyle factors, strongest associations with SMM were found for 6-12 months growth in men (β=0.17, P=0.001) and for birth weight in women (β=0.14, P=0.001). Individuals who had grown slowly displayed greater SMM in association with adult weightlifting, basketball playing and physically demanding forms of employment (men) or household chores (women). These results suggest heightened sensitivity of activity-induced muscle hypertrophy among the adults who were born light or who gained weight slowly as infants. Future research should test this finding by comparing responses of muscle mass to an intervention in slow vs fast early growers. Findings suggest that adults who display a reduced SMM following suboptimal early growth may be good candidates for new anti-diabetes interventions that promote muscle-building activities.

  4. History matching of transient pressure build-up in a simulation model using adjoint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajala, I.; Haekal, Rachmat; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Almuallim, H. [Firmsoft Technologies, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work is the efficient and computer-assisted history-matching of pressure build-up and pressure derivatives by small modification to reservoir rock properties on a grid by grid level. (orig.)

  5. The build-up and characterization of nuclear burn-up wave in a fast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Anoop

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... evaluating the quality of the wave by the researchers working in the field of nuclear burn-up wave build-up and propagation. Keywords. ... However, there are concerns relating to the nuclear safety, ... Simulation studies have.

  6. Muscle Stem Cells: A Model System for Adult Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies.

  7. Analysis of the build-up of semi and non volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Vehicular traffic in urban areas may adversely affect urban water quality through the build-up of traffic generated semi and non volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) on road surfaces. The characterisation of the build-up processes is the key to developing mitigation measures for the removal of such pollutants from urban stormwater. An in-depth analysis of the build-up of SVOCs and NVOCs was undertaken in the Gold Coast region in Australia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the SVOC and NVOC build-up under combined traffic scenarios of low, moderate, and high traffic in different land uses. It was found that congestion in the commercial areas and use of lubricants and motor oils in the industrial areas were the main sources of SVOCs and NVOCs on urban roads, respectively. The contribution from residential areas to the build-up of such pollutants was hardly noticeable. It was also revealed through this investigation that the target SVOCs and NVOCs were mainly attached to particulate fractions of 75-300 μm whilst the redistribution of coarse fractions due to vehicle activity mainly occurred in the >300 μm size range. Lastly, under combined traffic scenario, moderate traffic with average daily traffic ranging from 2300 to 5900 and average congestion of 0.47 were found to dominate SVOC and NVOC build-up on roads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of contamination-free build-up for 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sibata, CH.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental verification of the difference between absorbed dose in tissue and the collision fraction of kerma requires precise knowledge of the absorbed dose curve, particularly in the build-up and build-down regions. A simple method from direct measurement of contamination-free build-up for 60 Co, which should also be applicable for most of the photon energies commonly employed for treatment, is presented. It is shown that the contribution from air-scattered electrons to the surface dose may be removed by extrapolating measurements of build-up to zero field size. The remaining contribution to contamination from the collimators and other source-related hardware may be minimised by measuring these build-up curves sufficiently far from the source. These results were tested by measuring the build-up using a magnet to sweep scattered electrons from the primary photon beam and by measuring the surface dose in the limit of an evacuated beam path. The relative dose at zero depth in polystyrene was found to be approximately 8.9+-0.3% of the dose at the depth of maximum build-up. (author)

  9. Lower leg muscle density is independently associated with fall status in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Wilson, A W; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Arnold, C M; Davison, K S; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-07-01

    Muscle density is a risk factor for fractures in older adults; however, its association with falls is not well described. After adjusting for biologically relevant confounding factors, a unit decrease in muscle density was associated with a 17 % increase in odds of reporting a fall, independent of functional mobility. Falls are the leading cause of injury, disability, and fractures in older adults. Low muscle density (i.e., caused by muscle adiposity) and functional mobility have been identified as risk factors for incident disability and fractures in older adults; however, it is not known if these are also independently associated with falls. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of muscle density and functional mobility with fall status. Cross-sectional observational study of 183 men and women aged 60-98 years. Descriptive data, including a 12-month fall recall, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test performance, lower leg muscle area, and density. Odds ratio (OR) of being a faller were calculated, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, general health status, diabetes, and comorbidities. Every mg/cm(3) increase in muscle density (mean 70.2, SD 2.6 mg/cm(3)) independently reduced the odds of being a faller by 19 % (OR 0.81 [95 % CI 0.67 to 0.97]), and every 1 s longer TUG test time (mean 9.8, SD 2.6 s) independently increased the odds by 17 % (OR 1.17 [95 % CI 1.01 to 1.37]). When both muscle density and TUG test time were included in the same model, only age (OR 0.93 [95 % CI 0.87 to 0.99]) and muscle density (OR 0.83 [95 % CI 0.69 to 0.99]) were independently associated with fall status. Muscle density was associated with fall status, independent of functional mobility. Muscle density may compliment functional mobility tests as a biometric outcome for assessing fall risk in well-functioning older adults.

  10. Bilateral assessment of knee muscle relationships in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Regina Santos dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric performance of flexor and extensor muscles of the knee may be a risk factor for knee injuries, especially the anterior cruciate ligament. Additionally, asymmetries in power and work may have correlations with fatigue and performance during functional tasks. Among untrained individuals, such asymmetries may be of potential interest for training prescription. Here, we investigated the bilateral performance of knee flexors and extensors muscle groups of untrained individuals. We quantified the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, as well as work, power and asymmetry indexes in 20 untrained male (25 ± 4 years old; height 1.74 ± 0.05 m; body mass 76 ± 9 kg. No significant asymmetry was observed for torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, work and power output for knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (p < .05. Our results suggest that untrained male present symmetry in the knee flexion and extension bilateral performance. Changes in this behavior due to physical training must be monitored.

  11. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)). In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Ankle muscle activity modulation during single-leg stance differs between children, young adults and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Incomplete maturation and aging-induced declines of the neuromuscular system affect postural control both in children and older adults and lead to high fall rates. Age-specific comparisons of the modulation of ankle muscle activation and behavioral center of pressure (COP) indices during upright stance have been rarely conducted. The objective of the present study was to quantify aging effects on a neuromuscular level. Thus, surface electromyography (SEMG) modulation and co-activity of ankle muscles during single-leg standing was compared in healthy children, young adults and seniors. Postural steadiness (velocity and mean sway frequency of COP), relative muscle activation (SEMG modulation) and co-activation of two ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, TA; soleus, SO) were examined during single-leg stance in 19 children [age, 9.7 (SD 0.5) years], 30 adults [23.3 (1.5) years] and 29 seniors [62.7 (6.1) years]. Velocity of COP in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, mean sway frequency in anterior-posterior direction, relative muscle activation (TA and SO) and co-activation revealed large age effects (P  0.14). Post-hoc comparisons indicated higher COP velocities, anterior-posterior frequencies, relative SO activation and co-activation in children and seniors when compared with adults. Relative TA activation was higher in children and adults compared with seniors (P seniors seems to be counteracted with higher TA/SO co-activity and SO modulation. However, TA modulation is higher in children and adults, whereas seniors' TA modulation capacity is diminished. An aging-induced decline of TA motor units might account for deteriorations of TA modulation in seniors.

  13. How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A model for the build-up of disordered material in ion bombarded Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new model based on experimental observation is developed for the build-up of disordered material in ion bombarded silicon. The model assumes that disordered zones are created in a background of migrating point defects, these zones then act as neutral sinks for such defects which interact with the zones and cause recrystallization. A simple steady state rate theory is developed to describe the build-up of disordered material with ion dose as a function of temperature. In general the theory predicts two distinct behaviour patterns depending on the temperature and the ion mass, namely a linear build-up with dose to complete disorder for heavy bombarding ions and a build-up to saturation at a relatively low level for light ions such as protons. However, in some special circumstances a transition region is predicted where the build-up of disorder approximately follows a (dose)sup(1/2) relationship before reverting to a linear behaviour at high dose. (author)

  15. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  16. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  17. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  18. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariklia K. Deli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n=14 and children (n=11 received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK, and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p<0.01. In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  19. The breaking and making of healthy adult human skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L.; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and highlights the importance of the basement membrane in the process of regeneration. In addition, it provides insight into parallels between the regeneration of adult skeletal muscle in mouse and man, confirming that this model may be a useful tool in investigating myofibre and matrix formation, as well...

  20. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  1. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  2. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  3. Ultrastructural changes in the flight muscle mitochondria of adult male mosquito Culex Pipiens L I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmeguid, A.; Elmoursy, A.A.; Rouchdy, H.; Elzahraa, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrastructural differences between differentiating myoblasts of 1-day old pupae and 2-day old pupae and between well developed flight muscles in newly emerged 1-day old and 2-day old and ageing 21-day old adult male Culex Pipiens were studied. Ageing mosquitoes showed various signs of deterioration, vocalization, fusion and disorientation of cristae. 6 figs

  4. Build-up of actinides in irradiated fuel rods of the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Naguib, K.; Morcos, H.N

    2001-09-01

    The content concentrations of actinides are calculated as a function of operating reactor regime and cooling time at different percentage of fuel burn-up. The build-up transmutation equations of actinides content in an irradiated fuel are solved numerically .A computer code BAC was written to operate on a PC computer to provide the required calculations. The fuel element of 10% {sup 235}U enrichment of ET-RR-1 reactor was taken as an example for calculations using the BAC code. The results are compared with other calculations for the ET-RR-1 fuel rod. An estimation of fissile build-up content of a proposed new fuel of 20% {sup 235}U enrichment for ET-RR-1 reactor is given. The sensitivity coefficients of build-up plutonium concentrations as a function of cross-section data uncertainties are also calculated.

  5. Analysis of surface and build up region dose for motorized wedge and omni wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Sundarum, T.

    2008-01-01

    Megavoltage x-ray beam exhibits the well known phenomenon of dose build-up within the first few millimeters of incident phantom surface or skin. The skin sparing effect of high energy gamma or x-ray photon may be reduced or even lost, if the beam is contaminated with electron or low energy photons. Since skin dose in the treatment of deeply seated tumor may be a limiting factor in the delivery of tumoricidal dose due to possible complications such as erythema, desquamation, fibrosis, necrosis and epilation, the dose distribution in the build up region should be known. The objective of this study was to measure and investigate the surface and build-up region dose for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam for Motorized wedge and Omni wedge in Precise Digital Linear Accelerator (Elekta)

  6. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Highlights: • A model was developed to simulate heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads. • This model is based on artificial neural networks. • Land use fractions was used to model build-up loads on different particle sizes. • The maps of heavy metal spatial distribution and ecological risk were generated. • This model can be used for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Development of a robust modelling approach to mapping heavy metals build-up and their ecological risks for stormwater reuse safety.

  7. The Effect of Sloshing on a Tank Pressure Build-up Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Banne, Håvard Bolstad

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work has aimed to identify how sloshing will affect a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel tank. The physical nature of LNG means it needs to be kept cooled and pressurized in order to remain in a liquid state. By implementing a pressure build-up unit (PBU) it is possible to pressurize the tank vaporizing the tank’s contents, for the vapour then to return to tank in a loop, building pressure in the process. A tank pressure build-up unit has been built in the laboratory ...

  8. The keys of the kingdom as paradigm for building up the church in reformed church government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. le R. du Plooy

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an ecclesiological approach and concentrates on the prominent concepts the keys of the kingdom and building up the church. The article attempts to determine the significance those concepts may have for the government of the church and emphasises the close relationship between the keys of the kingdom and the building up of the church. According to Reformational viewpoints the administering of the keys serves the edification of the church. It becomes clear that the notae ecclesiae and the keys of the kingdom function as the basic elements of the church order and must be regarded as the basis or pillars upon which the church is built.

  9. A method of the sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kinji; Kuroi, Hideo

    1977-07-01

    To make sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides, mathematical methods related to this problem have been investigated in detail. Application of time-dependent perturbation technique and Bateman method to sensitivity analysis is mainly studied. For the purpose, a basic equation and its adjoint equation for build-up and decay of actinides are systematically solved by introducing Laplace and modified Laplace transforms and their convolution theorems. Then, the mathematical method of sensitivity analyses is formulated by the above technique; its physical significance is also discussed. Finally, application of eigenvalue-method is investigated. Sensitivity coefficients can be directly calculated by this method. (auth.)

  10. Basic principle of constant q/sub a/ current build-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    1985-05-01

    An analytic expression is derived such that the current profile shape is kept constant during the current build-up phase in tokamaks. The required conductivity profile is parametrized by two externally controllable parameters, I/sub p/ and a/sub p/ in the case of the Gaussian current profile. It is shown that a Gaussian current profile can be maintained for a realistically broad conductivity profile by using the constant q/sub a/ current build-up method even under the condition of a high I/sub p/

  11. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods: 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only' (DO; n = 42 or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise' (D/Ex; n = 33 for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, normal-density muscle area (NDMA, and visceral fat area. Results: Total body weight (DO: -6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: -7.3 ± 4.6% and visceral fat (DO: -16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: -23.1 ± 14.7% decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5% compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%. NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9% but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity.

  13. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  14. Dynamic stability control in forward falls: postural corrections after muscle fatigue in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2008-06-01

    Many studies report that muscle strength loss may alter the human system's capacity to generate rapid force for balance corrections after perturbations, leading to deficient recovery behaviours. Yet little is known regarding the effect of modifications in the neuromuscular system induced by fatigue on dynamic stability control during postural perturbations. This study investigates the effect of muscle strength decline induced by fatiguing contractions on the dynamic stability control of young and older adults during forward falls. Eleven young and eleven older male adults had to regain balance after sudden falls before and after submaximal fatiguing knee extension-flexion contractions. Young subjects had a higher margin of stability than older ones before and after the fatiguing task. This reflects their enhanced ability in using mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability (i.e. a greater base of support). The margin of stability, the boundary of the base of support and the position of the extrapolated centre of mass, remained unaffected by the reduction in muscle strength induced by the fatiguing contractions, indicating an appropriate adjustment of the motor commands to compensate the deficit in muscle strength. Both young and older adults were able to counteract the decreased horizontal ground reaction forces after the fatiguing task by flexing their knee to a greater extent, leading to similar decreases in the horizontal velocity of centre of mass as in the pre fatigue condition. The results demonstrate the ability of the central nervous system to rapidly modify the execution of postural corrections including mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability.

  15. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults ( n = 14) and children ( n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation ( p exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  16. Estimation of thigh muscle mass with magnetic resonance imaging in older adults and people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Takai, Karen Pr; Macintyre, Donna L; Reid, Darlene

    2008-02-01

    Quantifying muscle mass is an essential part of physical therapy assessment, particularly in older adults and in people with chronic conditions associated with muscle atrophy. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare anthropometric estimations of midthigh CSA with measurements obtained from MRI. Twenty older adults who were healthy and 20 people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), matched for age, sex, and body mass index, underwent MRI to obtain measurements of thigh muscle CSA and volume. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thickness and thigh circumference) were used to estimate midthigh CSA. Muscle volumes were significantly lower in the people with COPD than in the older adults who were healthy. Moderate to high correlations were found between midthigh CSA and volume in both groups (r=.61-.94). Anthropometric measurements tended to overestimate midthigh CSA in both the people with COPD (estimated CSA=64.9+/-17.8; actual CSA=48.3+/-10.2 cm(2)) and the older adults who were healthy (estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSA=65.0+/-14.0; actual CSA=56.8+/-13.5 cm(2)). Furthermore, the estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSAs were not sensitive enough to detect a difference in muscle size between people with COPD and controls. Thigh circumference alone was not different between groups and showed only low to moderate correlations with muscle volume (r=.19-.47). Muscle CSA measured from a single slice provides a good indication of volume, but the most representative slice should be chosen on the basis of the muscle group of interest. Thigh circumference is not correlated with muscle volume and, therefore, should not be used as an indicator of muscle size. The development of population-specific reference equations for estimating muscle CSA from anthropometric measurements is warranted.

  17. Effect of higher muscle coactivation on standing postural response to perturbation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Okita, Yusuke; Ogaya, Shinya; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2017-04-01

    Although several studies have reported that muscle coactivation during postural control increases with age, the effect of higher muscle coactivation on standing postural response to perturbation is unknown. To investigate whether higher muscle coactivation affects standing postural response to perturbation in older adults. Thirty-four community-dwelling older participants were randomly assigned either to the coactivation group (CG), where muscle coactivation was increased intentionally, or to the non-coactivation group (NCG). The participants were instructed to stand on a force plate that moved forward or backward. Electromyography data were collected from the lower leg muscles. We requested the participants in the CG to increase the activity of their tibialis anterior, and to maintain this posture during the tasks. We moved the force plate with a constant amplitude and velocity, and measured kinematic data with a camera during the tasks. During forward transfer, the knee extension and hip flexion decreased in the CG after perturbation compared to NCG, and the trunk extension angle increased. The center of pressure (COP) displacement decreased around the peak of the movement in the CG compared to NCG. During backward transfer, ankle dorsal and knee flexion changed after perturbation in the CG compared to NCG. Our study found that higher muscle coactivation inhibits lower limb and COP movement as well as increases trunk tilt and the risk for falls during forward perturbations. Postural control with higher coactivation appears to be inefficient for maintaining balance during the backward sway of posture.

  18. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine impacts of heat build-up of chimato compost piles TD0, TD20, TD40, TD50, TD60, TD80 and TD100, made by blending maize stalks with 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% Tithonia diversifolia, respectively, on carbon losses and emissions during composting. Compost piles temperatures ...

  19. Does the QCD vacuum build up a colour chemical potential dynamically?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, K.; Greiner, W.

    1998-01-01

    The one-loop effective theory is found for QCD assuming an overcritical homogeneous gluon vector potential background that corresponds to a non-vanishing colour chemical potential. It is found that the vacuum is unstable against building up a non-vanishing colour chemical potential for sufficiently large number of flavours. (author)

  20. Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence ... community of public health experts to control viral epidemics in several countries. ... says the problem of infectious diseases has grown in the past 30 years, but ...

  1. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Mlangeni

    atmospheric carbon compounds such as dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into soil organic carbon compounds. (Biala, 2011; Gill et al., 2012; Biddlestone and Gray,. 1987). Maturity and stability of compost is partly dependent on type of feedstock that influence compost pile moisture content, aeration and heat build up. Well.

  2. The effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimaras, Vasilios K; Samara, Christina A; Kotzamanidou, Marianna C; Bassa, Eleni I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation (MR). Twenty-four adults with and without MR were separated into 3 groups. Eight adults (mean age 25.4 years) with normal IQ constituted the control group (NIQ). Eight adults (mean age 26.5 years) with MR and all participating in a 4-year systematic basketball exercise program constituted the trained group (MR-T), and 8 adults (mean age 25.3 years) with MR exercised occasionally for recreational reasons formed the MR-R group. Parameters measured were isometric and isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength. All subjects performed a leg strength test on a Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer. Analysis of variance was used to examine mean differences between the values of the 3 groups. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. The NIQ group showed a statistically significant difference in all measured values compared to the MR groups. The MR-T group presented higher absolute and relative torque scores for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-R group, whereas the MR-R group presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-T group. In addition, both MR groups presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors compared to the NIQ group. Data support participation on a systematic and well-designed basketball training program to improve muscle strength levels of adults with MR. Participation in basketball without necessarily focusing on developing specific fitness components may be an effective training strategy for the promotion of strength of adults with MR.

  3. Changes of gluteus medius muscle in the adult patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu RuiYu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gluteus medius muscle is essential for gait and hip stability. Changes that occur in the gluteus medius muscles in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH are not well understood. A better understanding of DDH related changes will have positive repercussions toward hip soft tissue reconstruction. Methods 19 adult patients with unilateral DDH scheduled for total hip arthroplasty were assessed for: cross-sectional area (CSA, radiological density (RD and the length of gluteus medius using computed tomograhpy(CT (scanned before THA. Hip abductor moment arm and gluteus medius activation angle were also measured via hip anteroposterior radiographs. Results Both CSA and RD of gluteus medius muscle were significantly reduced (p  Conclusions The gluteus medius showed substantial loss of CSA, RD as well as decreased length in patients with DDH in the affected hip. These changes should be considered in both hip reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation training in patients with DDH.

  4. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Redox proteomic analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McDonagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provides information in support of the research article, “Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging”, Journal of Proteome Research, 2014, 13 (11, 2008–21 [1]. Raw data is available from ProteomeXchange [2] with identifier PDX001054. The proteome of gastrocnemius muscle from adult and old mice was analyzed by global label-free proteomics and the relative quantification of specific reduced and reversibly oxidized Cysteine (Cys residues was performed using Skyline [3]. Briefly, reduced Cysteine (Cys containing peptides was alkylated using N-ethylmalemide (d0-NEM. Samples were desalted and reversibly oxidized Cys residues were reduced using tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP and the newly formed reduced Cys residues were labeled with heavy NEM( d5-NEM. Label-free analysis of the global proteome of adult (n=5 and old (n=4 gastrocnemius muscles was performed using Peaks7™ mass spectrometry data analysis software [4]. Relative quantification of Cys containing peptides that were identified as reduced (d(0 NEM labeled and reversibly oxidized d(5–NEM labeled was performed using the intensity of their precursor ions in Skyline. Results indicate that muscles from old mice show reduced redox flexibility particularly in proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response.

  6. Recruitment and derecruitment characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesunathadas, Mark; Marmon, Adam R; Gibb, James M; Enoka, Roger M

    2010-06-01

    The significant decline in motor neuron number after approximately 60 yr of age is accompanied by a remodeling of the neuromuscular system so that average motor unit force increases and the ability of old adults to produce an intended force declines. One possible explanation for the loss of movement precision is that the remodeling increases the difference in recruitment forces between successively recruited motor units in old adults and this augments force variability at motor unit recruitment. The purpose of the study was to compare the forces and discharge characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults at motor unit recruitment and derecruitment. The difference in recruitment force between pairs of motor units did not differ between young (n=54) and old adults (n=56; P=0.702). However, old adults had a greater proportion of contractions in which motor units discharged action potentials transiently before discharging continuously during the ramp increase in force (young: 0.32; old: 0.41; P=0.045). Force variability at motor unit recruitment was greater for old adults compared with young adults (Por=0.729). These results suggest that the difference in force between the recruitment of successive motor units does not differ between age groups, but that motor unit recruitment may be more transient and could contribute to the greater variability in force observed in old adults during graded ramp contractions.

  7. Leg and trunk muscle coordination and postural sway during increasingly difficult standing balance tasks in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was applied (SENIAM guidelines) to ankle (tibialis anterior, soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus) and thigh (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscles (non-dominant leg). Electrodes over trunk (multifidus and internal oblique) muscles were applied bilaterally. Two- to six-fold higher levels of relative muscle activity were found in older adults for ankle (0.0002adults for the trunk (0.001older adults for the ankle (0.009Older adults had higher electrophysiological costs for all stance conditions. Muscle coordination showed inverse activity patterns at the ankle and trunk. Optimal balance and strength training programs should take into account age-specific alterations in muscle activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  9. The correlation between surface electromyography and bite force of mastication muscles in Asian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-I; Mao, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Mastication function is related to mandible movement, muscle strength, and bite force. No standard device for measuring bite force has been developed. A linear relationship between electromyographic activity and bite force has been reported by several investigators, but data on the reliability of this relationship remain limited in Asian young adults. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable, reliable, quantitative, and noninvasive system to measure the kinetic mastication function and observe the correlation between surface electromyography (sEMG) and bite force. The study group consisted of 41 young healthy adults (24 men and 17 women). Surface electromyography was used to evaluate bilateral temporalis and masseter muscle activities, and an occlusal bite force system was used concurrently to measure the bite force during maximal voluntary biting. Bilateral symmetry was compared, and the correlation between EMG and bite force was calculated. The sEMG signals were 107.7±55.0 μV and 106.0±56.0 μV (P=0.699) on right and left temporalis muscles and 183.7±86.2 μV and 194.8±94.3 μV (P=0.121) on right and left masseter muscles, respectively. The bite force was 5.0±3.2 kg on the right side and 5.7±4.0 kg on the left side (P=0.974). A positive correlation between sEMG and bite force was observed. The correlation coefficient between the temporalis muscle and bite force was 0.512, and that between the masseter muscle and bite force was 0.360. No significant difference between the bilateral electromyographic activities of the temporalis and masseter muscles and bilateral bite force was observed in young healthy adults in Taiwan. A positive correlation between sEMG signals and bite force was noted. By combining sEMG and bite force, we developed a clinically applicable, quantitative, reliable, and noninvasive system for evaluating mastication function by using characteristics of biofeedback.

  10. Dysphagia risk, low muscle strength and poor cognition predict malnutrition risk in older adults athospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatindiara, Idah; Allen, Jacqueline; Popman, Amy; Patel, Darshan; Richter, Marilize; Kruger, Marlena; Wham, Carol

    2018-03-21

    Malnutrition in patients admitted to hospital may have detrimental effects on recovery and healing. Malnutrition is preceded by a state of malnutrition risk, yet malnutrition risk is often not detected during admission. The aim of the current study was to investigate the magnitude and potential predictors of malnutrition risk in older adults, at hospital admission. A cross-sectional was study conducted in 234 older adults (age ≥ 65 or ≥ 55 for Māori or Pacific ethnicity) at admission to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand. Assessment of malnutrition risk status was performed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA®-SF), dysphagia risk by the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), muscle strength by hand grip strength and cognitive status by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool. Among 234 participants, mean age 83.6 ± 7.6 years, 46.6% were identified as at malnutrition risk and 26.9% malnourished. After adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity, the study identified [prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval)] high dysphagia risk [EAT-10 score: 0.98 (0.97-0.99)], low body mass index [kg/m 2 : 1.02 (1.02-1.03)], low muscle strength [hand grip strength, kg: 1.01 (1.00-1.02)] and decline in cognition [MoCA score: 1.01 (1.00-1.02)] as significant predictors of malnutrition risk in older adults at hospital admission. Among older adults recently admitted to the hospital, almost three-quarters were malnourished or at malnutrition risk. As the majority (88%) of participants were admitted from the community, this illustrates the need for routine nutrition screening both at hospital admission and in community-dwelling older adults. Factors such as dysphagia, unintentional weight loss, decline in muscle strength, and poor cognition may indicate increased risk of malnutrition.

  11. Electron Cloud Build Up and Instability in the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2008-01-01

    Electron cloud can be formed in the CLIC positron damping ring and cause intolerable tune shift and beam instability. Build up simulations with the Faktor2 code, developed at CERN, have been done to predict the cloud formation in the arcs and wigglers of the damping rings. HEADTAIL simulations have been used to study the effect of this electron cloud on the beam and assess the thresholds above which the electron cloud instability would set in.

  12. Effect of tungsten-187 in primary coolant on dose rate build-up in Vandellos 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Lillo, E.; Llovet, R.; Boronat, M.

    1994-01-01

    The present work proposes a relationship between the Cobalt-60 piping deposited activity and the relatively high levels of Tungsten-187 in the coolant of Vandellos 2. The conclusions of this work can be applicable to other plants, since it proposes a tool to estimate and quantify the contribution of stellite to the generation of Cobalt-60 and the radiation dose build-up. (authors). 7 figs., 6 refs

  13. THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE GAME IN THE BUILDING UP OF A POLITICIAN'S IMAGE (PRAGMALINGUISTIC PERLOCUTIONARY EXPERIMENT)

    OpenAIRE

    Khanina E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of the pragmalinguistic experiment. Since language game is a result of speech creative work, which manifests the individuality of a linguistic personality, the politician can intentionally use language game and thereby consciously form his attractive image. The politician, who uses different kinds of language game, makes some personal characteristics building up the portrait aspect of effective political image more distinguished and thus affects the election ...

  14. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Kumahara, Hideaki; Tobina, Takuro; Matsuda, Takuro; Watabe, Kiwa; Matono, Sakiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Kiyonaga, Akira; Anzai, Keizo; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only’ (DO; n = 42) or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise’ (D/Ex; n = 33) for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), normal-density muscle area (NDMA), and visceral fat area. Results Total body weight (DO: −6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: −7.3 ± 4.6%) and visceral fat (DO: −16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: −23.1 ± 14.7%) decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5%) compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%). NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9%) but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%). Conclusion Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity. PMID:24457527

  16. Building up STEM education professional learning community in school setting: Case of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thana, Aduldej; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The STEM education is new issue of teaching and learning in school setting. Building up STEM education professional learning community may provide some suggestions for further collaborative work of STEM Education from grounded up. This paper aimed to clarify the building up STEM education learning community in Khon Kaen Wittayayon (KKW) School setting. Participants included Khon Kaen University researchers, Khon Kaen Wittayayon School administrators and teachers. Methodology regarded interpretative paradigm. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview and document analysis. Data was analyzed to categories of condition for building up STEM education professional learning community. The findings revealed that the actions of developing STEM learning activities and research showed some issues of KKW STEM community of inquiry and improvement. The paper will discuss what and how the community learns about sharing vision of STEM Education, supportive physical and social conditions of KKW, sharing activities of STEM, and good things from some key STEM teachers' ambition. The paper may has implication of supporting STEM education in Thailand school setting.

  17. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-12-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefei; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  19. Prevalence of clinically relevant muscle weakness and its association with vitamin D status among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency have been associated with adverse outcomes among older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between clinically relevant muscle weakness and 25(OH)D levels in Ecuador. To examine the prevalence of muscle weakness and its association with 25(OH)D status among subjects aged 60 years and older in Ecuador. The present study was based on data from 2205 participants in the first National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. The Foundation for the National Institute of Health Sarcopenia Project criteria was used to examine muscle weakness prevalence rates. Gender-specific general linear and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were created to compare mean 25(OH)D concentrations and 25(OH)D deficiency across muscle strength categories, respectively. An estimated 32.2% of women and 33.4% of men had evidence of clinically relevant muscle weakness in Ecuador. In general, increased muscle weakness prevalence rates were present among Indigenous, residents in the rural Andes Mountains, underweight subjects, and those with a sedentary lifestyle. Muscle strength was significantly and directly correlated with mean 25(OH)D levels. After controlling for potential confounders, 25(OH)D deficiency prevalence rates were 31 and 43% higher among men and women with muscle weakness than those with normal strength, respectively. One-third of older adults nationwide had evidence of muscle weakness. While the present study found a significant correlation between muscle strength and 25(OH)D concentrations, further research is needed to examine whether optimizing 25(OH)D levels may improve muscle weakness among older adults.

  20. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  1. Technique, muscle activity and kinematic differences in young adults texting on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Ewa; Johnson, Peter W; Lindegård, Agneta; Hagberg, Mats

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in technique between young adults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms when using a mobile phone for texting and whether there are differences in muscle activity and kinematics between different texting techniques. A total of 56 young adults performed a standardised texting task on a mobile phone. Their texting techniques were registered using an observation protocol. The muscular activity in six muscles in the right forearm/hand and both shoulders were registered by surface electromyography and the thumb abduction/adduction and flexion/extension were registered using a biaxial electrogoniometer. Differences in texting techniques were found between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic group, with a higher proportion of sitting with back support and forearm support and with a neutral head position in the asymptomatic group. Differences in muscle activity and kinematics were also found between different texting techniques. The differences in texting technique between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects cannot be explained by them having symptoms but may be a possible contribution to their symptoms. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: There has been a dramatically increased use of mobile phones for texting especially among young people during the last years. A better understanding of the physical exposure associated with the intensive use is important in order to prevent the development of musculoskeletal disorders and decreased work ability related to this use.

  2. Adult Murine Skeletal Muscle Contains Cells That Can Differentiate into Beating Cardiomyocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winitsky Steve O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  3. Adult murine skeletal muscle contains cells that can differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O Winitsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  4. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique: pinternal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adults with initial metabolic syndrome have altered muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alessandro da Costa; Barbosa, Thales Coelho; Kluser Sales, Allan Robson; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Silva, Bruno Moreira

    2017-02-01

    Reduced aerobic power is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence and prevalence in adults. This study investigated whether muscle deoxygenation (proxy of microvascular O 2 extraction) during incremental exercise is altered in MetS and associated with reduced oxygen consumption ( V˙O 2peak ). Twelve men with initial MetS (no overt diseases and medication-naive; mean ± SD, age 38 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (34 ± 7 years) completed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange (metabolic analyzer), as well as vastus lateralis deoxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), were measured. Subjects with MetS, in contrast to HCs, showed lower V˙O 2peak normalized to total lean mass, similar V˙O 2 response to exercise, and earlier break point (BP) in muscle deoxygenation. Consequently, deoxygenation slope from BP to peak exercise was greater. Furthermore, absolute V˙O 2peak was positively associated with BP in correlations adjusted for total lean mass. MetS, without overt diseases, altered kinetics of muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise, particularly at high-intensity exercise. Therefore, the balance between utilization and delivery of O 2 within skeletal muscle is impaired early in MetS natural history, which may contribute to the reduction in aerobic power. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Won-Bok; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  7. Differential muscle regulatory factor gene expression between larval and adult myogenesis in the frog Xenopus laevis: adult myogenic cell-specific myf5 upregulation and its relation to the notochord suppression of adult muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hitomi; Nishikawa, Akio

    2013-08-01

    During Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, larval-to-adult muscle conversion depends on the differential responses of adult and larval myogenic cells to thyroid hormone. Essential differences in cell growth, differentiation, and hormone-dependent life-or-death fate have been reported between cultured larval (tail) and adult (hindlimb) myogenic cells. A previous study revealed that tail notochord cells suppress terminal differentiation in adult (but not larval) myogenic cells. However, little is known about the differences in expression patterns of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) and the satellite cell marker Pax7 between adult and larval myogenic cells. In the present study, we compared mRNA expression of these factors between the two types. At first, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of hindlimb buds showed sequential upregulation of myf5, myogenin, myod, and mrf4 during stages 50-54, when limb buds elongate and muscles begin to form. By contrast, in the tail, there was no such increase during the same period. Secondary, these results were duplicated in vitro: adult myogenic cells upregulated myf5, myod, and pax7 in the early culture period, followed by myogenin upregulation and myotube differentiation, while larval myogenic cells did not upregulate these genes and precociously started myotube differentiation. Thirdly, myf5 upregulation and early-phase proliferation in adult myogenic cells were potently inhibited by the presence of notochord cells, suggesting that notochord cells suppress adult myogenesis through inhibiting the transition from Myf5(-) stem cells to Myf5(+) committed myoblasts. All of the data presented here suggest that myf5 upregulation can be a good criterion for the activation of adult myogenesis during X. laevis metamorphosis.

  8. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii Training on Mechanical Leg Muscle Function and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown....... METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary...... end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction...

  9. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  10. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin Aα null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Madsen

    Full Text Available Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction. Since nutritional deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development and function persist in adult CnAα-/- mice including a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels. These data indicate that impaired renal development we previously reported was not due to caloric restriction but rather a specific role for CnAα in renal development and function. In contrast, we find that rather than being hypoglycemic, rescued mice are mildly hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Examination of muscle fiber types shows that previously reported reductions in type I muscle fibers are no longer evident in rescued null mice. Rather, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2 expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout animals.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of pollutant build-up modelling based on a Bayesian weighted least squares approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Rahman, Ataur; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-01-01

    Reliable pollutant build-up prediction plays a critical role in the accuracy of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes. However, water quality data collection is resource demanding compared to streamflow data monitoring, where a greater quantity of data is generally available. Consequently, available water quality datasets span only relatively short time scales unlike water quantity data. Therefore, the ability to take due consideration of the variability associated with pollutant processes and natural phenomena is constrained. This in turn gives rise to uncertainty in the modelling outcomes as research has shown that pollutant loadings on catchment surfaces and rainfall within an area can vary considerably over space and time scales. Therefore, the assessment of model uncertainty is an essential element of informed decision making in urban stormwater management. This paper presents the application of a range of regression approaches such as ordinary least squares regression, weighted least squares regression and Bayesian weighted least squares regression for the estimation of uncertainty associated with pollutant build-up prediction using limited datasets. The study outcomes confirmed that the use of ordinary least squares regression with fixed model inputs and limited observational data may not provide realistic estimates. The stochastic nature of the dependent and independent variables need to be taken into consideration in pollutant build-up prediction. It was found that the use of the Bayesian approach along with the Monte Carlo simulation technique provides a powerful tool, which attempts to make the best use of the available knowledge in prediction and thereby presents a practical solution to counteract the limitations which are otherwise imposed on water quality modelling. - Highlights: ► Water quality data spans short time scales leading to significant model uncertainty. ► Assessment of uncertainty essential for informed decision making in water

  12. Assessment of radon build up pattern in a closed room with minimal ventilation disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.K.; Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Radon is ubiquitous in nature. The immediate source of Radon is 226 Ra is present in building materials underneath earth due to presence of natural uranium in terrestrial region. 222 Ra gas continuously diffused out into room atmosphere through the pores, cracks and fissures if any. The buildup of this 222 Rn is anticipated in a closed room lack of proper ventilation. A study was done to see the build up pattern of radon concentration by two different measurement techniques in a closed room of ESL, Jaduguda. Present paper summarizes the result of buildup study of 222 Rn in a closed room of lab for a period of 3 months

  13. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  14. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Demetra D.; Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI...

  15. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  16. Radiation Build-Up Of High Energy Gamma In Shielding Of High Atomic Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to observe effect of radiation build-up factor (b) in iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for high energy gamma shielding from exp.137 Cs (E gamma : 662 keV) and exp.60 Co (E gamma : 1332 keV) sources has been carried out. Research was conducted bt counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI (TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are near to 1 (b∼1) both for Fe and Pb. Without inserting b in calculation, from the experiment it was obtained HVT value of Fe for high gamma radiation of 662 and 1332 keV were : (12,94 n 0,03) mm and (17,33 n 0,01) mm with their deviation standards were 0,2% and 0,06% respectively. Value of HVT for Pb with the same energy were : (6,31 n 0,03) mm and (11,86 n 0,03) mm with their deviation standars were : 0,48% and 0,25% respectively. HVL concept could be applied directly to estimate shielding thickness of high atomic number of high energy gamma radiation, without inserting correction of radiation build-up factor

  17. Radiation Build-Up In Shielding Of Low Activity High Energia Gamma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfi-Yuliati; Mukhlis-Akhadi

    2003-01-01

    Research to observe radiation build-up factor (b) in aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for shielding of gamma radiation of high energy from 137 cs (E γ : 662 keV) source and 60 Co (E γ : 1332 keV) of low activity sources has been carried out. Al with Z =13 represent metal of low atomic number, Fe with Z =26 represent metal of medium atomic number, and Pb with Z = 82 represent metal of high atomic number. Low activity source in this research is source which if its dose rate decrease to 3 % of its initial dose rate became safe for the workers. Research was conducted by counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI(TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are close to 1 (b ∼ 1) for all kinds of metals. No radiation build-up factor is required in estimating the shielding thickness from several kinds of metals for low activity of high energy gamma source. (author)

  18. French experience to reduce radiation field build-up and improve nuclear fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Beslu, P.; Noe, M.; Stora, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Over these last years, considerable information has been obtained on primary coolant chemistry, activity build-up and nuclear fuel behavior. As of December 1982, twenty three 900 MWe type reactors were in operation in France and about 1.3 millions of rods had been loaded in power reactors among which six regions of 17x17 fuel assemblies had completed successfully their third cycle of irradiation with a lead assembly burn-up of 37,000 MWd/MtU. Visual examination shows that crud deposited on fuel clads is mostly thin or inexistent. This result is due to the appropriate B/Li coolant concentration control which is currently applied in French reactors since several years. Correlatively, radiation field build-up is minimized and excessive external corrosion has never been observed. Nevertheless for higher coolant temperature plants, where occurrence of nucleate boiling could increase crud deposition, and for load follow and high burn-up operation, an extensive programme is performed jointly by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France, FRAMATOME and FRAGEMA to reduce even more the radiation field. This programme, described in the paper, includes: loop tests; on site chemical and radiochemical surveys; radiation field measurements; on site fuel examination crud-scrapping, crud analysis and oxide thickness measurements; hot cells examination. Some key results are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. The Build-Up Course of Visuo-Motor and Audio-Motor Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimori Sugano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor timing is recalibrated after a brief exposure to a delayed feedback of voluntary actions (temporal recalibration effect: TRE (Heron et al., 2009; Stetson et al., 2006; Sugano et al., 2010. We introduce a new paradigm, namely ‘synchronous tapping’ (ST which allows us to investigate how the TRE builds up during adaptation. In each experimental trial, participants were repeatedly exposed to a constant lag (∼150 ms between their voluntary action (pressing a mouse and a feedback stimulus (a visual flash / an auditory click 10 times. Immediately after that, they performed a ST task with the same stimulus as a pace signal (7 flashes / clicks. A subjective ‘no-delay condition’ (∼50 ms served as control. The TRE manifested itself as a change in the tap-stimulus asynchrony that compensated the exposed lag (eg, after lag adaptation, the tap preceded the stimulus more than in control and built up quickly (∼3–6 trials, ∼23–45 sec in both the visuo- and audio-motor domain. The audio-motor TRE was bigger and built-up faster than the visuo-motor one. To conclude, the TRE is comparable between visuo- and audio-motor domain, though they are slightly different in size and build-up rate.

  20. The evaluation of nylon and polyethylene as build-up material in a neutron therapy beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Binns, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In high-energy neutron beams a substantial amount of build-up material is required to irradiate biological samples under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. Ideally A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic is used for this purpose. This material is however not always readily available and hence the need for a substitute compound. The selected hydrocarbon should satisfy two requirements: the quality of the radiation on the distal side needs to be the same as that measured for A-150 plastic and the absorbed dose should remain consistent. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter operating at reduced pressure not only measures the absorbed dose accurately but provides a means for assessing the nature of a radiation field in terms of a secondary charged particle spectrum. Using build-up caps manufactured from nylon (type 6) and polyethylene, it is shown that the former is an acceptable substitute for A-150 plastic. The data further demonstrate that both the absorbed dose and the spectral character of the measured single-event distribution are altered when polyethylene is used and that these discrepancies are attributable to the higher hydrogen content of polyethylene. (Author)

  1. Correction of build-up factor one x-ray hvl measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to obtain the value build-up factor (b) on half value layers (HVL) measurement of diagnostic X-Rays using pocket dosimeter behind aluminium (AI) filter with its thickness vary from 1 to 4 mm. From the measurement it was obtained HVL value of 1.997, 2.596 and 2.718 mmAI for X-Rays of kVp : 80 Kv with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm filter thickness respectively. HVL value significantly increase with increasing AI filter thickness. Increasing of HVL means increasing filter thickness. From the calculation it was obtained increasing b value relative to 1 mm AI filter of 18.26 and 46% for filter thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Experiment result shows the need of involving b value in HVL calculation of X-Rays if the filter is relatively thick. Calculation of HVL of X-Rays can be carried out with thin layers filter. Key words : x-rays, half value layer, build up factor

  2. Preservation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial content in older adults: relationship between mitochondria, fibre type and high-intensity exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; McKenna, Michael J; Formosa, Luke E; Ryan, Michael T; Petersen, Aaron C; Anderson, Mitchell J; Murphy, Robyn M

    2017-06-01

    Ageing is associated with an upregulation of mitochondrial dynamics proteins mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and mitochondrial dynamics protein 49 (MiD49) in human skeletal muscle with the increased abundance of Mfn2 being exclusive to type II muscle fibres. These changes occur despite a similar content of mitochondria, as measured by COXIV, NDUFA9 and complexes in their native states (Blue Native PAGE). Following 12 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT), older adults exhibit a robust increase in mitochondria content, while there is a decline in Mfn2 in type II fibres. We propose that the upregulation of Mfn2 and MiD49 with age may be a protective mechanism to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction, in particularly in type II skeletal muscle fibres, and that exercise may have a unique protective effect negating the need for an increased turnover of mitochondria. Mitochondrial dynamics proteins are critical for mitochondrial turnover and maintenance of mitochondrial health. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a potent training modality shown to upregulate mitochondrial content in young adults but little is known about the effects of HIT on mitochondrial dynamics proteins in older adults. This study investigated the abundance of protein markers for mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial content in older adults compared to young adults. It also investigated the adaptability of mitochondria to 12 weeks of HIT in older adults. Both older and younger adults showed a higher abundance of mitochondrial respiratory chain subunits COXIV and NDUFA9 in type I compared with type II fibres, with no difference between the older adults and young groups. In whole muscle homogenates, older adults had higher mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and mitochondrial dynamics protein 49 (MiD49) contents compared to the young group. Also, older adults had higher levels of Mfn2 in type II fibres compared with young adults. Following HIT in older adults, MiD49 and Mfn2 levels were not different in whole

  3. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  4. FOXO3 Promotes Quiescence in Adult Muscle Stem Cells during the Process of Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra D. Gopinath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle stem cells, or “satellite cells” (SCs, are required for the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. Although SCs self-renew during regeneration, the mechanisms that govern SC re-entry into quiescence remain elusive. We show that FOXO3, a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, is expressed in quiescent SCs (QSCs. Conditional deletion of Foxo3 in QSCs impairs self-renewal and increases the propensity of SCs to adopt a differentiated fate. Transcriptional analysis of SCs lacking FOXO3 revealed a downregulation of Notch signaling, a key regulator of SC quiescence. Conversely, overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD rescued the self-renewal deficit of FOXO3-deficient SCs. We show that FOXO3 regulates NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptor expression and that decreasing expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptors phenocopies the effect of FOXO3 deficiency in SCs. We demonstrate that FOXO3, perhaps by activating Notch signaling, promotes the quiescent state during SC self-renewal in adult muscle regeneration.

  5. Impact of eccentricity build-up and graveyard disposal Strategies on MEO navigation constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Flegel, Sven K.; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Merz, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    With currently two constellations being in or close to the build-up phase, in a few years the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region will be populated with four complete navigation systems in relatively close orbital altitudes: The American GPS, Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, and Chinese BeiDou. To guarantee an appropriate visibility of constellation satellites from Earth, these constellations rely on certain defined orbits. For this, both the repeat pattern, which is basically defined by the semimajor axis and inclination, as well as the orbital planes, which are defined by the right ascension of ascending node, are determining values. To avoid an overcrowding of the region of interest, the disposal of satellites after their end-of-life is recommended. However, for the MEO region, no internationally agreed mitigation guidelines exist. Because of their distances to Earth, ordinary disposal manoeuvres leading to a direct or delayed re-entry due to atmospheric drag are not feasible: The needed fuel masses for such manoeuvres are by far above the reasonable limits and available fuel budgets. Thus, additional approaches have to be applied. For this, in general two options exist: disposal to graveyard orbits or the disposal to eccentricity build-up orbits. In the study performed, the key criterion for the graveyard strategy is that the disposed spacecraft must keep a safe minimum distance to the altitude of the active constellation on a long-term time scale of up to 200 years. This constraint imposes stringent requirements on the stability of the graveyard orbit. Similar disposals are also performed for high LEO satellites and disposed GEO payloads. The eccentricity build-up strategy on the other hand uses resonant effects between the Earth's geopotential, the Sun and the Moon. Depending on the initial conditions, these can cause a large eccentricity build-up, which finally can lead to a re-entry of the satellite. In this paper, the effects of applying either the first or

  6. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C)1 coupling is a process composed of multiple sequential stages, by which an action potential triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)2 Ca2+ release and subsequent contractile activation. The various steps in the E-C coupling process in skeletal muscle can be studied using different techniques. The simultaneous recordings of sarcolemmal electrical signals and the accompanying elevation in myoplasmic Ca2+, due to depolarization-initiated SR Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibres, have been useful to obtain a better understanding of muscle function. In studying the origin and mechanism of voltage dependency of E-C coupling a variety of different techniques have been used to control the voltage in adult skeletal fibres. Pioneering work in muscles isolated from amphibians or crustaceans used microelectrodes or ‘high resistance gap’ techniques to manipulate the voltage in the muscle fibres. The development of the patch clamp technique and its variant, the whole-cell clamp configuration that facilitates the manipulation of the intracellular environment, allowed the use of the voltage clamp techniques in different cell types, including skeletal muscle fibres. The aim of this article is to present an historical perspective of the voltage clamp methods used to study skeletal muscle E-C coupling as well as to describe the current status of using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in studies in which the electrical and Ca2+ signalling properties of mouse skeletal muscle membranes are being investigated. PMID:22306655

  7. Effect of neurturin on multipotent cells isolated from the adult skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourc'h, Patrick; Lacar, Benjamin; Mignon, Laurence; Lucas, Paul A.; Young, Henry E.; Chesselet, Marie-Francoise

    2005-01-01

    Ligands of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors (GDNF)-family are trophic factors for the development and survival of multiple cell types, however their effects on non-neuronal stem cells are unknown. We examined the action of neurturin on a candidate stem cell population isolated from adult skeletal muscles. When grown as spheres, these cells expressed mRNAs for GDNF, persephin, GFR-α2, GFR-α4 (neurturin receptor), and Ret. Exposure of these cells to neurturin significantly augmented cell numbers via increased cell proliferation. After addition of retinoic acid, the cells exited the cell cycle, developed thin processes, and became immunoreactive for βIII-tubulin, while Ret mRNA expression decreased, without changes in the level of GFR-α2 mRNA. Neurturin induced an outgrowth of processes on these βIII-tubulin positive cells. Neurturin may therefore be beneficial in the use of these multipotent cells isolated from adult muscles for autologous transplants in neurological applications

  8. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  9. The Build-Up to Eruptive Solar Events Viewed as the Development of Chiral Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Berger, M. A.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Srivastava, N.

    2012-12-01

    When we examine the chirality or observed handedness of the chromospheric and coronal structures involved in the long-term build-up to eruptive events, we find that they evolve in very specific ways to form two and only two sets of large-scale chiral systems. Each system contains spatially separated components with both signs of chirality, the upper portion having negative (positive) chirality and the lower part possessing positive (negative) chirality. The components within a system are a filament channel (represented partially by sets of chromospheric fibrils), a filament (if present), a filament cavity, sometimes a sigmoid, and always an overlying arcade of coronal loops. When we view these components as parts of large-scale chiral systems, we more clearly see that it is not the individual components of chiral systems that erupt but rather it is the approximate upper parts of an entire evolving chiral system that erupts. We illustrate the typical pattern of build-up to eruptive solar events first without and then including the chirality in each stage of the build-up. We argue that a complete chiral system has one sign of handedness above the filament spine and the opposite handedness in the barbs and filament channel below the filament spine. If the spine has handedness, the observations favor its having the handedness of the filament cavity and coronal loops above. As the separate components of a chiral system form, we show that the system appears to maintain a balance of right-handed and left-handed features, thus preserving an initial near-zero net helicity. We further argue that the chiral systems allow us to identify key sites of energy transformation and stored energy later dissipated in the form of concurrent CMEs, erupting filaments and solar flares. Each individual chiral system may produce many successive eruptive events above a single filament channel. Because major eruptive events apparently do not occur independent of, or outside of, these unique

  10. Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as γ Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isman MT; Elisabeth Supriatni; Tochrul Binowo

    2002-01-01

    Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs 137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (μ) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher μr value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

  11. Document turn-over analysis to determine need of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojpe, D.K.; Lyubavin, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Document turn-over to determine used of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete is carried out. Ways of improving determination of needs of NPP construction board in the mentioned structures are pointed out

  12. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  13. Internal background build-up measurements in CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasybrahmanyam, V.; Measures, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems associated with the internal background build-up (IBB) of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters are reported. As a result of an investigation of batches of the EG and G model 15 dosimeter it is considered that measurements using this type of dosimeter are accurate and reproducible once the IBB has been determined. However, the use of the Manufacturer's claimed average of 0.064 mR/day can lead to erroneous results when determining environmental background dose rates. The authors therefore urge a rigid quality control program by the manufacturer and suggest that purchasers should be supplied with IBB information of each batch of dosimeters. Meanwhile each user should be aware of the IBB problem and be extremely cautious when using these dosimeters for environmental monitoring purposes. (U.K.)

  14. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Frede, Maik

    2009-05-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  15. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Frede, Maik; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter; Willke, Benno

    2009-01-01

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  16. VAPB/ALS8 MSP ligands regulate striated muscle energy metabolism critical for adult survival in caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Min Han

    Full Text Available Mutations in VAPB/ALS8 are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, two motor neuron diseases that often include alterations in energy metabolism. We have shown that C. elegans and Drosophila neurons secrete a cleavage product of VAPB, the N-terminal major sperm protein domain (vMSP. Secreted vMSPs signal through Roundabout and Lar-like receptors expressed on striated muscle. The muscle signaling pathway localizes mitochondria to myofilaments, alters their fission/fusion balance, and promotes energy production. Here, we show that neuronal loss of the C. elegans VAPB homolog triggers metabolic alterations that appear to compensate for muscle mitochondrial dysfunction. When vMSP levels drop, cytoskeletal or mitochondrial abnormalities in muscle induce elevated DAF-16, the Forkhead Box O (FoxO homolog, transcription factor activity. DAF-16 promotes muscle triacylglycerol accumulation, increases ATP levels in adults, and extends lifespan, despite reduced muscle mitochondria electron transport chain activity. Finally, Vapb knock-out mice exhibit abnormal muscular triacylglycerol levels and FoxO target gene transcriptional responses to fasting and refeeding. Our data indicate that impaired vMSP signaling to striated muscle alters FoxO activity, which affects energy metabolism. Abnormalities in energy metabolism of ALS patients may thus constitute a compensatory mechanism counterbalancing skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction.

  17. Muscle quality, aerobic fitness and fat mass predict lower-extremity physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Mark M; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2007-01-01

    Muscle mass, strength and fitness play a role in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older adults; however, the relationships remain inadequately characterized. This study aimed to examine the relationships between leg mineral free lean mass (MFLM(LEG)), leg muscle quality (leg strength normalized for MFLM(LEG)), adiposity, aerobic fitness and LEPF in community-dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Fifty-five older adults (69.3 +/- 5.5 years, 36 females, 19 males) were assessed for leg strength using an isokinetic dynamometer, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic fitness via a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption test. LEPF was assessed using computerized dynamic posturography and stair ascent/descent, a timed up-and-go task and a 7-meter walk with and without an obstacle. Muscle strength, muscle quality and aerobic fitness were similarly correlated with static LEPF tests (r range 0.27-0.40, p < 0.05); however, the strength of the independent predictors was not robust with explained variance ranging from 9 to 16%. Muscle quality was the strongest correlate of all dynamic LEPF tests (r range 0.54-0.65, p < 0.001). Using stepwise linear regression analysis, muscle quality was the strongest independent predictor of dynamic physical function explaining 29-42% of the variance (p < 0.001), whereas aerobic fitness or body fat mass explained 5-6% of the variance (p < 0.05) depending on performance measure. Muscle quality is the most important predictor, and aerobic fitness and fat mass are secondary predictors of LEPF in community-dwelling older adults. These findings support the importance of exercise, especially strength training, for optimal body composition, and maintenance of strength and physical function in older adults.

  18. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Cytokine-induced differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey J; Hong, Zhigang; Willenbring, Ben; Zeng, Lepeng; Isenberg, Brett; Lee, Eu Han; Reyes, Morayma; Keirstead, Susan A; Weir, E Kenneth; Tranquillo, Robert T; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2006-12-01

    Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-beta1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications.

  20. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Rovira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest

  1. Limb muscle quality and quantity in elderly adults with dynapenia but not sarcopenia: An ultrasound imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Jan, Wei Han; Han, Der-Sheng

    2018-03-28

    Dynapenia is prevalent in people with reduced skeletal muscle mass, i.e. sarcopenia, but a certain population develops muscle strength loss despite having normal skeletal muscle volume. To date, studies investigating muscle quality and quantity in groups with dynapenia but not sarcopenia are limited. Echogenicity and thickness of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography in 140 community-dwelling elderly adults. Participants with decreased handgrip strength but normal muscular volume were diagnosed as having dynapenia without sarcopenia. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between dynapenia and ultrasound indicators of the sampled muscle expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 140 participants were recruited for the study, 12.6% (n = 18) of whom had dynapenia. The dynapenia group had a higher mean age, higher proportion of women, slower fast gait speed, reduced handgrip strength, and decreased thicknesses of the biceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, dynapenia was associated with older age (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.33), higher body mass index (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.24) and medial gastrocnemius muscles (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.61). Dynapenia without sarcopenia is associated with decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscles, an association that remains significant after adjustment for demographics, body composition, and physical performance. Ultrasound measurements of lower-limb muscle thickness can be considered an auxiliary criterion for evaluating dynapenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trunk muscle attributes are associated with balance and mobility in older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Kiely, Dan K; Leveille, Suzanne G; Frontera, Walter R; Bean, Jonathan F

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether trunk muscle attributes are associated with balance and mobility performance among mobility-limited older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Outpatient rehabilitation research center. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 70; mean age 75.9 years) with mobility limitations as defined by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Independent variables included physiologic measures of trunk extension strength, trunk flexion strength, trunk extension endurance, trunk extension endurance, and leg press strength. All measures were well tolerated by the study subjects without the occurrence of any associated injuries or adverse events. The association of each physiologic measure with each outcome was examined by the use of separate multivariate models to calculate the partial variance (R(2)) of each trunk and extremity measure. Balance measured by the Berg Balance Scale and Unipedal Stance Test and mobility performance as measured by the SPPB. Trunk extension endurance (partial R(2) = .14, P = .02), and leg press strength (partial R(2) = .14, P = .003) accounted for the greatest amount of the variance in SPPB performance. Trunk extension endurance (partial R(2) = .17, P = .007), accounted for the greatest amount of the variance in BBS performance. Trunk extension strength (R(2) = .09, P = .03), accounted for the greatest amount of the variance in UST performance. The variance explained by trunk extension endurance equaled or exceeded the variance explained by limb strength across all three performance outcomes. Trunk endurance and strength can be safely measured in mobility-limited older adults and are associated with both balance and mobility performance. Trunk endurance and trunk strength are physiologic attributes worthy of targeting in the rehabilitative care of mobility-limited older adults.

  3. Association between isometric muscle strength and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Baker, R.; Dodd, K.; Taylor, N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between isometric muscle strength of the lower limbs and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants (11 males) with bilateral spastic CP, aged 14-22 years (mean: 18.9, sd: 2.0. yr)

  4. Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults : the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Haggerty, Catherine L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steve; Nevitt, Michael; Miles, Toni P; Visser, Marjolein

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower lean mass and higher fat mass have independent effects on the loss of strength and muscle quality in older adults and might explain part of the effect of age. DESIGN: Single-episode, cross-sectional analyses of a cohort of subjects in the Health, Aging and Body

  5. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  6. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  7. Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Joran

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T)=A_{p}r-B_{p}, with A_{p} and B_{p} positive. Moreover, A_{p} and B_{p} are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T≍exp[L(Ar-B)] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and

  8. Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Joran

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T ) =Apr -Bp , with Ap and Bp positive. Moreover, Ap and Bp are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T ≍exp[L (A r -B )] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and multistability

  9. Association between isometric muscle strength and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Baker, R; Dodd, K J; Taylor, N F

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between isometric muscle strength of the lower limbs and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants (11 males) with bilateral spastic CP, aged 14-22 years (mean: 18.9, sd: 2.0 yr) and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II (n=19) and III (n=6) were tested. Hand held dynamometry was used to measure isometric strength (expressed in Nm/kg) of the hip, knee, and ankle muscles using standardized testing positions and procedures. 3D gait analysis was performed with a VICON system to calculate joint kinetics in the hip, knee and ankle during gait. Ankle peak moments exceeded by far the levels of isometric strength of the plantar flexors, while the knee and hip peak moments were just at or below maximal isometric strength of knee and hip muscles. Isometric muscle strength showed weak to moderate correlations with peak ankle and hip extension moment and power during walking. Despite considerable muscle weakness, joint moment curves were similar to norm values. Results suggest that passive stretch of the muscle-tendon complex of the triceps surae contributes to the ankle moment during walking and that muscle strength assessment may provide additional information to gait kinetics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic muscle strengthening physical activity and depression severity among USA adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangin, Causenge; Harris, Randall; Binkley, Philip; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Focht, Brian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the association between depression and anaerobic physical activity (while controlling aerobic physical activity), using a nationally representative sample of USA adults ( n  = 7354) who participated in the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2006). We defined depression using the validated "Patient Health Questionnaire" (PHQ 9 ) scale of 0-27 as PHQ 9   ≥  10. Severity of depression was classified by clinically established PHQ 9 levels: mild (5-9), dysthymic (10-14), moderate (15-19), and major depression ( ≥ 20). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios of depression associated with distinct types of activity (only aerobic, only anaerobic, combined regime). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine associations of anaerobic activity with various severity levels of depression (mild, dysthymic, moderate, and major depression) with adjustment for aerobic activity. Women had higher prevalence of depression than men (8.4% versus 5.7%), whereas anaerobic muscle strengthening activity was more common in men than women (35% versus 24%). Adjusting for aerobic activity , anaerobic activity was inversely associated with depression (PHQ 9   ≥  10) in women under 50 (OR = 0.57; 95%CI = 0.41-0.81), all women (OR = 0.59; 0.43-0.80), men under 50 (OR = 0.85; 0.58-1.2), and all men (OR = 0.72; 0.51-1.01). Anaerobic activity was inversely associated with severity level of depressive symptoms in women and men. The combined regimen of anaerobic muscle strengthening activity and meeting the Physical Activity Guideline for America (PAGA) was related to the lowest odds ratio of depression in women (OR = 0.50; 95%CI = 0.33-0.75) and men (OR = 0.39; 95%CI = 0.23-0.62). Independent of aerobic physical activity, anaerobic muscle strengthening activity is significantly and inversely associated with depression among USA adults.

  11. Uji ketahanan galur padi terhadap wereng coklat biotipe 3 melalui population build-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehaki Suherlan Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of rice lines resistance to brown planthopper (BPH through mass screening, filtering line resistance and the population build-up are essential for the release of resistant rice varieties. In addition, the stages of the endurance are important in determining the stability of resistance, as well as the type of resistant. The research was carried out in the screen house at Indonesian Center for Rice Research in 2007. The BPH used in the research was the off spring of BPH biotype 3 that had been rearing on IR42 (bph2 variety since 1994. The result of this research showed that 22.2% of 18 lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3ft namely BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B, BP2870-4e- Kn-22-2-1-5*B, and Pulut Lewok. On the population build-up test, the above lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3pb. The low FPLI values were found in BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok. The highest tolerance index was found on BP4130-1f- 13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok followed by BP2870-4e-Kn-22-2-1-5*B and BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B. Pulut Lewok has the highest antibiosis index and is not significantly different to BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, while BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B was lowest. Although Pulut Lewok has antibiosis defense mechanism, it is not tolerant to BPH biotype 3. The BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B line have both antibiosis and tolerant to BPH biotype 3. BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B line has tolerance character, but does not have character of antibiosis to BPH biotype 3.

  12. An Empirical Model for Build-Up of Sodium and Calcium Ions in Small Scale Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subriyer Nasir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple models for predicting build-up of solute on membrane surface were formulated in this paper. The experiments were conducted with secondary effluent, groundwater and simulated feed water in small-scale of RO with capacity of 2000 L/d. Feed water used in the experiments contained varying concentrations of sodium, calcium, combined sodium and calcium. In order to study the effect of sodium and calcium ions on membrane performance, experiments with ground water and secondary effluent wastewater were also performed. Build-up of salts on the membrane surface was calculated by measuring concentrations of sodium and calcium ions in feed water permeate and reject streams using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Multiple linear regression of natural logarithmic transformation was used to develop the model based on four main parameters that affect the build-up of solute in a small scale of RO namely applied pressure, permeate flux, membrane resistance, and feed concentration. Experimental data obtained in a small scale RO unit were used to develop the empirical model. The predicted values of theoretical build-up of sodium and calcium on membrane surface were found in agreement with experimental data. The deviation in the prediction of build-up of sodium and calcium were found to be 1.4 to 10.47 % and 1.12 to 4.46%, respectively.

  13. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  14. Balance Performance During Perturbed Standing Is Not Associated With Muscle Strength and Power in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Miklovič, Peter; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Janura, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigate the ways in which varied postural responses to translating platform perturbations are associated with the variables of strength and power. Twenty-four physically active and 27 sedentary young adults were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (10 and 20 cm/s) and the respective accelerations (6.4 and 6.9 m/s 2 ), constant distance (6 cm), and 4 directions of platform motion (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). They also performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and chair rising/chair jumping tests. The analysis of variance revealed significant interaction effect for peak center of pressure displacement, direction by velocity: F 3,129 = 24.43, p = .002; and direction by acceleration: F 3,129 = 34.18, p = .001. There were no significant correlations between peak center of pressure displacements and peak force and peak rate of force development measured during MVC in either standing (r = .27-57) or sitting positions (r = .12-51) and peak power during chair jumping (r = .47-.59) in all participants. As such, only a small proportion of variance was explained (9-39%, 3-23%, and 23-41%, respectively). In conclusion, interaction effects indicate that the composition of stimuli strongly influences compensatory responses and this effect is more pronounced in sedentary than in physically active young adults. Nevertheless, the dynamic balance is not associated with muscle strength and power in either group.

  15. Variations in 6MV x-ray radiotherapy build-up dose with treatment distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  16. SSD effects on high energy x-ray surface and build up dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity N b at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing t b = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in N b beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings t b = 25 ns or t b = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are N b and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta) max . For t b = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta) max is below ∼ 1.2 at nominal N b . For t b = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

  18. Nonstationary pressure build up in full-pressure containments after a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1977-01-01

    The time histories of pressure, temperature and pressure difference during the pressure build up phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the primary system in full-pressure containments of water cooled nuclear power reactors are treated. These are important for the design of such containments. The experiments within the German research program RS 50 ''Druckverteilung im Containment'' offered, for the first time, the opportunity to observe experimentally fluid-dynamic processes in a multiple divided full-pressure containment, and to test at the same time, computer codes which serve to describe the physical processes during the LOCA. The comparison of the results calculated by the computer codes ZOCO VI and DDIFF with the experimental results showed apparent deviations by special arrangements of the compartments and the vent flow paths of a model containment for the calculation of time dependent pressure-, temperature- and pressure difference-histories. The deviations lead to the development of the analytical model and computer code COFLOW. This new model was primarily designed to deal with the fluid-dynamic processes in the beginning phase of the blowdown as maximal pressure differences appear. Furthermore, it can be used to determine the maximum containment pressure, as well as for long term calculations. The analytical model and computer code COFLOW shows a better correlation between theory and experiment than previous codes

  19. Simulations of the Electron Cloud Build Up and Instabilities for Various ILC Damping Ring Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wang, Lanfa; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an electron cloud may be first produced by photoelectrons and ionization of residual gases and then increased by the secondary emission process. This paper reports the assessment of electron cloud effects in a number of configuration options for the ILC baseline configuration. Careful estimates were made of the secondary electron yield (sometimes in the literature also referred as secondary emission yield SEY or (delta), with a peak value (delta) max ) threshold for electron cloud build-up, and the related single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, as a function of beam current and surface properties for a variety of optics designs. When the configuration for the ILC damping rings was chosen at the end of 2005, the results from these studies were important considerations. On the basis of the joint theoretical and experimental work, the baseline configuration currently specifies a pair of 6 km damping rings for the positron beam, to mitigate the effects of the electron cloud that could present difficulties in a single 6 km ring. However, since mitigation techniques are now estimated to be sufficiently mature, a reduced single 6-km circumference is presently under consideration so as to reduce costs

  20. An Effective Strategy to Build Up a Balanced Test Suite for Spectrum-Based Fault Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During past decades, many automated software faults diagnosis techniques including Spectrum-Based Fault Localization (SBFL have been proposed to improve the efficiency of software debugging activity. In the field of SBFL, suspiciousness calculation is closely related to the number of failed and passed test cases. Studies have shown that the ratio of the number of failed and passed test case has more significant impact on the accuracy of SBFL than the total number of test cases, and a balanced test suite is more beneficial to improving the accuracy of SBFL. Based on theoretical analysis, we proposed an PNF (Passed test cases, Not execute Faulty statement strategy to reduce test suite and build up a more balanced one for SBFL, which can be used in regression testing. We evaluated the strategy making experiments using the Siemens program and Space program. Experiments indicated that our PNF strategy can be used to construct a new test suite effectively. Compared with the original test suite, the new one has smaller size (average 90% test case was reduced in experiments and more balanced ratio of failed test cases to passed test cases, while it has the same statement coverage and fault localization accuracy.

  1. Process and equipment for pressure build-up in nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.F.; Carli, E.V. de.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment makes possible the build-up of inert gas pressure in a filled and closed fuel can, i.e. in a complete fuel rod. Handling is simple, it is suitable for mass production and only causes low processing costs. The quality, e.g. the degree of purity of the contents of the rod, remains unchangedin processing. The equipment consists of a vacuum-tight space, into which the equally vacuum tight fuel rod is introduced, and can be fixed so that its position can be reproduced unmistakeably. The vacuum space contains a connection for the inert gases and a laser arrangement. After inserting a fuel rod into the facility, this is evacuated and the fuel can has a hole bored in it by a laser beam. After fast equalisation of pressure, an inert gas at the required pressure is introduced into the chamber and the fuel rod. After the filling process is completed, the fuel can is closed again with the same laser beam. The quality of the seal obtained, i.e the leak-tightness of the fuel can, can be checked after reduction of the inert gas pressure and before taking out the fuel rod, by repeated evacuation of the chamber. Laser light energies between 13,000 and 110,000 Joule/sq cm are sufficient. Optimum results were obtained for a Zircaloy fuel can with about 52,000 Joule/sq cm. (TK) [de

  2. Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success.

  3. Building up the standard gauge model of high energy physics. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter carefully builds up, step by step, the standard gauge model of particle physics based on the group SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). Spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Nambu-Goldstone mode, and then via the Higgs mode for gauge theories, are presented via examples, first for the Abelian U(1) and then for the non-Abelian SU(2) case. The physically interesting SU(2) x U(1) model is then taken up. The emergence of massive vector bosons is demonstrated. After this preparation, the 'standard model' of the late 60's prior to the gauge theory revolution, based on the V-A current-current weak interactions, minimal electromagnetism, and an unspecified strong interaction, all in quark-lepton language, is set up. It is then compared to the standard gauge model of SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). The compelling reasons for QCD as the gauge theory of strong interactions are spelt out. An introduction to renormalization group methods as the main calculational tool for QCD, asymptotic freedom, infrared problems, and physically motivated reasons for going beyond the standard model are presented. (author). 6 refs.; 19 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. VVER operational experience - effect of preconditioning and primary water chemistry on radioactivity build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Kysela, J.; Dudjakova, K.; Martykan, M.; Janesik, J.; Hanus, V.; Marcinsky, P.

    2004-01-01

    The primary coolant technology approaches currently used in VVER units are reviewed and compared with those used in PWR units. Standard and modified water chemistries differing in boron-potassium control are discussed. Preparation of the VVER Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines in the Czech Republic is noted. Operational experience of some VVER units, operated in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in the field of the primary water chemistry, and radioactivity transport and build-up are presented. In Mochovce and Temelin units, a surface preconditioning (passivation) procedure has been applied during hot functional tests. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. The first operational experience obtained in the course of beginning of these units operation is presented mainly with respect to the corrosion products coolant and surface activities. Effect of the initial passivation performed during hot functional tests and the primary water chemistry on corrosion products radioactivity level and radiation situation is discussed. (author)

  5. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  6. Estimation of build up of dose rate on U3O8 product drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A.M.; Deshpande, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In fuel reprocessing plant, plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) are products. Approximately 180 kg U 3 O 8 is filled in SS drum and sealed firmly before storage. In PHWR natural uranium (UO 2 ) is used as fuel. In natural uranium, thorium-232 is present as an impurity at few tens of ppm level. During irradiation in power reactors, due to nuclear reaction formation of 232 U from 232 Th takes place. Natural decay of 232 U leads to the formation of 208 Tl. As time passes, there is buildup of 208 Tl and hence increase in dose rate on the drum containing U 3 O 8 . It is essential to estimate the buildup of dose rate considering the external radiological hazards involved during U 3 O 8 drum handling, transportation and fuel fabrication. This paper describes the calculation of dose rate on drum in future years using MCNP code. For dose rate calculation decay of fission product activity which remains as contamination in product and build up of '2 08 Tl from 232 U is considered. Some measured values of dose rate on U 3 O 8 drum are given for the comparisons with estimated dose rate based on MCNP code. (author)

  7. Contribution of sensory feedback to plantar flexor muscle activation during push-off in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Rasmus F; Jensen, Peter; Kirk, Henrik; Bouyer, Laurent J; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens B

    2017-12-01

    Exaggerated sensory activity has been assumed to contribute to functional impairment following lesion of the central motor pathway. However, recent studies have suggested that sensory contribution to muscle activity during gait is reduced in stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy (CP). We investigated whether this also occurs in CP adults and whether daily treadmill training is accompanied by alterations in sensory contribution to muscle activity. Seventeen adults with CP and 12 uninjured individuals participated. The participants walked on a treadmill while a robotized ankle-foot orthosis applied unload perturbations at the ankle, thereby removing sensory feedback naturally activated during push-off. Reduction of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle caused by unloads was compared and related to kinematics and ankle joint stiffness measurements. Similar measures were obtained after 6 wk of gait training. We found that sensory contribution to soleus EMG activation was reduced in CP adults compared with uninjured adults. The lowest contribution of sensory feedback was found in participants with lowest maximal gait speed. This was related to increased ankle plantar flexor stiffness. Six weeks of gait training did not alter the contribution of sensory feedback. We conclude that exaggerated sensory activity is unlikely to contribute to impaired gait in CP adults, because sensory contribution to muscle activity during gait was reduced compared with in uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminish sensory feedback during gait so that a larger part of plantar flexor muscle activity must be generated by descending motor commands. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Findings suggest that adults with cerebral palsy have less contribution of sensory feedback to ongoing soleus muscle activation during push-off than uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminish sensory

  8. Skeletal muscle myofilament adaptations to aging, disease and disuse and their effects on whole muscle performance in older adult humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stuart Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with aging, disease and disuse. In vivo muscle contractile function depends on a variety of factors, but force, contractile velocity and power generating capacity ultimately derive from the summed contribution of single muscle fibers. The contractile performance of these fibers are, in turn, dependent upon the isoform and function of myofilament proteins they express, with myosin protein expression and its mechanical and kinetic characteristics playing a predominant role. Alterations in myofilament protein biology, therefore, may contribute to the development of functional limitations and disability in these conditions. Recent studies suggest that these conditions are associated with altered single fiber performance due to decreased expression of myofilament proteins and/or changes in myosin-actin cross-bridge interactions. Furthermore, cellular and myofilament-level adaptations are related to diminished whole muscle and whole body performance. Notably, the effect of these various conditions on myofilament and single fiber function tends to be larger in older women compared to older men, which may partially contribute to their higher rates of disability. To maintain functionality and provide the most appropriate and effective countermeasures to aging, disease and disuse in both sexes, a more thorough understanding is needed of the contribution of myofilament adaptations to functional disability in older men and women and their contribution to tissue level function and mobility impairment.

  9. Maintenance of muscle myosin levels in adult C. elegans requires both the double bromodomain protein BET-1 and sumoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling is a conserved process essential to control cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cooperative interactions between histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation and sumoylation are crucial for proper attenuation in C. elegans, implying that the proteins recognising these histone modifications could also play an important role in attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling. We sought to systematically identify these proteins and found BET-1. BET-1 is a conserved double bromodomain protein that recognises acetyl-lysines on histone tails and maintains the stable fate of various lineages. Unexpectedly, adults lacking both BET-1 and SUMO-1 are depleted of muscle myosin, an essential component of myofibrils. We also show that this muscle myosin depletion does not occur in all animals at a specific time, but rather that the penetrance of the phenotype increases with age. To gain mechanistic insights into this process, we sought to delay the occurrence of the muscle myosin depletion phenotype and found that it requires caspase activity and MEK-dependent signalling. We also performed transcription profiling on these mutants and found an up-regulation of the FGF receptor, egl-15, a tyrosine kinase receptor acting upstream of MEK. Consistent with a MEK requirement, we could delay the muscle phenotype by systemic or hypodermal knock down of egl-15. Thus, this work uncovered a caspase- and MEK-dependent mechanism that acts specifically on ageing adults to maintain the appropriate net level of muscle myosin.

  10. Aesthetic Closure of Maxillary and Mandibular Anterior Spaces Using Direct Composite Resin Build-Ups: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schick Simona-Georgiana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple spaces in the anterior aesthetic zone can produce discomfort for patients and its treatment can be difficult for dental professionals. A variety of treatment options are available and these include orthodontic movement, prosthetic indirect restorations or direct composite resin build-ups. Among these, the closure of interdental spaces using composite build-ups combined with orthodontic treatment is considered to be most conservative. This type of treatment has several advantages like the maximum preservation of tooth substance (no tooth preparation, no need for anesthesia, no multiple time-consuming visits, no provisional restorations and also comparably low costs. Clinical Consideration: This case report describes the clinical restorative procedure of direct composite resin build-ups for the closure of multiple anterior spaces.

  11. The effect of plasma minor-radius expansion in the current build-up phase of a large tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomofumi; Tazima, Teruhiko; Tani, Keiji; Tamura, Sanae

    1977-03-01

    A plasma simulation code has been developed to study the plasma current build-up process in JT-60. Plasma simulation is made with a model which represents well overall plasma behavior of the present-day tokamaks. The external electric circuit is taken into consideration in simulation calculation. An emphasis is placed on the simulation of minor-radius expansion of the plasma and behavior of neutral particles in the plasma during current build-up. A calculation with typical parameters of JT-60 shows a week skin distribution in the current density and the electron temperature, if the minor radius of the plasma expands with build-up of the plasma current. (auth.)

  12. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  13. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in adult and juvenile mini-muscle mice bred for high-voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, Robert J; Acosta, Wendy; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition of locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice were assessed at the protein and mRNA levels in both adult and juvenile (21 day old) mice. Mini-muscle mice are one outcome of a replicated artificial selection experiment in which four lines of mice were bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Two of the lines responded with an increase in frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron in the MyHC-2b gene (myh4) that when homozygous causes a dramatic reduction in triceps surae mass. We found that both locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of adult mini-muscle mice displayed robust reductions, but not elimination, of the MyHC-2b isoform at both the protein and mRNA levels, with commensurate increases in MyHC-2x and sometimes MyHC-2a, as compared with either a line of HR mice that does not display the mini-muscle phenotype or inbred C57Bl6 mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice contain fibers that express the MyHC-2b isoform, which migrates normally in SDS-PAGE gels. However, these MyHC-2b positive fibers are generally smaller than the surrounding fibers and smaller than the MyHC-2b positive fibers of non-mini-muscle mice, resulting in characteristically fast muscles that lack a substantial MyHC-2b positive (superficial) region. In contrast, the masseter, a non-locomotor muscle of mini-muscle mice contained MyHC-2b positive fibers that stained more lightly for MyHC-2b, but appeared normal in size and distribution. In adults, many of the MyHC-2b positive fibers in the mini-muscle mice also display central nuclei. Only a small proportion of small MyHC-2b fibers in mini-muscle mice stained positive for the neural cell adhesion molecule, suggesting that anatomical innervation was not compromised. In addition, weanling (21 day old), but not 5 day old mice, displayed alterations in MyHC isoform content at both the protein and mRNA levels, including

  14. Hydropower build-up and the timber floating in Northern Finland after the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, N. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland)). email: niko.hanninen@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    During the Second World War, Finland lost a substantial amount of built and yet un-built hydropower capacity to Soviet Union due to loss of Karelia. The most significant energy user at the time was the forest industry, especially paper and pulp mills, which had to replace this loss and to secure uninterrupted supply of energy in the future; otherwise the industry could not realise their expansion plans. One solution was to harness the still untouched northern waters for the service of the industry and society in large. However, these rivers served already the forest industry in another way, as transport routes in floating of timber. Vast waterways had made the emergence of forest industry in Finland possible. Transportation of timber from distant forests, located more than hundreds of kilometres away from the mills, was possible using rivers and lakes. Especially in Northern Finland the industry had to rely on floating as the railway network was less extensive than in some other parts of the country. The objective of this paper is to study closer, how the emergence of vast hydropower dams in these northern rivers from late 1940's to 1970's changed the transportation of timber. Road transportation in particular could not compete with floating because of their higher costs and the lack of suitable trucks and roads, but this changed after the war. Despite the fact that expanding industries consumed more and more timber, the role of floating decreased. But how did these ratios change during this period? Did the build-up of hydropower plants contribute to this shift of timber transportations from waterways to the land? Salmon and logs did not fit on the same river, the fishermen had to yield in the end. Did the hydropower plants do the same to the floaters

  15. To integrate family planning into the building up of mental civilization by offering comprehensive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism.

  16. Venom Immunotherapy in High-Risk Patients: The Advantage of the Rush Build-Up Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Yossi; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Goldberg, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is considered to be the gold standard treatment for patients with hymenoptera venom allergy. This treatment induces systemic reactions (SR) in a significant number of patients. To evaluate the outcome of VIT in patients with known risk factors for VIT-induced SR and to compare rush VIT (RVIT) and conventional VIT (CVIT). All of the patients who received VIT and had at least one of the following risk factors were included: current cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled asthma, high basal serum tryptase, current treatment with β-blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and age >70 or bee venom. Thirty-five (54.7%) patients underwent RVIT and 29 CVIT. The incidence of patients who developed SR during the build-up phase was similar for RVIT and CVIT (25.7 and 27.5%, respectively; p = 1). However, the incidence of SR per injection was significantly higher in CVIT than in RVIT (5.6 and 2.75%, respectively; p = 0.01). Most reactions (79.1%) were mild, limited to the skin. Most of the patients (92.1%) reached the full maintenance dose of 100 μg. This dose was reached by a significantly larger number of patients receiving RVIT compared to CVIT (100 and 82.7%, respectively; p = 0.01). None of the patients experienced exacerbation of their concurrent chronic disease during VIT. VIT can be performed safely and efficiently in patients with risk factors for immunotherapy. In these patients RVIT appears to be safer and more efficient than CVIT. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Clinical comparison of various esthetic restorative options for coronal build-up of primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Duhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare the clinical performance of composite, strip crowns, biological restoration, and composite with stainless steel band when used for the coronal build-up of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients aged 3-6 years presenting with mutilated primary anterior teeth due to caries or trauma were selected for the study using randomized simple sampling. A total of 52 primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups having 13 teeth in each group. Teeth in Group I were restored with composite, in Group II with strip crowns, in Group III with biologic restoration and with stainless steel band reinforced composite in group IV. The restorations were evaluated for color match, retention, surface texture, and anatomic form according to Ryge′s Direct (US Public Health Service evaluation criteria at baseline (immediate postoperative, after 48 h, 3, 6, and 9 months. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, and level of significance, that is, P value was determined. Results: At baseline, none of the groups showed any color changes. Other than Group III all other groups showed highly significant changes (P 0.05. Deterioration in surface texture was exhibited maximum by restorations in Group IV followed by Group I at 3 months. Whereas, no surface changes were seen in Group II and III. Only Group I and IV showed discontinuity in anatomic form after 3 months. After 6 months, except in Group II, discontinuity in anatomic form was observed in all the groups. Discontinuity in anatomic form was seen in all the 4 groups after 9 months although the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Biological restoration was found to be most satisfying esthetically owing to color compatibility with the patient′s tooth. Thus, it has a great potential to be used as esthetic restorative option in primary anteriors.

  18. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  19. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  20. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  1. Older Adults with Weaker Muscle Strength Stand up from a Sitting Position with More Dynamic Trunk Use

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    Rob C. van Lummel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to stand up from a sitting position is essential for older adults to live independently. Body-fixed inertial sensors may provide an approach for quantifying the sit-to-stand (STS in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of STS movements using body-fixed sensors yield parameters that are informative regarding changes in STS performance in older adults with reduced muscle strength. In twenty-seven healthy older adults, handgrip strength was assessed as a proxy for overall muscle strength. Subjects were asked to stand up from a chair placed at three heights. Trunk movements were measured using an inertial sensor fixed to the back. Duration, angular range, and maximum angular velocity of STS phases, as well as the vertical velocity of the extension phase, were calculated. Backwards elimination using Generalized Estimating Equations was used to determine if handgrip strength predicted the STS durations and trunk kinematics. Weaker subjects (i.e., with lower handgrip strength were slower during the STS and showed a larger flexion angular range and a larger extension angular range. In addition, weaker subjects showed a greater maximum angular velocity, which increased with lower seat heights. Measurements with a single inertial sensor did reveal that older adults with lower handgrip strength employed a different strategy to stand up from a sitting position, involving more dynamic use of the trunk. This effect was greatest when elevating body mass. Trunk kinematic parameters were more sensitive to reduced muscle strength than durations.

  2. Texture-modified diets are associated with decreased muscle mass in older adults admitted to a rehabilitation ward.

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    Shimizu, Akio; Maeda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kei; Ogawa, Mei; Kayashita, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Texture-modified diets (TMD) have significantly lower energy and protein content than normal diets. Therefore, TMD can cause malnutrition and loss of muscle mass. However, few studies have reported the relationship between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. We reviewed data of 188 older adult patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. TMD were defined based on the Japanese Dysphagia Diet Criteria 2013 proposed by the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form was used to assess nutritional status; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the skeletal muscle mass index, and the cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass index were based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia; the Functional Independence Measure was used to evaluate activities of daily living. The patients' mean age was 80.6 ± 7.5 years, and 62% were women. A total of 22 patients (11.7%) consumed TMD. A total of 104 patients (55.3%) had decreased skeletal muscle mass, and approximately 90% of them consumed TMD. Decreased skeletal muscle mass index (odds ratio 7.199, 95% confidence interval 1.489-34.805, P ≤ 0.01) and Functional Independence Measure scores (odds ratio 0.972, 95% confidence interval 0.952-0.992, P ≤ 0.01) were independently related to TMD in the multivariate analysis. The TMD group was associated with decreased skeletal muscle mass. Future, prospective studies are necessary to investigate causality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 698-704. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. A dietary supplementation with leucine and antioxidants is capable to accelerate muscle mass recovery after immobilization in adult rats.

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    Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux

    Full Text Available Prolonged inactivity induces muscle loss due to an activation of proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis; the latter is also involved in the recovery of muscle mass. The aim of the present work was to explore the evolution of muscle mass and protein metabolism during immobilization and recovery and assess the effect of a nutritional strategy for counteracting muscle loss and facilitating recovery. Adult rats (6-8 months were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I0-I8 and then permitted to recover for 10 to 40 days (R10-R40. They were fed a Control or Experimental diet supplemented with antioxidants/polyphenols (AOX (I0 to I8, AOX and leucine (AOX + LEU (I8 to R15 and LEU alone (R15 to R40. Muscle mass, absolute protein synthesis rate and proteasome activities were measured in gastrocnemius muscle in casted and non-casted legs in post prandial (PP and post absorptive (PA states at each time point. Immobilized gastrocnemius protein content was similarly reduced (-37% in both diets compared to the non-casted leg. Muscle mass recovery was accelerated by the AOX and LEU supplementation (+6% AOX+LEU vs. Control, P<0.05 at R40 due to a higher protein synthesis both in PA and PP states (+23% and 31% respectively, Experimental vs. Control diets, P<0.05, R40 without difference in trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities between diets. Thus, this nutritional supplementation accelerated the recovery of muscle mass via a stimulation of protein synthesis throughout the entire day (in the PP and PA states and could be a promising strategy to be tested during recovery from bed rest in humans.

  4. Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults

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    Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…

  5. Activation timing of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance during bilateral arm flexion in older adults.

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    Yaguchi, Chie; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe

    2017-12-22

    Activation timings of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance were investigated in young and older adults during bilateral arm flexion in a self-timing task and an oddball task with different probabilities of target presentation. Arm flexion was started from a standing posture with hands suspended 10 cm below the horizontal level in front of the body, in which postural control focused on the ankles is important. Fourteen young and 14 older adults raised the arms in response to the target sound signal. Three task conditions were used: 15 and 45% probabilities of the target in the oddball task and self-timing. Analysis items were activation timing of postural muscles (erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid (AD), and latency and amplitude of the P300 component of event-related brain potential. For young adults, all postural muscles were activated significantly earlier than AD under each condition, and time of preceding gastrocnemius activation was significantly longer in the order of the self-timing, 45 and 15% conditions. P300 latency was significantly shorter, and P300 amplitude was significantly smaller under the 45% condition than under the 15% condition. For older adults, although all postural muscles, including gastrocnemius, were activated significantly earlier than AD in the self-timing condition, only activation timing of gastrocnemius was not significantly earlier than that of AD in oddball tasks, regardless of target probability. No significant differences were found between 15 and 45% conditions in onset times of all postural muscles, and latency and amplitude of P300. These results suggest that during arm movement, young adults can achieve sufficient postural preparation in proportion to the probability of target presentation in the oddball task. Older adults can achieve postural control using ankle joints in the self-timing task. However, in the oddball task, older adults

  6. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

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    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb).

  7. Prevalence of adult Pompe disease in patients with proximal myopathic syndrome and undiagnosed muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsari, Amir; Nasimzadah, Arzoo; Thomalla, Götz; Keller, Sarah; Gerloff, Christian; Magnus, Tim

    2018-03-01

    We examined patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness and/or hyper-CKaemia and undiagnosed muscle biopsy for late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Patients with an inconclusive limb-girdle muscle weakness who presented at our neuromuscular centre between 2005 and 2015 with undiagnosed muscle biopsies were examined by dry blood spot testing (DBS) including determination of the enzyme activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). In the case of depressed enzyme activity, additional gene testing of the GAA gene was carried out. Of the 340 evaluated muscle biopsies, 69 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were examined with DBS. Among those patients, 76% showed a limb-girdle muscle weakness and 14% showed a hyper-CKaemia. A diagnosis of LOPD could be established in the case of two patients (2.9%) with reduced GAA enzyme activity and proof of mutations in the GAA gene. One of the two patients presents in the muscle biopsy suggestive features of Pompe disease including vacuoles with positive acid phosphatase reaction. In summary, our results show that a muscle biopsy can be helpful in identifying LOPD patients, but vacuolation with glycogen storage can also be absent. An inconspicuous muscle biopsy does not rule out Pompe disease. Consequently, all patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness should be examined by DBS before conducting a muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Public health policy and the building up of a Brazilian medical identity.

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    de Castro-Santos, L A

    2005-12-01

    Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further

  9. Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and wash-off from urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kokot, Serge

    2010-12-01

    An investigation into the effects of changes in urban traffic characteristics due to rapid urbanisation and the predicted changes in rainfall characteristics due to climate change on the build-up and wash-off of heavy metals was carried out in Gold Coast, Australia. The study sites encompassed three different urban land uses. Nine heavy metals commonly associated with traffic emissions were selected. The results were interpreted using multivariate data analysis and decision making tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA), fuzzy clustering (FC), PROMETHEE, and GAIA. Initial analyses established high, low, and moderate traffic scenarios as well as low, low to moderate, moderate, high, and extreme rainfall scenarios for build-up and wash-off investigations. GAIA analyses established that moderate to high traffic scenarios could affect the build-up, while moderate to high rainfall scenarios could affect the wash-off of heavy metals under changed conditions. However, in wash-off, metal concentrations in 1-75 μm fraction were found to be independent of the changes to rainfall characteristics. In build-up, high traffic activities in commercial and industrial areas influenced the accumulation of heavy metal concentrations in particulate size range from 75 - >300 μm, whereas metal concentrations in finer size range of 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn from build-up, while organic matter from 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni from wash-off. Cu and Zn need to be removed as free ions from most fractions in wash-off.

  10. Expression of developmental myosin and morphological characteristics in adult rat skeletal muscle following exercise-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H K; Plyley, M J; Rodgers, C D; McKee, N H

    1999-07-01

    The extent and stability of the expression of developmental isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHCd), and their association with cellular morphology, were determined in adult rat skeletal muscle fibres following injury induced by eccentrically-biased exercise. Adult female Wistar rats [274 (10) g] were either assigned as non-exercised controls or subjected to 30 min of treadmill exercise (grade, -16 degrees; speed, 15 m x min(-1)), and then sacrificed following 1, 2, 4, 7, or 12 days of recovery (n = 5-6 per group). Histologically and immunohistologically stained serial, transverse cryosections of the soleus (S), vastus intermedius (VI), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were examined using light microscopy and digital imaging. Fibres staining positively for MHCd (MHCd+) were seldom detected in the TA. In the VI and S, higher proportions of MHCd+ fibres (0.8% and 2.5%, respectively) were observed in rats at 4 and 7 days post-exercise, in comparison to all other groups combined (0.2%, 1.2%; P < or = 0.01). In S, MHCd+ fibres were observed less frequently by 12 days (0.7%) than at 7 days (2.6%) following exercise. The majority (85.1%) of the MHCd+ fibres had morphological characteristics indicative of either damage, degeneration, repair or regeneration. Most of the MHCd+ fibres also expressed adult slow, and/or fast myosin heavy chain. Quantitatively, the MHCd+ fibres were smaller (< 2500 microm2) and more angular than fibres not expressing MHCd. Thus, there was a transient increase in a small, but distinct population of MHCd+ fibres following unaccustomed, functional exercise in adult rat S and VI muscles. The observed close coupling of MHCd expression with morphological changes within muscle fibres suggests that these characteristics have a common, initial exercise-induced injury-related stimulus.

  11. Safe and bodywide muscle transduction in young adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs with adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yongping; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Kodippili, Kasun; Zhang, Keqing; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, Hsiao T; McDonald, Thomas; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-15

    The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ∼2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92-6.24 × 10(14) viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: from able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and (1)H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (r(2) = 0.89; P muscle volume compared with (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm(3)) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm(3)) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings.

  13. Metabolites related to renal function, immune activation, and carbamylation are associated with muscle composition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Fielding, Roger A

    2017-12-15

    Reduced skeletal muscle density in older adults is associated with insulin resistance, decreased physical function, and an increased all-cause mortality risk. To elucidate mechanisms that may underlie the maintenance of skeletal muscle density, we conducted a secondary analysis of previously published muscle composition and serum metabolomic data in 73 older adults (average age, 78y). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to examine associations between 321 metabolites with muscle composition, defined as the ratio between normal density (NDM) with low density (LDM) thigh muscle cross sectional area (NDM/LDM). Sixty metabolites were significantly (p≤0.05 and qMetabolites that were significantly associated with muscle composition were then tested for their association with circulating markers of renal function (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid), and with the immune response (neutrophils/lymphocytes) and activation (kynurenine/tryptophan). 43 significant NDM/LDM metabolites (including urea) were co-associated with at least 1 marker of renal function; 23 of these metabolites have been previously identified as uremic solutes. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with NDM/LDM (β±SE: -0.3±0.1, p=0.01, q=0.04). 35 significant NDM/LDM metabolites were co-associated with immune activation. Carbamylation (defined as homocitrulline/lysine) was identified as a pathway that may link renal function and immune activation with muscle composition, as 29 significant NDM/LDM metabolites were co-associated with homocitrulline/lysine, with at least 2 markers of renal function, and with kynurenine/tryptophan. When considering that elevated urea and uremic metabolites have been linked with an increased systemic microbial burden, that antimicrobial defense can be reduced in the presence of carbamylation, and that adipocytes can promote host defense, we propose the novel hypothesis that the age-related increase in adipogenesis within muscle

  14. Timing of muscle response to a sudden leg perturbation: comparison between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome.

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    Maria Stella Valle

    Full Text Available Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test. In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability.

  15. Understanding the build-up of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Georgakakis, Antonis

    2016-07-01

    . The excellent survey capabilities of Athena/WFI (effective area, angular resolution, field of view) will allow to measure the incidence of feedback in the shape of warm absorbers and Ultra Fast Outflows among the general population of AGN, as well as to complete the census of black hole growth by detecting and characterising significant samples of the most heavily obscured (including Compton thick) AGN, to redshifts z~3-4. The outstanding spectral throughput and resolution of Athena/X-IFU will permit measuring the energetics of those outflows to assess their influence on their host galaxies. The demographics of the heavily obscured and outflowing populations relative to their hosts are fundamental for understanding how major black hole growth events relate to the build-up of galaxies.

  16. Probing the Build-Up of Quiescent Galaxies at z>3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven

    We propose to perform the most robust investigation to date into the evolution of massive quiescent and star-forming galaxies at z > 3, at a time when the universe was less than two billion years old. The build-up of quiescent galaxies in particular is poorly understood, primarily due to large Poisson and cosmic variance issues that have plagued previous studies that probed small volumes, leading to a disagreement on the quiescent fraction by a factor of >3 in the literature. Our proposed work is only now possible due to a new legacy survey led by our team: the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area Survey (SHELA), which is imaging a 23 deg^2 area of the sky at optical, and near, mid and far-infrared, and X-ray wavelengths. In particular, the wide area coverage of the Spitzer/IRAC data allows us to be sensitive to massive galaxies at very high redshifts, the Herschel data allows us to rule out lower-redshift counterparts, and the XMM-Newton data allows us to remove quasar contaminants from our sample. This survey covers a volume >14X that of the largest previous survey for quiescent galaxies at z=3.5, and ~6X larger than that of the largest previous survey for star-forming galaxies at z=4. All of these data exist in the region soon to be observed by the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which will provide high-precision measures of halo masses and local density at z~3. Using this exquisite multi-wavelength dataset, we will measure the abundance of massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 3-5, and, combining with measures of the halo masses and environment, compare properties of quiescent galaxies to star-forming galaxies to investigate the physical cause behind the quenching. We will also investigate the onset of quenching in star-forming galaxies in two ways, first by studying the relation between star formation rate and stellar mass, to search for a break in the typically-linear relation at high masses, and second by constraining the feedback

  17. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  18. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  19. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  1. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Demetra D; Pierce, Gary L; Walker, Ashley E; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-09-15

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18-79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4-42.2 kg/m(2)], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI and percent body fat (percent BF via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)], and indexes of abdominal adiposity [waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]. In a subgroup (n = 74), we also measured total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), and subcutaneous fat (ASF) using computed tomography. Based on multiple linear regression, NID was negatively related to BMI [part correlation coefficient (r(part)) = -0.19, P = 0.004] and abdominal adiposity (WC, r(part) = -0.22; WHR, r(part) = -0.19; TAF, r(part) = -0.36; AVF, r(part) = -0.36; and ASF, r(part) = -0.30; all P ≤ 0.009) independent of sex, but only tended to be related to total percent BF (r(part) = -0.12, P = 0.07). In a subgroup of subjects with the highest compared with the lowest amount of AVF, NID was 35% lower (P = 0.003). Accounting for systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and brachial artery diameter reduced or abolished some of the relations between NID and adiposity. In conclusion, NID is or tends to be negatively associated with measures of total adiposity (BMI and percent BF, respectively) but is consistently and more strongly negatively associated with abdominal adiposity. Adiposity may influence NID in part via other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The design of electronic device enclosures plays a major role in determining the humidity build-up inside the device as a response to the varying external humidity. Therefore, the corrosion reliability of electronic devices has direct connection to the enclosure design. This paper describes......, thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...... that the exposure to cycling temperature causes significant change of internal water vapor concentration. The maximum value of humidity reached was a function of the opening size and the presence of thermal mass inside the enclosure. A pumping effect was observed due to cycling temperature, and the increase...

  3. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface; Zakonomernosti nakopleniya radiatsionnykh defektov na poverkhnosti oksidnykh materialov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitenbaev, M I; Polyakov, A I [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tuseev, T [Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide{yields}beryllium oxide{yields}aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency.

  4. A study of energy and effective atomic number dependence of the exposure build-up factors in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Singh, P.S.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented to determine the gamma-radiation build-up factors in various biological materials. The gamma energy range is 0.015-15.0 MeV, with penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths considered. The dependence of the exposure build-up factor on incident photon energy and the effective atomic number (Z eff ) has also been assessed. In a practical analysis of dose burden to gamma-irradiated biological materials, the sophistication of Monte Carlo computer techniques would be applied, with associated detailed modelling. However, a feature of the theoretical method presented is its ability to make the consequences of the physics of the scattering process in biological materials more transparent. In addition, it can be quickly employed to give a first-pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed computer study. (author)

  5. Calculation procedure of temperature carditions of building-up and high frequency current brazing of articles of complex shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivnitskij, B.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    A technique of calculating the temperature regime of building-up and high frequency current brazing of articles of complex shape is suggested. The technique consists in division of complex detail into several simple components. Heat balances equation is compiled for each of them taking into account the heat exchange with other elements. It is possible to determine optimum regimes for heating and cooling rather efficiently using a computer

  6. Effect of curing mode on the hardness of dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Galvão Arrais

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Knoop Hardness (KHN values of two dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials and one resin cement exposed to different curing conditions. Two dual-cured core build-up composite resins (LuxaCore®-Dual, DMG; and FluoroCore®2, Dentsply Caulk, and one dual-cured resin cement (Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE were used in the present study. The composite materials were placed into a cylindrical matrix (2 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter, and the specimens thus produced were either light-activated for 40 s (Optilux 501, Demetron Kerr or were allowed to self-cure for 10 min in the dark (n = 5. All specimens were then stored in humidity at 37°C for 24 h in the dark and were subjected to KHN analysis. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test at a pre-set alpha of 5%. All the light-activated groups exhibited higher KHN values than the self-cured ones (p = 0.00001, regardless of product. Among the self-cured groups, both composite resin core build-up materials showed higher KHN values than the dual-cured resin cement (p = 0.00001. LuxaCore®-Dual exhibited higher KHN values than FluoroCore®2 (p = 0.00001 when they were allowed to self-cure, while no significant differences in KHN values were observed among the light-activated products. The results suggest that dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials may be more reliable than dual-cured resin cements when curing light is not available.

  7. Thigh muscle volume predicted by anthropometric measurements and correlated with physical function in the older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B B; Shih, T T F; Hsu, C Y; Yu, C W; Wei, S Y; Chen, C Y; Wu, C H; Chen, C Y

    2011-06-01

    (1) to correlate thigh muscle volume measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI) with anthropometric measurements and physical function in elderly subjects; (2) to predict MRI-measured thigh muscle volume using anthropometric measurements and physical functional status in elderly subjects. Cross-sectional, nonrandomized study. Outpatient clinic in Taiwan. Sixty-nine elderly subjects (33 men and 36 women) aged 65 and older. The anthropometric data (including body height, body weight, waist size, and thigh circumference), physical activity and function (including grip strength, bilateral quadriceps muscle power, the up and go test, chair rise, and five meters walk time) and bioelectrical impedance analysis data (including total body fat mass, fat-free mass, and predictive muscle size) were measured. MRI-measured muscle volume of both thighs was used as the reference standard. The MRI-measured thigh volume was positively correlated with all anthropometric data, quadriceps muscle power and the up and go test as well as fat-free mass and predictive muscle mass, whereas it was negatively associated with age and walk time. In predicting thigh muscle volume, the variables of age, gender, body weight, and thigh circumference were significant predictors in the linear regression model: Muscle volume (cm3) =4226.3-42.5 × Age (year)-955.7 × gender (male=1, female=2) + 45.9 × body weight(kg) + 60.0 × thigh circumference (cm) (r2 = 0.745, P estimate = 581.6 cm3). The current work provides evidence of a strong relationship between thigh muscle volume and physical function in the elderly. We also developed a prediction equation model using anthropometric measurements. This model is a simple and noninvasive method for everyday clinical practice and follow-up.

  8. Morphological and qualitative characteristics of the quadriceps muscle of community-dwelling older adults based on ultrasound imaging: classification using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Kera, Takeshi; Hirayama, Ryo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    Muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound imaging represent both increased muscle volume and connective tissue accumulation. In combination, these ultrasound measurements can be utilized for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine whether morphological and qualitative characteristics classified by quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound are associated with muscle strength, physical function, and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity were measured using ultrasound imaging in 1239 community-dwelling older adults. Latent class analyses were conducted to classify participants based on similarity in the subcutaneous fat thickness (FT), quadriceps muscle thickness (MT), subcutaneous fat echo intensity (FEI), and muscle echo intensity (MEI), which were assessed using ultrasound imaging. Morphological and qualitative characteristics were classified into four types as follows: (A) normal, (B) sarcopenic obesity, (C) obesity, and (D) sarcopenia type. Knee extension strength was significantly greater in A than in B and D. FT and percent body fat were greater in C than in the other types. The correlation between the ultrasound measures and knee extension strength differed among the classification types. The classification types were significantly associated with sarcopenia prevalence. Classification of the morphological and qualitative characteristics obtained from ultrasound imaging may be useful for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

  9. Sex-Specific Skeletal Muscle Fatigability and Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity in Adult Rats Exposed to Postnatal Hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Tetri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rats could recapitulate the skeletal and metabolic phenotype of premature birth, and to characterize the subcellular metabolic changes associated with postnatal hyperoxia exposure, with a secondary aim to evaluate sex differences in this model. Compared to control rats, male rats exposed to 14 days of postnatal hyperoxia then aged to 1 year demonstrated higher skeletal muscle fatigability, lower muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, more mitochondrial damage, and higher glycolytic enzyme expression. These differences were not present in female rats with the same postnatal hyperoxia exposure. This study demonstrates detrimental mitochondrial and muscular outcomes in the adult male rat exposed to postnatal hyperoxia. Given that young adults born premature also demonstrate skeletal muscle dysfunction, future studies are merited to determine whether this dysfunction as well as reduced aerobic capacity is due to reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and metabolic dysfunction.

  10. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  11. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on the build-up of Pasteuria penetrans population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darban, Daim Ali; Pathan, Mumtaz Ali; Bhatti, Abdul Ghaffar; Maitelo, Sultan Ahmed

    2005-02-01

    Pasteuria penetrans will build-up faster where there is a high initial nematode density and can suppress root-knot nematode populations in the roots of tomato plants. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) (150, 750, 1500, 3000) and P. penetrans infected females (F1, F3) densities (F0=control and AC=absolute control without nematode or P. penetrans inoculum) on the build-up of Pasteuria population was investigated over four crop cycles. Two major points of interest were highlighted. First, that within a confined soil volume, densities of P. penetrans can increase >100 times within 2 or 3 crop cycles. Second, from a relatively small amount of spore inoculum, infection of the host is very high. There were more infected females in the higher P. penetrans doses. The root growth data confirms the greater number of females in the controls particularly at the higher inoculum densities in the third and fourth crops. P. penetrans generally caused the fresh root weights to be higher than those in the control. P. penetrans has shown greater reduction of egg masses per plant at most densities. The effects of different initial densities of M. javanica and P. penetrans on the development of the pest and parasite populations were monitored. And no attempt was made to return the P. penetrans spores to the pots after each crop so the build-up in actual numbers of infected females and spores under natural conditions may be underestimated.

  12. The effect of build-up cap materials on the response of an ionization chamber to 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.P.O.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the effect of wall and build-up cap materials on ionization chamber response is necessary to determine absorbed dose in a medium using a calibration factor based on exposure or kerma in air. Attenuation and scattering effects of 60 Co gamma rays in the ionization chamber wall and build-up cap, as well as their non-equivalence to air, were studied with an OFS ionization chamber (Delrin wall) and a set of build-up caps specially built for this purpose. Results for a specific material were plotted as functions of wall and cap total thickness, extrapolated to zero wall thickness, then corrected for mean centre of electron production in the wall (= 0.136 g cm -2 ). Correction factors for a specific thickness were analysed in relation to cap material, and to relative responses compared with values calculated by using AAPM, SEFM and IAEA formalisms for cap effects. A Monte Carlo calculation was performed to compare the experimental and theoretical values. Calculations showed an agreement within 0.1% with experimental values and a wall effect of approximately 1.6%. (Author)

  13. A One-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Model of Plasma Build-Up in Vacuum Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Timko, H; Kovermann, J; Taborelli, M; Nordlund, K; Descoeudres, A; Schneider, R; Calatroni, S; Matyash, K; Wuensch, W; Hansen, A; Grudiev, A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of plasma build-up in vacuum arcs is essential in many fields of physics. A one-dimensional particle-in-cell computer simulation model is presented, which models the plasma developing from a field emitter tip under electrical breakdown conditions, taking into account the relevant physical phenomena. As a starting point, only an external electric field and an initial enhancement factor of the tip are assumed. General requirements for plasma formation have been identified and formulated in terms of the initial local field and a critical neutral density. The dependence of plasma build-up on tip melting current, the evaporation rate of neutrals and external circuit time constant has been investigated for copper and simulations imply that arcing involves melting currents around 0.5-1 A/mu m(2),evaporation of neutrals to electron field emission ratios in the regime 0.01 - 0.05, plasma build-up timescales in the order of similar to 1 - 10 ns and two different regimes depending on initial ...

  14. Defective mitochondrial function in vivo in skeletal muscle in adults with Down's syndrome: a 31P-MRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available Down's syndrome (DS is a developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID. We have previously shown that people with DS engage in very low levels of exercise compared to people with ID not due to DS. Many aspects of the DS phenotype, such as dementia, low activity levels and poor muscle tone, are shared with disorders of mitochondrial origin, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in cultured DS tissue. We undertook a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS study in the quadriceps muscle of 14 people with DS and 11 non-DS ID controls to investigate the post-exercise resynthesis kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr, which relies on mitochondrial respiratory function and yields a measure of muscle mitochondrial function in vivo. We found that the PCr recovery rate constant was significantly decreased in adults with DS compared to non-DS ID controls (1.7 ± 0.1 min(-1 vs 2.1 ± 0.1 min(-1 respectively who were matched for physical activity levels, indicating that muscle mitochondrial function in vivo is impaired in DS. This is the first study to investigate mitochondrial function in vivo in DS using (31P-MRS. Our study is consistent with previous in vitro studies, supporting a theory of a global mitochondrial defect in DS.

  15. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Harris-Love

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT and the Free Hand Tool (FHT are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years. Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and the standard error of the measurement (SEM. Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R2. Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97–.99, p < .001. Mean differences between the echogenicity estimates obtained with the RMT and FHT methods was .87 grayscale levels (95% CI [.54–1.21], p < .0001 using data obtained with both programs. The SEM for Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection

  16. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, Andre; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    Background Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature

  17. Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Rovira, M.; Rizo-Roca, D.; Torrella, J.R.; Spaink, H.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    Background The adult skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue with a remarkable ability to adapt to different levels of activity by altering its excitability, its contractile and metabolic phenotype and its mass. We previously reported on the potential of adult zebrafish as a tractable experimental model

  18. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Junior, Gerson Souza; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional

  19. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, Andre; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Background Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature

  20. [Post-traumatic reconnection of the cervical spinal cord with skeletal striated muscles. Study in adult rats and marmosets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, J C; Affane-Boulaid, F; Baillet-Derbin, C; Davarpanah, Y; Destombes, J; Duchossoy, Y; Emery, E; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Mira, J C; Moissonnier, P; Pécot-Dechavassine, M; Reviron, T; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Tadié, M; Ye, J H

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt at repairing the injured spinal cord of adult mammals (rat, dog and marmoset) and its damaged muscular connections, we are currently using: 1) peripheral nerve autografts (PNG), containing Schwann cells, to trigger and direct axonal regrowth from host and/or transplanted motoneurons towards denervated muscular targets; 2) foetal spinal cord transplants to replace lost neurons. In adult rats and marmosets, a PNG bridge was used to joint the injured cervical spinal cord to a denervated skeletal muscle (longissimus atlantis [rat] or biceps brachii [rat and marmoset]). The spinal lesion was obtained by the implantation procedure of the PNG. After a post-operative delay ranging from 2 to 22 months, the animals were checked electrophysiologically for functional muscular reconnection and processed for a morphological study including retrograde axonal tracing (HRP, Fast Blue, True Blue), histochemistry (AChE, ATPase), immunocytochemistry (ChAT) and EM. It was thus demonstrated that host motoneurons of the cervical enlargement could extend axons all the way through the PNG bridge as: a) in anaesthetized animals, contraction of the reconnected muscle could be obtained by electrical stimulation of the grafted nerve; b) the retrograde axonal tracing studies indicated that a great number of host cervical neurons extended axons into the PNG bridge up to the muscle; c) many of them were assumed to be motoneurons (double labelling with True Blue and an antibody against ChAT); and even alpha-motoneurons (type C axosomatic synapses in HRP labelled neurons seen in EM in the rat); d) numerous ectopic endplates were seen around the intramuscular tip of the PNG. In larger (cavitation) spinal lesions (rat), foetal motoneurons contained in E14 spinal cord transplants could similarly grow axons through PNG bridges up to the reconnected muscle. Taking all these data into account, it can be concluded that neural transplants are interesting tools for evaluating both the

  1. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  2. Association between muscle power impairment and WHODAS 2.0 in older adults with physical disability in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Liao, Hua-Fang; Yen, Chia-Fan; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between muscle power impairment and each World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule second edition (WHODAS 2.0) domain score among subjects with physical disability. Subjects (≥ 60 years) with physical disability related to neurological diseases, including 730 subjects with brain disease (BD) and 126 subjects with non-BD, were enrolled from a data bank of persons with disabilities from 1 July 2011 to 29 February 2012. Standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores ranging from 0 (least difficulty) to 100 (greatest difficulty) points were calculated for each domain. More than 50% of subjects with physical disability had the greatest difficulty in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment (adjusted odds ratios range among domains, 2.75-376.42, p < 0.001), age (1.38-4.81, p < 0.05), and speech impairment (1.94-5.80, p < 0.05) were associated with BD subjects experiencing the greatest difficulty in most WHODAS 2.0 domains. But a few associated factors were identified for the non-BD group in the study. Although the patterns of difficulty in most daily activities were similar between the BD and non-BD groups, factors associated with the difficulties differed between those two groups. Muscle power impairment, age and speech impairment were important factors associated with difficulties in subjects with BD-related physical disability. Older adults with physical disability often experience difficulties in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment is associated with difficulties in daily life in subjects with physical disability related to brain disease. Those subjects with brain disease who had older age, a greater degree of muscle power impairment, and the presence of speech impairment were at higher risk of experiencing difficulties in most daily activities.

  3. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities' lean mass (P training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for disease severity.

  4. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  5. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of an Exercise Protocol on Pelvic Muscle Resting Pressure in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1988). Pelvic floor musculature exercises in treatment of anatomical urinary stress incontinence . Physical Therapy, 68(5), 652-655. Varney, H. (1987...muscle exercises. Perry, Hullett, and Bollinger (1988) treated 31 patients with urinary incontinence (73% female) using a take-home EMG perineometer...using physiotherapy alone. Tchou, Adams, Varner, and Denton (1988) investigated the effects of pelvic muscle exercise in the treatment of SUI. Fourteen

  7. Assessment of the Cross-Sectional Areas of the Psoas Major and Multifidus Muscles in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Tomohiro; Yamato, Yu; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Oe, Shin; Mihara, Yuki; Kurosu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Naoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-08-01

    This is a case-control study. The present study aimed to compare the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major and multifidus muscles between elderly patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) and age-matched and body weight-matched controls, and to evaluate the associations between the cross-sectional areas of these muscles and the severity of spinal deformity. The study included 49 female kyphosis patients with mild scoliosis (Cobb angle muscles were calculated using preoperative L4/L5 axial computed tomography images. In group D, the following spinopelvic parameters were assessed: sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis. The relationships between the muscle cross-sectional areas and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was lower in group D than in group C. However, the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle was not different between the 2 groups. In multiple regression analysis, the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was significantly associated with all spinopelvic parameters. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle might be lower in elderly patients with ASD than in controls. In the elderly population, the severity of sagittal spinal deformity might be correlated with the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle. Therefore, muscle imbalances between the flexors and extensors of the spine could participate in the pathology of ASD.

  8. Appropriate slice location to assess maximal cross-sectional area of individual rotator cuff muscles in normal adults and athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Dohi, Michiko; Okuwaki, Toru; Tawara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We investigated appropriate slice locations for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of the maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of individual rotator cuff (RC) muscles in normal adults and athletes. We used a 1.5-tesla MR system with body-array and spine coils to obtain oblique sagittal T 1 -weighted shoulder images of 29 normal adults (16 men, 13 women); 6 national-level competitive swimmers (4 men, 2 women); 10 collegiate-level female badminton players; and 7 collegiate-level male rowers. We calculated the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis CSAs at the 0-1 locations on the scapula (dividing scapula width into 11 locations), 0 representing the medial border of the scapula and 1, the glenoid fossa surface. We evaluated the differences in CSAs at relative locations on the scapula for each muscle in normal adults, swimmers, badminton players, and rowers using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (P<0.05). The supraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.7 for all groups. The infraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.5 for normal men and women and badminton players, 0.4- and 0.5 locations for swimmers, and 0.4 for rowers. The teres minor CSAs were maximal at 0.9 for all groups except the swimmers (1 location). The subscapularis CSAs were maximal at 0.7 in men, swimmers, and badminton players and 0.6 in women and rowers. The appropriate slice locations for evaluating maximal CSAs are slightly lateral to the center of the scapula for the supraspinatus and subscapularis, at approximately the center of the scapula for the infraspinatus, and near the glenoid fossa for the teres minor. These slice locations should be clinically useful for morphological and/or function-related assessments of shoulder RC muscles. (author)

  9. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-11-01

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  10. Quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus and biceps femoris muscles in adult Royal Dutch sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Cunilleras, E; Wijnberg, I D

    2016-03-01

    Reference values for quantitative electromyography (QEMG) in shoulder and hindlimb muscles of horses are limited. To determine normative data on QEMG analysis of supraspinatus (SS), infraspinatus (IS), deltoideus (DT) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Experimental observational study and retrospective case series. Seven adult healthy Royal Dutch sport horses underwent quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of each muscle using commercial electromyography equipment. Measurements were made according to published methods. One-way ANOVA was used to compare quantitative motor unit action potential variables between muscles, with post hoc testing according to Bonferroni, with significance set at Paction potential were 8.7-10.4 ms, 651-867 μV, 3.2-3.7, 3.7-4.7, 1054-1457 μV·ms and 1.1-1.5 for SS, 9.6-11.0 ms, 779-1082 μV, 3.3-3.7, 3.8-4.7, 1349-2204 μV·ms and 1.4-1.9 for IS, 6.0-9.1 ms, 370-691 μV, 2.9-3.7, 2.8-4.5, 380-1374 μV·ms and 0.3-1.3 for DT and 5.7-7.8 ms, 265-385 μV, 2.7-3.2, 2.6-3.1, 296-484 μV·ms and 0.2-0.5 for BF, respectively. Mean duration, amplitude, number of phases and turns, area and size index were significantly (P15% polyphasic motor unit action potentials in SS and IS muscles. Differences between muscles should be taken into account when performing QEMG in order to be able to distinguish normal horses from horses with suspected neurogenic or myogenic disorders. These normal data provide the basis for objective QEMG assessment of shoulder and hindlimb muscles. Quantitative electromyography appears to be helpful in diagnosing neuropathies and discriminating these from myopathies. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Low muscle mass is associated with metabolic syndrome only in nonobese young adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Sae-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between body composition and metabolic risk factors in young adults. We hypothesized that low muscle mass (LMM) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in young adults and that the associations vary by obesity. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. In total, 5300 young adults aged 19 to 39 years were evaluated. Low muscle mass was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight less than 1 SD below the mean for each participant's corresponding sex and age group. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM was higher in obese than nonobese participants (37.6% vs. 9.6%). In the nonobese participants, the prevalence of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure was significantly greater in the LMM group than in the high muscle mass group. In the nonobese group, compared with high muscle mass participants, those with LMM had odds ratios for MetS of 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-8.76; P young adults with LMM may have a high risk of MetS, especially when they are nonobese. Interventions aimed at increasing muscle mass at younger ages may have the potential to reduce MetS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Gender Conformity and Use of Laxatives and Muscle-Building Products in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Scherer, Emily A; Jackson, Benita; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    Use of laxatives for weight loss and drugs or supplements to build muscle (eg, steroids) differs by gender and sexual orientation; little is known about factors contributing to these disparities. Conformity to gender norms concerning appearance could underlie these differences. This study examined associations between childhood gender conformity and laxative and muscle-building product use from ages 13 to 25 years in a sample of 13 683 males and females in the US prospective Growing Up Today Study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models of repeated measures estimated odds of past-year laxative and muscle-building product use by quartiles of greater childhood gender conformity in heterosexual and sexual minority (eg, bisexual, gay) participants. By age 23 years, ∼20% of sexual minority females reported past-year laxative use. By age 19 years, 12% of all males reported past-year muscle-building product use. Sexual minority females had twice the odds of heterosexual females of using laxatives (P P < .01). Moderate (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-2.75) and highly (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.33) gender-conforming males had higher odds than gender-nonconforming males of using muscle-building products. Sexual minority females are at high risk for laxative abuse. Regardless of sexual orientation, gender conformity increased the odds of laxative abuse among females and muscle-building product use among males. Findings can inform prevention efforts to target youth at risk for laxative or muscle-building product use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, T; Vaeaenaenen, A; Lahtinen, T; Traneus, E

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of α (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - α) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15 deg., the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 x 10 cm 2 , the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15 deg. and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15 deg. and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However

  14. Anatomical and radiological observations of the sesamoid bone of the popliteus muscle in the adult dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.H.; Wood, A.K.W.

    1989-01-01

    In a random selection of 50 adult dogs (25 males and 25 females) and 50 adult cats (25 males and 25 females), the incidence of ossification of the sesamoid structure of the popliteus muscle was characterized through anatomical dissection and radiographic techniques. The incidence of ossification was 84% in the dogs and 100% in the cats. In both anatomical and radiologic studies, it was demonstrated that when the knee was fully extended, the sesamoid bone was adjacent to the caudodistal part of the articular surface of the lateral tibial condyle in both dogs and cats. When the knee was flexed, the sesamoid bone articulated progressively with the more craniodorsal part of the tibial articular surface and when full flexion is obtained, it articulated with the articular part of the lateral surface of the lateral meniscus. The probable functions of the sesamoid bone are discussed

  15. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Souza Junior, Gerson; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults. A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality. From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength. ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.

  16. Activity build-up on the circulation loops of boiling water reactors: Basics for modelling of transport and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, B.; Alder, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    In the past 20 years the radiation field of nuclear power plant loops outside the core zone was the object of investigations in many countries. In this context test loops were built and basic research done. At our Institute PSI the installation of a LWR-contamination loop is planned for this year. This experimental loop has the purpose to investigate the complex phenomena of activity deposition from the primary fluid of reactor plants and to formulate analytical models. From the literature the following conclusions can be drawn: The principal correlations of the activity build-up outside the core are known. The plant specific single phenomena as corrosion, crud-transport, activation and deposit of cobalt in the oxide layer are complex and only partially understood. The operational experience of particular plants with low contaminated loops (BWR-recirculation loops) show that in principle the problem is manageable. The reduction of the activity build-up in older plants necessitates a combination of measures to modify the crud balance in the primary circuit. In parallel to the experimental work several simulation models in the form of computer programs were developed. These models have the common feature that they are based on mass balances, in which the exchange of materials and the sedimentation processes are described by global empirical transport coefficients. These models yield satisfactory results and allow parameter studies; the application however is restricted to the particular installation. All programs lack models that describe the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms on the surface of deposition layers. Analytical investigations on fouling of process equipment led to models that are also applicable to the activity build-up in reactor loops. Therefore it seems appropriate to combine the nuclear simulation models with the fundamental equations for deposition. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Simulation of Electron-Cloud Build-Up for the Cold Arcs of the LHC and Comparison with Measured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Rumolo, G; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The electron cloud generated by synchrotron radiation or residual gas ionization is a concern for LHC operation and performance. We report the results of simulations studies which examine the electron cloud build-up, at injection energy, 3.5 TeV for various operation parameters. In particular, we determine the value of the secondary emission yield corresponding to the multipacting threshold, and investigate the electron density, and heat as a function of bunch intensity for dipoles and field-free regions. We also include a comparison between simulations results and measured heat-load data from the LHC scrubbing runs in 2011.

  18. Component build-up method for engineering analysis of missiles at low-to-high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating the component build-up terms, with the exception of zero-lift drag, for missile airframes in steady flow and at arbitrary angles of attack and bank. The underlying and unifying bases of all these efforts are slender-body theory and its nonlinear extensions through the equivalent angle-of-attack concept. Emphasis is placed on the forces and moments which act on each of the fins, so that control cross-coupling effects as well as longitudinal and lateral-directional effects can be determined.

  19. Cloning of a neonatal calcium atpase isoform (SERCA 1B) from extraocular muscle of adult blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londraville, R L; Cramer, T D; Franck, J P; Tullis, A; Block, B A

    2000-10-01

    Complete cDNAs for the fast-twitch Ca2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA 1) were cloned and sequenced from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) extraocular muscle (EOM). Complete cDNAs for SERCA 1 were also cloned from fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the same species. The two sequences are identical over the coding region except for the last five codons on the carboxyl end; EOM SERCA 1 cDNA codes for 996 amino acids and the fast-twitch cDNAs code for 991 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EOM SERCA 1 clusters with an isoform of Ca2+ -ATPase normally expressed in early development of mammals (SERCA 1B). This is the first report of SERCA 1B in an adult vertebrate. RNA hybridization assays indicate that 1B expression is limited to extraocular muscles. Because EOM gives rise to the thermogenic heater organ in marlin, we investigated whether SERCA 1B may play a role in heat generation, or if 1B expression is common in EOM among vertebrates. Chicken also expresses SERCA 1B in EOM, but rat expresses SERCA 1A; because SERCA 1B is not specific to heater tissue we conclude it is unlikely that it plays a specific role in intracellular heat production. Comparative sequence analysis does reveal, however, several sites that may be the source of functional differences between fish and mammalian SERCAs.

  20. Skeletal muscle mass and body fat in relation to successful ageing of older adults: The multi-national MEDIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep-Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The determinants that promote successful ageing still remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of skeletal muscle mass and body fat percentage (BF%), in the level of successful ageing. during 2005-2011, 2663 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and BF% were calculated using population formulas. Dietary habits, energy intake, expenditure and energy balance were derived throughout standard procedures. A successful ageing index ranging from 0 to 10 was used. The mean ASM mass was 24±6.0kg, the SMI was 0.84±0.21 and the BF% was 44%. Females had lower SMI and higher BF% in comparison with males, respectively [(SMI: 0.66±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.11; BF%: 51% vs. 34%, (pageing, while changes in BF% [b-coefficient (95% CI): -0.04 (-0.05 to -0.03)] were inversely associated with successful ageing. Results from sensitivity analysis showed that the effects of variations on body composition were consistent, less pronounced in the positive energy balance group and more pronounced among the oldest old. Body composition changes seem to be associated with lower quality of life in the older adults, as measured through successful ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modular organization of muscle activity patterns in the leading and trailing limbs during obstacle clearance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline. Full body three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded and electromyography (EMG) was collected from 14 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. EMG data were analyzed using two techniques: by mapping the EMG data to the approximate location of the motor neuron pools on the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord and by applying a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to unilateral and bilateral muscle activations separately. Results showed that obstacle clearance may be achieved not only with the addition of a new activation pattern in the leading limb, but with a temporal shift of a pattern present during unobstructed walking in both the leading and trailing limbs. An investigation of the inter-limb coordination of these patterns suggested a strong bilateral linkage between lower limbs. These results highlight the modular organization of muscle activation in the leading and trailing limbs, as well as provide a mechanism of control when implementing a locomotor adjustment when stepping over an obstacle.

  2. Effects of flexi-bar and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscles activity in different postures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Sub; Park, Seol; Kim, JiYoung; Park, Ji Won

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscle activity in different postures in healthy adults. [Subjects] Twenty healthy right-hand dominant adults (10 males and 10 females) were selected for this study. None of the participants had experienced any orthopedic problems in the spine or in the upper and lower extremities in the previous six months. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to adopt three exercise postures: posture 1, quadruped; posture 2, side-bridge; and posture 3, standing. Surface electromyography of selected trunk muscles was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. [Results] The external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle activity showed significant differences between flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that flexi-bar exercises are useful in the activation of trunk muscles.

  3. Trunk Muscle Size and Composition Assessment in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sions, Jaclyn Megan; Smith, Andrew Craig; Hicks, Gregory Evan; Elliott, James Matthew

    2016-08-01

     To evaluate intra- and inter-examiner reliability for the assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area, i.e., total cross-sectional area minus intramuscular fat, from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained in older adults with chronic low back pain.  Reliability study.  n = 13 (69.3 ± 8.2 years old)  After lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, two examiners produced relative cross-sectional area measurements of multifidi, erector spinae, psoas, and quadratus lumborum by tracing regions of interest just inside fascial borders. Pixel-intensity summaries were used to determine muscle-to-fat infiltration indices; relative muscle cross-sectional area was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate intra- and inter-examiner reliability; standard error of measurement was calculated.  Intra-examiner intraclass correlation coefficient point estimates for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area were excellent for multifidi and erector spinae across levels L2-L5 (ICC = 0.77-0.99). At L3, intra-examiner reliability was excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area for both psoas and quadratus lumborum (ICC = 0.81-0.99). Inter-examiner intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from poor to excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area.  Assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area in older adults with chronic low back pain can be reliably determined by one examiner from T1-weighted images. Such assessments provide valuable information, as muscle-to-fat infiltration indices and relative muscle cross-sectional area indicate that a substantial amount of

  4. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  5. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  6. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Teixeira, Carla; Ismail, Catheeja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT) and the Free Hand Tool (FHT) are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI) within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years). Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM). Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R (2)). Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97-.99, p Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods, respectively. Comparatively, the SEM values were .72 and .81 grayscale levels, respectively, when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods in ImageJ. Uniform coefficients of determination (R (2) = .96

  7. Role of urban surface roughness in road-deposited sediment build-up and wash-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Jiang, Qian; Xie, Wenxia; Li, Xuyong; Yin, Chengqing

    2018-05-01

    Urban road surface roughness is one of the most important factors in estimation of surface runoff loads caused by road-deposited sediment (RDS) wash-off and design of its control measures. However, because of a lack of experimental data to distinguish the role of surface roughness, the effects of surface roughness on RDS accumulation and release are not clear. In this study, paired asphalt and concrete road surfaces and rainfall simulation designs were used to distinguish the role of surface roughness in RDS build-up and wash-off. Our results showed that typical asphalt surfaces often have higher depression depths than typical concrete surfaces, indicating that asphalt surfaces are relatively rougher than concrete surface. Asphalt surfaces can retain a larger RDS amount, relative higher percentage of coarser particles, larger RDS wash-off loads, and lower wash-off percentage, than concrete surfaces. Surface roughness has different effects in RDS motilities with different particle sizes during rainfall runoff, and the settleable particles (44-149 μm) were notably influenced by it. Furthermore, the first flush phenomenon tended to be greater on relatively smooth surfaces than relatively rough surfaces. Overall, surface roughness plays an important role in influencing the complete process of RDS build-up and wash-off on different road characteristics.

  8. Effect of virtual reality exercise using the nintendo wii fit on muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults.

  9. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F

    1997-01-01

    and Becker muscular dystrophy. Immunoaffinity chromatography of muscle extracts with a monoclonal antibody to the laminin alpha 2 chain followed by immunoblotting with various antibodies to the beta 2 chain demonstrated the presence of the laminin-4 (alpha 2-beta 2-gamma 1) isoform. Together the present...

  10. The time course of myonuclear accretion during hypertrophy in young adult and older rat plantaris muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, S.F.T.; Jaspers, R.T.; Jones, D.A.; Degens, H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether accretion of myonuclei precedes or follows the increase in fibre cross-sectional area and whether this time course is affected by age, left plantaris muscle of 5- and 25-month-old male Wistar rats was overloaded by denervation of its synergists for 1, 2 or 4 weeks.

  11. Differences of muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint between young and elderly adults during dynamic postural control at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2017-08-02

    Agonist and antagonist muscle co-contractions during motor tasks are greater in the elderly than in young adults. During normal walking, muscle co-contraction increases with gait speed in young adults, but not in elderly adults. However, no study has compared the effects of speed on muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint during dynamic postural control in young and elderly adults. We compared muscle co-contractions of the ankle joint between young and elderly subjects during a functional stability boundary test at different speeds. Fifteen young adults and 16 community-dwelling elderly adults participated in this study. The task was functional stability boundary tests at different speeds (preferred and fast). Electromyographic evaluations of the tibialis anterior and soleus were recorded. The muscle co-contraction was evaluated using the co-contraction index (CI). There were no statistically significant differences in the postural sway parameters between the two age groups. Elderly subjects showed larger CI in both speed conditions than did the young subjects. CI was higher in the fast speed condition than in the preferred speed condition in the young subjects, but there was no difference in the elderly subjects. Moreover, after dividing the analytical range into phases (acceleration and deceleration phases), the CI was larger in the deceleration phase than in the acceleration phase in both groups, except for the young subjects in the fast speed conditions. Our results showed a greater muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint during dynamic postural control in elderly subjects than in young subjects not only in the preferred speed condition but also in the fast speed condition. In addition, the young subjects showed increased muscle co-contraction in the fast speed condition compared with that in the preferred speed condition; however, the elderly subjects showed no significant difference in muscle co-contraction between the two speed conditions. This indicates

  12. Differential expression of myogenic regulatory factor MyoD in pacu skeletal muscle (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) during juvenile and adult growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Pinhal, Danillo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Cesar; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs. The aim of this study was to analyze hyperplasia and hypertrophy and the MRF MyoD expression pattern in skeletal muscle of pacu (P. mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth stages. Juvenile (n=5) and adult (n=5) fish were anaesthetized, sacrificed, and weight (g) and total length (cm) determined. White dorsal region muscle samples were collected and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Transverse sections (10 microm thick) were stained with Haematoxilin-Eosin (HE) for morphological and morphometric analysis. Smallest fiber diameter from 100 muscle fibers per animal was calculated in each growth phase. These fibers were grouped into three classes (50 microm) to evaluate hypertrophy and hyperplasia in white skeletal muscle. MyoD gene expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Juvenile and adult pacu skeletal muscle had similar morphology. The large number of fish confirms active hyperplasia. In adult fish, most fibers were over 50 microm diameter and denote more intense muscle fiber hypertrophy. The MyoD mRNA level in juveniles was higher than in adults. A consensus partial sequence for MyoD gene (338 base pairs) was obtained. The Pacu MyoD nucleotide sequence displayed high similarity among several vertebrates, including teleosts. The differential MyoD gene expression observed in pacu white muscle is possibly related to differences in growth patterns during the phases analyzed, with hyperplasia predominant in juveniles and hypertrophy in adult fish. These results should provide a foundation for

  13. Effects of Isometric Hand-Grip Muscle Contraction on Young Adults' Free Recall and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Albrecht, Chelesa; Pendleton, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if physical arousal produced by isometric hand-dynamometer contraction performed during word-list learning affects young adults' free recall or recognition memory. Method: Twenty-four young adults (12 female; M[subscript age] = 22 years) were presented with 4 20-item word lists. Moderate arousal…

  14. [Muscle and function management by the physiotherapist in orthodontic and orthodonto-surgical treatment. Oral myofunctional rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Leroux, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Can we hope to dispense with muscle and function management in orthodontic and orthodonto-surgical treatment plans? How can the specialized physiotherapist assist, facilitate and stabilize the work done by the orthodontist and maxillo-facial surgeon and help avoid relapses? Treatment aims to achieve dental alignment and occlusal balance in direct association with balance of the tongue muscles, cutaneous muscles, masticatory and postural muscles and functions in the orofacial region. Restoration of balance between agonist and antagonist muscles is achieved by relaxing contracted muscles and by gradually building up weak muscle tone. If effective and lasting treatment results are to be obtained, active patient participation is mandatory during rehabilitation of oro-maxillo-facial disorders and must encompass the tongue, lips, cheeks, masticatory system, ventilation and general posture as well as management of the parafunctions. These procedures are essential in dentofacial orthopedic treatment of both children and adults. Practical cases will be used to demonstrate the contribution that myofunctional rehabilitation can make. Regarding natural functions, very satisfactory results are obtained provided patients do daily muscle exercises and day-long training in the correct postures and practical drills they have been taught over a period of at least six months and under the supervision of the physiotherapist. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  15. Muscle function is associated with future patient-reported outcomes in young adults with ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    performance and worse postural orientation were associated with worse KOOS scores 2 years later (rsp≥0.280, p≤0.045). Worse muscle power was associated with lower future ARS scores (rsp=0.281, p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The moderate associations suggest that improving muscle function during rehabilitation could...... and postural orientation 3 years (SD 0.85) after ACL injury. PROs at 3 and 5 years after injury included Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales Function in sport and recreation (KOOS Sport/rec) and Knee-related Quality of life (KOOS QoL), KOOS item Q3 (KOOS Q3), Tegner Activity Scale...... improve present and future PROs....

  16. Human Masseter Muscle Fibers From the Elderly Express Less Neonatal Myosin Than Those of Young Adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvetko, E.; Karen, Petr; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Plasencia, A.L.; Eržen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 8 (2012), s. 1364-1372 ISSN 1932-8486 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : aging * confocal microscopy * myosin heavy chain * immunohistochemistry * muscle fiber types Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2012

  17. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  18. Synergistic effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane on inhibition of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by rocuronium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Wei; Wei, Ke; Cao, Jun; Luo, Jie; Wang, Bin; Min, Su

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled anesthetics increase the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, and the mechanism is still unclear. We have investigated the synergistic effect of low-concentration inhaled anesthetics and rocuronium on inhibition of the inward current of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ε-nAChR). Adult-type mouse muscle ε-nAChR was expressed in HEK293 cells by liposome transfection. The inward current of the ε-nAChR was activated by use of 10 μmol/L acetylcholine alone or in combination with different concentrations of sevoflurane, isoflurane, or rocuronium. The concentration-response curves of five cells were constructed, and the data yielded the 5, 25, and 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC5, IC25, and IC50, respectively) for single-drug application. Subsequently, the functional channels were perfused by adding 0.5 IC5 of either sevoflurane or isoflurane (aqueous concentrations 140 and 100 μmol/L, respectively) to the solution, followed by addition of IC5, IC25, or IC50 rocuronium. The amount of inhibition was calculated to quantify their synergistic effect. The inhibitory effect of rocuronium was enhanced by sevoflurane or isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. Sevoflurane or isoflurane (0.5 IC5) with rocuronium at IC5, IC25, and IC50 synergistically inhibited the current amplitude of adult-type muscle ε-nAChR. When the IC5 of rocuronium was used, isoflurane had a stronger synergistic effect than sevoflurane (p rocuronium was applied at higher concentrations (IC25 and IC50), sevoflurane had an effect similar to that of isoflurane. For both inhaled anesthetics, the synergistic effect was more intense for rocuronium at IC5 than for rocuronium at IC25 or IC50. Residual-concentration sevoflurane or isoflurane has a strong synergistic effect with rocuronium at clinically relevant residual concentrations. A lower rocuronium concentration resulted in a stronger synergistic effect.

  19. Adult rat motor neurons do not re-establish electrical coupling during axonal regeneration and muscle reinnervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Favero

    Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJs between neurons are present in both the newborn and the adult nervous system, and although important roles have been suggested or demonstrated in a number of instances, in many other cases a full understanding of their physiological role is still missing. GJs are expressed in the rodent lumbar cord at birth and mediate both dye and electrical coupling between motor neurons. This expression has been proposed to mediate: (i fast synchronization of motoneuronal spike activity, in turn linked to the process of refinement of neuromuscular connections, and (ii slow synchronization of locomotor-like oscillatory activity. Soon after birth this coupling disappears. Since in the adult rat regeneration of motor fibers after peripheral nerve injury leads to a recapitulation of synaptic refinement at the target muscles, we tested whether GJs between motor neurons are transiently re-expressed. We found that in conditions of maximal responsiveness of lumbar motor neurons (such as no depression by anesthetics, decerebrate release of activity of subsets of motor neurons, use of temporal and spatial summation by antidromic and orthodromic stimulations, testing of large ensembles of motor neurons no firing is observed in ventral root axons in response to antidromic spike invasion of nearby counterparts. We conclude that junctional coupling between motor neurons is not required for the refinement of neuromuscular innervation in the adult.

  20. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  1. Building up a citizen-based project of renewable energies. Energy transition by local actors: stakes and modalities - Recommendation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This guide first presents the energy and social context which could lead to citizen-based projects, presents some European examples and identifies some French limitations, and defines a citizen-based project. The second part proposes an overview of such a project and its various steps, and outlines the importance of some basic actions: to build up a pilot group and to define the project, to choose the right moment and to retain control of the project, to communicate and to mobilise. The next part presents the project methodology: elaboration of specification, establishment of partnership, definition of a business model, choice of a legal status. The last part addresses how to mobilise local and citizen funding: own funds and bank loan, participation of citizen and local communities

  2. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-21

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  3. Evaluation of pollutant build-up and wash-off from selected land uses at the Port of Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kitchen, Brad

    2009-02-01

    The quality of stormwater runoff from seaports can be an important source of pollution to the marine environment. Currently, little knowledge exists with regards to the pollutant generation capacity specific to seaports as they do not necessarily compare well with conventional urban land use. The research project focussed on the assessment of pollutant build-up and wash-off. The study was undertaken using rainfall simulation and small impervious plots for different port land uses with the results obtained compared to typical urban land uses. The study outcomes confirmed that the Port land uses exhibit comparatively lower pollutant concentrations. However, the pollutant characteristics varied across different land uses. Hence, the provision of stereotypical water quality improvement measures could be of limited value. Particle size < 150microm was predominant in suspended solids. Therefore, if suspended solids are targeted as the surrogate parameter for water quality improvement, this particle size range needs to be removed.

  4. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of surface and build-up region dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heeteak; Jin, Hosang; Dempsey, James F.; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2005-01-01

    Despite much development, there remains dosimetric uncertainty in the surface and build-up regions in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans for head and neck cancers. Experiments were performed to determine the dosimetric discrepancies in the surface and build-up region between the treatment planning system (TPS) prediction and experimental measurement using radiochromic film. A head and neck compression film phantom was constructed from two semicylindrical solid water slabs. Treatment plans were generated using two commercial TPSs (PINNACLE3 and CORVUS) for two cases, one with a shallow (∼0.5 cm depth) target and another with a deep (∼6 cm depth) target. The plans were evaluated for a 54 Gy prescribed dose. For each case, two pieces of radiochromic film were used for dose measurement. A small piece of film strip was placed on the surface and another was inserted within the phantom. Overall, both TPSs showed good agreement with the measurement. For the shallow target case, the dose differences were within ±300 cGy (5.6% with respect to the prescribed dose) for PINNACLE3 and ±240 cGy (4.4%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. For the deep target case, the dose differences were ±350 (6.5%) for PINNACLE3 and ±260 cGy (4.8%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. However, it was found that there were significant discrepancies from the surface to about 0.2 cm in depth for both the shallow and deep target cases. It was concluded that both TPSs overestimated the surface dose for both shallow and deep target cases. The amount of overestimation ranges from 400 to 1000 cGy (∼7.4% to 18.5% with respect to the prescribed dose, 5400 cGy)

  6. A resin composite material containing an eugenol derivative for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaroof, A; Rojo, L; Mannocci, F; Deb, S

    2016-02-01

    To formulate and evaluate new dual cured resin composite based on the inclusion of eugenyl methacrylate monomer (EgMA) with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin systems for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration of endodontically treated teeth. EgMA was synthesized and incorporated at 5% (BTEg5) or 10% (BTEg10) into dual-cure formulations. Curing properties, viscosity, Tg, radiopacity, static and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined and compared with Clearfil™DC Core-Plus, a commercial dual-cure, two-component composite. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey's post-hoc test. The experimental composites were successfully prepared, which exhibited excellent curing depths of 4.9, 4.7 and 4.2 mm for BTEg0, BTEg5 and BTEg10 respectively, which were significantly higher than Clearfil™DC. However, the inclusion of EgMA initially led to a lower degree of cure, which increased when measured at 24 h with values comparable to formulations without EgMA, indicating post-curing. The inclusion of EgMA also lowered the polymerization exotherm thereby reducing the potential of thermal damage to host tissue. Both thermal and viscoelastic analyses confirmed the ability of the monomer to reduce the stiffness of the composites by forming a branched network. The compressive strength of BTEg5 was significantly higher than the control whilst flexural strength increased significantly from 95.9 to 114.8 MPa (BTEg5) and 121.9 MPa (BTEg10). Radiopacity of the composites was equivalent to ∼3 mm Al allowing efficient diagnosis. The incorporation of EgMA within polymerizable formulations provides a novel approach to prepare reinforced resin composite material for intracanal post cementation and core build-up and the potential to impart antibacterial properties of eugenol to endodontic restorations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A 4-year clinical evaluation of direct composite build-ups for space closure after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Öztaş, Evren; Tekçe, Neslihan; Uysal, Ömer

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the medium-term clinical performance of direct composite build-ups for diastema closures and teeth recontouring using a nano and a nanohybrid composite in combination with three- or two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. A total of 30 patients (mean age, 19.5 years) received 147 direct composite additions for teeth recontouring and diastema closures. A nano and a nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XT and CeramX Duo) were bonded to tooth structure by using a three-step (Scotchbond Multipurpose) or a two-step (XP Bond) etch and rinse adhesive. Ten out of 147 composite build-ups (composite addition) constituted tooth recontouring cases, and the remaining 137 constituted diastema closure cases. The restorations were evaluated by two experienced, calibrated examiners according to modified Ryge criteria at the following time intervals: baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. The 4-year survival rates were 92.8 % for Filtek Supreme XT/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 93 % for CeramX Duo/XP Bond. Only ten restorations failed (5 Filtek Supreme XT and 5 CeramX Duo). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two composite-adhesive combinations with respect to color match, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, caries formation, marginal adaptation, and surface texture on comparing the five time periods (baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years) The 4-year survival rates in the present study were favorable. The restorations exhibited excellent scores with regard to color match, marginal adaptation, surface texture, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, and caries formation, after 4 years of clinical evaluation. Clinical relevance An alternative clinical approach for correcting discrepancies in tooth size and form, such as performing direct composite restorations following fixed orthodontic treatment, may be an excellent and minimally invasive treatment.

  8. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Alternate Mediterranean diet score is positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui-Yuan; Qiu, Rui; Jing, Li-Peng; Chen, Zhan-Yong; Chen, Geng-Dong; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Researches have suggested Mediterranean diet might lower the risk of chronic diseases, but data on skeletal muscle mass (SMM) are limited. This community-based cross-sectional study examined the association between the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMDS) and SMM in 2230 females and 1059 males aged 40-75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information and habitual dietary information were assessed in face-to-face interviews conducted during 2008-2010 and 3 years later. The aMDS was calculated by summing the dichotomous points for the items of higher intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish and ratio of MUFA:SFA, lower red meat and moderate ethanol consumption. The SMM of the whole body, limbs, arms and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during 2011-2013. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher aMDS was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, SMM/height2, kg/m2) at all of the studied sites in males (all P trend0·05). Age-stratified analyses showed that the favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in the younger subjects aged less than the medians of 59·2 and 62·2 years in females and males (P interaction>0·10). In conclusion, the aMDS shows protective associations with SMM in Chinese adults, particularly in male and younger subjects.

  10. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: Clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eSantalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA, strength, serum creatine kinase (CK activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥ 84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities’ lean mass (P0.05 was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3 after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for

  11. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.

  12. Effect of Ankle Range of Motion (ROM) and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength on Static Balance Control Ability in Young Adults: A Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil

    2018-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle ROM and lower-extremity muscle strength on static balance control ability in young adults. Material/Methods This study was conducted with 65 young adults, but 10 young adults dropped out during the measurement, so 55 young adults (male: 19, female: 36) completed the study. Postural sway (length and velocity) was measured with eyes open and closed, and ankle ROM (AROM and PROM of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion) and lower-extremity muscle strength (flexor and extensor of hip, knee, and ankle joint) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between variables and static balance ability. Simple linear regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the effect of variables on static balance ability. Results In correlation analysis, plantarflexion ROM (AROM and PROM) and lower-extremity muscle strength (except hip extensor) were significantly correlated with postural sway (pregression analysis, plantar flexion PROM with eyes open significantly influenced sway length (B=0.681) and sway velocity (B=0.011). Conclusions Lower-extremity muscle strength and ankle plantarflexion ROM influenced static balance control ability, with ankle plantarflexion PROM showing the greatest influence. Therefore, both contractile structures and non-contractile structures should be of interest when considering static balance control ability improvement. PMID:29760375

  13. Effect of Ankle Range of Motion (ROM) and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength on Static Balance Control Ability in Young Adults: A Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Wan-Soo

    2018-05-15

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle ROM and lower-extremity muscle strength on static balance control ability in young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted with 65 young adults, but 10 young adults dropped out during the measurement, so 55 young adults (male: 19, female: 36) completed the study. Postural sway (length and velocity) was measured with eyes open and closed, and ankle ROM (AROM and PROM of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion) and lower-extremity muscle strength (flexor and extensor of hip, knee, and ankle joint) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between variables and static balance ability. Simple linear regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the effect of variables on static balance ability. RESULTS In correlation analysis, plantarflexion ROM (AROM and PROM) and lower-extremity muscle strength (except hip extensor) were significantly correlated with postural sway (psimple correlation analysis, all variables that passed the correlation analysis procedure had significant influence (plinear regression analysis, plantar flexion PROM with eyes open significantly influenced sway length (B=0.681) and sway velocity (B=0.011). CONCLUSIONS Lower-extremity muscle strength and ankle plantarflexion ROM influenced static balance control ability, with ankle plantarflexion PROM showing the greatest influence. Therefore, both contractile structures and non-contractile structures should be of interest when considering static balance control ability improvement.

  14. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  15. Transient gestational and neonatal hypothyroidism-induced specific changes in androgen receptor expression in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, K; Anbalagan, J; Neelamohan, R; Vengatesh, G; Stanley, J; Amudha, G; Aruldhas, M M

    2013-03-01

    The present study aims to identify the association between androgen status and metabolic activity in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult rats with transient gestational/neonatal-onset hypothyroidism. Pregnant and lactating rats were made hypothyroid by exposing to 0.05% methimazole in drinking water; gestational exposure was from embryonic day 9-14 (group II) or 21 (group III), lactational exposure was from postnatal day 1-14 (group IV) or 29 (group V). Serum was collected for hormone assay. Androgen receptor status, Glu-4 expression, and enzyme activities were assessed in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels decreased in adult rats of groups II and III, whereas testosterone remained normal but estradiol increased in group IV and V, when compared to coeval control. Androgen receptor ligand binding activity increased in both muscle phenotypes with a consistent increase in the expression level of its mRNA and protein expressions except in the forelimb of adult rats with transient hypothyroidism (group II-V). Glut-4 expression remained normal in skeletal and cardiac muscle of experimental rats. Specific activity of hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased in both muscle phenotypes whereas, creatine kinase activity increased in skeletal muscles alone. It is concluded that transient gestational/lactational exposure to methimazole results in hypothyroidism during prepuberal life whereas it increases AR status and glycolytic activity in skeletal and cardiac muscles even at adulthood. Thus, the present study suggests that euthyroid status during prenatal and early postnatal life is essential to have optimal AR status and metabolic activity at adulthood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Adiposity to muscle ratio predicts incident physical limitation in a cohort of 3,153 older adults--an alternative measurement of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Tung Wai; Lee, Jenny Shun Wah; Leung, Jason; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Conventionally, sarcopenia is defined by muscle mass and physical performance. We hypothesized that the disability caused by sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was related to the amount of adiposity or body weight bearing on a unit of muscle mass, or the adiposity to muscle ratio. We therefore examined whether this ratio could predict physical limitation by secondary analysis of the data in our previous study. We recruited 3,153 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and their body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Assessment of physical limitation was undertaken 4 years later. The relationship between baseline adiposity to muscle ratio and incident physical limitation was examined by logistic regression. In men, the adiposity to muscle ratios, namely total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass, total body fat to fat-free mass (FFM), and body weight to FFM, were predictive of physical limitation before and after adjustment for the covariates: age, Mini-mental Status Examination score, Geriatric Depression Scale score >8, and the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke (all p values physical limitation 4 years later both before and after adjustment for the same set of covariates (all p values physical limitation in older women across the entire range of the total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass ratio; and in older men when this ratio was equal to or greater than 0.75.

  17. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice.

  18. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    -subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle...

  19. Regional thermal specialisation in a mammal: temperature affects power output of core muscle more than that of peripheral muscle in adult mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rob S; Tallis, Jason; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In endotherms, such as mammals and birds, internal organs can specialise to function within a narrow thermal range. Consequently, these organs should become more sensitive to changes in body temperature. Yet, organs at the periphery of the body still experience considerable fluctuations in temperature, which could select for lower thermal sensitivity. We hypothesised that the performance of soleus muscle taken from the leg would depend less on temperature than would the performance of diaphragm muscle taken from the body core. Soleus and diaphragm muscles were isolated from mice and subjected to isometric and work-loop studies to analyse mechanical performance at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Across this thermal range, soleus muscle took longer to generate isometric force and longer to relax, and tended to produce greater normalised maximal force (stress) than did diaphragm muscle. The time required to produce half of maximal force during isometric tetanus and the time required to relax half of maximal force were both more sensitive to temperature in soleus than they were in diaphragm. However, thermal sensitivities of maximal force during isometric tetani were similar for both muscles. Consistent with our hypothesis, power output (the product of speed and force) was greater in magnitude and more thermally sensitive in diaphragm than it was in soleus. Our findings, when combined with previous observations of muscles from regionally endothermic fish, suggest that endothermy influences the thermal sensitivities of power output in core and peripheral muscles.

  20. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on

  1. Aging and Intermittent Fasting Impact on Transcriptional Regulation and Physiological Responses of Adult Drosophila Neuronal and Muscle Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sharon; Ratliff, Eric P; Molina, Brandon; El-Mecharrafie, Nadja; Mastroianni, Jessica; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Achal, Madhulika; Mauntz, Ruth E; Gonzalez, Arysa; Barekat, Ayeh; Bray, William A; Macias, Andrew M; Daugherty, Daniel; Harris, Greg L; Edwards, Robert A; Finley, Kim D

    2018-04-10

    The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF) enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues. Principle component analysis (PCA) and other analyses showed ~1200 age-related transcriptional differences in head and muscle tissues, with few genes having matching expression patterns. Pathway components showing age-dependent expression differences were involved with stress response, metabolic, neural and chromatin remodeling functions. Middle-aged tissues also showed a significant increase in transcriptional drift-variance (TD), which in the CNS included multiple proteolytic pathway components. Overall, IF-treatment had a demonstrably positive impact on aged transcriptomes, partly ameliorating both fold and variance changes. Consistent with these findings, aged IF-treated flies displayed more youthful metabolic, behavioral and basal proteolytic profiles that closely correlated with transcriptional alterations to key components. These results indicate that even modest dietary changes can have therapeutic consequences, slowing the progressive decline of multiple cellular systems, including proteostasis in the aging nervous system.

  2. Aging and Intermittent Fasting Impact on Transcriptional Regulation and Physiological Responses of Adult Drosophila Neuronal and Muscle Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues. Principle component analysis (PCA and other analyses showed ~1200 age-related transcriptional differences in head and muscle tissues, with few genes having matching expression patterns. Pathway components showing age-dependent expression differences were involved with stress response, metabolic, neural and chromatin remodeling functions. Middle-aged tissues also showed a significant increase in transcriptional drift-variance (TD, which in the CNS included multiple proteolytic pathway components. Overall, IF-treatment had a demonstrably positive impact on aged transcriptomes, partly ameliorating both fold and variance changes. Consistent with these findings, aged IF-treated flies displayed more youthful metabolic, behavioral and basal proteolytic profiles that closely correlated with transcriptional alterations to key components. These results indicate that even modest dietary changes can have therapeutic consequences, slowing the progressive decline of multiple cellular systems, including proteostasis in the aging nervous system.

  3. Leucine Supplementation in a Chronically Protein-Restricted Diet Enhances Muscle Weight and Postprandial Protein Synthesis of Skeletal Muscle by Promoting the mTOR Pathway in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low protein intake causes a decrease in protein deposition in most animal tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether leucine supplementation would increase the synthesis rate of protein and muscle weight in adult rats, which chronically consume only 58.8% of their protein requirements. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three dietary treatments including a 20% casein diet (CON, a 10% casein + 0.44% alanine diet (R, and a 10% casein + 0.87% leucine diet (RL. After a 10 d dietary treatment, plasma amino acid levels were measured after feeding, the gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles were harvested and weighed, and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling proteins in skeletal muscle were measured. Regarding the plasma amino acid level, the RL group had the highest concentration of leucine (P < 0.05 and the lowest concentration of isoleucine (P < 0.05 among the three groups, and the CON group had a lower concentration of valine (P < 0.05 than the R and RL groups. Compared with the R and RL groups, the CON group diet significantly increased (P < 0.05 feed intake, protein synthesis rate, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and decreased the weight of abdominal adipose. Compared with the R group, the RL group significantly increased in gastrocnemius muscle weight, protein synthesis rate, and phosphorylation of both ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E-BP1. In conclusion, when protein is chronically restricted in adult rat diets, leucine supplementation moderately improves body weight gain and increases muscle protein synthesis through mTOR activation.

  4. Muscle strength and regional lean body mass influence on mineral bone health in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bianca Rosa; Pimenta, Luciana Duarte; Massini, Danilo Alexandre; Dos Santos, Daniel; Siqueira, Leandro Oliveira da Cruz; Simionato, Astor Reis; Dos Santos, Luiz Gustavo Almeida; Neiva, Cassiano Merussi; Pessôa Filho, Dalton Muller

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between muscle strength and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) is supposed from the assumption of the mechanical stress influence on bone tissue metabolism. However, the direct relationship is not well established in younger men, since the enhancement of force able to produce effective changes in bone health, still needs to be further studied. This study aimed to analyze the influence of muscle strength on BMC and BMD in undergraduate students. Thirty six men (24.9 ± 8.6 y/o) were evaluated for regional and whole-body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). One repetition maximum tests (1RM) were assessed on flat bench-press (BP), lat-pull down (LPD), leg-curl (LC), knee extension (KE), and leg-press 45° (LP45) exercises. Linear regression modelled the relationships of BMD and BMC to the regional body composition and 1RM values. Measurements of dispersion and error (R2adj and standard error of estimate (SEE)) were tested, setting ρ at ≤0.05. The BMD mean value for whole-body was 1.12±0.09 g/cm2 and BMC attained 2477.9 ± 379.2 g. The regional lean mass (LM) in upper-limbs (UL) (= 6.80±1.21 kg) was related to BMC and BMD for UL (R2adj = 0.74, pBMC and BMD for LL (R2adj = 0.68, pBMC (R2adj = 0.47, pBMC (R2adj = 0.36, pBMC and BMD in young men, strengthening the relationship between force and LM, and suggesting both to parametrizes bone mineral health.

  5. Research on the performance of the spastic calf muscle of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen

    2011-02-12

    The aim of this study was to find an objective graduation of pes equinus in infantile cerebral palsy, especially with regard to functional aspects, to allow a differentiated choice of the therapeutic options. Very often raises the question of whether a surgical lengthening of the Achilles tendon may let expect a functional improvement. For this documentation 17 patients with pes equinus and a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy, primarily of the lower limbs, and hemiplegia were examined first clinically and then by a procedure for calculating the functional kinetic parameters from an in-shoe plantar pressure distribution measurement (novel pedar-X system), which is used in many orthopedic practices and clinics as a standard measuring device. Using additional video motion analysis, the flexion in the ankle joint and the ankle joint torque were determined. From this the physical performance of the spastically shortened calf muscle was calculated. The course of the curves of torque and joint performance allows a functional classification of the pes equinus. Approximately three quarters of all pes equinus demonstrated functional activity of the most part of the normal push-off propulsion power. Even the rigid pes equinus was capable of performing push-off propulsion work, provided it converted energy that was absorbed during the heel-strike phase and released it again during the push-off phase. This suggests that the function of paretic ankle joint is better than its kinematics of motion. A heel strike with a pes equinus triggers via stretching stimuli in the muscle-ligament structure reflex motor functions, thereby causing the typical spastic gait pattern. This remarkable gait pattern is often evaluated as dysfunctional and as absolutely requiring correction. However, an aspect possibly neglected in this instance is the fact that this gait pattern may be efficient for the patient and may in fact be a suitable means allowing for economic locomotion despite the cerebral

  6. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  7. Seizing the strategic opportunities of emerging technologies by building up innovation system: monoclonal antibody development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Yu; Li, Jian; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-11-04

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as an emerging technology, have become increasingly important in the development of human therapeutic agents. How developing countries such as China could seize this emerging technological opportunity remains a poorly studied issue in prior literature. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the research and development of mAbs in China based on an innovation system functions approach and probes into the question of how China has been taking advantage of emerging technologies to overcome its challenges of building up a complete innovation system in developing mAbs. Mixed research methods were applied by combining archival data and field interviews. Archival data from the China Food and Drug Administration, Web of Science, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the National Science and Technology Report Service were used to examine the status quo of the technology and research and development (R&D) activities in China, while the opinions of researchers and managers in this field were synthesized from the interviews. From the perspective of innovation system functions, technological development of mAb in China is being driven by incentives such as the subsidies from the State and corporate R&D funding. Knowledge diffusion has been well served over the last 10 years through exchanging information on networks and technology transfer with developed countries. The State has provided clear guidance on search of emerging mAb technologies. Legitimacy of mAb in China has gained momentum owing to the implementation of government policies stipulated in the "The Eleventh Five-year Plan" in 2007, as well as national projects such as the "973 Program" and "863 Program", among others. The potential of market formation stays high because of the rising local demand and government support. Entrepreneurial activities for mAb continue to prosper. In addition, the situation of resource supply has been improved

  8. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  9. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board−approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  10. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wiese, Kristin M. [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Hua, Chia-ho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Daw, Najat [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); McGregor, Lisa [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); McCrarey, Lola [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  11. SU-E-T-59: Calculations of Collimator Scatter Factors (Sc) with and Without Custom-Made Build-Up Caps for CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokoma, S; Yoon, J; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, S [Rhode Island Hospital / Warren Alpert Medical, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settings ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.

  12. Build-up of the silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengfei; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Silicon micro-strip detectors have been widely used in the world-famous nuclear physics laboratories due to their better position resolution and energy resolution. Double-sided silicon micro-strip detectors with a position resolution of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm, have been fabricated in the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, CAS) by using microelectronics technology. These detectors have been used in the ETF (External Target Facility) of HIRFL-CSR, as ΔE detectors of the ΔE-E telescope system and the track detectors. With the help of flexibility printed circuit board (FPCB) and the integrated ASIC chips, a compact multi-channel front-end electronic board has been designed to fulfill the acquisition of the energy and position information of the Silicon micro-strip detectors. It is described in this paper that the build-up of the Silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR, the determination of the energy resolution of the detector units, and the energy resolution of approximately 1% obtained for 5∼9 MeV α particles in vacuum. (authors)

  13. Rigging dark haloes: why is hierarchical galaxy formation consistent with the inside-out build-up of thin discs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, C.; Pogosyan, D.; Kimm, T.; Slyz, A.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.

    2011-12-01

    State-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations show that gas inflow through the virial sphere of dark matter haloes is focused (i.e. has a preferred inflow direction), consistent (i.e. its orientation is steady in time) and amplified (i.e. the amplitude of its advected specific angular momentum increases with time). We explain this to be a consequence of the dynamics of the cosmic web within the neighbourhood of the halo, which produces steady, angular momentum rich, filamentary inflow of cold gas. On large scales, the dynamics within neighbouring patches drives matter out of the surrounding voids, into walls and filaments before it finally gets accreted on to virialized dark matter haloes. As these walls/filaments constitute the boundaries of asymmetric voids, they acquire a net transverse motion, which explains the angular momentum rich nature of the later infall which comes from further away. We conjecture that this large-scale driven consistency explains why cold flows are so efficient at building up high-redshift thin discs inside out.

  14. DC Model Cable under Polarity Inversion and Thermal Gradient: Build-Up of Design-Related Space Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Adi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of energy transport, High-Voltage DC (HVDC technologies are booming at present due to the more flexible power converter solutions along with needs to bring electrical energy from distributed production areas to consumption sites and to strengthen large-scale energy networks. These developments go with challenges in qualifying insulating materials embedded in those systems and in the design of insulations relying on stress distribution. Our purpose in this communication is to illustrate how far the field distribution in DC insulation systems can be anticipated based on conductivity data gathered as a function of temperature and electric field. Transient currents and conductivity estimates as a function of temperature and field were recorded on miniaturized HVDC power cables with construction of 1.5 mm thick crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE insulation. Outputs of the conductivity model are compared to measured field distributions using space charge measurements techniques. It is shown that some features of the field distribution on model cables put under thermal gradient can be anticipated based on conductivity data. However, space charge build-up can induce substantial electric field strengthening when materials are not well controlled.

  15. Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and dynamics, and lipids after 10 days of bed rest in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Robert A; Distefano, Giovanna; Pereira, Suzette L; Tian, Min; Kelly, Owen J; Coen, Paul M; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Wolfe, Robert R; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2017-11-01

    Loss of muscle mass during periods of disuse likely has negative health consequences for older adults. We have previously shown that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during 10 days of strict bed rest (BR) attenuates the loss of lean mass in older adults. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of HMB effects on muscle during BR and resistance training rehabilitation (RT), we examined mediators of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy and atrophy, and intramyocellular lipids. Nineteen older adults (60-76 yr) completed 10 days BR followed by 8-wk RT rehabilitation. Subjects were randomized to either HMB (3 g/day HMB; n = 11) or control (CON; n = 8) groups. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by histology from percutaneous vastus lateralis biopsies. We measured protein markers of mitochondrial content [oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)], fusion and fission (MFN2, OPA1, FIS1, and DRP1), autophagy (Beclin1, LC3B, and BNIP3), and atrophy [poly-ubiquinated proteins (poly-ub)] by Western blot. Fatty acid composition of several lipid classes in skeletal muscle was measured by infusion-MS analysis. Poly-ub proteins and OXPHOS complex I increased in both groups following BR ( P HMB group ( P = 0.055). RT rehabilitation increased OXPHOS complex II protein ( P HMB group. In addition, higher levels of DRP1 and MFN2 were maintained in the HMB group after RT ( P HMB influences mitochondrial dynamics and lipid metabolism during disuse atrophy and rehabilitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Mitochondrial content and dynamics remained unchanged over 10 days of BR in older adults. HMB stimulated intramuscular lipid storage as triacylglycerol following 10 days of bed rest (BR) and maintained higher mitochondrial OXPHOS content and dynamics during the 8-wk resistance exercise rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  17. Effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation on energy expenditure in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject's demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  18. Nutritional status induces divergent variations of GLUT4 protein content, but not lipoprotein lipase activity, between adipose tissues and muscles in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Muriel; Faulconnier, Yannick; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bocquier, François; Leroux, Christine; Martin, Patrice; Chilliard, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Metabolic adaptations to variations in food supply are incompletely understood in ruminant animal adipose tissue (AT) and muscle. To explore this, we studied lipid metabolism and glucose transport potential in one internal and one external AT, as well as in one oxidative and one glycolytic muscle from control, 7 d underfed and 21 d refed adult cows. Refeeding increased (+79 to +307 %) the activities of enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in perirenal and subcutaneous AT; underfeeding did not modify these variables. Underfeeding decreased the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in perirenal AT (-70 %) and cardiac muscle (-67 %), but did not modify the activities in subcutaneous AT and longissimus thoracis. Refeeding increased LPL activities in all tissues (+40 to +553 %) to levels comparable with (cardiac muscle) or greater than (AT, longissimus thoracis) those observed in control cows. Such variations in perirenal and cardiac muscle LPL activities did not result from variations in LPL mRNA levels, but suggest a post-transcriptional regulation of LPL in these nutritional conditions. Underfeeding did not modify GLUT4 contents in perirenal AT and muscles, while refeeding increased it only in perirenal AT (+250 %). Our present results contrast with previous results in rats, where LPL is regulated in opposite directions in AT and muscles, and GLUT4 is generally increased by fasting and decreased by refeeding in skeletal muscles. The present results highlight the bovine specificity of the response, which probably arises in part from peculiarities of ruminant animals for nutrient digestion and absorption.

  19. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, pchange=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, pchanges in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to improve both muscle strength and RFD after short-to-medium training period. However, muscle strength and RFD seem to adapt differently to resistance training programs, suggesting caution for their interchangeable use in clinical assessments of the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. dHb9 expressing larval motor neurons persist through metamorphosis to innervate adult-specific muscle targets and function in Drosophila eclosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; Toral, Marcus; Siefert, Matthew; Conway, David; Dorr, Meredith; Fernandes, Joyce

    2016-12-01

    The Drosophila larval nervous system is radically restructured during metamorphosis to produce adult specific neural circuits and behaviors. Genesis of new neurons, death of larval neurons and remodeling of those neurons that persistent collectively act to shape the adult nervous system. Here, we examine the fate of a subset of larval motor neurons during this restructuring process. We used a dHb9 reporter, in combination with the FLP/FRT system to individually identify abdominal motor neurons in the larval to adult transition using a combination of relative cell body location, axonal position, and muscle targets. We found that segment specific cell death of some dHb9 expressing motor neurons occurs throughout the metamorphosis period and continues into the post-eclosion period. Many dHb9 > GFP expressing neurons however persist in the two anterior hemisegments, A1 and A2, which have segment specific muscles required for eclosion while a smaller proportion also persist in A2-A5. Consistent with a functional requirement for these neurons, ablating them during the pupal period produces defects in adult eclosion. In adults, subsequent to the execution of eclosion behaviors, the NMJs of some of these neurons were found to be dismantled and their muscle targets degenerate. Our studies demonstrate a critical continuity of some larval motor neurons into adults and reveal that multiple aspects of motor neuron remodeling and plasticity that are essential for adult motor behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1387-1416, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin aα null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Reddy, Ramesh N; Price, S Russ

    2013-01-01

    to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction. Since nutritional...... deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development...... and function persist in adult CnAα-/- mice including a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels. These data indicate that impaired renal development we previously reported was not due to caloric restriction but rather a specific role for CnAα in renal...

  2. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M

    2001-01-01

    the relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...... expression of GHR and GHRtr in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined and expressed relative to the expression of beta-actin. Gene expression of GHR in abdominal sc adipose tissue was not altered, whereas the expression of GHRtr increased significantly. In skeletal muscle inverse changes were seen...... in the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels for the two GH receptor forms: expression of GHR increased significantly, whereas mRNA levels for GHRtr decreased. As expected, body composition changed with reduction of body fat mass after 4 months of GH treatment. Levels of circulating GHBP decreased...

  3. Lumbar paraspinal muscle morphometry and its correlations with demographic and radiological factors in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: a retrospective review of 120 surgically managed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Sumit; Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Aryan, Saritha; Mohan, Dilip; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of lumbar paraspinal muscles in adults with isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS), to compare them with those in the normative population, and to evaluate their correlations with demographic factors and MRI changes in various spinal elements. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients who had undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion for IS, and 2 of the authors acting as independent observers calculated the CSAs of various lumbar paraspinal muscles (psoas, erector spinae [ES], multifidus [MF]) on preoperative axial T2-weighted MR images from the L-3 to L-5 vertebral levels and computed the CSAs as ratios with respect to the corresponding vertebral body areas. These values were then compared with those in an age- and sex-matched normative population and were analyzed with respect to age, sex, duration of symptoms, grade of listhesis, and various MRI changes at the level of the listhesis (pedicle signal change, disc degeneration, and facetal arthropathy). RESULTS Compared with values in normative controls, the mean CSA value for the ES muscle was significantly higher in the study cohort of 120 patients (p = 0.002), whereas that for the MF muscle was significantly lower (p = 0.009), and more so in the patients with PSC (p = 0.002). Magnetic resonance imaging signal change in the pedicle was seen in half of the patients, all of whom demonstrated a Type 2 change. Of the variables tested in a multivariate analysis, age independently predicted lower area values for all 3 muscles (p ≤ 0.001), whereas female sex predicted a lower mean psoas area value (p < 0.001). None of the other variables significantly predicted any of the muscle area values. A decrease in the mean MF muscle area value alone was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of a PSC (p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS Compared with normative controls, patients with IS suffer selective atrophy of their MF

  4. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE BUILD-UP OF STELLAR MASS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, J. P.; Collins, C. A.; Hilton, M.; Capozzi, D.; Sahlen, M.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Hosmer, M.; Liddle, A. R.; Mehrtens, N.; Romer, A. K.; Miller, C. J.; Stanford, S. A.; Viana, P. T. P.; Davidson, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S. T.; Nichol, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present deep J- and K s -band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z = 0.8 and1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at ∼9 x 10 11 M sun since z ∼ 1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well-known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar mass of BCGs over the last 9-10 Gyr in stark contrast to the predictions of semi-analytic models, based on the hierarchical merging of dark matter halos, which predict a more protracted mass build-up over a Hubble time. However, we discuss that there is potential for reconciliation between observation and theory if there is a significant growth of material in the intracluster light over the same period.

  5. Cholesterol Removal from Adult Skeletal Muscle impairs Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Aging reduces Caveolin-3 and alters the Expression of other Triadic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro eBarrientos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and caveolin are integral membrane components that modulate the function/location of many cellular proteins. Skeletal muscle fibers, which have unusually high cholesterol levels in transverse tubules, express the caveolin-3 isoform but its association with transverse tubules remains contentious. Cholesterol removal impairs excitation-contraction coupling in amphibian and mammalian fetal skeletal muscle fibers. Here, we show that treating single muscle fibers from adult mice with the cholesterol removing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased fiber cholesterol by 26%, altered the location pattern of caveolin-3 and of the voltage dependent calcium channel Cav1.1, and suppressed or reduced electrically evoked Ca2+ transients without affecting membrane integrity or causing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium depletion. We found that transverse tubules from adult muscle and triad fractions that contain ~10% attached transverse tubules, but not sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, contained caveolin-3 and Cav1.1; both proteins partitioned into detergent-resistant membrane fractions highly enriched in cholesterol. Aging entails significant deterioration of skeletal muscle function. We found that triad fractions from aged rats had similar cholesterol and RyR1 protein levels compared to triads from young rats, but had lower caveolin-3 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein levels. Both triad fractions had comparable NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and protein content of NOX2 subunits (p47phox and gp91phox, implying that NOX activity does not increase during aging. These findings show that partial cholesterol removal impairs excitation-contraction coupling and alters caveolin-3 and Cav1.1 location pattern, and that aging reduces caveolin-3 protein content and modifies the expression of other triadic proteins. We discuss the possible implications of these findings for skeletal muscle function in young and aged

  6. Pain severity is associated with muscle strength and peak oxygen uptake in adults with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooten WM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available W Michael Hooten,1,2 Jolene M Smith,3 Jason S Eldrige,1 David A Olsen,3 W David Mauck,1 Susan M Moeschler11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 3Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN, USABackground: The associations between pain, lower extremity strength, and aerobic conditioning have not been widely investigated in adults with fibromyalgia (FM. The principle objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain severity and knee strength in patients seeking treatment for FM. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between pain scores and aerobic conditioning.Methods: Three measures of knee strength (isokinetic extensor, isokinetic flexor, isometric extensor were quantified in the dominant leg of 69 adults with FM using a dynamometer at speeds of 60 degrees per second (60°/s and 180°/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 was assessed using a cycle ergometer, and pain was assessed using the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory.Results: In univariable linear regression analyses using pain severity as the dependent variable, lesser values of isokinetic knee extensor strength at 60°/s (P=0.041 and 180°/s (P=0.010, isokinetic knee flexor strength at 60°/s (P=0.028 and 180°/s (P=0.003, and peak VO2 uptake (P=0.031 were predictive of greater pain severity scores. In multiple variable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and opioid use, the following associations retained statistical significance; isokinetic knee extensor strength at 60°/s (P=0.020 and 180°/s (P=0.003, isokinetic knee flexor strength at 60°/s (P=0.015 and 180°/s (P=0.001, and peak VO2 uptake (P=0.014. However, no significant associations were found between pain severity and isometric knee extensor strength.Conclusion: The main findings from this study were that lesser values of isokinetic knee strength and peak VO

  7. Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, André; Kressig, Reto W; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gschwind, Yves J; Pfenninger, Barbara; Bruegger, Othmar; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training. Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining. Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group. Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be

  8. Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Tam, Y T; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chan, Eleanor W Y; Guo, X

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Each participant (total n = 21) was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1) hamstring curl, (2) hip abduction in plank, (3) chest press, and (4) 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF) activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P hamstring curl was effective in inducing a high EMG amplitude of LMF (P 0.05). Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP.

  9. Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP. Each participant (total n=21 was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1 hamstring curl, (2 hip abduction in plank, (3 chest press, and (4 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO, rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P0.05. Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP.

  10. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on sexual problems, in a homogenous group of victims of adolescence rape without a history of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Sexual functioning and pelvic floor functioning were assessed using self-report questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, a group of 89 young women aged 18-25 years who were victimized by rape in adolescence was compared with a group of 114 nonvictimized controls. The rape victims were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 3 years prior to participation in the study. Three years posttreatment, rape victims were 2.4 times more likely to have a sexual dysfunction (lubrication problems and pain) and 2.7 times more likely to have pelvic floor dysfunction (symptoms of provoked vulvodynia, general stress, lower urinary tract, and irritable bowel syndrome) than nonvictimized controls. The relationship between rape and sexual problems was partially mediated by the presence of pelvic floor problems. Rape victims and controls did not differ with regard to sexual activities. Rape victims suffer significantly more from sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction when compared with nontraumatized controls, despite the provision of treatment for PTSD. Possibly, physical manifestations of PTSD have been left unaddressed in treatment. Future treatment protocols should consider incorporating (physical or psychological) treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction and/or pelvic floor dysfunction into trauma exposure treatments. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking in automatic building-up of copper and copper base alloys in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, V.R.; Andronik, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking during automatic building-up of copper and bronze in argon. The investigation was carried out on the 0kh18n10t steel in argon. It had been established, that the degree of copper penetration into the steel inceases with the increase in the time of the 0Kh18n10t steel contact with liquid copper. Liquid copper and copper base alloys have a detrimental effect on mechanical properties of the steel under external tensile load during intercontant. It is shown that in building-up of copper base alloys on the steel-0Kh18n10t, tendency of the steel to cracking decreases with increase in stiffness of a surfaced weld metal plate and with decrease in building-up energy per unit length. The causes of macrocracking in steel at building-up non-ferrous metals are explained. The technological procedures to avoid cracking are suggested

  12. Phenotype selection reveals coevolution of muscle glycogen and protein and PTEN as a gate keeper for the accretion of muscle mass in adult female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Sawitzky

    Full Text Available We have investigated molecular mechanisms for muscle mass accretion in a non-inbred mouse model (DU6P mice characterized by extreme muscle mass. This extreme muscle mass was developed during 138 generations of phenotype selection for high protein content. Due to the repeated trait selection a complex setting of different mechanisms was expected to be enriched during the selection experiment. In muscle from 29-week female DU6P mice we have identified robust increases of protein kinase B activation (AKT, Ser-473, up to 2-fold if compared to 11- and 54-week DU6P mice or controls. While a number of accepted effectors of AKT activation, including IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin/IGF-receptor, myostatin or integrin-linked kinase (ILK, were not correlated with this increase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN was down-regulated in 29-week female DU6P mice. In addition, higher levels of PTEN phosphorylation were found identifying a second mechanism of PTEN inhibition. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of AKT correlated with specific activation of p70S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6, reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α and higher rates of protein synthesis in 29-week female DU6P mice. On the other hand, AKT activation also translated into specific inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß and an increase of muscular glycogen. In muscles from 29-week female DU6P mice a significant increase of protein/DNA was identified, which was not due to a reduction of protein breakdown or to specific increases of translation initiation. Instead our data support the conclusion that a higher rate of protein translation is contributing to the higher muscle mass in mid-aged female DU6P mice. Our results further reveal coevolution of high protein and high glycogen content during the selection experiment and identify PTEN as gate keeper for muscle mass in mid-aged female DU6P mice.

  13. A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, A.M.; Verlaan, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Swinkels, S.; Bosch, J.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia. Objective: The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older

  14. Effect of various physical parameters on surface and build-up dose for 15-MV X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Girigesh; Yadav, R.S.; Kumar, Alok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of various physical parameters on the skin and build-up doses of 15-MV photon beams. The effects of field dimensions, acrylic shadow tray, focus to-skin distance (FSD) on surface and buildup dose were determined for open, motorized 60 deg wedge (MW) and blocked fields. A 'Markus' plane parallel plate chamber was used for these measurements in an Elekta (6-15MV) linear accelerator. The surface dose for MW fields was lower than the dose for an open field, but the trend reversed for large fields and higher degree wedges. With the use of an acrylic shadow tray, the surface dose increased for all field sizes, but the increase was dominant for large fields. The surface dose for blocked fields was lower than the dose for open fields. The percentage depth dose of 10 x 10 cm 2 field at surface (PDD 0 ) for open beam were 13.89%, 11.71%, and 10.74% at 80 cm, 100 cm, and 120 cm FSD, respectively. The blocking tray increased PDD 0 of 10 x 10 cm 2 field to 26.29%, 14.01%, and 11.53%, while the motorized 60 deg wedge decreased PDD 0 to 11.32%, 9.7%, and 8.9 % at these FSDs. The maximum PDD difference seen at surface (i.e. skin) for 5x5 cm 2 , 15x15 cm 2 , and 30x30 cm 2 are 0.5%, 4.6%, and 5.6% for open field and 0.9%, 4.7%, and 7.2% for motorized 60 deg wedge field, when FSDs varied from 80 cm to 120 cm. The maximum PDD difference seen at surface for 5x5 cm 2 , 15x15 cm 2 , and 30x30 cm 2 fields are 5.6%, 22.8%, and 29.6%, respectively, for a 1.0-cm perspex-blocking tray as the FSD is changed. The maximum PDD difference was seen at the surface (i.e. skin) and this decreased with increasing depth. (author)

  15. Different ankle muscle coordination patterns and co-activation during quiet stance between young adults and seniors do not change after a bout of high intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-03-04

    Available evidence suggests that young adults and seniors use different strategies to adjust for increasing body sway during quiet standing. Altered antagonist muscle co-activation and different ankle muscle coordination patterns may account for this finding. Consequently, we aimed at addressing whether aging leads to changes in neuromuscular coordination patterns as well as co-activation during quiet stance. We additionally investigated whether a bout of high intensity interval training additionally alters these patterns. Twenty healthy seniors (age: 70 ± 4 y) and twenty young adults (age: 27 ± 3 y) were enrolled in the present study. In between the testing procedures, four consecutive high-intensity intervals of 4 min duration at a target exercise intensity of 90 to 95% HRmax were completed on a treadmill. The total center of pressure (COP) path length displacement served as standing balance performance outcome. In order to assess ankle muscle coordination patterns, amplitude ratios (AR) were calculated for each muscle (e.g. tibialis anterior (TA) [%] = (TA × 100)/(gastrocnemius medialis (GM) + soleus (SOL) + peroneus longus (PL) + TA). The co-activation was calculated for the SOL and TA muscles computing the co-activation index (CAI = 2 × TA/TA + SOL). Seniors showed an inverted ankle muscle coordination pattern during single limb stance with eyes open (SLEO), compared to young adults (rest: GM, S: 15 ± 8% vs Y: 24 ± 9%; p = 0.03; SOL, S: 27 ± 14% vs Y: 37 ± 18%; p = 0.009; TA, S: 31 ± 13% vs Y: 13 ± 7%; p = 0.003). These patterns did not change after a high-intensity training session. A moderate correlation between amplitude ratios of the TA-contribution and postural sway was observed for seniors during SLEO (r = 0.61). Ankle co-activation was twofold elevated in seniors compared to young adults during SLEO (p Seniors with decreased postural control showed higher TA

  16. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii training on mechanical leg muscle function and postural balance in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Ole Bruno Faurholt; Aagaard, Per

    2013-07-01

    Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown. This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction strength (18%) than the control group at follow up (between-group difference = 269 N, 95% CI = 122; 416, and p = .001). In contrast, the center of pressure velocity moment did not differ (1%) between WII and CON at follow-up (between-group difference = 0.23 mm(2)/s, 95% CI = -4.1; 4.6, and p = .92). For secondary end points, pre-to-post changes favoring the WII group were evident in the rate of force development (p = .03), Timed Up and Go test (p = .01), short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p = .03), and 30-second repeated Chair Stand Test (p = .01). Finally, participants rated the Wii training highly motivating at 5 and 10 weeks into the intervention. Biofeedback-based Wii training led to marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction; rate of force development) and overall functional performance in community-dwelling older adults. Unexpectedly, static bilateral postural balance remained unaltered with Wii training. The high level of participant motivation suggests that biofeedback-based Wii exercise may ensure a high degree of compliance to home- and/or community

  17. Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Joseph W; Sukiennik, Richard A; Nallabelli, Julian; Emmons, Russell S; van Vliet, Stephan; Young, Justin R; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; De Lisio, Michael; Burd, Nicholas A

    2016-10-01

    Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults. Ten healthy-weight [HW; BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 22.7 ± 0.4], 10 overweight (OW; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.5), and 10 obese (OB; BMI: 35.9 ± 1.3) adults received primed continuous l-[ring- 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine infusions. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after the ingestion of 170 g pork (36 g protein and 3 g fat) to assess skeletal muscle anabolic signaling, amino acid transporters [large neutral and small neutral amino acid transporters (LAT1, SNAT2) and CD98], and myofibrillar protein synthesis. At baseline, OW and OB groups showed greater relative amounts of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein than the HW group. Pork ingestion increased mTORC1 phosphorylation only in the HW group (P = 0.001). LAT1 and SNAT2 protein content increased during the postprandial period in all groups (time effect, P anabolic signals, that reduces muscle sensitivity to food ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02613767. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Analysis of moment structures for assessing relationships among perceived chewing ability, dentition status, muscle strength, and balance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shingo; Notani, Kenji; Murata, Ayumi; Inoue, Nobuo; Miura, Hiroko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships among perceived chewing ability, dentition status, muscle strength and balance in community-dwelling older adults using analysis of moment structures (Amos). Physical performance parameters such as muscle strength and balance can predict the future onset of disabilities in activities of daily living among older adults. In this context, elucidation of the relationships among oral conditions and physical performance parameters is necessary. Data on occlusal contact patterns of natural teeth (OPNT), self-assessed masticatory ability (mastication), body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength (HG) and one-leg standing time with eyes open (OLST) were collected from 501 independently living adults aged 65-74 years. The relationships among these parameters were analysed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and Amos. Subjects of both genders showed significant correlations among OPNT, mastication, HG and OLST, evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. For each Amos model, the goodness-of-fit statistic indicated a good level of fit. In both men and women, OPNT was significantly related to mastication, and mastication was related to HG but not to OLST. OPNT was related to neither HG nor OLST in women and was related to OLST but not HG in men. The findings observed in this study present a possible importance of dental status and perceived chewing ability for the onset of disability by influencing physical performance in community-dwelling older adults. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp.

  20. Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K; Hall, Charles B; Amodu, Afolarin; Sharma, Deep; Androga, Lagu; Hawkins, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The level of body-mass index (BMI) associated with the lowest risk of death remains unclear. Although differences in muscle mass limit the utility of BMI as a measure of adiposity, no study has directly examined the effect of muscle mass on the BMI-mortality relationship. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 11,687 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Low muscle mass was defined using sex-specific thresholds of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI). Proportional hazards models were created to model associations with all-cause mortality. At any level of BMI ≥22, participants with low muscle mass had higher body fat percentage (%TBF), an increased likelihood of diabetes, and higher adjusted mortality than other participants. Increases in %TBF manifested as 30-40% smaller changes in BMI than were observed in participants with preserved muscle mass. Excluding participants with low muscle mass or adjustment for ASMI attenuated the risk associated with low BMI, magnified the risk associated with high BMI, and shifted downward the level of BMI associated with the lowest risk of death. Higher ASMI was independently associated with lower mortality. Effects were similar in never-smokers and ever-smokers. Additional adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk associated with higher BMI. Results were unchanged after excluding unintentional weight loss, chronic illness, early mortality, and participants performing muscle-strengthening exercises or recommended levels of physical activity. Muscle mass mediates associations of BMI with adiposity and mortality and is inversely associated with the risk of death. After accounting for muscle mass, the BMI associated with the greatest survival shifts downward toward the normal range. These results provide a concrete explanation for the obesity paradox.

  1. Selective expression of the type 3 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR3) in a subset of slow fibers in diaphragm and cephalic muscles of adult rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Antonio; Reggiani, Carlo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The expression pattern of the RyR3 isoform of Ca 2+ release channels was analysed by Western blot in neonatal and adult rabbit skeletal muscles. The results obtained show that the expression of the RyR3 isoform is developmentally regulated. In fact, RyR3 expression was detected in all muscles analysed at 2 and 15 days after birth while, in adult animals, it was restricted to a subset of muscles that includes diaphragm, masseter, pterygoideus, digastricus, and tongue. Interestingly, all of these muscles share a common embryonic origin being derived from the somitomeres or from the cephalic region of the embryo. Immunofluorescence analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle cross-sections showed that RyR3 staining was detected in all fibers of neonatal muscles. In contrast, in those adult muscles expressing RyR3 only a fraction of fibers was labelled. Staining of these muscles with antibodies against fast and slow myosins revealed a close correlation between expression of RyR3 and fibers expressing slow myosin isoform

  2. Simple equations to predict concentric lower-body muscle power in older adults using the 30-second chair-rise test: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley N Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wesley N Smith1, Gianluca Del Rossi1, Jessica B Adams1, KZ Abderlarahman2, Shihab A Asfour2, Bernard A Roos1,3,4,5, Joseph F Signorile1,31Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences,2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Bruce W Carter Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 5Stein Gerontological Institute, Miami Jewish Health Systems, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Although muscle power is an important factor affecting independence in older adults, there is no inexpensive or convenient test to quantify power in this population. Therefore, this pilot study examined whether regression equations for evaluating muscle power in older adults could be derived from a simple chair-rise test. We collected data from a 30-second chair-rise test performed by fourteen older adults (76 ± 7.19 years. Average (AP and peak (PP power values were computed using data from force-platform and high-speed motion analyses. Using each participant’s body mass and the number of chair rises performed during the first 20 seconds of the 30-second trial, we developed multivariate linear regression equations to predict AP and PP. The values computed using these equations showed a significant linear correlation with the values derived from our force-platform and high-speed motion analyses (AP: R = 0.89; PP: R = 0.90; P < 0.01. Our results indicate that lower-body muscle power in fit older adults can be accurately evaluated using the data from the initial 20 seconds of a simple 30-second chair-rise test, which requires no special equipment, preparation, or setting.Keywords: instrumental activity of daily living, clinical test, elderly, chair-stand test, leg power

  3. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  4. Regulation of muscle stem cell functions: a focus on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Segales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Formation of skeletal muscle fibers (myogenesis during development and after tissue injury in the adult constitutes an excellent paradigm to investigate the mechanisms whereby environmental cues control gene expression programs in muscle stem cells (satellite cells by acting on transcriptional and epigenetic effectors. Here we will review the molecular mechanisms implicated in the transition of satellite cells throughout the distinct myogenic stages (i.e., activation from quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. We will also discuss recent findings on the causes underlying satellite cell functional decline with aging. In particular, our review will focus on the epigenetic changes underlying fate decisions and on how the p38 MAPK signaling pathway integrates the environmental signals at the chromatin to build up satellite cell adaptive responses during the process of muscle regeneration, and how these responses are altered in aging. A better comprehension of the signaling pathways connecting external and intrinsic factors will illuminate the path for improving muscle regeneration in the aged.

  5. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  6. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  7. Compensatory hypertrophy of the teres minor muscle after large rotator cuff tear model in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Iizuka, Haku; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the elderly. The large RCT is often irreparable due to the retraction and degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle. The integrity of the teres minor (TM) muscle is thought to affect postoperative functional recovery in some surgical treatments. Hypertrophy of the TM is found in some patients with large RCTs; however, the process underlying this hypertrophy is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if compensatory hypertrophy of the TM muscle occurs in a large RCT rat model. Twelve Wistar rats underwent transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the left shoulder. The rats were euthanized 4 weeks after the surgery, and the cuff muscles were collected and weighed. The cross-sectional area and the involvement of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were examined in the remaining TM muscle. The weight and cross-sectional area of the TM muscle was higher in the operated-on side than in the control side. The phosphorylated Akt/Akt protein ratio was not significantly different between these sides. The phosphorylated-mTOR/mTOR protein ratio was significantly higher on the operated-on side. Transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons activates mTOR signaling in the TM muscle, which results in muscle hypertrophy. The Akt-signaling pathway may not be involved in this process. Nevertheless, activation of mTOR signaling in the TM muscle after RCT may be an effective therapeutic target of a large RCT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  9. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  10. Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation period on bond strengths between fiber-reinforced composite post and core build-up composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yuya; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation period on the bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts to core build-up resin. Three types of FRC posts were prepared using polymethyl methacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and epoxy resin. The surfaces of these posts were treated using UV irradiation at a distance of 15 mm for 0 to 600 s. The pull-out bond strength was measured and analyzed with the Dunnett's comparison test (α=0.05). The bond strengths of the post surfaces without irradiation were 6.9 to 7.4 MPa; those after irradiation were 4.2 to 26.1 MPa. The bond strengths significantly increased after 15 to 120-s irradiation. UV irradiation on the FRC posts improved the bond strengths between the FRC posts and core build-up resin regardless of the type of matrix resin.

  11. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F; Capote, R; Terron, J A; Gomez, F

    2006-01-01

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm 3 ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface

  12. Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Changes in muscle strength after diet-induced weight reduction in adult men with obesity: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bokun Kim,1 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2,3 Rina So,4 Xiaoguang Zhao,5 Sechang Oh,6,7 Kiyoji Tanaka2 1Faculty of Sports Health Care, Inje University, Gyeongsangnamdo, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Shimane, 4Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 5Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 7The Center of Sports Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Background and objective: The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men.Methods: A total of 24 men with obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age: 52.4 ± 10.0 years attended a 12-week weight reduction program that implemented dietary restrictions. Each participant underwent assessments of body weight (by a digital scale, body composition (by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA], and upper and lower extremity muscle strength (by a hand-held dynamometer and a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, respectively before and after the program.Results: The program led to significant reductions of 10.5% of weight and 6.1% of lower extremity muscle mass. Similarly, lower extremity muscle strength (measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer was significantly decreased (isometric 60° peak torque decreased by 10% and

  14. Cloning of skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family from adult pleopod muscle and whole larvae of shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Hiroki; Piyapattanakorn, Sanit; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-06-01

    The physiological and biological properties of skeletal muscle in crustacea have not been well understood compared with those of vertebrates. The present study focused on myosin, the major protein in skeletal muscle, from shrimps. In our previous study, two full-length genes encoding myosin heavy chain (MHC), a large subunit of the myosin molecule, were cloned from abdominal fast skeletal muscle of kuruma Marsupenaeus japonicus, black tiger Penaeus monodon and Pacific white Penaeus vannamei shrimps, and named as MHCa and MHCb. In this study, we renamed these as MHC1 and MHC2, respectively, due to the presence of various isoforms newly identified. Partial MHC sequences were identified from pleopod muscle of these shrimps. Two MHCs, named MHC3 and MHC4, were identified from pleopod muscle of kuruma shrimp, whereas two MHCs, named MHC4 and MHC5, were cloned from Pacific white shrimp pleopod. MHC3 was cloned only from black tiger shrimp pleopod. Partial MHC sequences from zoea, mysis, and postlarvae of black tiger and Pacific white shrimps were also determined. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that most MHCs from pleopod muscle and larval MHCs formed clades with MHC1 and MHC2, respectively. These MHCs were considered to be of fast type, since MHC1 and MHC2 are fast-type MHCs according to our previous study. MHC5 obtained from pleopod muscle of Pacific white shrimp in this study was monophyletic with American lobster Homarus americanus S2 slow tonic MHC previously reported, indicating that MHC5 from Pacific white shrimp is of slow type. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, André; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    2017-11-01

    Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature analysis has been conducted to determine if supervision affects the effectiveness of these programs to improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength/power. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the effectiveness of supervised vs. unsupervised balance and/or resistance training programs on measures of balance and muscle strength/power in healthy older adults. In addition, the impact of supervision on training-induced adaptive processes was evaluated in the form of dose-response relationships by analyzing randomized controlled trials that compared supervised with unsupervised trials. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscus to detect articles examining the role of supervision in balance and/or resistance training in older adults. The initially identified 6041 articles were systematically screened. Studies were included if they examined balance and/or resistance training in adults aged ≥65 years with no relevant diseases and registered at least one behavioral balance (e.g., time during single leg stance) and/or muscle strength/power outcome (e.g., time for 5-Times-Chair-Rise-Test). Finally, 11 studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Weighted mean standardized mean differences between subjects (SMD bs ) of supervised vs. unsupervised balance/resistance training studies were calculated. The included studies were coded for the following variables: number of participants, sex, age, number and type of interventions, type of balance/strength tests, and change (%) from pre- to post-intervention values. Additionally, we coded training according

  16. Circadian variation in metabolite and enzyme activities in the femoral and thoracic muscles of adult variegated grasshoppers, Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademolu Kehinde Olutoyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The African variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus, exhibits daily variations in its feeding and destructive activities. A study to investigate circadian variation in metabolites (lipids, protein, glucose, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl− concentrations and enzymes (lipase, amylase, proteinase, α-glucosidase activities in the femoral and thoracic muscles of adult Z. variegatus was carried out by collecting samples at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hrs GMT. The four enzymes were present throughout the day in both thoracic and femoral muscles but at varying levels. Significantly (p<0.05 higher enzymes activities were measured during the day (between 06:00 and 18:00 hours GMT (except proteinase than at night (24:00 hrs. Organic substances in the two tissues were present in significantly higher concentrations during the day than at night. Similarly, significantly more inorganic substances were recorded in the afternoon (12:00-18:00 hrs than at night in both femoral and thoracic muscles. It can thus be concluded that locomotor activities in Z. variegatus reach a peak during the day.

  17. Potential use of "1"8F-FDG-PET/CT to visualize hypermetabolism associated with muscle pain in patients with adult spinal deformity: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuki; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) are surgically treated for pain relief; however, visualization of the exact origin of the pain with imaging modalities is still challenging. We report the first case of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with painful degenerative kyphoscoliosis and was evaluated with flourine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ("1"8F-FDG-PET/CT) preoperatively. Because her low back pain was resistant to conservative treatment, she was treated with posterior spinal correction and fusion surgery from Th2 to the ilium. One year after the surgery, her low back pain had disappeared completely. In accordance with her clinical course, "1"8F-FDG-PET imaging revealed the uptake of "1"8F-FDG in the paravertebral muscles preoperatively and showed the complete absence of uptake at 1 year after surgery. The uptake site coincided with the convex part of each curve of the lumbar spine and was thought to be the result of the increased activity of paravertebral muscles due to their chronic stretched state in the kyphotic posture. This case report suggests the possibility of using "1"8F-FDG-PET/CT to visualize increased activity in paravertebral muscles and the ensuing pain in ASD patients. (orig.)

  18. Potential use of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT to visualize hypermetabolism associated with muscle pain in patients with adult spinal deformity: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yuki [The University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu [The University of Tokyo, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) are surgically treated for pain relief; however, visualization of the exact origin of the pain with imaging modalities is still challenging. We report the first case of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with painful degenerative kyphoscoliosis and was evaluated with flourine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) preoperatively. Because her low back pain was resistant to conservative treatment, she was treated with posterior spinal correction and fusion surgery from Th2 to the ilium. One year after the surgery, her low back pain had disappeared completely. In accordance with her clinical course, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET imaging revealed the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the paravertebral muscles preoperatively and showed the complete absence of uptake at 1 year after surgery. The uptake site coincided with the convex part of each curve of the lumbar spine and was thought to be the result of the increased activity of paravertebral muscles due to their chronic stretched state in the kyphotic posture. This case report suggests the possibility of using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT to visualize increased activity in paravertebral muscles and the ensuing pain in ASD patients. (orig.)

  19. Responsiveness of performance-based outcome measures for mobility, balance, muscle strength and manual dexterity in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Petitclerc, Émilie; Hébert, Luc J; Mathieu, Jean; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2018-02-28

    To assess changes and responsiveness in outcome measures of mobility, balance, muscle strength and manual dexterity in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1. A 9-year longitudinal study conducted with 113 patients. The responsiveness of the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, quantitative muscle testing, grip and pinch-grip strength, and Purdue Pegboard Test was assessed using criterion and construct approaches. Patient-reported perceived changes (worse/stable) in balance, walking, lower-limb weakness, stair-climbing and hand weakness were used as criteria. Predefined hypotheses about expected area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (criterion approach) and correlations between relative changes (construct approach) were explored. The direction and magnitude of median changes in outcome measures corresponded with patient-reported changes. Median changes in the Timed Up and Go test, grip strength, pinch-grip strength and Purdue Pegboard Test did not, in general, exceed known measurement errors. Most criterion (72%) and construct (70%) approach hypotheses were supported. Promising responsiveness was found for outcome measures of mobility, balance and muscle strength. Grip strength and manual dexterity measures showed poorer responsiveness. The performance-based outcome measures captured changes over the 9-year period and responsiveness was promising. Knowledge of measurement errors is needed to interpret the meaning of these longitudinal changes.

  20. Contribution of sensory feedback to plantar flexor muscle activation during push-off in adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Rasmus F.; Jensen, Peter; Kirk, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    applied unload perturbations at the ankle, thereby removing sensory feedback naturally activated during push-off. Reduction of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle caused by unloads was compared and related to kinematics and ankle joint stiffness measurements. Similar measures were...... feedback to ongoing soleus muscle activation during push-off than uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminishn sensory feedback during gait, and/or sensory feedback is less integrated with central motor commands in the activation of spinal motor neurons...

  1. Leisure-time aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and mortality risks among US adults: the NHANES linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao Jun; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-02-01

    Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to benefits among insufficiently active adults.

  2. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  3. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-01-01

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T 3 and T 4 in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: ► DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. ► Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. ► Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. ► Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  4. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on the Masticatory Muscles and Physiologic Sleep Variables in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Novel Therapeutic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Chrystiane Giannasi

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a term employed to define a group of non-progressive neuromotor disorders caused by damage to the immature or developing brain, with consequent limitations regarding movement and posture. CP may impair orapharygeal muscle tone, leading to a compromised chewing function and to sleep disorders (such as obstructive sleep apnea. Thirteen adults with CP underwent bilateral masseter and temporalis neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES therapy. The effects on the masticatory muscles and sleep variables were evaluated using electromyography (EMG and polysomnography (PSG, respectively, prior and after 2 months of NMES. EMG consisted of 3 tests in different positions: rest, mouth opening and maximum clenching effort (MCE. EMG values in the rest position were 100% higher than values recorded prior to therapy for all muscles analyzed (p < 0.05; mean mouth opening increased from 38.0 ± 8.0 to 44.0 ± 10.0 cm (p = 0.03. A significant difference in MCE was found only for the right masseter. PSG revealed an improved in the AHI from 7.2±7.0/h to 2.3±1.5/h (p < 0.05; total sleep time improved from 185 min to 250 min (p = 0.04 and minimun SaO2 improved from 83.6 ± 3.0 to 86.4 ± 4.0 (p = 0.04. NMES performed over a two-month period led to improvements in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles at rest, mouth opening, isometric contraction and sleep variables, including the elimination of obstructive sleep apnea events in patients with CP. Trial registration: ReBEC RBR994XFS http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br.

  5. Build-up and wash-off dynamics of atmospherically derived Cu, Pb, Zn and TSS in stormwater runoff as a function of meteorological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise U; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants deposited on impermeable surfaces can be an important source of pollutants to stormwater runoff; however, modelling atmospheric pollutant loads in runoff has rarely been done, because of the challenges and uncertainties in monitoring their contribution. To overcome this, impermeable concrete boards (≈ 1m(2)) were deployed for 11 months in different locations within an urban area (industrial, residential and airside) throughout Christchurch, New Zealand, to capture spatially distributed atmospheric deposition loads in runoff over varying meteorological conditions. Runoff was analysed for total and dissolved Cu, Zn, Pb, and total suspended solids (TSS). Mixed-effect regression models were developed to simulate atmospheric pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. In addition, the models were used to explain the influence of different meteorological characteristics (e.g. antecedent dry days and rain depth) on pollutant build-up and wash-off dynamics. The models predicted approximately 53% to 69% of the variation in pollutant loads and were successful in predicting pollutant-load trends over time which can be useful for general stormwater planning processes. Results from the models illustrated the importance of antecedent dry days on pollutant build-up. Furthermore, results indicated that peak rainfall intensity and rain duration had a significant relationship with TSS and total Pb, whereas, rain depth had a significant relationship with total Cu and total Zn. This suggested that the pollutant speciation phase plays an important role in surface wash-off. Rain intensity and duration had a greater influence when the pollutants were predominantly in their particulate phase. Conversely, rain depth exerted a greater influence when a high fraction of the pollutants were predominantly in their dissolved phase. For all pollutants, the models were represented by a log-arctan relationship for pollutant build-up and a log-log relationship for pollutant wash

  6. MONJU experimental data analysis and its feasibility evaluation to build up the standard data base for large FBR nuclear core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, K.; Iwai, T.

    2006-01-01

    MONJU experimental data analysis was performed by using the detailed calculation scheme for fast reactor cores developed in Japan. Subsequently, feasibility of the MONJU integral data was evaluated by the cross-section adjustment technique for the use of FBR nuclear core design. It is concluded that the MONJU integral data is quite valuable for building up the standard data base for large FBR nuclear core design. In addition, it is found that the application of the updated data base has a possibility to considerably improve the prediction accuracy of neutronic parameters for MONJU. (authors)

  7. Muscle strength and physical activity are associated with self-rated health in an adult Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andreas W; Beyer, Nina; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W

    2013-12-01

    To describe associations of muscle strength, physical activity and self-rated health. Isometric muscle strength by maximal handgrip strength (HGS) or muscle strength by 30s repeated chair stand test (30s-CS) was combined with leisure time physical activity. Using logistic regression odds ratio was calculated for good self-rated health according to the combined associations among 16,539 participants (59.7% women), mean age 51.9 (SD: 13.8) years, from a cross-sectional study in Denmark 2007-2008. Good self-rated health was positively associated with higher levels of physical activity and greater muscle strength. Regarding HGS the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high HGS (OR=6.84, 95% CI: 4.85-9.65 and OR=7.34, 95% CI: 5.42-9.96 for men and women, respectively). Similarly the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high scores in the 30s-CS test (6.06, 95% CI: 4.32-8.50 and 13.38, 95% CI: 9.59-18.67 for men and women, respectively). The reference groups were sedentary participants with low strength (HGS or 30s-CS). The combined score for physical activity level with either HGS or 30s-CS was strongly positively associated with self-related health. © 2013.

  8. Muscle areas of lower limbs were determined by anthropometric and computed tomography in the adult of the masculine sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Vieitez, Jorge Alberto; Alvarez Cuesta, Jose Alberto; Williams Wilson, Luis

    2000-01-01

    In a sample of 17 males (age 26 + - 5 years; weight 76.3 + - 7.1 kg and height 177.2 + - 3.9 cm) the differences, ratios and interchangeability among muscle areas (cm 2 ) of lower limbs (medial thigh and maximum leg) were determined by anthropometric (muscle area= [limb circumference (cm)- 0.31416 skinfold (mm)]2 /12.5664 and computed tomography. The anthropometric method overestimated muscle areas in both regions (thigh + 9.0 + - 12.8; p= 0.01 and leg: +8.5 + - 11.2; p=0.006). Relation between the two procedures was statistically significant (thigh r=0.9; p= 8.8 .10-7 and leg r=0.52; p=0.03). Both methods were interchangeable since neither the correlation coefficient (thigh r=0.42; leg r=0.38) nor the regression gradient (thigh b 0 .21 + - 0.12; leg b = -0.44 + - 0.28) between the differences (anthropometric ? TAC) and the averages (anthropometric + TAC/ 2) in both methods were statistically significant (p>0.05). It was concluded that the anthropometric method requires certain adjustments to be able to estimate more accurately the muscle areas of lower limbs

  9. Association of sitting time and breaks in sitting with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N; Healy, G N; Gianoudis, J; Formica, M; Gardiner, P A; Eakin, E E; Nowson, C A; Daly, R M

    2018-02-26

    The mechanisms through which excessive sitting time impacts health are important to understand. This study found that each hour of sitting per day was not associated with physical function, although associations with poor body composition were observed. Reducing sitting time for improved weight management in older adults needs further exploration. To examine the association of sitting time and breaks in sitting time with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in older Australians. Data from the thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-day continuous wear) was used to derive time spent sitting (hours) and total number of sit-stand transitions per day. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower-body muscle strength, function (timed up-and-go [TUG], 4-m gait speed, four square step test, 30-second sit-to-stand), and serum inflammatory markers (interleukin-[IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and adiponectin) were measured. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, employment status, marital status, number of prescription medications, smoking status, vitamin D, and stepping time, were used to assess the associations. Data from 123 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-84 years, 63% female) were used. Total daily sitting time was associated with lower percentage lean mass (β [95%CI], - 1.70% [- 2.30, - 1.10]) and higher total body fat mass (2.92 kg [1.94, 3.30]). More frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with a 45% reduced risk of having pre-sarcopenia (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.34, 0.91; model 1), defined as appendicular lean mass divided by BMI. No significant associations were observed for sitting time or breaks in sitting with measures of muscle strength, function, or inflammation. In older community-dwelling adults, greater sitting time was associated with a lower percentage lean mass, while more frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with lower odds of having

  10. The effects of high intensity interval training on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Malia N M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. Randomized controlled trial. Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35.4±12.3years; height: 174.9±9.7cm; weight: 94.6±17.0kg; %fat: 32.7±6.5%) completed the current study. During baseline and post testing, muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (EI) were determined from a panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis obtained by B-mode ultrasonography. Body composition variables were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were randomized into either a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (SIT; n=16), a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (LIT; n=19), or control (CON; n=9). HIIT participants performed five, 2-min bouts (LIT) or 10, 1-min bouts (SIT) at 85-100% VO 2peak for 9 sessions over three weeks. Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant increase in mCSA for SIT (p=0.038; change (Δ)=3.17±3.36cm 2 ) compared to CON (Δ=-0.34±2.36cm 2 ). There was no significant difference in EI across groups (p=0.672). HIIT may be an effective exercise modality to influence muscle size in overweight and obese individuals. Future studies should investigate muscle characteristics and remodeling in an overweight population following interventions of longer duration and varying work-to-rest protocols. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lepton contamination and photon scatter produced by open field 18 MV X-ray beams in the build-up region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Cheung Tsang; Yu, P.K.N.

    2002-01-01

    18 MV X-ray beams used in radiotherapy have skin sparing properties as they produce a dose build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the skin compared to dose at depth. Experimental results have shown that variations in the build-up dose significantly contribute to lepton contamination produced outside of the patient or the phantom in question. Monte Carlo simulations of 18 MV X-ray beams show that the surface dose contribution from in-phantom scatter alone is approximately 6% of the maximum dose. The contribution to dose from lepton contamination is found by comparison of Monte Carlo phantom photon scatter dose only and experimental data. Results show that the percentage contributions to dose from lepton contamination are approximately, 65%, 90% of dose at 0.05 mm (basal cell layer), 52%, 79% at 1 mm depth (dermal layer) and 15%, 26% at 10 mm depth (subcutaneous tissue) for 10 cmx10 cm 2 and 40 cmx40 cm 2 fields, respectively

  12. Lepton contamination and photon scatter produced by open field 18 MV X-ray beams in the build-up region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M.J. E-mail: mbutson@guessmail.com; Cheung Tsang; Yu, P.K.N

    2002-04-01

    18 MV X-ray beams used in radiotherapy have skin sparing properties as they produce a dose build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the skin compared to dose at depth. Experimental results have shown that variations in the build-up dose significantly contribute to lepton contamination produced outside of the patient or the phantom in question. Monte Carlo simulations of 18 MV X-ray beams show that the surface dose contribution from in-phantom scatter alone is approximately 6% of the maximum dose. The contribution to dose from lepton contamination is found by comparison of Monte Carlo phantom photon scatter dose only and experimental data. Results show that the percentage contributions to dose from lepton contamination are approximately, 65%, 90% of dose at 0.05 mm (basal cell layer), 52%, 79% at 1 mm depth (dermal layer) and 15%, 26% at 10 mm depth (subcutaneous tissue) for 10 cmx10 cm{sup 2} and 40 cmx40 cm{sup 2} fields, respectively.

  13. Build up of radon, /sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po in a Karlsruhe diffusion chamber as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Jamil, K.; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Passive radon /sup 222/Rn dosimeters employing particle detectors are widely used in concentration (p Ci/l) measurement in houses, mines and other areas of activity. These dosimeters yield track density which is needed to be converted into physically meaningful parameter of radon concentration in either p Ci/l or Bq m/sup -3/. Therefore, it is required to know the separate contributions of /sup 222/Rn and its progeny. In the present study we have measured the concentration of /sup 222/Rn and its daughters (/sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po) separately in the Karlsruhe diffusion chamber radon dosimeter, with and without a filter, as a function of time by an active method using a surface barrier detector. The build up behavior of radon and its two daughters (/sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po) as a function of time was studied by plotting the area under each peak versus collection time. The differential curves and the relative concentration of radon daughters as a function of time were also studied. The concentration of radon and its daughters shows a somewhat linear build up as a function of time for the presently studied time periods. The results of this experiment are expected to be useful in converting the integrated alpha track density as measured by a particle track detector, (used in passive radon dosimetry) to radon concentration levels and for determination of equilibrium factor. (author)

  14. Effects of internal and external scatter on the build-up characteristics of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose for electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.; Wu, DS.; Wu, AD.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of internal and external scatter on surface, build-up and depth dose characteristics simulated by Monte Carlo code EGSnrc for varying field size and SSD for a 10 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with and without an accelerator model are extensively studied in this paper. In particular, sub-millimetre surface PDD was investigated. The percentage depth doses affected significantly by the external scatter show a larger build-up dose. A forward shifted Dmax depth and a sharper fall-off region compared to PDDs with only internal scatter considered. The surface dose with both internal and external scatter shows a marked decrease at 110 cm SSD, and then slight further changes with the increasing SSD since few external scattered particles from accelerator model can reach the phantom for large SSDs. The sharp PDD increase for the 5 cm x 5 cm field compared to other fields seen when only internal scatter is considered is significantly less when external scatter is also present. The effect of external scatter on surface PDD is more pronounced for large fields than small fields (5 cm x 5 cm field)

  15. Accumulation and dissipation of positive charges induced on a PMMA build-up cap of an ionisation chamber by 60Co gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y.; Takata, N.

    2013-01-01

    The signal current from an ionisation chamber with a PMMA build-up cap decreases with irradiation time due to electric fields produced by positive charges induced on the cap. In the present study, it was confirmed that the signal current decreases faster for irradiation using narrower 60 Co gamma-ray beams. This is because the number of secondary electrons that are emitted from surrounding materials and penetrate the build-up cap is smaller in a narrower gamma-ray beam, so that fewer positive charges are neutralised. The ionisation chamber was first subjected to continuous gamma-ray irradiation for 24 h, following which it was irradiated with shorter periodic gamma-ray bursts while measuring the current signal. This allowed the coefficients of positive charge accumulation and dissipation to be determined. It was found that the dissipation coefficient has a large constant value during gamma-ray irradiation and decreases asymptotically to a small value after irradiation is stopped. From the coefficients, the minimum signal current was calculated, which is the value when accumulation and dissipation balance each other under continuous irradiation. The time required for the signal current to recover following irradiation was also calculated. (authors)

  16. Development of a fibre-optic dosemeter to measure the skin dose and percentage depth dose in the build-up region of therapeutic photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. A.; Yoo, W. J.; Jang, K. W.; Moon, J.; Han, K. T.; Jeon, D.; Park, J. Y.; Cha, E. J.; Lee, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a fibre-optic dosemeter (FOD) using an organic scintillator with a diameter of 0.5 mm for photon-beam therapy dosimetry was fabricated. The fabricated dosemeter has many advantages, including water equivalence, high spatial resolution, remote sensing and real-time measurement. The scintillating light generated from an organic-dosemeter probe embedded in a solid-water stack phantom is guided to a photomultiplier tube and an electrometer via 20 m of plastic optical fibre. Using this FOD, the skin dose and the percentage depth dose in the build-up region according to the depths of a solid-water stack phantom are measured with 6- and 15-MV photon-beam energies with field sizes of 10310 and 20320 cm 2 , respectively. The results are compared with those measured using conventional dosimetry films. It is expected that the proposed FOD can be effectively used in radiotherapy dosimetry for accurate measurement of the skin dose and the depth dose distribution in the build-up region due to its high spatial resolution. (authors)

  17. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  18. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  19. Oscillatory corticospinal activity during static contraction of ankle muscles is reduced in healthy old versus young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2018-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static contract......Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static...... contraction. Fifteen young (20–26 yr) and fifteen older (65–73 yr) subjects were instructed to match a target force by performing static ankle dorsi- or plantar flexion, while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from the cortex and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from dorsi...

  20. Barriers to repeated assessment of verbal learning and memory: a comparison of international shopping list task and rey auditory verbal learning test on build-up of proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Wilson, P

    2012-11-01

    Proactive interference (PI) that remains unidentified can confound the assessment of verbal learning, particularly when its effects vary from one population to another. The International Shopping List Task (ISLT) is a new measure that provides multiple forms that can be equated for linguistic factors across cultural groups. The aim of this study was to examine the build-up of PI on two measures of verbal learning-a traditional test of list learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT) and the ISLT. The sample consisted of 61 healthy adults aged 18-40. Each test had three parallel forms, each recalled three times. Results showed that repeated administration of the ISLT did not result in significant PI effects, unlike the RAVLT. Although these PI effects, observed during short retest intervals, may not be as robust under normal clinical administrations of the tests, the results suggest that the choice of the verbal learning test should be guided by the knowledge of PI effects and the susceptibility of particular patient groups to this effect.

  1. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M

    2008-12-01

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children.

  4. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport...... group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...... was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower...

  5. MR imaging assessment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle: prevalence of segmental anomalous origins in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Variations in the lower extremity musculature have been identified, including an anomalous origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Anomalies of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LGN) have been less frequently described, especially in children. To describe the MR imaging appearance, frequency and clinical symptoms associated with anatomic variations of the LGN in children and young adults. A retrospective review of 465 knee MR imaging examinations was performed. The site of origin of the LGN was identified as either normal, lateral segmental anomalous origin (LSAO), or medial accessory anomalous origin (MAAO). The clinical indication for imaging was recorded. An anatomic variation of the LGN was identified in 16 patients (3.4%). Nine patients had LSAO, and five of these had symptoms referable to or abnormalities of the patella. Seven patients had MAAO, and three of these had chronic nontraumatic knee pain. Anatomic variations of the LGN are not rare in young patients, occurring with a frequency of 3.4% in our series. It is unknown whether these anomalies play a role in the etiology of patellofemoral pain or unexplained joint pain in children. (orig.)

  6. Build-up and surface dose measurements on phantoms using micro-MOSFET in 6 and 10 MV x-ray beams and comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Hong F.; Song, Jun S.; Chin, David W. H.; Cormack, Robert A.; Tishler, Roy B.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Court, Laurence E.; Chin, Lee M.

    2007-01-01

    This work is intended to investigate the application and accuracy of micro-MOSFET for superficial dose measurement under clinically used MV x-ray beams. Dose response of micro-MOSFET in the build-up region and on surface under MV x-ray beams were measured and compared to Monte Carlo calculations. First, percentage-depth-doses were measured with micro-MOSFET under 6 and 10 MV beams of normal incidence onto a flat solid water phantom. Micro-MOSFET data were compared with the measurements from a parallel plate ionization chamber and Monte Carlo dose calculation in the build-up region. Then, percentage-depth-doses were measured for oblique beams at 0 deg. - 80 deg. onto the flat solid water phantom with micro-MOSFET placed at depths of 2 cm, 1 cm, and 2 mm below the surface. Measurements were compared to Monte Carlo calculations under these settings. Finally, measurements were performed with micro-MOSFET embedded in the first 1 mm layer of bolus placed on a flat phantom and a curved phantom of semi-cylindrical shape. Results were compared to superficial dose calculated from Monte Carlo for a 2 mm thin layer that extends from the surface to a depth of 2 mm. Results were (1) Comparison of measurements with MC calculation in the build-up region showed that micro-MOSFET has a water-equivalence thickness (WET) of 0.87 mm for 6 MV beam and 0.99 mm for 10 MV beam from the flat side, and a WET of 0.72 mm for 6 MV beam and 0.76 mm for 10 MV beam from the epoxy side. (2) For normal beam incidences, percentage depth dose agree within 3%-5% among micro-MOSFET measurements, parallel-plate ionization chamber measurements, and MC calculations. (3) For oblique incidence on the flat phantom with micro-MOSFET placed at depths of 2 cm, 1 cm, and 2 mm, measurements were consistent with MC calculations within a typical uncertainty of 3%-5%. (4) For oblique incidence on the flat phantom and a curved-surface phantom, measurements with micro-MOSFET placed at 1.0 mm agrees with the MC

  7. Back muscle fatigue of younger and older adults with and without chronic low back pain using two protocols: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Vieira, Edgar R; Cabrera, Marcos; Altimari, Leandro R; Aguiar, Andreo F; Nowotny, Alexandre H; Carvalho, Adriana F; Oliveira, Marcio R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare back muscle fatigue of younger and older participants with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty participants without and 20 with nonspecific CLBP participated in this study. Each group contained 10 younger (50% males; mean age: 31 ± 6 yrs) and 10 older adults (50% males; age mean: 71 ± 7 yrs). Two isometric fatigue protocols were presented randomly: (1) to maintain the unsupported trunk at the horizontal position while on a 45° Roman chair for a minute, and (2) to maintain a 10% of body weight box close to the trunk in the upright position for a minute. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the back (multifidus and iliocostalis) and one hip (biceps femoris) muscles were recorded bilaterally, and the median frequency fatigue estimate from linear regression slopes of the EMG time-series was computed. There were no significant (P > 0.05) age effects, and group-by-age interaction in both isometric and functional fatigue tasks. However, the CLBP groups (both younger and old) displayed more back fatigue than people without CLBP in both fatigue protocols (P size varying of d = 0.17-0.32). This study was sensitive to discriminate that individuals with CLBP did present significantly more pronounced EMG back fatigue than people without CLBP, in both younger and older adults. These results have significant clinical implications for low back pain rehabilitation programs with regard to endurance assessment in both younger and older. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase activity induces stromal remodeling and smooth muscle de-differentiation in adult gerbil ventral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Lara S; Góes, Rejane M; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2004-06-01

    Prostatic differentiation during embryogenesis and its further homeostatic state maintenance during adult life depend on androgens. Dihydrotestosterone, which is synthesized from testosterone by 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-r), is the active molecule triggering androgen action within the prostate. In the present work, we examined the effects of 5 alpha-reductase inhibition by finasteride in the ventral prostate (VP) of the adult gerbil, employing histochemical and electron microscopy techniques to demonstrate the morphological and organizational changes of the organ. After 10 days of finasteride treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, the prostatic complex (VP and dorsolateral prostate) absolute weight was reduced to about 18%. The epithelial cells became short and cuboidal, with less secretory blebs and reduced acid phosphatase activity. The luminal sectional area diminished, suggestive of decreased secretory activity. The stromal/epithelial ratio increased, the stroma becoming thicker but less cellular. There was a striking accumulation of collagen fibrils, which was accompanied by an increase in deposits of amorphous granular material adjacent to the basal lamina and in the clefts between smooth muscle cells (SMC). Additionally, the periacinar smooth muscle became loosely packed. Some SMC were atrophic and showed a denser array of the cytoskeleton, whereas other SMC had a highly irregular outline with numerous spine-like projections. The present data indicate that 5 alpha-r inhibition causes epithelial and stromal changes by affecting intra-prostatic hormone levels. These alterations are probably the result of an imbalance of the homeostatic interaction between the epithelium and the underlying stroma.

  9. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren G; Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Roy, Brian D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Ziegenfuss, Tim

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) content resulting from resistance-exercise training (RET) and creatine supplementation (CR). Male (n=24) and female (n=18) participants with minimal resistance-exercise-training experience (=1 year) who were participating in at least 30 min of structured physical activity (i.e., walking, jogging, cycling) 3-5 x/wk volunteered for the study. Participants were randomly assigned in blocks (gender) to supplement with creatine (CR: 0.25 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 7 days; 0.06 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 49 days; n=22, 12 males, 10 female) or isocaloric placebo (PL: n=20, 12 male, 8 female) and engage in a whole-body RET program for 8 wk. Eighteen participants were classified as vegetarian (lacto-ovo or vegan; CR: 5 male, 5 female; PL: 3 male, 5 female). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and after the intervention and analyzed for IGF-I using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Stained muscle cross-sections were examined microscopically and IGF-I content quantified using image-analysis software. Results showed that RET increased intramuscular IGF-I content by 67%, with greater accumulation from CR (+78%) than PL (+54%; p=.06). There were no differences in IGF-I between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. These findings indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance-exercise training increases intramuscular IGF-I concentration in healthy men and women, independent of habitual dietary routine.

  10. AAA and PBC calculation accuracy in the surface build-up region in tangential beam treatments. Phantom and breast case study with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Barsoum, Pierre; Westermark, Mathias; Brualla, Lorenzo; Lax, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In tangential beam treatments accurate dose calculation of the absorbed dose in the build-up region is of major importance, in particular when the target has superficial extension close to the skin. In most analytical treatment planning systems (TPSs) calculations depend on the experimental measurements introduced by the user in which accuracy might be limited by the type of detector employed to perform them. To quantify the discrepancy between analytically calculated and delivered dose in the build-up region, near the skin of a patient, independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the PENELOPE code were performed. Dose distributions obtained with MC simulations were compared with those given by the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm and the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) implemented in the commercial TPS Eclipse. Material and methods: A cylindrical phantom was used to approximate the breast contour of a patient for MC simulations and the TPS. Calculations of the absorbed doses were performed for 6 and 18 MV beams for four different angles of incidence: 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 75 deg. and different field sizes: 3 x 3 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 40 x 40 cm 2 . Absorbed doses along the phantom central axis were obtained with both the PBC algorithm and the AAA and compared to those estimated by the MC simulations. Additionally, a breast patient case was calculated with two opposed 6 MV photon beams using all the aforementioned analytical and stochastic algorithms. Results: For the 6 MV photon beam in the phantom case, both the PBC algorithm and the AAA tend to underestimate the absorbed dose in the build-up region in comparison to MC results. These differences are clinically irrelevant and are included in a 1 mm range. This tendency is also confirmed in the breast patient case. For the 18 MV beam the PBC algorithm underestimates the absorbed dose with respect to the AAA. In comparison to MC simulations the PBC algorithm tends

  11. GRAB - WRS system module number 60221 for calculating gamma-ray penetration in slab shields by the method of kernel integration with build-up factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the gamma-ray flux, dose, or heating rate in a slab shield using the build-up factor method. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  12. Together, slowly but surely: the role of social interaction and feedback in the build-up of benefit in collective decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Olsen, Karsten; Bang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    That objective reference is necessary for formation of reliable beliefs about the external world is almost axiomatic. However, Condorcet (1785) suggested that purely subjective information-if shared and combined via social interaction-is enough for accurate understanding of the external world. We...... asked if social interaction and objective reference contribute differently to the formation and build-up of collective perceptual beliefs. In three experiments, dyads made individual and collective perceptual decisions in a two-interval, forced-choice, visual search task. In Experiment 1, participants...... negotiated their collective decisions with each other verbally and received feedback about accuracy at the end of each trial. In Experiment 2, feedback was not given. In Experiment 3, communication was not allowed but feedback was provided. Social interaction (Experiments 1 and 2 vs. 3) resulted...

  13. A-centres build-up kinetics in the conductive matrix of pulled n-type silicon with calculation of their recharges at defect clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgolenko, A.P.; Fishchuk, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Pulled n-Si samples with rho approximately 40 Ωcm are investigated after irradiation with different doses of fast-pile neutrons. It is known that the simple defects are created not only in the conductive matrix but also in the region of the space charge of defect clusters. Then the charge state, for example, of A-centres in the region of the space charge is defined by both, the temperature and the value of the electrostatical potential. If this circumstance is not taken into account the calculation of the conductive volume is not precise enough. In the present paper the temperature dependence of the volume fraction is calculated, in which the space charge of defect clusters occurs, taking into account the recharges of A-centres in the region of the space charge. Using the expression obtained the A-centres build-up kinetics in the conductive matrix of pulled n-type silicon is calculated. (author)

  14. A theoretical investigation on optimal structures of ethane clusters (C2H6)n with n ≤ 25 and their building-up principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Geometry optimization of ethane clusters (C(2)H(6))(n) in the range of n ≤ 25 is carried out with a Morse potential. A heuristic method based on perturbations of geometries is used to locate global minima of the clusters. The following perturbations are carried out: (1) the molecule or group with the highest energy is moved to the interior of a cluster, (2) it is moved to stable positions on the surface of a cluster, and (3) orientations of one and two molecules are randomly modified. The geometry obtained after each perturbation is optimized by a quasi-Newton method. The global minimum of the dimer is consistent with that previously reported. The putative global minima of the clusters with 3 ≤ n ≤ 25 are first proposed and their building-up principle is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improvement of antiscuff properties and thermal stability of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system used for building-up of fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhanskij, I.B.; Runov, A.E.; Gel'man, A.S.; Stepin, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the influence of the system and the degree of alloying of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on their operational characteristics in the operation mode of the energy armature of superhigh parameters. The TsN18 alloy has been developed (containing 0.1 to 0.2% C; 3.5 to 6.0% Si; 0.5 to 3.0% Mn; 16 to 17% Cr; 10.5 to 12% Ni; 1.5 to 3% Mo; the balance being Fe), bombining a high resistance to scuffing with a fairly high heat resistance; the alloy lending itself to building up and to machining. The dependence of the wear resistance of the alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on two factors has been established; namely, - the antifriction characteristics of the film of secondary structures, and physico-mechanical properties of the alloy

  16. Regional cerebral perfusion measurements: a comparative study of xenon-enhanced CT and C15O2 build-up using dynamic PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Lawrence, K.S.; Bews, J.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion can be determined by monitoring the uptake of a diffusable tracer concurrently in cerebral tissue and arterial blood. Two techniques based on this methodology are xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe CT) and C 15 O 2 build-up using dynamic positron emission tomography (C 15 O 2 PET). Serial images are used by both Xe CT and C 15 O 2 PET to characterize the uptake of the tracer in cerebral tissue. The noise present in these images will reduce the precision of the perfusion measurements obtained by either technique. Using Monte Carlo type computer simulations, the precision of the two techniques as a function of image noise has been examined. On the basis of their results, they conclude that the precision of the Xe CT technique is comparable to the precision of C 15 O 2 PET when realistic clinical protocols are employed for both. (author)

  17. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.

  18. Anabolic resistance assessed by oral stable isotope ingestion following bed rest in young and older adult volunteers: Relationships with changes in muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolo, Gianni; Pišot, Rado; Mazzucco, Sara; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Situlin, Roberta; Lazzer, Stefano; Grassi, Bruno; Reggiani, Carlo; Passaro, Angelina; Rittweger, Joern; Gasparini, Mladen; Šimunič, Boštjan; Narici, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring- 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine (D 5 Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine. We compared in older (O, 59 ± 1 y) and young (Y, 23 ± 1 y) healthy male volunteers the effects of two-week bed rest on post-prandial protein kinetics, assessed during absorption of a standard ready-to-use oral nutritional supplement, through stable-labeled isotope amino acid D 5 Phe, diluted in water, given as single oral load. The metabolic fate of D 5 Phe is either utilization for protein synthesis or irreversible hydroxylation to L[ring- 2 H 4 ]tyrosine (D 4 Tyr). AR was defined as ratio between the areas under the curves of D 4 Tyr-to-D 5 Phe plasma concentrations over 6 h meal absorption. To determine the relationships between AR and muscle changes following bed rest, quadriceps muscle volume (QMV) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, in pooled Y and O subjects, values of AR were inversely correlated with QMV (R = -0.75; p < 0.03). Following 2-weeks of inactivity, there were significant bed rest effects on AR (p < 0.01) and QMV (p < 0.03), as well as significant bed rest × group interaction for AR (p < 0.03; +9.2% in Y; +21.9% in O) and QMV (p < 0.05; -5.7% in Y; -%7.3 in O). In pooled subjects, the percentage delta changes in AR and QMV, induced by bed rest, were inversely correlated (R = -0.57; p < 0.05). Bed rest-induced AR is much greater in the older than in younger adults. We have developed a new, simple, non-invasive method for the assessment of AR. The results indicate that this metabolic

  19. Short-Term Effects of Mixed Species Fallows on Soil Organic Matter Build-Up in the Soil of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndufa, J.K; Candish, D.

    2007-01-01

    The rotations of crops with Nitrogen fixing legumes in improved fallows have become central agroforestry technology for soil fertility replenishments in smallholder farms because of high cost of inorganic fertilizers. The choice of the fallow species is important because the quality of residue incorporated into the soil determines it's distribution to soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen (N) release. High quality residues (high N content, low lignin and polyphenols) may decompose rapidly and it's unlikely to release N in synchrony with crop demand. In contrast, residues with wide C- to- N ratio, high lignin and high polyphenols may lead to long period of N immobilization and long term build up of SOM. Field experiments were conducted on farmers' fields on a Kandiudalfic eutrudox soil in Western Kenya to determine the fate of 1 5 N labelled residues in soil. Maize recovered significantly less N from single calliandra residue treatment (3 to 6%). About 70% of the residue N recovered in a mize was contained in the maize grain yield. In long rains 2000, there were no significant differences in residue-N recovery among the different single mixed residue treatment. The percentage 1 5N recovery of residues N by maize was significantly correlated with maize grain yield. At the end of short rains 1999, legume-15N recovery from 0 to 15 cm depth ranged from 30 to 80 % and was significantly higher for calliandra both in single and mixed treatment. 15N distribution in particle size fraction showed that most calliandra N was found in >20 um fraction but N from sesbania and macroptilium was mostly in the 20 um fraction. The high recovery of N of calliandra in the soil confirms the high contribution of polyphenol rich residues to soil organic matter build up

  20. Essential role of the electroneutral Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid-base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-04-15

    Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid-base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3(-) secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3(-) uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3(-)-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon.

  1. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for 60 Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.)

  2. The Influence Of Modified Water Chemistries On Metal Oxide Films, Activity Build-Up And Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Structural Materials In Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of activated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for 60 Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  3. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for {sup 60}Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.) 127 refs.

  4. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  5. Building up a reactor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattick, W.

    1977-01-01

    The reactor industry has in common with any other industry the need to meet a requirement in a specific market with a specific product. However, it is distinguished from old established industries by its origins, its young age and by the fact that most of its development costs were paid by the governments in all developed countries. A comparison of the origins and the history of companies in this field in the United Kingdom , France and the Federal Republic of Germany should merit special interest. A historical survey of this kind is presented in this contribution. If a technological project acquires international ramifications in order to diminish the market risk, national goals frequently must give way to a common objective. Problems involving practical application must be solved by joint efforts of industrial consortia. In this way, these industries can both offer a commercially viable product and take into account national characteristics or habits in such a way as to improve the overall cost-benefit situation with all parties involved. (orig.) [de

  6. Intracortical inhibition in the soleus muscle is reduced during the control of upright standing in both young and old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Baudry, Stéphane; Négyesi, János; Taube, Wolfgang; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    Purpose In a previous study, we reported that a short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) decreases in old but not in young adults when standing on foam vs. a rigid surface. Here, we examined if such an age by task difficulty interaction in motor cortical excitability also occurs in easier

  7. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  8. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  9. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  10. Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation and optimized calcium intakes on vitamin D status, muscle strength and bone health: a one-year pilot randomized controlled trial in adults with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Foidart-Desalle, Marguerite; Ledoux, Didier; Remy, Christophe; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Damas, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients are at risk of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia or sarcopenia. Vitamin D pleiotropic effects may influence bone and muscle health. The aim of this pilot study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation and an optimized calcium (Ca) regimen on vitamin D (VD) status, bone and muscle health during sequelar stage of burn injury. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adults with thermal burns dating from 2 to 5 years were randomized into two groups. For 12 months, they either received a quarterly IM injection of 200,000IU VD3 and daily oral Ca (Group D) or placebo (Group P). VD status and bone remodeling markers were assessed every 3 months. Knee muscle strength and bone mineral density were, respectively, assessed using isokinetic dynamometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry at initiation (M0) and completion (M12) of the protocol. Of all the patients, 66% presented with VD deficiency and 53% (with 3 men burn adults. When combined with optimized Ca intakes, it demonstrated positive effects on muscle health but not on bone health. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia in these patients, as well as their wide range of muscle performances, seem to be worrying when considering rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of squat lift training and free weight muscle training on maximum lifting load and isolinetic peak torque of young adults without impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, S S; Ng, G Y

    2000-06-01

    Manual lifting is a frequent cause of back injury, and there is no evidence as to which training mode can provide the best training effect for lifting performance and muscle force. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a squat lift training and a free weight muscle training program on the maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque in subjects without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments. Thirty-six adults (20 male, 16 female) without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments participated. The subjects' mean age was 21.25 years (SD=1.16, range=20-24). Subjects were divided into 3 groups. Subjects in group 1 (n=12) performed squat lift training. Subjects in group 2 (n=12) participated in free weight resistance training of their shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, knee extensors and trunk extensors. Subjects in group 3 (n=12) served as controls. The maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torques of the trunk extensors, knee extensors, elbow flexors, and shoulder abductors of each subject were measured before and after the study. Training was conducted on alternate days for 4 weeks, with an initial load of 80% of each subject's maximum capacity and with the load increased by 5% weekly. All groups were comparable for all measured variables before the study. After 4 weeks, subjects in groups 1 and 2 demonstrated more improvement in maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque of the back extensors compared with the subjects in group 3, but the 2 training groups were not different. The findings demonstrate that both squat lift and free weight resistance training are equally effective in improving the lifting load and isokinetic back extension performance of individuals without impairments.

  12. Integrated expression analysis of muscle hypertrophy identifies Asb2 as a negative regulator of muscle mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Jonathan R.; Watt, Kevin I.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Chaudhuri, Rima; Ryall, James G.; Cunningham, Louise; Qian, Hongwei; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; James, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling network is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function and, thus, is an attractive therapeutic target for combating muscle disease, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain undetermined. We report that follistatin-based interventions (which modulate TGF-β network activity) can promote muscle hypertrophy that ameliorates aging-associated muscle wasting. However, the muscles of old sarcopenic mice demonstrate reduced response to follistatin compared with healthy young-adult musculature. Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of young-adult muscles identified a transcription/translation signature elicited by follistatin exposure, which included repression of ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 2 (Asb2). Increasing expression of ASB2 reduced muscle mass, thereby demonstrating that Asb2 is a TGF-β network–responsive negative regulator of muscle mass. In contrast to young-adult muscles, sarcopenic muscles do not exhibit reduced ASB2 abundance with follistatin exposure. Moreover, preventing repression of ASB2 in young-adult muscles diminished follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy. These findings provide insight into the program of transcription and translation events governing follistatin-mediated adaptation of skeletal muscle attributes and identify Asb2 as a regulator of muscle mass implicated in the potential mechanistic dysfunction between follistatin-mediated muscle growth in young and old muscles. PMID:27182554

  13. Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy for the Treatment of Muscle and Tendon Contractures in Adults With Brain Damage: Results and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroian, Flavia; Jourdan, Claire; Froger, Jérome; Anquetil, Claire; Choquet, Olivier; Coulet, Bertand; Laffont, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    To study the results and complications of percutaneous needle tenotomy for superficial retracted tendons in patients with brain damage. Prospective observational study. University hospital. Patients with severe brain damage (N=38; mean age, 60.7y; age range, 24-93y; 21 women) requiring surgical management of contractures and eligible for percutaneous needle tenotomy were enrolled between February 2015 and February 2016. The percutaneous needle tenotomy gesture was performed by a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician trained by an orthopedic surgeon, under local or locoregional anesthesia. Treated tendons varied among patients. All patients were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months to assess surgical outcomes (joint range of motion [ROM], pain, and functional improvement) while screening for complications. Improvements in ROM (37/38) and contractures-related pain (12/12) were satisfactory. Functional results were satisfactory (Goal Attainment Scale score ≥0) for most patients (37/38): nursing (n=12), putting shoes on (n=8), getting in bed or sitting on a chair (n=6), verticalization (n=7), transfers and gait (n=8), and grip (n=2). Five patients had complications related to the surgical gesture: cast-related complications (n=2), hand hematoma (n=2), and cutaneous necrosis of the Achilles tendon in a patient with previous obliterative arteriopathy of the lower limbs (n=1). Percutaneous needle tenotomy yields good results in the management of selected superficial muscle and tendon contractures. The complications rate is very low, and this treatment can be an alternative to conventional surgery in frail patients with neurologic diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Layne E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine (Leu regulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS producing dose-dependent plasma Leu and MPS responses from free amino acid solutions. This study examined the role of Leu content from dietary proteins in regulation of MPS after complete meals. Methods Experiment 1 examined 4 protein sources (wheat, soy, egg, and whey with different Leu concentrations (6.8, 8.0, 8.8, and 10.9% (w/w, respectively on the potential to increase plasma Leu, activate translation factors, and stimulate MPS. Male rats (~250 g were trained for 14 day to eat 3 meals/day consisting of 16/54/30% of energy from protein, carbohydrates and fats. Rats were killed on d14 either before or 90 min after consuming a 4 g breakfast meal. Experiment 2 compared feeding wheat, whey, and wheat + Leu to determine if supplementing the Leu content of the wheat meal would yield similar anabolic responses as whey. Results In Experiment 1, only whey and egg groups increased post-prandial plasma Leu and stimulated MPS above food-deprived controls. Likewise, greater phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1 occurred in whey and egg groups versus wheat and soy groups. Experiment 2 demonstrated that supplementing wheat with Leu to equalize the Leu content of the meal also equalized the rates of MPS. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that Leu content is a critical factor for evaluating the quantity and quality of proteins necessary at a meal for stimulation of MPS.

  15. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n e in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N t = (2-5) x 10 13 , and the beam kinetic energy in the range E k = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta) max vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N t there is a clear threshold behavior of n e as a function of (delta) max in the range ∼ 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed (delta) max , there is a threshold behavior of n e as a function of N t provided (delta) max is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N t is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E k is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  16. A THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE BUILD-UP OF THE SUN’S POLAR MAGNETIC FIELD BY USING A 3D KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Gopal; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Miesch, Mark S., E-mail: ghazra@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: miesch@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We develop a three-dimensional kinematic self-sustaining model of the solar dynamo in which the poloidal field generation is from tilted bipolar sunspot pairs placed on the solar surface above regions of strong toroidal field by using the SpotMaker algorithm, and then the transport of this poloidal field to the tachocline is primarily caused by turbulent diffusion. We obtain a dipolar solution within a certain range of parameters. We use this model to study the build-up of the polar magnetic field and show that some insights obtained from surface flux transport models have to be revised. We present results obtained by putting a single bipolar sunspot pair in a hemisphere and two symmetrical sunspot pairs in two hemispheres. We find that the polar fields produced by them disappear due to the upward advection of poloidal flux at low latitudes, which emerges as oppositely signed radial flux and which is then advected poleward by the meridional flow. We also study the effect that a large sunspot pair, violating Hale’s polarity law, would have on the polar field. We find that there would be some effect—especially if the anti-Hale pair appears at high latitudes in the mid-phase of the cycle—though the effect is not very dramatic.

  17. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-11

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n{sub e} in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N{sub t} = (2-5) x 10{sup 13}, and the beam kinetic energy in the range E{sub k} = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N{sub t} there is a clear threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of {delta}{sub max} in the range {approx} 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed {delta}{sub max}, there is a threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of N{sub t} provided {delta}{sub max} is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N{sub t} is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E{sub k} is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  18. Electrophoretic build-up of alternately multilayered films and micropatterns based on graphene sheets and nanoparticles and their applications in flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Du, Jianjun; Cao, Xuebo; Sun, Yinghui; Zhou, Weiya; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2012-10-22

    Graphene nanosheets and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as nano-building-blocks for assembly into macroscale hybrid structures with promising performance in electrical devices. However, in most graphene and metal NP hybrid structures, the graphene sheets and metal NPs (e.g., AuNPs) do not enable control of the reaction process, orientation of building blocks, and organization at the nanoscale. Here, an electrophoretic layer-by-layer assembly for constructing multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/AuNP films and lateral micropatterns is presented. This assembly method allows easy control of the nano-architecture of building blocks along the normal direction of the film, including the number and thickness of RGO and AuNP layers, in addition to control of the lateral orientation of the resultant multilayered structures. Conductivity of multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid nano-architecture shows great improvement caused by a bridging effect of the AuNPs along the out-of-plane direction between the upper and lower RGO layers. The results clearly show the potential of electrophoretic build-up in the fabrication of graphene-based alternately multilayered films and patterns. Finally, flexible supercapacitors based on multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid films are fabricated, and excellent performance, such as high energy and power densities, are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  20. Ischemia Increases the Twitch Latent Period in the Soleus and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscles from Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Camilo; Fierro, Leonardo

    2017-10-01

    Complete ischemia and reperfusion effects on twitch force (∫(F·t)), twitch latent period (TLP), maximal rate of rise of twitch tension (δF/δt) max , and twitch maximum relaxation rate (TMRR) were assessed. We divided 36 adult rats into four groups; two control groups (n = 9), a group undergoing 1 hour of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9), and one group exposed to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9). We have induced twitch contractions every 10 minutes in the soleus and the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL). Twitch contractions were recorded and then analyzed for ∫(F·t), TLP, (δF/δt) max , and TMRR. During 1 hour and 40 minutes of ischemia, TLP increased to 179 ± 24% (p values.

  1. Calf-raise senior: a new test for assessment of plantar flexor muscle strength in older adults: protocol, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Borja, Edgar; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new field test protocol with a standardized measurement of strength and power in plantar flexor muscles targeted to functionally independent older adults, the calf-raise senior (CRS) test, and also evaluate its reliability and validity. Forty-one subjects aged 65 years and older of both sexes participated in five different cross-sectional studies: 1) pilot (n=12); 2) inter- and intrarater agreement (n=12); 3) construct (n=41); 4) criterion validity (n=33); and 5) test-retest reliability (n=41). Different motion parameters were compared in order to define a specifically designed protocol for seniors. Two raters evaluated each participant twice, and the results of the same individual were compared between raters and participants to assess the interrater and intrarater agreement. The validity and reliability studies involved three testing sessions that lasted 2 weeks, including a battery of functional fitness tests, CRS test in two occasions, accelerometry, and strength assessments in an isokinetic dynamometer. The CRS test presented an excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] =0.90, standard error of measurement =2.0) and interrater reliability (ICC =0.93-0.96), as well as a good intrarater agreement (ICC =0.79-0.84). Participants with better results in the CRS test were younger and presented higher levels of physical activity and functional fitness. A significant association between test results and all strength parameters (isometric, r =0.87, r 2 =0.75; isokinetic, r =0.86, r 2 =0.74; and rate of force development, r =0.77, r 2 =0.59) was shown. This study was successful in demonstrating that the CRS test can meet the scientific criteria of validity and reliability. The test can be a good indicator of ankle strength in older adults and proved to discriminate significantly between individuals with improved functionality and levels of physical activity.

  2. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  3. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); M. Aubertin-Leheudre (Mylene)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the

  4. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  5. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of light-exposure methods and depths of cavity on the microhardness of dual-cured core build-up resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi YOSHIDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN of dual-cured core build-up resin composites (DCBRCs at 6 depths of cavity after 3 post-irradiation times by 4 light-exposure methods. Material and Methods: Five specimens each of DCBRCs (Clearfil DC Core Plus [DCP] and Unifil Core EM [UCE] were filled in acrylic resin blocks with a semi-cylindrical cavity and light-cured using an LED light unit (power density: 1,000 mW/cm2at the top surface by irradiation for 20 seconds (20 s, 40 seconds (40 s, bonding agent plus 20 seconds (B+20 s, or 40 seconds plus light irradiation of both sides of each acrylic resin block for 40 seconds each (120 s. KHN was measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days post-irradiation. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's compromise post-hoc test with a significance level of p0.05. In DCP, and not UCE, at 24 hours and 7 days post-irradiation, the B+20 s method showed significantly higher KHN at all depths of cavity, except the depth of 0.5 mm (p<0.05. Conclusion: KHN depends on the light-exposure method, use of bonding agent, depth of cavity, post-irradiation time, and material brand. Based on the microhardness behavior, DCBRCs are preferably prepared by the effective exposure method, when used for a greater depth of cavity.

  7. IAEA Support for Building-Up a Highly Skilled Workforce Necessary for an Effective State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.; Cisar, V.; Crete, J.-M.; Stevens, R.

    2015-01-01

    The need for highly qualified and well trained experts in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation has been emphasized at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' meetings. To meet this need, the IAEA has developed a training programme dedicated to assisting Member States in building-up knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the sustainable establishment and maintenance of an effective State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. The IAEA training programme in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation is designed for experts in governmental organizations, regulatory bodies, utilities and relevant industries and is provided on a regular basis at the regional and international level and, upon request, at the national level. It is based on training needs assessed, inter alia, during relevant IAEA advisory services and is updated periodically by applying the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT). In the framework of this human resources assistance programme, the IAEA also facilitates fellowship programmes for young professionals, regularly hosts the IAEA safeguards traineeship programme and supports safeguards related outreach activities organized by donor countries, universities or other institutions. This paper provides an overview of the IAEA's efforts in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation training and education, including assistance to Member States' initiatives and nuclear education networks, focusing on the development and delivery of nuclear safeguards training and academic courses. Further, it discusses the important role of IAEA advisory missions and other mechanisms that significantly contribute to the continuous improvement of the IAEA Member States training in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Finally, it outlines the forthcoming eLearning module on Safeguards that will complement the existing training

  8. Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Le Roux

    Full Text Available Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively, the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number, and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species, though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification

  9. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  10. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  11. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5±6.7 years underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice, and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0±6.7 years received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P=0.007 in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9% differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P=0.033. For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P=0.002. Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  12. Comparisons of predictive values of sarcopenia with different muscle mass indices in Korean rural older adults: a longitudinal analysis of the Aging Study of PyeongChang Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang IY

    2018-01-01

    adjustment could predict death or institutionalization in Korean community-dwelling older adults. Keywords: cohort studies, frailty, geriatric assessment, muscle index, muscle mass, muscles, sarcopenia

  13. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  14. Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla; Pezzullo, John; Sanli, Toran; Fielding, Roger A; Bellamine, Aouatef

    2017-01-01

    Progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and function are growing concerns in an aging population. Diet and physical activity are important for muscle maintenance but these requirements are not always met. This highlights the potential for nutritional supplementation. As a primary objective, we sought to assess the effect of a novel combination of L-Carnitine, creatine and leucine on muscle mass and performance in older subjects. Forty-two healthy older adults aged 55-70 years were randomized to receive either a novel L-Carnitine (1500 mg), L-leucine (2000 mg), creatine (3000 mg), Vitamin D3 (10 μg) (L-Carnitine-combination) product ( n  = 14), L-Carnitine (1500 mg) ( n  = 14), or a placebo ( n  = 14) for eight weeks. We evaluated body mass by DXA, upper and lower strength by dynamometry, and walking distance by a 6-min walk test at baseline and after eight weeks of intervention. These measures, reflecting muscle mass, functional strength and mobility have been combined to generate a primary composite score. Quality of life, blood safety markers, and muscle biopsies for protein biomarker analysis were also conducted at baseline and the end of the study. The primary composite outcome improved by 63.5 percentage points in the L-Carnitine-combination group vs. placebo ( P  = 0.013). However, this composite score did not change significantly in the L-Carnitine group ( P =  0.232), and decreased slightly in the placebo group ( P =  0.534). Participants supplemented with the L-Carnitine-combination showed a 1.0 kg increase in total lean muscle mass ( P  = 0.013), leg lean muscle mass (0.35 kg, P =  0.005), and a 1.0 kg increase in lower leg strength ( P  = 0.029) at week 8. In addition, these increases were significant when compared to the placebo group (P =  0.034, P =  0.026, and P =  0.002, respectively). Total mTOR protein expression was increased in participants in the L-Carnitine-combination group at the end of

  15. Ionization chamber with build-up cup spectral sensitivity to megavoltage (0.5-20 MeV) photon fluences in free air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In-air measurements of photon beam properties, used in radiation therapy, is common practice for determining radiation output dependence from the field size, known as head scatter factors (HSF). PMMA and brass build-up caps are most popular miniphantoms for providing electron equilibrium. Discrepancies up to 2% in HSF measurements by different combinations of detectors and equilibrium caps have been published. One of the main reasons of those discrepancies is the detector system spectral sensitivity and differences in primary and scatter radiation spectra. In the light of new model based dose calculation methods direct radiation fluence measurement is of great interest. So, understanding of detector spectral sensitivity is important task for modern dosimetry of radiation therapy. In the present study Monte Carlo (MC) method was employed to calculate ionization chamber response to monoenergetic photon fluences, normalized to water kerma units. Simulation was done using EGS4 package. Electron transport was performed with ESTEPE equal to 4%. PEGS cross sections were generated for maximal energy 20 MeV with cutoff kinetic energy 10 KeV both for photons and electrons. Scanditronix RK-05 ionization chamber was chosen as a prototype. Eight cylindrical miniphantoms, representing four materials (PMMA, Al, Cu, Pb) and two front wall thickness, were simulated. Results are presented. Miniphantom front wall thicknesses in each case are shown in the figure. Diameter depends on the material and equal respectively: PMMA - 4, Al - 2.5, Cu - 1.5, and PB - 1.5 cm. Ionization chamber outer diameter is equal to 0.7 cm. Detector sensitivity has considerable energy dependence. Two effects explain it. First is the radiation attenuation in the miniphantom. Second is pair production, which dominates in high atomic number miniphantoms for energies above 5 MeV. Depending on the miniphantom material detector response changes from 1.5 to 5 times in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. Correct

  16. The novel protein kinase C epsilon isoform at the adult neuromuscular synapse: location, regulation by synaptic activity-dependent muscle contraction through TrkB signaling and coupling to ACh release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obis, Teresa; Besalduch, Núria; Hurtado, Erica; Nadal, Laura; Santafe, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2015-02-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates a variety of neural functions, including neurotransmitter release. Although various PKC isoforms can be expressed at the synaptic sites and specific cell distribution may contribute to their functional diversity, little is known about the isoform-specific functions of PKCs in neuromuscular synapse. The present study is designed to examine the location of the novel isoform nPKCε at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), their synaptic activity-related expression changes, its regulation by muscle contraction, and their possible involvement in acetylcholine release. We use immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that the novel isoform nPKCε is exclusively located in the motor nerve terminals of the adult rat NMJ. We also report that electrical stimulation of synaptic inputs to the skeletal muscle significantly increased the amount of nPKCε isoform as well as its phosphorylated form in the synaptic membrane, and muscle contraction is necessary for these nPKCε expression changes. The results also demonstrate that synaptic activity-induced muscle contraction promotes changes in presynaptic nPKCε through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling. Moreover, nPKCε activity results in phosphorylation of the substrate MARCKS involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling and related with neurotransmission. Finally, blocking nPKCε with a nPKCε-specific translocation inhibitor peptide (εV1-2) strongly reduces phorbol ester-induced ACh release potentiation, which further indicates that nPKCε is involved in neurotransmission. Together, these results provide a mechanistic insight into how synaptic activity-induced muscle contraction could regulate the presynaptic action of the nPKCε isoform and suggest that muscle contraction is an important regulatory step in TrkB signaling at the NMJ.

  17. A Study of Venezuela’s Internal and External Threat and the United States Security Assistance Program in the Build-Up and Modernization of Her Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    percent of the popula- tion, leaving six percent of the population to other denominations; and (3) a literacy rate of 77 percent. The national language is...has focused on the improve- ment of Venezuela’s educational system. In 1958, the adult literarcy rate was 63 percent (20:320). Today the adult literacy ...hasta Marzo 1969. Oficina Central de Informacion . Caracas, Venezuela, 1969. 28. Penniman, Howard R. Venezuela at the Polls: The National Elections of

  18. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. The effects of a protein enriched diet with lean red meat combined with a multi-modal exercise program on muscle and cognitive health and function in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Gianoudis, Jenny; Prosser, Melissa; Kidgell, Dawson; Ellis, Kathryn A; O'Connell, Stella; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-08-08

    Age-related muscle wasting has been strongly implicated with falls and fractures in the elderly, but it has also been associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Progressive resistance training (PRT) and adequate dietary protein are recognised as important contributors to the maintenance of muscle health and function in older adults. However, both factors also have the potential to improve brain function and prevent cognitive decline via several pathways, including the regulation of various growth and neurotrophic factors [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)]; brain-derived growth factor (BDNF)] and/or the modulation of systemic inflammation. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether a modest increase in dietary protein achieved through the consumption of lean red meat three days per week, when combined with PRT, can enhance muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function in community-dwelling older people. The study design is a 48-week randomised controlled trial consisting of a 24-week intervention with a 24-week follow-up. Men and women (n=152) aged 65 years and over residing in the community will be randomly allocated to: 1) PRT and provided with 220 g (raw weight) of lean red meat to be cooked and divided into two 80 g servings on each of the three days that they complete their exercise session, or 2) control PRT in which participants will be provided with and advised to consume ≥1 serving (~1/2 cup) of rice and/or pasta or 1 medium potato on each of the three training days. The primary outcome measures will be muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes will include changes in: muscle function, neural health (corticospinal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation), serum IGF-1 and BDNF, adipokines and inflammatory markers, fat mass and inter-/intra-muscular fat, blood pressure, lipids and health-related quality of life. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, with the

  20. A low-fat yoghurt supplemented with a rooster comb extract on muscle joint function in adults with mild knee pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Martorell, Isabel; Giralt, Montserrat; Pedret, Anna; Taltavull, Núria; Romeu, Marta; Rodríguez, Àurea; Moriña, David; Lopez de Frutos, Victor; Montero, Manuel; Casajuana, Maria-Carmen; Pérez, Laura; Faba, Jenny; Bernal, Gloria; Astilleros, Anna; González, Roser; Puiggrós, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Chetrit, Carlos; Martinez-Puig, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Preliminary results suggested that oral-administration of rooster comb extract (RCE) rich in hyaluronic acid (HA) was associated with improved muscle strength. Following these promising results, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE rich in HA on muscle function in adults with mild knee pain; a symptom of early osteoarthritis. Participants (n = 40) received low-fat yoghurt (125 mL d(-1)) supplemented with 80 mg d(-1) of RCE and the placebo group (n = 40) consumed the same yoghurt without the RCE, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial over 12 weeks. Using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 4), RCE consumption, compared to control, increased the affected knee peak torque, total work and mean power at 180° s(-1), at least 11% in men (p < 0.05) with no differences in women. No dietary differences were noted. These results suggest that long-term consumption of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE could be a dietary tool to improve muscle strength in men, associated with possible clinical significance. However, further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex difference responses observed, and may provide further insight into muscle function.

  1. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  2. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  3. β-actin shows limited mobility and is only required for supraphysiological insulin-stimulated glucose transport in young adult soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Knudsen, Jonas Roland; Henriquez-Olguin, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Studies in skeletal muscle cell cultures suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is a major requirement for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, implicating the β-actin isoform which, in many cell types, is the main actin isoform. However, it is not clear that β-actin plays such a role...... in mature mouse muscle under the majority of the tested conditions. Thus, our work reveals fundamental differences in the role of the cortical β-actin cytoskeleton in mature muscle compared to cell culture....

  4. The influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the postural activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, C; Sheikholeslam, A

    1982-09-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of postural activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results indicate that, in man, there is postural activity in the anterior temporal and sometimes in the masseter muscles. The pattern of postural activity is influenced by the occurrence of an experimental occlusal interference, sometimes as early as 1 h after the insertion. After 48 h there was a significant increase of the activity in the anterior temporal muscles. This increased activity persisted until the interference was removed 1 week later and had almost disappeared 1 week after the removal.

  5. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  6. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  7. The In Vitro Effect of Ivermectin on the Activity of Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Enzymes and Their mRNA Expression in the Muscle of Adult Female Ascaris suum (Nematoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Zaobidna, Ewa Anna

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and phosphatase (TPP) and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes) in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a littl...

  8. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  9. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A in Muscle and Adipose Tissue From Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Hjort, Line; Houshmand-Øregaard, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    ) and of women from the background population (O-BP) using a clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle and SAT. Plasma glucose was significantly higher for both O-GDM and O-T1D compared with O-BP (P expression...... in muscle was lower in O-GDM compared with O-BP (P = 0.0003), whereas no differences were found between O-T1D and O-BP in either tissue. PPARGC1A DNA methylation percentages in muscle and SAT were similar among all groups. Decreased PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle has previously been associated...... with abnormal insulin function and may thus contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disease in O-GDM. The unaltered PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle of O-T1D suggests that factors other than intrauterine hyperglycemia may contribute to the decreased PPARGC1A expression in O-GDM....

  10. Mail-Based Intervention for Sarcopenia Prevention Increased Anabolic Hormone and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults: The INE (Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise (INE) study was to investigate the effects of a mail-based intervention for sarcopenia prevention on muscle mass and anabolic hormones in community-dwelling older adults. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. This trial recruited community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older in Japan. The 227 participants were cluster randomized into a walking and nutrition (W/N) group (n = 79), a walking (W) group (n = 71), and a control (C) group (n = 77). We analyzed the physical and biochemical measurements in this substudy. Six months of mail-based intervention (a pedometer-based walking program and nutritional supplementation). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) using the bioelectrical impedance data acquisition system, biochemical measurements, such as those of insulinlike growth factor (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), as well as frailty, were assessed by the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Participants in the W/N and W groups had significantly greater improvements in SMI, IGF-1, and 25(OH)D (P < .05) than those in the C group. Participants in the W/N group had significantly greater improvements in DHEA-S (P < .05) than in the other groups. These effects were more pronounced in frail, older adults. These results suggest that the mail-based walking intervention of the remote monitoring type for sarcopenia prevention can increase anabolic hormone levels and SMI in community-dwelling older adults, particularly in those who are frail. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert W; Murphy, Kevin T; McKellar, Sean R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Henselmans, Menno; Helms, Eric; Aragon, Alan A; Devries, Michaela C; Banfield, Laura; Krieger, James W

    2018-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if dietary protein supplementation augments resistance exercise training (RET)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength. Data sources A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and SportDiscus. Eligibility criteria Only randomised controlled trials with RET ≥6 weeks in duration and dietary protein supplementation. Design Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions with four a priori determined covariates. Two-phase break point analysis was used to determine the relationship between total protein intake and changes in fat-free mass (FFM). Results Data from 49 studies with 1863 participants showed that dietary protein supplementation significantly (all pFFM (0.30 kg (0.09, 0.52)) and muscle size—muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA; 310 µm2 (51, 570)) and mid-femur CSA (7.2 mm2 (0.20, 14.30)) during periods of prolonged RET. The impact of protein supplementation on gains in FFM was reduced with increasing age (−0.01 kg (−0.02,–0.00), p=0.002) and was more effective in resistance-trained individuals (0.75 kg (0.09, 1.40), p=0.03). Protein supplementation beyond total protein intakes of 1.62 g/kg/day resulted in no further RET-induced gains in FFM. Summary/conclusion Dietary protein supplementation significantly enhanced changes in muscle strength and size during prolonged RET in healthy adults. Increasing age reduces and training experience increases the efficacy of protein supplementation during RET. With protein supplementation, protein intakes at amounts greater than ~1.6 g/kg/day do not further contribute RET-induced gains in FFM. PMID:28698222

  13. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Expression in Normal and Diseased Human Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronzi Scott, M.; Sylvester, J. E.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Shi, Y.-J.; Fieles, W.; Stedman, H.; Burghes, A.; Ray, P.; Worton, R.; Fischbeck, K. H.

    1988-03-01

    A probe for the 5' end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene was used to study expression of the gene in normal human muscle, myogenic cell cultures, and muscle from patients with DMD. Expression was found in RNA from normal fetal muscle, adult cardiac and skeletal muscle, and cultured muscle after myoblast fusion. In DMD muscle, expression of this portion of the gene was also revealed by in situ RNA hybridization, particularly in regenerating muscle fibers.

  14. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  15. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  16. The effectiveness of combining inspiratory muscle training with manual therapy and a therapeutic exercise program on maximum inspiratory pressure in adults with asthma: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Candelas-Fernández, Pablo; de-Diego-Cano, Beatriz; Mínguez-Calzada, Orcález; Del Corral, Tamara

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise protocol to inspiratory muscle training was more effective in improving maximum inspiratory pressure than inspiratory muscle training in isolation. This is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. In total, 43 patients with asthma were included in this study. The patients were allocated into one of the two groups: (1) inspiratory muscle training ( n = 21; 20-minute session) or (2) inspiratory muscle training (20-minute session) combined with a program of manual therapy (15-minute session) and therapeutic exercise (15-minute session; n = 22). All participants received 12 sessions, two days/week, for six weeks and performed the domiciliary exercises protocol. The main measures such as maximum inspiratory pressure, spirometric measures, forward head posture, and thoracic kyphosis were recorded at baseline and after the treatment. For the per-protocol analysis, between-group differences at post-intervention were observed in maximum inspiratory pressure (19.77 cmH 2 O (11.49-28.04), P < .05; F = 22.436; P < .001; η 2 p  = 0.371) and forward head posture (-1.25 cm (-2.32 to -0.19), P < .05; F = 5.662; P = .022; η 2 p  = 0.13). The intention-to-treat analysis showed the same pattern of findings. The inspiratory muscle training combined with a manual therapy and therapeutic exercise program is more effective than its application in isolation for producing short-term maximum inspiratory pressure and forward head posture improvements in patients with asthma.

  17. Measurement of muscle thickness of the serratus anterior and lower trapezius using ultrasound imaging in competitive recreational adult swimmers, with and without current shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Leanda J; de Ronde, Mandy; Le, Minyang; Burke, William; Graves, Anna; Williams, Sian A

    2018-02-01

    To compare serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle thickness between swimmers with and without current shoulder pain, and between sides when measured by real-time ultrasound imaging. A single blinded age and gender-matched case-control study with 26 symptomatic and 26 asymptomatic recreational swimmers. Muscle thickness of serratus anterior and lower trapezius were measured using previously validated real-time ultrasound imaging protocols. Serratus anterior thickness was measured in side lying with 90° of glenohumeral flexion at rest and during a scapular protraction contraction. Lower trapezius thickness was measured in prone with 145° of glenohumeral abduction whilst at rest and when holding the weight of the arm. There was no statistically significant difference between the muscle thickness of serratus anterior and lower trapezius between the symptomatic shoulder and the dominance-matched shoulder in the asymptomatic group of swimmers. There was also no significant difference in muscle thickness between the symptomatic side and asymptomatic side within the symptomatic group. There appears to be no difference in serratus anterior and lower trapezius thickness between swimmers who have mild to moderate shoulder pain, who continue to swim and those who do not have shoulder pain. When imaging the serratus anterior and lower trapezius in swimmers with mild shoulder pain, clinicians should expect no differences between sides. If muscle thickness differences between sides are detected in recreational swimmers, this may indicate that the swimmer is participating in other asymmetrical activities or has a higher level of shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2000-01-01

    , but its expression is markedly reduced around birth and is further reduced to undetectable levels within the first year of life; 2) GLUT-3 protein expression appears at 18 wk of gestation and disappears after birth; and 3) GLUT-4 protein is diffusely expressed in muscle cells throughout gestation, whereas...... after birth, the characteristic subcellular localization is as seen in adult muscle fibers. Our results show that GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 seem to be of importance during muscle fiber growth and development. GLUT-5 protein was undetectable in fetal and adult skeletal muscle fibers. In adult muscle...... amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation...

  19. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Review on transactinium isotope build-up and decay in reactor fuel and related sensitivities to cross section changes and results and main conclusions of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data, held at Karlsruhe, November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Lalovic, M.

    1976-04-01

    In this report a review is given on the actinium isotope build-up and decay in LWRs, LMFBRs and HTRs. The dependence of the corresponding physical aspects on reactor type, fuel cycle strategy, calculational methods and cross section uncertainties is discussed. Results from postirradiation analyses and from integral experiments in fast zero power assemblies are compared with theoretical predictions. Some sensitivity studies about the influence of actinium nuclear data uncertainties on the isotopic concentration, decay heat, and the radiation out-put in fuel and waste are presented. In a second part, the main results of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data are summarized and discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos Effects of different rest intervals on isokinetic muscle performance among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ernesto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de contração isocinética no desempenho muscular em idosos. MÉTODOS: Vinte idosos voluntários (66,9±3,9 anos, 76,1±13,4kg, 169±5,2cm foram submetidos a três sessões de exercício resistido isocinético unilateral da musculatura extensora do joelho com diferentes IR (1 minuto, 2 minutos, e 3 minutos na velocidade de 60°•s-1. Cada sessão consistia em três séries de 10 repetições durante as quais foram avaliados o pico de torque (PT, trabalho total (TT e índice de fadiga (IF. ANOVA fatorial para medidas repetidas, com a análise de Post hoc por Bonferroni, foi utilizada para identificar possíveis diferenças entre os IR. O nível de significância estatístico utilizado foi de p0,05. Apesar de ter sido observado menor desempenho muscular na 3ª série em todos os IR, maiores quedas no PT, TT e IF foram observadas quando adotado o IR de 1minuto (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults. METHODS: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor