WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult mouse white

  1. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  2. [Histopathology of strobilocercosis found in the livers of white mouse.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Miman, Ozlem; Gül, Mehmet; Daldal, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    The adult form of Taenia taeniaeformis is found in the intestine of the cat and cheetah. The larva form is called Strobilocercus fasciolaris and is found in rodents such as mice and rats. Our objective was to draw attention to that rare zoonosis, since it has already been reported in the literature as strobilocercosis in humans. During an experimental animal study conducted at Inonu University, some unexpected cystic formations were found in the livers of nine 6-8-month-old healthy white mice, which affected the conducted study negatively. These cystic formations were examined histopathologically. Prepared sections were stained with haemotoxylin eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome stains, and examined by light microscopy. Strobilocercus fasciolaris larvae that curled towards cyst cavity and their hooks were seen. Plasma cells, macrophage, focus of eosinophilic infiltration and fibroblastic connective tissue were simultaneous found. In this paper, histopathological changes in intermediate hosts caused by Strobilocercus fasciolaris and other cestod larvae have been discussed.

  3. Struggles of Hope: How White Adult Educators Challenge Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglitz, Elaine; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how White antiracist adult educators challenge racism. Seven participants from 5 different antiracist educational organizations were included. Data were collected over a 5-month period using interviews, documents, and participant observations and were analyzed using the constant comparative method.…

  4. Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L Bordiuk

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ, and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

  5. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  6. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years.Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait.

  7. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany R; Wright, David K; Gradie, Paul E; Johnston, Leigh A; Pask, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures.

  8. Prolactin stimulates precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Walker

    Full Text Available In the search for ways to combat degenerative neurological disorders, neurogenesis-stimulating factors are proving to be a promising area of research. In this study, we show that the hormonal factor prolactin (PRL can activate a pool of latent precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus. Using an in vitro neurosphere assay, we found that the addition of exogenous PRL to primary adult hippocampal cells resulted in an approximate 50% increase in neurosphere number. In addition, direct infusion of PRL into the adult dentate gyrus also resulted in a significant increase in neurosphere number. Together these data indicate that exogenous PRL can increase hippocampal precursor numbers both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, PRL null mice showed a significant reduction (approximately 80% in the number of hippocampal-derived neurospheres. Interestingly, no deficit in precursor proliferation was observed in vivo, indicating that in this situation other niche factors can compensate for a loss in PRL. The PRL loss resulted in learning and memory deficits in the PRL null mice, as indicated by significant deficits in the standard behavioral tests requiring input from the hippocampus. This behavioral deficit was rescued by direct infusion of recombinant PRL into the hippocampus, indicating that a lack of PRL in the adult mouse hippocampus can be correlated with impaired learning and memory.

  9. Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Logan, Travis; Simon, Julie A; Chmura, Gail L; Millien, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease.

  10. Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Roy-Dufresne

    Full Text Available The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050 distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease.

  11. In Vitro Spermatogenesis in Explanted Adult Mouse Testis Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kojima, Kazuaki; Komeya, Mitsuru; Yao, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Research on in vitro spermatogenesis is important for elucidating the spermatogenic mechanism. We previously developed an organ culture method which can support spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells up to sperm formation using immature mouse testis tissues. In this study, we examined whether it is also applicable to mature testis tissues of adult mice. We used two lines of transgenic mice, Acrosin-GFP and Gsg2-GFP, which carry the marker GFP gene specific for meiotic and haploid cells, respectively. Testis tissue fragments of adult GFP mice, aged from 4 to 29 weeks old, which express GFP at full extension, were cultured in medium supplemented with 10% KSR or AlbuMAX. GFP expression decreased rapidly and became the lowest at 7 to 14 days of culture, but then slightly increased during the following culture period. This increase reflected de novo spermatogenesis, confirmed by BrdU labeling in spermatocytes and spermatids. We also used vitamin A-deficient mice, whose testes contain only spermatogonia. The testes of those mice at 13-21 weeks old, showing no GFP expression at explantation, gained GFP expression during culturing, and spermatogenesis was confirmed histologically. In addition, the adult testis tissues of Sl/Sld mutant mice, which lack spermatogenesis due to Kit ligand mutation, were cultured with recombinant Kit ligand to induce spermatogenesis up to haploid formation. Although the efficiency of spermatogenesis was lower than that of pup, present results showed that the organ culture method is effective for the culturing of mature adult mouse testis tissue, demonstrated by the induction of spermatogenesis from spermatogonia to haploid cells.

  12. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53 gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21 did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation.

  13. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Carol F., E-mail: carol-webb@omrf.org [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ratliff, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle-ratliff@omrf.org [Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Powell, Rebecca, E-mail: rebeccapowell@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R., E-mail: celeste-wirsig@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Lakiza, Olga, E-mail: olga-lakiza@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Obara, Tomoko, E-mail: tomoko-obara@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  14. Phylogeographic Structure of the White-Footed Mouse and the Deer Mouse, Two Lyme Disease Reservoir Hosts in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Fiset

    Full Text Available Modification of a species range is one of many consequences of climate change and is driving the emergence of Lyme disease in eastern Canada. The primary reservoir host of the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus, whose range is rapidly shifting north into southern Québec. The deer mouse, P. maniculatus, is occurring over most Québec province and is a less competent host for B. burgdorferi. Here, we compared the phylogeographic structure of both Peromyscus species in Québec. Using a combination of multiple mitochondrial DNA markers and phylogeographic methods, we detected an ongoing and rapid expansion of P. leucopus, while P. maniculatus appears more stable. Haplotype and populations networks indicated that populations of P. maniculatus exhibit more genetic structure than P. leucopus across the study area. Furthermore, significant and consistent genetic divergences between populations of the two species on both sides of the St. Lawrence River suggest that distinct lineages of P. leucopus and P. maniculatus with different ancestral origins colonized Southern Québec following the Last Glacial Maximum. The phylogeographic structure of pathogens is expected to mirror the structure observed in their reservoir hosts. As different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi may be associated with different levels of pathogenicity and immune responses of their hosts, our results are helpful at better understanding the pattern of spread of Lyme disease in a zone of emergence, and associated risk for human populations.

  15. Doublecortin in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Jenna J.; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions. There is growing evidence that OPCs are also involved in activity-driven de novo myelination of previously unmyelinated axons and myelin remodeling in adulthood. Considering these roles in the adult brain, OPCs are likely mobile cells that can migrate on some distances before they differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. A number of studies have noted that OPCs express doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in neural precursor cells and in migrating immature neurons. Here we describe the distribution of DCX in OPCs. We found that almost all OPCs express DCX, but the level of expression appears to be much lower than what is found in neural precursor. We found that DCX is downregulated when OPCs start expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers and is absent in myelinating oligodendrocytes. DCX does not appear to signal an immature neuronal phenotype in OPCs in the adult mouse brain. Rather, it could be involved either in cell migration, or as a marker of an immature oligodendroglial cell phenotype.

  16. Lessons from a Mouse Model Characterizing Features of Vascular Cognitive Impairment with White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ihara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demographic shift in age in advanced countries inexorably set to progress in the 21st century, dementia will become one of the most important health problems worldwide. Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease and is frequently responsible for the cognitive decline of the elderly. It is characterized by cerebrovascular white matter changes; thus, in order to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in white matter changes, a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been developed, which involves the narrowing of the bilateral common carotid arteries with newly designed microcoils. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the achievements made with the model that shows good reproducibility of the white matter changes characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, glial activation, oxidative stress, and oligodendrocyte loss following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Detailed characterization of this model may help to decipher the substrates associated with impaired memory and move toward a more integrated therapy of vascular cognitive impairment.

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Severity Affects Neurogenesis in Adult Mouse Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Gao, Xiang; Michalski, Stephanie; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-04-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proven to enhance neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, various groups have reported contradictory results on whether TBI increases neurogenesis, partially due to a wide range in the severities of injuries seen with different TBI models. To address whether the severity of TBI affects neurogenesis in the injured brain, we assessed neurogenesis in mouse brains receiving different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) with the same injury device. The mice were subjected to mild, moderate, or severe TBI by a CCI device. The effects of TBI severity on neurogenesis were evaluated at three stages: NSC proliferation, immature neurons, and newly-generated mature neurons. The results showed that mild TBI did not affect neurogenesis at any of the three stages. Moderate TBI promoted NSC proliferation without increasing neurogenesis. Severe TBI increased neurogenesis at all three stages. Our data suggest that the severity of injury affects adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and thus it may partially explain the inconsistent results of different groups regarding neurogenesis following TBI. Further understanding the mechanism of TBI-induced neurogenesis may provide a potential approach for using endogenous NSCs to protect against neuronal loss after trauma.

  18. Chandelier and interfascicular neurons in the adult mouse piriform cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Larriva-Sahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of two neuron types native to the adult mouse piriform cortex (PC is described. The first cell, termed an interfascicular neuron (IFN, lies between the axon fascicles of layer I. The IFN axon divides dichotomously and daughter fibrils run horizontally in the domain of layer Ia. The frequent apposition of the IFN axon to distal denrites of the underlying pyramidal cells suggests an en passage synaptic interaction with them. A second neuron observed in layer II, or less frequently in layer III, matched in most respects the structure of the chandelier cell described elsewhere in the neo- and archi-cortex. In the PC, chandelier cells (PC-CC display the following peculiarities. First, the PC-CC axonal field distributes in the neuropil of layers II and III and candlesticks are in close apposition to the initial axonal segment of the pyramidal cell, although somatic interactions cannot be rule out. Second, the PC-CC ascending dendrites pierce layer I, receiving short collaterals and boutons en passage from the olfactory axons therein. The possible role of IFN´s and PC-CC and their interactions with the adjacent cells is discussed in the broad context of the cellular organization of the PC.

  19. Anomalous White Matter Morphology in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Matthew; Ingham, Rojer J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Developmental stuttering is now generally considered to arise from genetic determinants interacting with neurologic function. Changes within speech-motor white matter (WM) connections may also be implicated. These connections can now be studied in great detail by high-angular-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore,…

  20. Pluripotent stem cells derived from mouse and human white mature adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumabay, Medet; Abdmaulen, Raushan; Ly, Albert; Cubberly, Mark R; Shahmirian, Laurine J; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Dumesic, Daniel A; Yao, Yucheng; Boström, Kristina I

    2014-02-01

    White mature adipocytes give rise to so-called dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that spontaneously undergo multilineage differentiation. In this study, we defined stem cell characteristics of DFAT cells as they are generated from adipocytes and the relationship between these characteristics and lineage differentiation. Both mouse and human DFAT cells, prepared from adipose tissue and lipoaspirate, respectively, showed evidence of pluripotency, with a maximum 5-7 days after adipocyte isolation. The DFAT cells spontaneously formed clusters in culture, which transiently expressed multiple stem cell markers, including stage-specific embryonic antigens, and Sca-1 (mouse) and CD105 (human), as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and immunostaining. As the stem cell markers decreased, markers characteristic of the three germ layers and specific lineage differentiation, such as α-fetoprotein (endoderm, hepatic), Neurofilament-66 (ectoderm, neurogenic), and Troponin I (mesoderm, cardiomyogenic), increased. However, no teratoma formation was detected after injection in immunodeficient mice. A novel modification of the adipocyte isolation aimed at ensuring the initial purity of the adipocytes and avoiding ceiling culture allowed isolation of DFAT cells with pluripotent characteristics. Thus, the adipocyte-derived DFAT cells represent a plastic stem cell population that is highly responsive to changes in culture conditions and may benefit cell-based therapies.

  1. White matter injuries induced by MK-801 in a mouse model of schizophrenia based on NMDA antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yun; Kong, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Xuan; Chao, Feng-Lei; Peng, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Wang, San-Rong; Tang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) is complex and largely unknown. Neuroimaging and postmortem studies have suggested white matter disturbances in SZ. In the present study, we tested the white matter deficits hypothesis of SZ using a mouse model of SZ induced by NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We found that mice with repeated chronic MK-801 administration showed increased locomotor activity in the open field test, less exploration of a novel environment in the hole-board test, and increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze but no impairments were observed in coordination or motor function on accelerating rota-rod. The total white matter volume and corpus callosum volume in mice treated with MK-801 were significantly decreased compared to control mice treated with saline. Myelin basic protein and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase were also significantly decreased in the mouse model of SZ. Furthermore, we observed degenerative changes of myelin sheaths in the mouse model of SZ. These results provide further evidence of white matter deficits in SZ and indicate that the animal model of SZ induced by MK-801 is a useful model to investigate mechanisms underlying white matter abnormalities in SZ.

  2. White matter fractional anisotropy predicts balance performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Doumas, Mihail; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-09-01

    Aging is characterized by brain structural changes that may compromise motor functions. In the context of postural control, white matter integrity is crucial for the efficient transfer of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular feedback in the brain. To determine the role of age-related white matter decline as a function of the sensory feedback necessary to correct posture, we acquired diffusion weighted images in young and old subjects. A force platform was used to measure changes in body posture under conditions of compromised proprioceptive and/or visual feedback. In the young group, no significant brain structure-balance relations were found. In the elderly however, the integrity of a cluster in the frontal forceps explained 21% of the variance in postural control when proprioceptive information was compromised. Additionally, when only the vestibular system supplied reliable information, the occipital forceps was the best predictor of balance performance (42%). Age-related white matter decline may thus be predictive of balance performance in the elderly when sensory systems start to degrade.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue in a mouse model for 15q duplication syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is not only associated with unhealthy lifestyles, but also linked to genetic predisposition. Previously, we generated an autism mouse model (patDp/+ that carries a 6.3 Mb paternal duplication homologous to the human 15q11–q13 locus. Chromosomal abnormalities in this region are known to cause autism spectrum disorder, Prader–Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome in humans. We found that, in addition to autistic-like behaviors, patDp/+ mice display late-onset obesity and hypersensitivity to a high-fat diet. These phenotypes are likely to be the results of genetic perturbations since the energy expenditures and food intakes of patDp/+ mice do not significantly differ from those of wild-type mice. Intriguingly, we found that an enlargement of adipose cells precedes the onset of obesity in patDp/+ mice. To understand the underlying molecular networks responsible for this pre-obese phenotype, we performed transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue from patDp/+ and wild-type mice using microarray. We identified 230 genes as differentially expressed genes. Sfrp5 — a gene whose expression is positively correlated with adipocyte size, was found to be up-regulated, and Fndc5, a potent inducer of brown adipogenesis was identified to be the top down-regulated gene. Subsequent pathway analysis highlighted a set of 35 molecules involved in energy production, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry as the top candidate biological network responsible for the pre-obese phenotype of patDp/+. The microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE58191. Ultimately, our dataset provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of obesity and demonstrated that patDp/+ is a valuable mouse model for obesity research.

  4. White Matter Loss in a Mouse Model of Periventricular Leukomalacia Is Rescued by Trophic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gressens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most frequent cause of cerebral palsy and other intellectual disabilities, and currently there is no treatment. In PVL, glutamate excitotoxicity (GME leads to abnormal oligodendrocytes (OLs, myelin deficiency, and ventriculomegaly. We have previously identified that the combination of transferrin and insulin growth factors (TSC1 promotes endogenous OL regeneration and remyelination in the postnatal and adult rodent brain. Here, we produced a periventricular white matter lesion with a single intracerebral injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA. Comparing lesions produced by NMDA alone and those produced by NMDA + TSC1 we found that: NMDA affected survival and reduced migration of OL progenitors (OLPs. In contrast, mice injected with NMDA + TSC1 proliferated twice as much indicating that TSC1 supported regeneration of the OLP population after the insult. Olig2-mRNA expression showed 52% OLP survival in mice receiving a NMDA injection and increased to 78% when TSC1 + NMDA were injected simultaneously and ventricular size was reduced by TSC1. Furthermore, in striatal slices TSC1 reduced the inward currents induced by NMDA in medium-sized spiny neurons, demonstrating neuroprotection. Thus, white matter loss after excitotoxicity can be partially rescued as TSC1 conferred neuroprotection to preexisting OLP and regeneration via OLP proliferation. Furthermore, we showed that early TSC1 administration maximizes neuroprotection.

  5. Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008-2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

  6. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-20

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18-27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy.

  7. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  8. Lifelong Bilingualism Maintains White Matter Integrity in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers have higher levels of cognitive control than comparable monolinguals, especially at older ages. The present study investigates a possible neural correlate of this behavioral effect. Given that white matter (WM) integrity decreases with age in adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism is associated with maintenance of WM in older people. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we found higher WM integrity in older people who were lifelong bilinguals than in monolinguals. This maintained integrity was measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and was found in the corpus callosum extending to the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. We also hypothesized that stronger WM connections would be associated with more widely distributed patterns of functional connectivity in bilinguals. We tested this by assessing the resting-state functional connectivity of frontal lobe regions adjacent to WM areas with group differences in FA. Bilinguals showed stronger anterior to posterior functional connectivity compared to monolinguals. These results are the first evidence that maintained WM integrity is related to lifelong naturally occurring experience; the resulting enhanced structural and functional connectivity may provide a neural basis for “brain reserve.” PMID:22090506

  9. Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-11-16

    Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers have higher levels of cognitive control than comparable monolinguals, especially at older ages. The present study investigates a possible neural correlate of this behavioral effect. Given that white matter (WM) integrity decreases with age in adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism is associated with maintenance of WM in older people. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we found higher WM integrity in older people who were lifelong bilinguals than in monolinguals. This maintained integrity was measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and was found in the corpus callosum extending to the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. We also hypothesized that stronger WM connections would be associated with more widely distributed patterns of functional connectivity in bilinguals. We tested this by assessing the resting-state functional connectivity of frontal lobe regions adjacent to WM areas with group differences in FA. Bilinguals showed stronger anterior to posterior functional connectivity compared to monolinguals. These results are the first evidence that maintained WM integrity is related to lifelong naturally occurring experience; the resulting enhanced structural and functional connectivity may provide a neural basis for "brain reserve."

  10. Endothelial differentiation in multipotent cells derived from mouse and human white mature adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumabay, Medet; Abdmaulen, Raushan; Urs, Sumithra; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Yao, Yucheng; Boström, Kristina I

    2012-12-01

    White mature adipocytes give rise to multipotent cells, so-called de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells, when losing their fat in culture. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of DFAT cells to give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and vivo. We demonstrate that mouse and human DFAT cells, derived from adipose tissue and lipospirate, respectively, initially lack expression of CD34, CD31, CD146, CD45 and pericyte markers, distinguishing them from progenitor cells previously identified in adipose stroma. The DFAT cells spontaneously differentiate into vascular ECs in vitro, as determined by real-time PCR, fluorescence activated cell sorting, immunostaining, and formation of tube structures. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP9, important in regulating angiogenesis, significantly enhances the EC differentiation. Furthermore, adipocyte-derived cells from Green Fluorescent Protein-transgenic mice were detected in the vasculature of infarcted myocardium up to 6 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mice. We conclude that adipocyte-derived multipotent cells are able to spontaneously give rise to ECs, a process that is promoted by BMPs and may be important in cardiovascular regeneration and in physiological and pathological changes in fat and other tissues.

  11. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  12. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Domingue

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303. Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI, waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. RESULTS: White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. CONCLUSION: Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  13. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui, E-mail: fuyh@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1{sup +} or nestin{sup +} stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU{sup +} cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU{sup +} cells, very few are mash1{sup +} or nestin{sup +} stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1{sup +} microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition.

  14. Phytoestrogens are partial estrogen agonists in the adult male mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, S; Santti, R; Salo, L; McLachlan, J A

    1995-01-01

    The intake, as well as serum and urinary concentrations, of phytoestrogens is high in countries where incidence of prostate cancer is low, suggesting a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens. Their significance could be explained by the ability to antagonize the action of more potent endogenous estrogens in initiation or promotion of tumor formation. We have studied estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity of dietary soy and two phytoestrogens, coumestrol and daidzein, in our neoDES mouse model f...

  15. Molecular properties of adult mouse gastric and intestinal epithelial progenitors in their niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannakis, Marios; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Mills, Jason C;

    2006-01-01

    We have sequenced 36,641 expressed sequence tags from laser capture microdissected adult mouse gastric and small intestinal epithelial progenitors, obtaining 4031 and 3324 unique transcripts, respectively. Using Gene Ontology (GO) terms, each data set was compared with cDNA libraries from intact...

  16. Doublecortin-like knockdown in the adult mouse brain : implications for neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    The results in this thesis showed for the first time doublecortin-like (DCL)-specific expression in the adult mouse brain. Besides the expected regions with the capacity to generate new neurons (hippocampus and olfactory forebrain), DCL expression was found in three novel brain areas namely hypothal

  17. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  18. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollowell William W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.

  19. A Comprehensive Transcriptomic Analysis of Infant and Adult Mouse Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD. We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development.

  20. Ascl3 marks adult progenitor cells of the mouse salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel-Stahl, Anastasia; Elliott, Marilyn E; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2012-05-01

    The Ascl3 transcription factor marks a subset of salivary gland duct cells present in the three major salivary glands of the mouse. In vivo, these cells generate both duct and secretory acinar cell descendants. Here, we have analyzed whether Ascl3-expressing cells retain this multipotent lineage potential in adult glands. Cells isolated from mouse salivary glands were cultured in vitro as non-adherent spheres. Lineage tracing of the Ascl3-expressing cells within the spheres demonstrates that Ascl3+ cells isolated from adult glands remain multipotent, generating both duct and acinar cell types in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the progenitor cells characterized by Keratin 5 expression are an independent population from Ascl3+ progenitor cells. We conclude that the Ascl3+ cells are intermediate lineage-restricted progenitor cells of the adult salivary glands.

  1. Declines in inflammation predict greater white matter microstructure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, Brianne Magouirk; Yaffe, Kristine; Boudreau, Robert M; Neuhaus, John; Aizenstein, Howard; Ding, Jingzhong; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore J; Liu, Yongmei; Satterfield, Suzanne; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-02-01

    Protracted systemic inflammation has been associated with adverse effects on cognition and brain structure and may accelerate neurodegenerative disease processes; however, it is less clear whether changes in inflammation are associated with brain structure. We studied 276 black and white older adults (mean age = 83 years at time of imaging) enrolled in a prospective study of aging. Inflammation (measured with c-reactive protein, CRP) was assessed repeatedly over 6 years (i.e., year 2, 4, 6, and 8). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) were obtained at years 10-11 with diffusion tensor imaging; regions of interest included late-myelinating areas vulnerable to aging, including frontal-parietal (superior longitudinal fasciculus [SLF]-dorsal) and temporal (SLF-temporal; uncinate) white matter tracts. Mean CRP values significantly declined (t = -5.54, p accounting for vascular risk factors.

  2. Evaluation of markers of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue of the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a growing interest in exploiting the induction of beige or “brite” (brown in white) adipocytes (beigeing) to combat obesity and its comorbidities. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the best markers to evaluate the occurrence or magnitude of beigeing in white adipose t...

  3. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  4. Adult mouse cortical cell taxonomy revealed by single cell transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Bosiljka; Menon, Vilas; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Kim, Tae Kyung; Jarsky, Tim; Yao, Zizhen; Levi, Boaz; Gray, Lucas T; Sorensen, Staci A; Dolbeare, Tim; Bertagnolli, Darren; Goldy, Jeff; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Parry, Sheana; Lee, Changkyu; Smith, Kimberly; Bernard, Amy; Madisen, Linda; Sunkin, Susan M; Hawrylycz, Michael; Koch, Christof; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-02-01

    Nervous systems are composed of various cell types, but the extent of cell type diversity is poorly understood. We constructed a cellular taxonomy of one cortical region, primary visual cortex, in adult mice on the basis of single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified 49 transcriptomic cell types, including 23 GABAergic, 19 glutamatergic and 7 non-neuronal types. We also analyzed cell type-specific mRNA processing and characterized genetic access to these transcriptomic types by many transgenic Cre lines. Finally, we found that some of our transcriptomic cell types displayed specific and differential electrophysiological and axon projection properties, thereby confirming that the single-cell transcriptomic signatures can be associated with specific cellular properties.

  5. Differentiations of transplanted mouse spermatogonial stem cells in the adult mouse renal parenchyma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-peng WU; Da-lin HE; Xiang LI; Zhao-hui LIU

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Spermatogonial stem cells can initiate the process of cellular differentia-tion to generate mature spermatozoa, but whether it possess the characteristic of pluripotency and plasticity, similar to embryonic stem cells, has not been elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells into renal cells in vivo. Methods: Neonatal mouse spermatogonial stem cells were transplanted into mature male mice lacking en-dogenous spermatogenesis. The restoration of fertility in recipient males was observed. Spermatogonial stem cells were then injected into renal parenchyma of mature female mice to make a new extracellular environment for differentia-tion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technology (FISH) was used to detect the expression of chromosome Y in recipient renal tissues. To determine the type of cells differentiated from spermatogonial stem cells, the expression of ricinus communis agglutinin, vimentin, CD45, and F4/80 proteins were examined in the renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results: The proliferation of seminiferous epithelial cells was distinctly observed in seminiferous tubules of transplanted testes, whereas no regeneration of spermatogenesis was observed in non-transplanted control testes. In transplanted female renal tissues, FISH showed a much stronger immuno-fluorescence signal of chromosome Y in the nucleolus of epithelial cells of the renal tubule and podocytes of the glomerulus. Conclusion: The spermatogonial stem cells were successfully purified from mouse testicles. This finding demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells could not only restore damaged spermatogenesis, but were also capable of differentiat-ing into mature renal parenchyma cells in vivo.

  6. The challenges of the first migration : movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S.; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, ...

  7. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; McGuire, Philip K

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict.

  8. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Takikita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A. In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes. This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism.

  9. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikita, Shoichi; Takano, Tomoyuki; Narita, Tsutomu; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A). In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene) is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes). This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism.

  10. Extensive and interrelated subcortical white and gray matter alterations in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C; Bäuml, J G; Daamen, M; Jaekel, J; Neitzel, J; Scheef, L; Busch, B; Baumann, N; Boecker, H; Zimmer, C; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Wohlschläger, A M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause for impaired neurocognitive development with an increased risk for persistent cognitive deficits in adulthood. In newborns, preterm birth is associated with interrelated white matter (WM) alterations and deep gray matter (GM) loss; however, little is known about the persistence and relevance of these subcortical brain changes. We tested the hypothesis that the pattern of correspondent subcortical WM and GM changes is present in preterm-born adults and has a brain-injury-like nature, i.e., it predicts lowered general cognitive performance. Eighty-five preterm-born and 69 matched term-born adults were assessed by diffusion- and T1-weighted MRI and cognitive testing. Main outcome measures were fractional anisotropy of water diffusion for WM property, GM volume for GM property, and full-scale IQ for cognitive performance. In preterm-born adults, reduced fractional anisotropy was widely distributed ranging from cerebellum to brainstem to hemispheres. GM volume was reduced in the thalamus, striatum, temporal cortices, and increased in the cingulate cortices. Fractional anisotropy reductions were specifically associated with GM loss in thalamus and striatum, with correlation patterns for both regions extensively overlapping in the WM of brainstem and hemispheres. For overlap regions, fractional anisotropy was positively related with both gestational age and full-scale IQ. Results provide evidence for extensive, interrelated, and adverse WM and GM subcortical changes in preterm-born adults. Data suggest persistent brain-injury-like changes of subcortical-cortical connectivity after preterm delivery.

  11. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  12. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  13. Brain transcriptional stability upon prion protein-encoding gene invalidation in zygotic or adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béringue Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of the prion protein remains largely elusive while its key role in prion infection has been expansively documented. To potentially assess this conundrum, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of the brain of wild-type mice with that of transgenic mice invalidated at this locus either at the zygotic or at the adult stages. Results Only subtle transcriptomic differences resulting from the Prnp knockout could be evidenced, beside Prnp itself, in the analyzed adult brains following microarray analysis of 24 109 mouse genes and QPCR assessment of some of the putatively marginally modulated loci. When performed at the adult stage, neuronal Prnp disruption appeared to sequentially induce a response to an oxidative stress and a remodeling of the nervous system. However, these events involved only a limited number of genes, expression levels of which were only slightly modified and not always confirmed by RT-qPCR. If not, the qPCR obtained data suggested even less pronounced differences. Conclusions These results suggest that the physiological function of PrP is redundant at the adult stage or important for only a small subset of the brain cell population under classical breeding conditions. Following its early reported embryonic developmental regulation, this lack of response could also imply that PrP has a more detrimental role during mouse embryogenesis and that potential transient compensatory mechanisms have to be searched for at the time this locus becomes transcriptionally activated.

  14. A case of adult cannibalism in the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni

    2012-09-01

    Cannibalism, defined as the eating of conspecific flesh, has been observed in a number of primate species, although it is still a relatively rare phenomenon. In cases where primates were seen feeding on an individual of the same species, the victims have exclusively been infants or juveniles. Here, I report an event of a free-living, adult male gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, cannibalizing an adult conspecific female that died of an unknown cause. This observation has implications for the basic ecology of the species and highlights the potential for great flexibility in diet and behavior by a primate. This is, to my knowledge, the first communication of cannibalistic behavior in this species, as well as the first reported case of a nonhuman primate cannibalizing an adult conspecific.

  15. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Praag, H; Kempermann, G; Gage, F H

    1999-03-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

  16. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  17. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  18. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  19. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cause-specific mortality in black and white adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Cohen, Sarah S; Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Xiao, Qian; Buchowski, Maciej S; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2014-08-15

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40-79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs. 12 hours/day vs. mortality in blacks and whites. Blacks who reported the most time spent being sedentary (≥10.5 hours/day) and lowest level of physical activity (mortality risk in black adults.

  1. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  2. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighren, Margaret A; Flockhart, Jean H; West, John D

    2016-05-15

    The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase. Homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null mouse embryos die but a previous study showed that some homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells survived when combined with wild-type cells in fetal chimaeras. One adult female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera with functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes was also identified in a preliminary study. The aims were to characterise the survival of Gpi1(-/-) null cells in adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras and determine if Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells are functional. Analysis of adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras with pigment and a reiterated transgenic lineage marker showed that low numbers of homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many tissues of adult chimaeras, including oocytes. Breeding experiments confirmed that Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes in one female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera were functional and provided preliminary evidence that one male putative Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera produced functional spermatozoa from homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells. Although the male chimaera was almost certainly Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c), this part of the study is considered preliminary because only blood was typed for GPI. Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells should survive in a chimaeric testis if they are supported by wild-type Sertoli cells. It is also feasible that spermatozoa could bypass a block at GPI, but not blocks at some later steps in glycolysis, by using fructose, rather than glucose, as the substrate for glycolysis. Although chimaera analysis proved inefficient for studying the fate of Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells, it successfully identified functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes and revealed that some Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many adult tissues.

  3. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is an early- or late-stage disease marker. In the present study, we used the genomic-based hTau mouse model of tauopathy to examine the temporal and spatial regulation of adult neurogenesis during the course of the disease. Surprisingly, hTau mice exhibited reductions in adult neurogenesis in 2 different brain regions by as early as 2 months of age, before the development of robust MAPT pathology in this model. This reduction was found to be due to reduced proliferation and not because of enhanced apoptosis in the hippocampus. At these same time points, hTau mice also exhibited altered MAPT phosphorylation with neurogenic precursors. To examine whether the effects of MAPT on neurogenesis were cell autonomous, neurospheres prepared from hTau animals were examined in vitro, revealing a growth deficit when compared with non-transgenic neurosphere cultures. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that altered adult neurogenesis is a robust and early marker of altered, cell-autonomous function of MAPT in the hTau mouse mode of tauopathy and that altered adult neurogenesis should be examined as a potential marker and therapeutic target for human tauopathies.

  4. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  5. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Peters, Christoph [Institute fuer Molekulare Medizin und Zellforshung, Albert-Ludwings-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Uchiyama, Yasuo [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: nakan@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy

  6. White matter hyperintensities among older adults are associated with futile increase in frontal activation and functional connectivity during spatial search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Lockhart

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control.

  7. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  8. The mouse spleen white pulp response to continuous hypoxia. A digital image processing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi de Aviñón, A C; Bengtsson, M C

    1990-01-01

    Ninety days old male mice of the CFW strain, placed under standard conditions for studies of periodicity, showed a 24 hours variation pattern in the spleen white pulp surface, in cross sections. This pattern was modified by hypoxia during the first 18 hours of continuous treatment. Since this time onwards a new steady state was reached, although the spleen of hypoxic animals was always smaller than in the controls. As the modifications were measured in pixel counts -a magnitude which can be easily transformed into square micrometers- they can be attributed to a real size variation and not to an apparent growth and decay due to environmental vasoactive phenomena.

  9. Otx2 gene deletion in adult mouse retina induces rapid RPE dystrophy and slow photoreceptor degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Béby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many developmental genes are still active in specific tissues after development is completed. This is the case for the homeobox gene Otx2, an essential actor of forebrain and head development. In adult mouse, Otx2 is strongly expressed in the retina. Mutations of this gene in humans have been linked to severe ocular malformation and retinal diseases. It is, therefore, important to explore its post-developmental functions. In the mature retina, Otx2 is expressed in three cell types: bipolar and photoreceptor cells that belong to the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a neighbour structure that forms a tightly interdependent functional unit together with photoreceptor cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Conditional self-knockout was used to address the late functions of Otx2 gene in adult mice. This strategy is based on the combination of a knock-in CreERT2 allele and a floxed allele at the Otx2 locus. Time-controlled injection of tamoxifen activates the recombinase only in Otx2 expressing cells, resulting in selective ablation of the gene in its entire domain of expression. In the adult retina, loss of Otx2 protein causes slow degeneration of photoreceptor cells. By contrast, dramatic changes of RPE activity rapidly occur, which may represent a primary cause of photoreceptor disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel mouse model uncovers new Otx2 functions in adult retina. We show that this transcription factor is necessary for long-term maintenance of photoreceptors, likely through the control of specific activities of the RPE.

  10. Distinctive left-sided distribution of adrenergic-derived cells in the adult mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Osuala

    Full Text Available Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced within the heart from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. These adrenergic hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular development and function, yet relatively little information is available about the specific tissue distribution of adrenergic cells within the adult heart. The purpose of the present study was to define the anatomical localization of cells derived from an adrenergic lineage within the adult heart. To accomplish this, we performed genetic fate-mapping experiments where mice with the cre-recombinase (Cre gene inserted into the phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase (Pnmt locus were cross-mated with homozygous Rosa26 reporter (R26R mice. Because Pnmt serves as a marker gene for adrenergic cells, offspring from these matings express the β-galactosidase (βGAL reporter gene in cells of an adrenergic lineage. βGAL expression was found throughout the adult mouse heart, but was predominantly (89% located in the left atrium (LA and ventricle (LV (p<0.001 compared to RA and RV, where many of these cells appeared to have cardiomyocyte-like morphological and structural characteristics. The staining pattern in the LA was diffuse, but the LV free wall displayed intermittent non-random staining that extended from the apex to the base of the heart, including heavy staining of the anterior papillary muscle along its perimeter. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of XGAL+ staining revealed distribution throughout the LA and LV, with specific finger-like projections apparent near the mid and apical regions of the LV free wall. These data indicate that adrenergic-derived cells display distinctive left-sided distribution patterns in the adult mouse heart.

  11. The association between cognitive function and white matter lesion location in older adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolandzadeh Niousha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining cognitive function is essential for healthy aging and to function autonomously within society. White matter lesions (WMLs are associated with reduced cognitive function in older adults. However, whether their anatomical location moderates these associations is not well-established. This review systematically evaluates peer-reviewed evidence on the role of anatomical location in the association between WMLs and cognitive function. Methods In accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA statement, databases of EMBASE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, and CINAHL, and reference lists of selected papers were searched. We limited our search results to adults aged 60 years and older, and studies published in the English language from 2000 to 2011. Studies that investigated the association between cognitive function and WML location were included. Two independent reviewers extracted: 1 study characteristics including sample size, sample characteristic, and study design; 2 WML outcomes including WML location, WML quantification method (scoring or volume measurement, strength of the MRI magnet in Tesla, and MRI sequence used for WML detection; and 3 cognitive function outcomes including cognitive tests for two cognitive domains of memory and executive function/processing speed. Results Of the 14 studies included, seven compared the association of subcortical versus periventricular WMLs with cognitive function. Seven other studies investigated the association between WMLs in specific brain regions (e.g., frontal, parietal lobes and cognitive function. Overall, the results show that a greater number of studies have found an association between periventricular WMLs and executive function/processing speed, than subcortical WMLs. However, whether WMLs in different brain regions have a differential effect on cognitive function remains unclear. Conclusions Evidence suggests that periventricular

  12. Cognitive profile of amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities in cognitively normal older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Younger, Alayna P.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Becker, J. Alex; Buckner, Randy L.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are two common markers of neurodegeneration present in advanced aging. Each represents a potential early indicator of an age-related neurological disorder that impacts cognition. The presence of amyloid is observed in a substantial subset of cognitively normal older adults, but the literature remains equivocal regarding whether amyloid in nondemented populations is deleterious to cognition. Similarly, WMH are detected in many nondemented older adults and there is a body of evidence indicating that WMH are associated with decreased executive function and other cognitive domains. The current study investigated amyloid burden and WMH in clinically normal older adult humans aged 65 to 86 (N=168) and examined each biomarker’s relation with cognitive domains of episodic memory, executive function, and speed of processing. Factors for each domain were derived from a neuropsychological battery on a theoretical basis without reference to the relation between cognition and the biomarkers. Amyloid burden and WMH were not correlated with one another. Age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, while higher estimated verbal intelligence was associated with higher performance in all domains. Hypothesis-driven tests revealed that amyloid burden and WMH had distinct cognitive profiles, with amyloid burden having a specific influence on episodic memory and WMH being primarily associated with executive function but having broad (but lesser) effects on the other domains. These findings suggest that even prior to clinical impairment, amyloid burden and WMH likely represent neuropathological cascades with distinct etiologies and dissociable influences on cognition. PMID:23152607

  13. Adaptive modulation of adult brain gray and white matter to high altitude: structural MRI studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20-22 years who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits.

  14. White matter abnormalities in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Bloemen, Oswald; van der Meer, Johan; Meijer, Julia; Boot, Erik; Nederveen, Aart; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2011-10-01

    Dysfunction of cerebral white matter (WM) is a potential factor underlying the neurobiology of schizophrenia. People with 22q11 deletion syndrome have altered brain morphology and increased risk for schizophrenia, therefore decreased WM integrity may be related to schizophrenia in 22q11DS. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume in 27 adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (n=12, 22q11DS SCZ+) and without schizophrenia (n=15, 22q11DS SCZ-), 12 individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and 31 age-matched healthy controls. We found widespread decreased WM volume in posterior and temporal brain areas and decreased FA in areas of the frontal cortex in the whole 22q11DS group compared to healthy controls. In 22q11DS SCZ+ compromised WM integrity included inferior frontal areas of parietal and occipital lobe. Idiopathic schizophrenia patients showed decreased FA in inferior frontal and insular regions compared to healthy controls. We found no WM alterations in 22q11DS SCZ+ vs. 22q11DS SCZ-. However, there was a negative correlation between FA and PANSS scores (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale) in the whole 22q11DS group in the inferior frontal, cingulate, insular and temporal areas. This is the first study to investigate WM integrity in adults with 22q11DS. Our results suggest that pervasive WM dysfunction is intrinsic to 22q11DS and that psychotic development in adults with 22q11DS involves similar brain areas as seen in schizophrenia in the general population.

  15. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons of Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used.Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours.Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.

  16. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography combined atlas of developing and adult mouse brains for stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M; Zhang, J; Miller, M I; Sidman, R L; Mori, S

    2009-09-15

    Stereotaxic atlases of the mouse brain are important in neuroscience research for targeting of specific internal brain structures during surgical operations. The effectiveness of stereotaxic surgery depends on accurate mapping of the brain structures relative to landmarks on the skull. During postnatal development in the mouse, rapid growth-related changes in the brain occur concurrently with growth of bony plates at the cranial sutures, therefore adult mouse brain atlases cannot be used to precisely guide stereotaxis in developing brains. In this study, three-dimensional stereotaxic atlases of C57BL/6J mouse brains at six postnatal developmental stages: postnatal day (P) 7, P14, P21, P28, P63 and in adults (P140-P160) were developed, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and micro-computed tomography (CT). At present, most widely-used stereotaxic atlases of the mouse brain are based on histology, but the anatomical fidelity of ex vivo atlases to in vivo mouse brains has not been evaluated previously. To account for ex vivo tissue distortion due to fixation as well as individual variability in the brain, we developed a population-averaged in vivo magnetic resonance imaging adult mouse brain stereotaxic atlas, and a distortion-corrected DTI atlas was generated by nonlinearly warping ex vivo data to the population-averaged in vivo atlas. These atlas resources were developed and made available through a new software user-interface with the objective of improving the accuracy of targeting brain structures during stereotaxic surgery in developing and adult C57BL/6J mouse brains.

  18. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference.

  19. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are beneficial for white matter in low-fit older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zofia Burzynska

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60-78. Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle.

  20. White matter and memory in healthy adults: Coupled changes over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Prindle, John J; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to link age-related differences in white matter (WM) anisotropy and concomitant decrements in cognitive ability. Due to a dearth of longitudinal evidence, the relationship between changes in diffusion properties of WM and cognitive performance remains unclear. Here we examine the relationship between two-year changes in WM organization and cognitive performance in healthy adults (N=96, age range at baseline=18-79 years). We used latent change score models (LCSM) to evaluate changes in age-sensitive cognitive abilities - fluid intelligence and associative memory. WM changes were assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions that are considered part of established memory networks and exhibited individual differences in change. In modeling change, we postulated reciprocal paths between baseline measures and change factors, within and between WM and cognition domains, and accounted for individual differences in baseline age. Although baseline cross-sectional memory performance was positively associated with FA and negatively with RD, longitudinal effects told an altogether different story. Independent of age, longitudinal improvements in associative memory were significantly associated with linear reductions in FA and increases in RD. The present findings demonstrate the sensitivity of DTI-derived indices to changes in the brain and cognition and affirm the importance of longitudinal models for evaluating brain-cognition relations.

  1. Characterization of neural stem cells and their progeny in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furube, Eriko; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Miyata, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that neurogenesis and gliogenesis occur in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of adult mammalian brains, recent studies indicate the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult brains, particularly the circumventricular regions. In the present study, we aimed to determine characterization of NSCs and their progenitor cells in the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), including organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, and area postrema of adult mouse. There were two types of NSCs: tanycyte-like ependymal cells and astrocyte-like cells. Astrocyte-like NSCs proliferated slowly and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) actively divided. Molecular marker protein expression of NSCs and their progenitor cells were similar to those reported in the SVZ and SGZ, except that astrocyte-like NSCs expressed S100β. These circumventricular NSCs possessed the capacity to give rise to oligodendrocytes and sparse numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the sensory CVOs and adjacent brain regions. The inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by using a VEGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 largely suppressed basal proliferation of OPCs. A single systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide attenuated proliferation of OPCs and induced remarkable proliferation of microglia. The present study indicates that sensory circumventricular NSCs provide new neurons and glial cells in the sensory CVOs and adjacent brain regions.

  2. Adult-onset vanishing white matter disease as differential diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwerth, Marina; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Kreiser, Kornelia; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ilg, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome. In contrast to a relatively mild clinical presentation, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive leukencephalopathy with cystic degeneration. Initially primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) was suspected. Additional diffusion-weighted imaging revealed restricted diffusion in the white matter lesions with a reduced apparent diffusion coefficient. Genetic testing showed vanishing white matter disease (VWM) with c.260C>T EIF2B3 mutation. In conclusion, in cases with relatively mild symptoms and extensive white matter lesions, adult-onset VWM should be considered as differential diagnosis of PPMS and diffusion-weighted imaging may be helpful to identify suspected cases.

  3. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pitzonka

    Full Text Available Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  4. Expression profiling of long noncoding RNAs in neonatal and adult mouse testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advancements in genome-wide analyses of the mammalian transcriptome have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs is pervasively transcribed in the genome and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated lncRNAs as a new class of regulatory molecules are involved in mammalian development (Carninci et al. (2005; Fatica and Bozzoni (2014, but very few studies have been conducted on the potential roles of lncRNAs in mammalian testis development. To get insights into the expression patterns of lncRNA during mouse testis development, we investigated the lncRNAs expression profiles of neonatal and adult mouse testes using microarray platform and related results have been published (Sun et al., PLoS One 8 (2013 e75750.. Here, we describe in detail the experimental system, methods and validation for the generation of the microarray data associated with our recent publication (Sun et al., PLoS One 8 (2013 e75750.. Data have been deposited to the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database repository with the dataset identifier GSE43442.

  5. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Erin Miller

    Full Text Available Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1's importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1's functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA26Sor(tm1(Cre/ERTNat/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation.

  6. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Katrien; Vreysen, Samme; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Cuyvers, Annemie; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Van Brussel, Leen; Eysel, Ulf T; Nys, Julie; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    Neuronal activity plays an important role in the development and structural-functional maintenance of the brain as well as in its life-long plastic response to changes in sensory stimulation. We characterized the impact of unilateral 15° laser lesions in the temporal lower visual field of the retina, on visually driven neuronal activity in the afferent visual pathway of adult mice using in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene zif268. In the first days post-lesion, we detected a discrete zone of reduced zif268 expression in the contralateral hemisphere, spanning the border between the monocular segment of the primary visual cortex (V1) with extrastriate visual area V2M. We could not detect a clear lesion projection zone (LPZ) in areas lateral to V1 whereas medial to V2M, agranular and granular retrosplenial cortex showed decreased zif268 levels over their full extent. All affected areas displayed a return to normal zif268 levels, and this was faster in higher order visual areas than in V1. The lesion did, however, induce a permanent LPZ in the retinorecipient layers of the superior colliculus. We identified a retinotopy-based intrinsic capacity of adult mouse visual cortex to recover from restricted vision loss, with recovery speed reflecting the areal cortical magnification factor. Our observations predict incomplete visual field representations for areas lateral to V1 vs. lack of retinotopic organization for areas medial to V2M. The validation of this mouse model paves the way for future interrogations of cortical region- and cell-type-specific contributions to functional recovery, up to microcircuit level.

  7. "The preadipocyte factor" DLK1 marks adult mouse adipose tissue residing vascular cells that lack in vitro adipogenic differentiation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Line; Schrøder, Henrik Daa;

    2009-01-01

    Delta-like 1 (Dlk1) is expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and has frequently been referred to as "the" preadipocyte marker, yet the phenotype of DLK1(+) cells in adipose tissue remains undetermined. Herein, we demonstrate that DLK1(+) cells encompass around 1-2% of the adult mouse adipose stromal...

  8. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  9. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus populations in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Munshi-South

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus, and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In

  10. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in telencephalic areas of adult and postnatal mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne C Damborsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4 is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu, septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA, basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5, transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission.

  11. Temporal profiles of synaptic plasticity-related signals in adult mouse hippocampus with methotrexate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Juhwan; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Joong-Sun; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2012-07-25

    Methotrexate, which is used to treat many malignancies and autoimmune diseases, affects brain functions including hippocampal-dependent memory function. However, the precise mechanisms underlying methotrexate-induced hippocampal dysfunction are poorly understood. To evaluate temporal changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals, the expression and activity of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cAMP responsive element-binding protein, glutamate receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were examined in the hippocampi of adult C57BL/6 mice after methotrexate (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection. Western blot analysis showed biphasic changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals in adult hippocampi following methotrexate treatment. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and glutamate receptor 1 were acutely activated during the early phase (1 day post-injection), while extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cAMP responsive element-binding protein activation showed biphasic increases during the early (1 day post-injection) and late phases (7-14 days post-injection). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression increased significantly during the late phase (7-14 days post-injection). Therefore, methotrexate treatment affects synaptic plasticity-related signals in the adult mouse hippocampus, suggesting that changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals may be associated with neuronal survival and plasticity-related cellular remodeling.

  12. Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianqing; Lewallen, Michelle; Chen, Shuyi; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Xie, Ting

    2013-06-01

    Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptor-deficient mice, but there is still some concern of tumor formation. In this study, we have successfully cultured Nestin(+)Sox2(+)Pax6(+) multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina, which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation. After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF, the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential. Under proper differentiation conditions, they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina. More importantly, they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions. Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes, RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina, morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons. When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice, a RP model, RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response, indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional. Finally, there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD.

  13. Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqing Li; Michelle Lewallen; Shuyi Chen; Wei Yu; Nian Zhang; Ting Xie

    2013-01-01

    Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases,such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptordeficient mice,but there is still some concern of tumor formation.In this study,we have successfully cultured Nestin+Sox2+Pax6+ multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina,which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation.After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF,the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential.Under proper differentiation conditions,they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina.More importantly,they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions.Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes,RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina,morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons.When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice,a RP model,RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response,indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional.Finally,there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes.Therefore,this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD.

  14. Temporal profiles of synaptic plasticity-related signals in adult mouse hippocampus with methotrexate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyoung Yang; Juhwan Kim; Sung-Ho Kim; Joong-Sun Kim; Taekyun Shin; Changjong Moon

    2012-01-01

    Methotrexate, which is used to treat many malignancies and autoimmune diseases, affects brain functions including hippocampal-dependent memory function. However, the precise mechanisms underlying methotrexate-induced hippocampal dysfunction are poorly understood. To evaluate temporal changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals, the expression and activity of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cAMP responsive element-binding protein, glutamate receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were examined in the hippocampi of adult C57BL/6 mice after methotrexate (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection. Western blot analysis showed biphasic changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals in adult hippocampi following methotrexate treatment. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1, cal-cium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and glutamate receptor 1 were acutely activated dur-ing the early phase (1 day post-injection), while extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cAMP responsive element-binding protein activation showed biphasic increases during the early (1 day post-injection) and late phases (7-14 days post-injection). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression increased significantly during the late phase (7-14 days post-injection). Therefore, methotrexate treatment affects synaptic plasticity-related signals in the adult mouse hippocampus, suggesting that changes in synaptic plasticity-related signals may be associated with neuronal survival and plasticity-related cellular remodeling.

  15. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  16. Decoupling of structural and functional brain connectivity in older adults with white matter hyperintensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y. D.; Schultz, A. P.; Leemans, A.; O'Sullivan, M. J.; Gurol, M. E.; Sperling, R.; Greenberg, S. M.; Viswanathan, A.; Hedden, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related impairments in the default network (DN) have been related to disruptions in connecting white matter tracts. We hypothesized that the local correlation between DN structural and functional connectivity is negatively affected in the presence of global white matter injury. In 125 clinically

  17. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingxing; Cai, Ruowei [Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Lv, Guorong, E-mail: lxingwan502@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China)

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  18. Anoctamins support calcium-dependent chloride secretion by facilitating calcium signaling in adult mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Rainer; Faria, Diana; Skryabin, Boris V; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Rock, Jason R; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal epithelial electrolyte secretion is activated by increase in intracellular cAMP or Ca(2+) and opening of apical Cl(-) channels. In infants and young animals, but not in adults, Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels may cause secretory diarrhea during rotavirus infection. While detailed knowledge exists concerning the contribution of cAMP-activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, analysis of the role of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels became possible through identification of the anoctamin (TMEM16) family of proteins. We demonstrate expression of several anoctamin paralogues in mouse small and large intestines. Using intestinal-specific mouse knockout models for anoctamin 1 (Ano1) and anoctamin 10 (Ano10) and a conventional knockout model for anoctamin 6 (Ano6), we demonstrate the role of anoctamins for Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion induced by the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCH). Ano1 is preferentially expressed in the ileum and large intestine, where it supports Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, Ano10 is essential for Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion in jejunum, where expression of Ano1 was not detected. Although broadly expressed, Ano6 has no role in intestinal cholinergic Cl(-) secretion. Ano1 is located in a basolateral compartment/membrane rather than in the apical membrane, where it supports CCH-induced Ca(2+) increase, while the essential and possibly only apical Cl(-) channel is CFTR. These results define a new role of Ano1 for intestinal Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion and demonstrate for the first time a contribution of Ano10 to intestinal transport.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  20. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (Pprocessed meat intake was associated with a lower (Pprocessed meat consumption was associated with lower (Pprocessed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  1. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  2. Strongly directional and differential swimming behavior of an adult female white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae from Guadalupe Island, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Bonfil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an adult female white shark tracked for 288 days and 7,100 km in the NE Pacific Ocean. The shark, tagged with a real-time satellite tag off Guadalupe Island, Mexico in October 2006, remained around the island for 3.5 months but left in early February 2007 for a ca. 3,900 km westward migration. Heading and swimming speed data showed that: a the arc-like route followed by this shark during oceanic travel involved strongly directional rapid movement, and b once the shark arrived to a specific (ca. 680 km wide area located 790 km north-northeast of the Hawaiian Islands, it switched into a distinct roaming behavior. The shark remained in this roaming area from late March to at least late July 2007. We show that real-time satellite tags can provide unique and valuable information about the migratory behavior of white sharks.

  3. Distinct expression of Cbln family mRNAs in developing and adult mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Eriko; Iijima, Takatoshi; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2006-08-01

    Cbln1 belongs to the C1q and tumour necrosis factor superfamily, and plays crucial roles as a cerebellar granule cell-derived transneuronal regulator for synapse integrity and plasticity in Purkinje cells. Although Cbln2-Cbln4 are also expressed in the brain and could form heteromeric complexes with Cbln1, their precise expressions remain unclear. Here, we investigated gene expression of the Cbln family in developing and adult C57BL mouse brains by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blot, and high-resolution in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses. In the adult brain, spatial patterns of mRNA expression were highly differential depending on Cbln subtypes. Notably, particularly high levels of Cbln mRNAs were expressed in some nuclei and neurons, whereas their postsynaptic targets often lacked or were low for any Cbln mRNAs, as seen for cerebellar granule cells/Purkinje cells, entorhinal cortex/hippocampus, intralaminar group of thalamic nuclei/caudate-putamen, and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus/central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. In the developing brain, Cbln1, 2, and 4 mRNAs appeared as early as embryonic day 10-13, and exhibited transient up-regulation during the late embryonic and neonatal periods. For example, Cbln2 mRNA was expressed in the cortical plate of the developing neocortex, displaying a high rostromedial to low caudolateral gradient. In contrast, Cbln3 mRNA was selective to cerebellar granule cells throughout development, and its onset was as late as postnatal day 7-10. These results will provide a molecular-anatomical basis for future studies that characterize roles played by the Cbln family.

  4. Increased coherence of white matter fiber tract organization in adults with Asperger syndrome: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-Von Wendt, Taina; Leppämäki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Tani, Pekka; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether there are global white matter (WM) differences between autistic and healthy adults, we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 14 male adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 19 gender-, age-, and intelligence quotient-matched controls. We focused on individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), AS, to decrease heterogeneity caused by large variation in the cognitive profile. Previous DTI studies of ASD have mainly focused on finding local changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), two indexes used to characterize microstructural properties of WM. Although the local or voxel-based approaches may be able to provide detailed information in terms of location of the observed differences, such results are known to be highly sensitive to partial volume effects, registration errors, or placement of the regions of interest. Therefore, we performed global histogram analyses of (a) whole-brain tractography results and (b) skeletonized WM masks. In addition to the FA and MD, the planar diffusion coefficient (CP) was computed as it can provide more specific information of the complexity of the neural structure. Our main finding indicated that adults with AS had higher mean FA values than controls. A less complex neural structure in adults with AS could have explained the results, but no significant difference in CP was found. Our results suggest that there are global abnormalities in the WM tissue of adults with AS.

  5. Neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin A on the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradells, Sara; Rocamonde, Brenda; Llinares, Cristina; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Jimenez, Misericordia; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Zipancic, Ivan; Soria, Jose Miguel; Garcia-Esparza, Ma Angeles

    2015-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that was discovered as a secondary metabolite of the fungal species Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as teratogenic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic and has been proven a potent neurotoxin. Other authors have previously reported the effects of OTA in different structures of the central nervous system as well as in some neurogenic regions. However, the impact of OTA exposure in the subventricular zone (SVZ) has not been assessed yet. To elucidate whether OTA affects neural precursors of the mouse SVZ we investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of OTA exposure on the SVZ and on the neural precursors obtained from this neurogenic niche. In this work, we prove the cumulative effect of OTA exposure on proliferation, differentiation and depletion of neural stem cells cultured from the SVZ. In addition, we corroborated these results in vivo by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. As a result, we found a significant alteration in the proliferation process, which was evidenced by a decrease in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells and glial cells, as well as, a significant decrease in the number of neuroblasts in the SVZ. To summarize, in this study we demonstrate how OTA could be a threat to the developing and the adult SVZ through its impact in cell viability, proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgard, T Grant; Montiel, Juan F; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Margulies, Elliott H; Ponting, Chris P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-08-01

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14-27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676-12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates.

  7. Oral Administration of T Cell Epitope Peptide Inhibits the Systemic IL-4 Response Elicited by an Egg-White Diet in a TCR Transgenic Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    HIRAIDE, Erika; NAKAJIMA-ADACHI, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy with T cell epitope peptides is a promising treatment for food allergy. We examined the effect of oral administration of an ovalbumin T cell epitope peptide (OVA323-339) in a TCR transgenic mouse model (OVA23-3 mice). OVA23-3 mice were fed egg-white diet containing ovalbumin and subsequently orally administrated the OVA323-339 peptide. Cytokine measurements revealed that the IL-4 production of splenic CD4+ T cells was significantly decreased by feeding the OVA323-339 peptid...

  8. Analyzing gene function in adult long-term hematopoietic stem cells using the interferon inducible Mx1-Cre mouse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn Orri; Oakley, Kevin; Han, Yufen; Du, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell lineages. Understanding the genetic networks that regulate LT-HSC function in the adult bone marrow requires inducible gene targeting and bone marrow transplantations. In this chapter we describe the use of the inducible Mx1-Cre mouse model to delete genes in LT-HSCs and methodologies for examining the function of LT-HSCs following deletion.

  9. MYC gene delivery to adult mouse utricles stimulates proliferation of postmitotic supporting cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Burns

    Full Text Available The inner ears of adult humans and other mammals possess a limited capacity for regenerating sensory hair cells, which can lead to permanent auditory and vestibular deficits. During development and regeneration, undifferentiated supporting cells within inner ear sensory epithelia can self-renew and give rise to new hair cells; however, these otic progenitors become depleted postnatally. Therefore, reprogramming differentiated supporting cells into otic progenitors is a potential strategy for restoring regenerative potential to the ear. Transient expression of the induced pluripotency transcription factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc reprograms fibroblasts into neural progenitors under neural-promoting culture conditions, so as a first step, we explored whether ectopic expression of these factors can reverse supporting cell quiescence in whole organ cultures of adult mouse utricles. Co-infection of utricles with adenoviral vectors separately encoding Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and the degradation-resistant T58A mutant of c-Myc (c-MycT58A triggered significant levels of supporting cell S-phase entry as assessed by continuous BrdU labeling. Of the four factors, c-MycT58A alone was both necessary and sufficient for the proliferative response. The number of BrdU-labeled cells plateaued between 5-7 days after infection, and then decreased ~60% by 3 weeks, as many cycling cells appeared to enter apoptosis. Switching to differentiation-promoting culture medium at 5 days after ectopic expression of c-MycT58A temporarily attenuated the loss of BrdU-labeled cells and accompanied a very modest but significant expansion of the sensory epithelium. A small number of the proliferating cells in these cultures labeled for the hair cell marker, myosin VIIA, suggesting they had begun differentiating towards a hair cell fate. The results indicate that ectopic expression of c-MycT58A in combination with methods for promoting cell survival and differentiation may restore

  10. Charlie brown versus snow white: the effects of descriptiveness on young and older adults' retrieval of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Kethera A; James, Lori E

    2007-07-01

    The nondescriptive nature of proper names has been suggested as one reason that people experience particular difficulty learning and recalling names. This experiment tested whether the exacerbated difficulty experienced by older adults in retrieving proper names is partly due to names' nondescriptive quality. Young and older participants named pictures of well-known cartoon characters that have either descriptive names (e.g., Snow White, Big Bird) or nondescriptive names (e.g., Charlie Brown, Garfield). Older adults were particularly impaired at retrieving nondescriptive names. Results indicate that theories of name memory must represent the nondescriptive nature of names and account for the decreased retrieval difficulty for descriptive compared with nondescriptive names in aging.

  11. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  12. Astroglial NF-kB contributes to white matter damage and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggu, Raman; Schumacher, Toni; Gerich, Florian; Rakers, Cordula; Tai, Khalid; Delekate, Andrea; Petzold, Gabor C

    2016-08-04

    Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common form of dementia. The pathogenic pathways leading to vascular cognitive impairment remain unclear but clinical and experimental data have shown that chronic reactive astrogliosis occurs within white matter lesions, indicating that a sustained pro-inflammatory environment affecting the white matter may contribute towards disease progression. To model vascular cognitive impairment, we induced prolonged mild cerebral hypoperfusion in mice by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. This chronic hypoperfusion resulted in reactive gliosis of astrocytes and microglia within white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, consecutive spatial memory deficits, and loss of white matter integrity, as measured by ultra high-field magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. White matter astrogliosis was accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB in reactive astrocytes. Using mice expressing a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kB under the control of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IkBα-dn), we found that transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kB signaling ameliorated gliosis and axonal loss, maintained white matter structural integrity, and preserved memory function. Collectively, our results imply that pro-inflammatory changes in white matter astrocytes may represent an important detrimental component in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment, and that targeting these pathways may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  14. Differential associations between white blood cell counts and fatigue in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Hokland, Marianne; Mehlsen, Mimi Y;

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals....

  15. White matter abnormalities in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome with and without schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. da Silva Alves; N. Schmitz; O. Bloemen; J. van der Meer; J. Meijer; E. Boot; A. Nederveen; L. de Haan; D. Linszen; T. van Amelsvoort

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunction of cerebral white matter (WM) is a potential factor underlying the neurobiology of schizophrenia. People with 22q11 deletion syndrome have altered brain morphology and increased risk for schizophrenia, therefore decreased WM integrity may be related to schizophrenia in 22q11DS. We measur

  16. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  17. Apolipoprotein ε4 is associated with lower brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese but not white older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Studying ethnically diverse groups is important for furthering our understanding of biological mechanisms of disease that may vary across human populations. The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and may confer anatomic and functional effects years before clinical signs of cognitive decline are observed. The allele frequency of APOE ε4 varies both across and within populations, and the size of the effect it confers for dementia risk may be affected by other factors. Our objective was to investigate the role APOE ε4 plays in moderating brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese older adults, compared to older white Americans. We hypothesized that carrying APOE ε4 would be associated with reduced brain volume and that the magnitude of this effect would be different between ethnic groups. We performed whole brain analysis of structural MRIs from Chinese living in America (n = 41 and Shanghai (n = 30 and compared them to white Americans (n = 71. We found a significant interaction effect of carrying APOE ε4 and being Chinese. The APOE ε4xChinese interaction was associated with lower volume in bilateral cuneus and left middle frontal gyrus (Puncorrected<0.001, with suggestive findings in right entorhinal cortex and left hippocampus (Puncorrected<0.01, all regions that are associated with neurodegeneration in AD. After correction for multiple testing, the left cuneus remained significantly associated with the interaction effect (PFWE = 0.05. Our study suggests there is a differential effect of APOE ε4 on brain volume in Chinese versus white cognitively normal elderly adults. This represents a novel finding that, if verified in larger studies, has implications for how biological, environmental and/or lifestyle factors may modify APOE ε4 effects on the brain in diverse populations.

  18. Expression patterns of Slit and Robo family members in adult mouse spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lauren; Parkinson, David B; Dun, Xin-Peng

    2017-01-01

    The secreted glycoproteins, Slit1-3, are classic axon guidance molecules that act as repulsive cues through their well characterised receptors Robo1-2 to allow precise axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The expression patterns of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 have been most characterized in the rodent developing nervous system and the adult brain, but little is known about their expression patterns in the adult rodent peripheral nervous system. Here, we report a detailed expression analysis of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 in the adult mouse sciatic nerve as well as their expression in the nerve cell bodies within the ventral spinal cord (motor neurons) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neurons). Our results show that, in the adult mouse peripheral nervous system, Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 are expressed in the cell bodies and axons of both motor and sensory neurons. While Slit1 and Robo2 are only expressed in peripheral axons and their cell bodies, Slit2, Slit3 and Robo1 are also expressed in satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion, Schwann cells and fibroblasts of peripheral nerves. In addition to these expression patterns, we also demonstrate the expression of Robo1 in blood vessels of the peripheral nerves. Our work gives important new data on the expression patterns of Slit and Robo family members within the peripheral nervous system that may relate both to nerve homeostasis and the reaction of the peripheral nerves to injury.

  19. Permethrin may disrupt testosterone biosynthesis via mitochondrial membrane damage of Leydig cells in adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yun; Ito, Yuki; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kobayashi, Miya; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei; Okamura, Ai; Miyata, Maiko; Ueyama, Jun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-08-01

    Permethrin, a popular synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control noxious insects in agriculture, forestry, households, horticulture, and public health throughout the world, poses risks of environmental exposure. Here we evaluate the reproductive toxicity of cis-permethrin in adult male ICR mice that were orally administered cis-permethrin (0, 35, or 70 mg/kg d) for 6 wk. Caudal epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in the treated groups were statistically reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Testicular testosterone production and plasma testosterone concentration were significantly and dose-dependently decreased with an increase in LH, and a significant regression was observed between testosterone levels and cis-permethrin residues in individual mice testes after exposure. However, no significant changes were observed in body weight, reproductive organ absolute and relative weights, sperm morphology, and plasma FSH concentration after cis-permethrin treatment. Moreover, cis-permethrin exposure significantly diminished the testicular mitochondrial mRNA expression levels of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and enzyme and protein expression levels of StAR and P450scc. At the electron microscopic level, mitochondrial membrane damage was found in Leydig cells of the exposed mouse testis. Our results suggest that the insecticide permethrin may cause mitochondrial membrane impairment in Leydig cells and disrupt testosterone biosynthesis by diminishing the delivery of cholesterol into the mitochondria and decreasing the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in the cells, thus reducing subsequent testosterone production.

  20. Designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds for adult mouse neural stem cell 3-dimensional cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Gelain

    Full Text Available Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell culture system where every single ingredient is known. Here we report the development of a 3-D cell culture system using a designer peptide nanofiber scaffold with mouse adult neural stem cells. We attached several functional motifs, including cell adhesion, differentiation and bone marrow homing motifs, to a self-assembling peptide RADA16 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-COHN2. These functionalized peptides undergo self-assembly into a nanofiber structure similar to Matrigel. During cell culture, the cells were fully embedded in the 3-D environment of the scaffold. Two of the peptide scaffolds containing bone marrow homing motifs significantly enhanced the neural cell survival without extra soluble growth and neurotrophic factors to the routine cell culture media. In these designer scaffolds, the cell populations with beta-Tubulin(+, GFAP(+ and Nestin(+ markers are similar to those found in cell populations cultured on Matrigel. The gene expression profiling array experiments showed selective gene expression, possibly involved in neural stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Because the synthetic peptides are intrinsically pure and a number of desired function cellular motifs are easy to incorporate, these designer peptide nanofiber scaffolds provide a promising controlled 3-D culture system for diverse tissue cells, and are useful as well for general molecular and cell biology.

  1. CSF T-Tau/Aβ42 predicts white matter microstructure in healthy adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B Bendlin

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers T-Tau and Aβ(42 are linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD, yet little is known about the relationship between CSF biomarkers and structural brain alteration in healthy adults. In this study we examined the extent to which AD biomarkers measured in CSF predict brain microstructure indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. Forty-three middle-aged adults with parental family history of AD received baseline lumbar puncture and MRI approximately 3.5 years later. Voxel-wise image analysis methods were used to test whether baseline CSF Aβ(42, total tau (T-Tau, phosphorylated tau (P-Tau and neurofilament light protein predicted brain microstructure as indexed by DTI and gray matter volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. T-Tau and T-Tau/Aβ(42 were widely correlated with indices of brain microstructure (mean, axial, and radial diffusivity, notably in white matter regions adjacent to gray matter structures affected in the earliest stages of AD. None of the CSF biomarkers were related to gray matter volume. Elevated P-Tau and P-Tau/Aβ(42 levels were associated with lower recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Overall, the results suggest that CSF biomarkers are related to brain microstructure in healthy adults with elevated risk of developing AD. Furthermore, the results clearly suggest that early pathological changes in AD can be detected with DTI and occur not only in cortex, but also in white matter.

  2. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  3. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  4. Accumulated quiescent neural stem cells in adult hippocampus of the mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Yuan, Bo; Yu, Bin; Tong, Dali; Cheng, Cheng; Shao, Yinqi; Xia, Shengnan; Zhang, Ran; Lyu, Jingwen; Yu, Xiuya; Dong, Chen; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Qiu, Zilong

    2017-01-01

    Duplications of Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) -containing segments lead to the MECP2 duplication syndrome, in which severe autistic symptoms were identified. Whether adult neurogenesis may play a role in pathogenesis of autism and the role of MECP2 on state determination of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unclear. Using a MECP2 transgenic (TG) mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome, we found that adult hippocampal quiescent NSCs were significantly accumulated in TG mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice, the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reduced and the neuroblasts were increased in adult hippocampi of MECP2 TG mice. Interestingly, we found that parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons were significantly decreased in MECP2 TG mice, which were critical for determining fates of adult hippocampal NSCs between the quiescence and activation. In summary, we found that MeCP2 plays a critical role in regulating fate determination of adult NSCs. These evidences further suggest that abnormal development of NSCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of the MECP2 duplication syndrome. PMID:28139724

  5. Cytoskeletal heart-enriched actin-associated protein (CHAP) is expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells in chick and mouse during embryonic and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, Willemijn; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified a new Z-disc protein, CHAP (Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein), which is expressed in striated muscle and plays an important role during embryonic muscle development in mouse and zebrafish. Here, we confirm and further extend these findings by (i) the identification and characterization of the CHAP orthologue in chick and (ii) providing a detailed analysis of CHAP expression in mouse during embryonic and adult stages. Chick CHAP contains a PDZ domain and a nuclear localization signal, resembling the human and mouse CHAPa. CHAP is expressed in the developing heart and somites, as well as muscle precursors of the limb buds in mouse and chick embryos. CHAP expression in heart and skeletal muscle is maintained in adult mice, both in slow and fast muscle fibers. Moreover, besides expression in striated muscle, we demonstrate that CHAP is expressed in smooth muscle cells of aorta, carotid and coronary arteries in adult mice, but not during embryonic development.

  6. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  7. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  8. Huntingtin acts non cell-autonomously on hippocampal neurogenesis and controls anxiety-related behaviors in adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pla

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by motor defects and psychiatric symptoms, including mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. HD is caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in the huntingtin (HTT protein. The development and analysis of various mouse models that express pathogenic polyQ-HTT revealed a link between mutant HTT and the development of anxio-depressive behaviors and various hippocampal neurogenesis defects. However, it is unclear whether such phenotype is linked to alteration of HTT wild-type function in adults. Here, we report the analysis of a new mouse model in which HTT is inducibly deleted from adult mature cortical and hippocampal neurons using the CreER(T2/Lox system. These mice present defects in both the survival and the dendritic arborization of hippocampal newborn neurons. Our data suggest that these non-cell autonomous effects are linked to defects in both BDNF transport and release upon HTT silencing in hippocampal neurons, and in BDNF/TrkB signaling. The controlled deletion of HTT also had anxiogenic-like effects. Our results implicate endogenous wild-type HTT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in the control of mood disorders.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alam, Denise; Danopoulos, Soula; Schall, Kathy; Sala, Frederic G; Almohazey, Dana; Fernandez, G Esteban; Georgia, Senta; Frey, Mark R; Ford, Henri R; Grikscheit, Tracy; Bellusci, Saverio

    2015-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial cell renewal relies on the right balance of epithelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells consist of absorptive and secretory lineage. The latter is comprised of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays a central role in epithelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in several organs. The expression pattern of FGF10 and its receptors in both human and mouse intestine and their role in small intestine have yet to be investigated. First, we analyzed the expression of FGF10, FGFR1, and FGFR2, in the human ileum and throughout the adult mouse small intestine. We found that FGF10, FGFR1b, and FGFR2b are expressed in the human ileum as well as in the mouse small intestine. We then used transgenic mouse models to overexpress Fgf10 and a soluble form of Fgfr2b, to study the impact of gain or loss of Fgf signaling in the adult small intestine. We demonstrated that overexpression of Fgf10 in vivo and in vitro induces goblet cell differentiation while decreasing Paneth cells. Moreover, FGF10 decreases stem cell markers such as Lgr5, Lrig1, Hopx, Ascl2, and Sox9. FGF10 inhibited Hes1 expression in vitro, suggesting that FGF10 induces goblet cell differentiation likely through the inhibition of Notch signaling. Interestingly, Fgf10 overexpression for 3 days in vivo and in vitro increased the number of Mmp7/Muc2 double-positive cells, suggesting that goblet cells replace Paneth cells. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which Fgf10 alters cell differentiation in the small intestine.

  10. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are required for Sebocyte differentiation and stratified squamous differentiation in adult mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S House

    Full Text Available C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are bZIP transcription factors that are highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands of skin and yet germ line deletion of either family member alone has only mild or no effect on keratinocyte biology and their role in sebocyte biology has never been examined. To address possible functional redundancies and reveal functional roles of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal skin, mouse models were developed in which either family member could be acutely ablated alone or together in the epidermis and sebaceous glands of adult mice. Acute removal of either C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta alone in adult mouse skin revealed modest to no discernable changes in epidermis or sebaceous glands. In contrast, co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal epidermis resulted in disruption of stratified squamous differentiation characterized by hyperproliferation of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes and a defective basal to spinous keratinocyte transition involving an expanded basal compartment and a diminished and delayed spinous compartment. Acute co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in sebaceous glands resulted in severe morphological defects, and sebocyte differentiation was blocked as determined by lack of sebum production and reduced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD3 and melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, two markers of terminal sebocyte differentiation. Specialized sebocytes of Meibomian glands and preputial glands were also affected. Our results indicate that in adult mouse skin, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are critically involved in regulating sebocyte differentiation and epidermal homeostasis involving the basal to spinous keratinocyte transition and basal cell cycle withdrawal.

  11. P2X7 receptors at adult neural progenitor cells of the mouse subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messemer, Nanette; Kunert, Christin; Grohmann, Marcus; Sobottka, Helga; Nieber, Karen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Franke, Heike; Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Straub, Isabelle; Schaefer, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2013-10-01

    Neurogenesis requires the balance between the proliferation of newly formed progenitor cells and subsequent death of surplus cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of P2X7 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs) prepared from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed a marked potentiation of the inward current responses both to ATP and the prototypic P2X7 receptor agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) at low Ca(2+) and zero Mg(2+) concentrations in the bath medium. The Bz-ATP-induced currents reversed their polarity near 0 mV; in NPCs prepared from P2X7(-/-) mice, Bz-ATP failed to elicit membrane currents. The general P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist PPADS and the P2X7 selective antagonists Brilliant Blue G and A-438079 strongly depressed the effect of Bz-ATP. Long-lasting application of Bz-ATP induced an initial current, which slowly increased to a steady-state response. In combination with the determination of YO-PRO uptake, these experiments suggest the dilation of a receptor-channel and/or the recruitment of a dye-uptake pathway. Ca(2+)-imaging by means of Fura-2 revealed that in a Mg(2+)-deficient bath medium Bz-ATP causes [Ca(2+)](i) transients fully depending on the presence of external Ca(2+). The MTT test indicated a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability by Bz-ATP treatment. Correspondingly, Bz-ATP led to an increase in active caspase 3 immunoreactivity, indicating a P2X7-controlled apoptosis. In acute SVZ brain slices of transgenic Tg(nestin/EGFP) mice, patch-clamp recordings identified P2X7 receptors at NPCs with pharmacological properties identical to those of their cultured counterparts. We suggest that the apoptotic/necrotic P2X7 receptors at NPCs may be of particular relevance during pathological conditions which lead to increased ATP release and thus could counterbalance the ensuing excessive cell proliferation.

  12. Comparative ultrastructural features of excitatory synapses in the visual and frontal cortices of the adult mouse and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Luebke, Jennifer I; Medalla, Maria

    2017-03-03

    The excitatory glutamatergic synapse is the principal site of communication between cortical pyramidal neurons and their targets, a key locus of action of many drugs, and highly vulnerable to dysfunction and loss in neurodegenerative disease. A detailed knowledge of the structure of these synapses in distinct cortical areas and across species is a prerequisite for understanding the anatomical underpinnings of cortical specialization and, potentially, selective vulnerability in neurological disorders. We used serial electron microscopy to assess the ultrastructural features of excitatory (asymmetric) synapses in the layers 2-3 (L2-3) neuropil of visual (V1) and frontal (FC) cortices of the adult mouse and compared findings to those in the rhesus monkey (V1 and lateral prefrontal cortex [LPFC]). Analyses of multiple ultrastructural variables revealed four organizational features. First, the density of asymmetric synapses does not differ between frontal and visual cortices in either species, but is significantly higher in mouse than in monkey. Second, the structural properties of asymmetric synapses in mouse V1 and FC are nearly identical, by stark contrast to the significant differences seen between monkey V1 and LPFC. Third, while the structural features of postsynaptic entities in mouse and monkey V1 do not differ, the size of presynaptic boutons are significantly larger in monkey V1. Fourth, both presynaptic and postsynaptic entities are significantly smaller in the mouse FC than in the monkey LPFC. The diversity of synaptic ultrastructural features demonstrated here have broad implications for the nature and efficacy of glutamatergic signaling in distinct cortical areas within and across species.

  13. Differential effect of elevated blood pressure on left ventricular geometry types in black and white young adults in a community (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Litao; Toprak, Ahmet; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are both more common in blacks than in whites. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) has a differential effect on the LV geometry types in black versus white asymptomatic young adults. As a part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, echocardiography and cardiovascular risk factor measurements were performed in 780 white and 343 black subjects (aged 24 to 47 years). Four LV geometry types were identified as normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric, and concentric hypertrophy. Compared to the white subjects, the black subjects had a greater prevalence of eccentric (15.7% vs 9.1%, p <0.001) and concentric (9.3% vs 4.1%, p <0.001) hypertrophy. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, lipids, and glucose, the black subjects showed a significantly stronger association of LV concentric hypertrophy with BP (systolic BP, odds ratio [OR] 3.74, p <0.001; diastolic BP, OR 2.86, p <0.001) than whites (systolic BP, OR 1.50, p = 0.037; and diastolic BP, OR 1.35, p = 0.167), with p values for the race difference of 0.007 for systolic BP and 0.026 for diastolic BP. LV eccentric hypertrophy showed similar trends for the race difference in the ORs; however, the association between eccentric hypertrophy and BP was not significant in the white subjects. With respect to LV concentric remodeling, its association with BP was not significant in either blacks or whites. In conclusion, elevated BP levels have a greater detrimental effect on LV hypertrophy patterns in the black versus white young adults. These findings suggest that blacks might be more susceptible than whites to BP-related adverse cardiac remodeling.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging on white matter in normal adults and elderly patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; LING Xue-ying; LIU Si-run

    2006-01-01

    @@ Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exploits the properties of randomly moving water molecules in the presence of magnetic field gradients. Within tissue, diffusion of water molecules is restricted by cell membranes, small vessels, axon cylinders, membrane, chemical interactions of water and macromolecules. In the brain, water diffusion exhibits directionality in the orientation along the long axis of white matter. This is referred to as "diffusion anisotropy". Diffusion anisotropy can be measured via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). There is a class of anisotropy indices that reflect the degree of anisotropy of water diffusion which are related to the degree of architectural and structural coherence within each voxel of the tissue. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was the most frequently used index of anisotropy.

  15. White matter microstructural organisation is higher with age in adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eKanaan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS. Though most tracts showed the slight decline widely noted, microstructural organization in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy subjects. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict.

  16. Astrocyte glycogen metabolism is required for neural activity during aglycemia or intense stimulation in mouse white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Angus M; Sickmann, Helle M; Fosgerau, Keld

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that inhibiting glycogen degradation accelerates compound action potential (CAP) failure in mouse optic nerve (MON) during aglycemia or high-intensity stimulation. Axon function was assessed as the evoked CAP, and glycogen content was measured biochemically. Isofagomine...... periods of high-frequency stimulation. The CAP area declined more rapidly when glycogen metabolism was inhibited by isofagomine, explicitly showing an important physiological role for glycogen metabolism during neural activity....

  17. PPARg mRNA in the adult mouse hypothalamus: distribution and regulation in response to dietary challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg is a ligand-activated transcription factor that was originally identified as a regulator of peroxisome proliferation and adipocyte differentiation. Emerging evidence suggests that functional PPARg signaling also occurs within the hypothalamus. However, the exact distribution and identities of PPARg-expressing hypothalamic cells remains under debate. The present study systematically mapped PPARg mRNA expression in the adult mouse brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry. PPARg mRNA was found to be expressed at high levels outside the hypothalamus including the neocortex, the olfactory bulb, the organ of the vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and the subfornical organ. Within the hypothalamus, PPARg was present at moderate levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the ependymal of the 3rd ventricle. In all examined feeding-related hypothalamic nuclei, PPARg was expressed at very low levels that were close to the limit of detection. Using qPCR techniques, we demonstrated that PPARg mRNA expression was upregulated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in response to fasting. Double in situ hybridization further demonstrated that PPARg was primarily expressed in neurons. Collectively, our observations provide a comprehensive map of PPARg distribution and regulation in the intact adult mouse hypothalamus.

  18. Activation of CB1 inhibits NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-Y; McDowell, T; Wang, P; Alvarez, R; Gomez, T; Bjorling, D E

    2014-09-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-containing afferent neurons convey nociceptive signals and play an essential role in pain sensation. Exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF) rapidly increases TRPV1 activity (sensitization). In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with the selective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) affects NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) afferent neurons. We found that CB1, NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (trkA), and TRPV1 are present in cultured adult mouse small- to medium-sized afferent neurons and treatment with NGF (100ng/ml) for 30 min significantly increased the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin (as indicated by increased intracellular Ca(2 +) concentration). Pretreatment with the CB1 agonist ACEA (10nM) inhibited the NGF-induced response, and this effect of ACEA was reversed by a selective CB1 antagonist. Further, pretreatment with ACEA inhibited NGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT. Blocking PI3 kinase activity also attenuated the NGF-induced increase in the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin. Our results indicate that the analgesic effect of CB1 activation may in part be due to inhibition of NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 and also that the effect of CB1 activation is at least partly mediated by attenuation of NGF-induced increased PI3 signaling.

  19. Modifications of hippocampal circuits and early disruption of adult neurogenesis in the tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Krezymon

    Full Text Available At advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease, cognitive dysfunction is accompanied by severe alterations of hippocampal circuits that may largely underlie memory impairments. However, it is likely that anatomical remodeling in the hippocampus may start long before any cognitive alteration is detected. Using the well-described Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease that develops progressive age-dependent amyloidosis and cognitive deficits, we examined whether specific stages of the disease were associated with the expression of anatomical markers of hippocampal dysfunction. We found that these mice develop a complex pattern of changes in their dentate gyrus with aging. Those include aberrant expression of neuropeptide Y and reduced levels of calbindin, reflecting a profound remodeling of inhibitory and excitatory circuits in the dentate gyrus. Preceding these changes, we identified severe alterations of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in Tg2576 mice. We gathered converging data in Tg2576 mice at young age, indicating impaired maturation of new neurons that may compromise their functional integration into hippocampal circuits. Thus, disruption of adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurred before network remodeling in this mouse model and therefore may account as an early event in the etiology of Alzheimer's pathology. Ultimately, both events may constitute key components of hippocampal dysfunction and associated cognitive deficits occurring in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  1. The satellite cell in male and female, developing and adult mouse muscle: distinct stem cells for growth and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Neal

    Full Text Available Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration.

  2. White Matter Integrity Declined Over 6-Months, but Dance Intervention Improved Integrity of the Fornix of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Jiao, Yuqin; Knecht, Anya M.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Tammy; Gothe, Neha; Voss, Michelle W.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of cerebral white matter (WM), or structural disconnection, is one of the major neural mechanisms driving age-related decline in cognitive functions, such as processing speed. Past cross-sectional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of greater cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, cognitive training, social engagement, and nutrition on cognitive functioning and brain health in aging. Here, we collected diffusion magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging data from 174 older (age 60–79) adults to study the effects of 6-months lifestyle interventions on WM integrity. Healthy but low-active participants were randomized into Dance, Walking, Walking + Nutrition, and Active Control (stretching and toning) intervention groups (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov). Only in the fornix there was a time × intervention group interaction of change in WM integrity: integrity declined over 6 months in all groups but increased in the Dance group. Integrity in the fornix at baseline was associated with better processing speed, however, change in fornix integrity did not correlate with change in processing speed. Next, we observed a decline in WM integrity across the majority of brain regions in all participants, regardless of the intervention group. This suggests that the aging of the brain is detectable on the scale of 6-months, which highlights the urgency of finding effective interventions to slow down this process. Magnitude of WM decline increased with age and decline in prefrontal WM was of lesser magnitude in older adults spending less time sedentary and more engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In addition, our findings support the anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser decline, but only in the in the corpus callosum. Together, our findings suggest that combining physical, cognitive, and social engagement (dance) may help maintain or improve WM health and more physically active lifestyle is associated with slower WM decline

  3. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  4. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  5. Selective depression of nociceptive responses of dorsal horn neurones by SNC 80 in a perfused hindquarter preparation of adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C Q; Hong, Y G; Dray, A; Perkins, M N

    2001-01-01

    Detailed electrophysiological characterisation of spinal opioid receptors in the mouse has been limited due to various technical difficulties. In this study, extracellular single unit recordings were made from dorsal horn neurones in a perfused spinal cord with attached trunk-hindquarter to investigate the role of delta-opioid receptor in mediating nociceptive and non-nociceptive transmission in mouse. Noxious electrical shock, pinch and heat stimuli evoked a mean response of 20.8+/-2.5 (n=10, PSNC 80) was perfused for 8-10 min, these evoked nociceptive responses were reversibly depressed. SNC 80 (2 microM) depressed the nociceptive responses evoked by electrical shock, pinch and heat by 74.0+/-13.7% (n=8, PSNC 80 was 92.6+/-6.8% (n=3). SNC 80 at 5 microM also completely abolished the wind-up and/or hypersensitivity (n=5). The depressant effects of SNC 80 on the nociceptive responses were completely blocked by 10 microM naloxone (n=5) and 3 microM 17-(cyclopropylmethyl)-6,7-dehydro-4,5 alpha-epoxy-14 beta-ethoxy-5 beta-methylindolo [2',3':6',7'] morphinan-3-ol hydrochloride (HS 378, n=8), a novel highly selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist. Interestingly, HS 378 (3 microM) itself potentiated the background activity and evoked responses to pinch and heat by 151.8+/-38.4% (PSNC 80 at a dose of up to 10 microM (n=5). These data demonstrate that delta-opioid receptor modulate nociceptive, but not non-nociceptive, transmission in spinal dorsal horn neurones of the adult mouse. The potentiation of neuronal activity by HS 378 may reflect an autoregulatory role of the endogenous delta-opioid in nociceptive transmission in mouse.

  6. Repair of liver mediated by adult mouse liver neuro-glia antigen 2-positive progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Siegel, Christopher T.; Shuai, Ling; Lai, Jiejuan; Zeng, Linli; Zhang, Yujun; Lai, Xiangdong; Bie, Ping; Bai, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    NG2-expressing cells are a population of periportal vascular stem/progenitors (MLpvNG2+ cells) that were isolated from healthy adult mouse liver by using a “Percoll-Plate-Wait” procedure. We demonstrated that isolated cells are able to restore liver function after transplantation into a cirrhotic liver, and co-localized with the pericyte marker (immunohistochemistry: PDGFR-β) and CK19. Cells were positive for: stem cell (Sca-1, CD133, Dlk) and liver stem cell markers (EpCAM, CD14, CD24, CD49f); and negative for: hematopoietic (CD34, CD45) and endothelial markers (CD31, vWf, von Willebrand factor). Cells were transplanted (1 × 106 cells) in mice with diethylnitrosamine-induced cirrhosis at week 6. Cells showed increased hepatic associated gene expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Albumin (Alb), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9), hepatic nuclear factors (HNF1a, HNF1β, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), Leucine-rich repeated-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5) and Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Cells showed decreased fibrogenesis, hepatic stellate cell infiltration, Kupffer cells and inflammatory cytokines. Liver function markers improved. In a cirrhotic liver environment, cells could differentiate into hepatic lineages. In addition, grafted MLpvNG2+ cells could mobilize endogenous stem/progenitors to participate in liver repair. These results suggest that MLpvNG2+ cells may be novel adult liver progenitors that participate in liver regeneration. PMID:26905303

  7. Stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise and enriched environment is disturbed in a CADASIL mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C.; Schreyer, S.; Kohrs, F. E.; Elhamoury, P.; Pfeffer, A.; Munder, T.; Steiner, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the course of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a dysregulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested as a potential mechanism for early cognitive decline. Previous work has shown that mice overexpressing wild type Notch3 and mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation display impaired cell proliferation and survival of newly born hippocampal neurons prior to vascular abnormalities. Here, we aimed to elucidate how the long-term survival of these newly generated neurons is regulated by Notch3. Knowing that adult neurogenesis can be robustly stimulated by physical exercise and environmental enrichment, we also investigated the influence of such stimuli as potential therapeutic instruments for a dysregulated hippocampal neurogenesis in the CADASIL mouse model. Therefore, young-adult female mice were housed in standard (STD), environmentally enriched (ENR) or running wheel cages (RUN) for either 28 days or 6 months. Mice overexpressing mutated Notch3 and developing CADASIL (TgN3R169C), and mice overexpressing wild type Notch3 (TgN3WT) were used. We found that neurogenic stimulation by RUN and ENR is apparently impaired in both transgenic lines. The finding suggests that a disturbed neurogenic process due to Notch3-dependent micromilieu changes might be one vascular-independent mechanism contributing to cognitive decline observed in CADASIL. PMID:28345617

  8. CLARITY and PACT-based imaging of adult zebrafish and mouse for whole-animal analysis of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Cronan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of infection and the associated host response has been challenging in adult vertebrates. Owing to their transparency, zebrafish larvae have been used to directly observe infection in vivo; however, such larvae have not yet developed a functional adaptive immune system. Cells involved in adaptive immunity mature later and have therefore been difficult to access optically in intact animals. Thus, the study of many aspects of vertebrate infection requires dissection of adult organs or ex vivo isolation of immune cells. Recently, CLARITY and PACT (passive clarity technique methodologies have enabled clearing and direct visualization of dissected organs. Here, we show that these techniques can be applied to image host-pathogen interactions directly in whole animals. CLARITY and PACT-based clearing of whole adult zebrafish and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mouse lungs enables imaging of mycobacterial granulomas deep within tissue to a depth of more than 1 mm. Using established transgenic lines, we were able to image normal and pathogenic structures and their surrounding host context at high resolution. We identified the three-dimensional organization of granuloma-associated angiogenesis, an important feature of mycobacterial infection, and characterized the induction of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF within the granuloma using an established fluorescent reporter line. We observed heterogeneity in TNF induction within granuloma macrophages, consistent with an evolving view of the tuberculous granuloma as a non-uniform, heterogeneous structure. Broad application of this technique will enable new understanding of host-pathogen interactions in situ.

  9. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OHD is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OHD concentrations. Serum 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OHD concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OHD concentration and serum 25(OHD concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01. Both SWAT and serum 25(OHD concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OHD3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OHD3 or serum 25(OHD after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OHD does not likely contribute to serum 25(OHD with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OHD and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  10. Emotional and neutral declarative memory impairments and associated white matter microstructural abnormalities in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Tsui, Wai; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Borod, Joan C; Convit, Antonio

    2009-12-30

    Declarative memory impairment is frequently reported among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who also demonstrate hippocampal volume reduction. Our goals were to ascertain whether emotional memory, which is mediated by neural circuits overlapping those of declarative memory, is also affected. In addition we wanted to characterize cerebral white matter (WM) involvement in T2DM. We studied 24 middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM who were free of obvious vascular pathology or a psychiatric disorder, and 17 age- and education-matched healthy individuals with no evidence of insulin resistance. We examined emotional and neutral memory and performed a whole-brain voxelwise WM assessment utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found clear evidence of impairment in declarative memory among diabetic subjects and in addition found some preliminary support to suggest a possible blunting of the memory facilitation by emotional material among female but not male diabetics. This report is also the first DTI assessment among individuals with T2DM, which after accounting for overt WM damage, revealed diffuse but predominantly frontal and temporal WM microstructural abnormalities, with extensive involvement of the temporal stem. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that immediate, but not delayed, emotional memory performance was explained by temporal stem FA, independent of age, poor metabolic regulation, and systolic blood pressure. Given that the temporal lobe memory networks appear to be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM, this may help explain the observed memory impairments among diabetics. Future efforts should better clarify, with a larger sample, whether emotional memory is affected in adults with T2DM and whether there are clear gender effects.

  11. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  12. The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Schrewe, Heinrich; Wakelam, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO) mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction. PMID:27658289

  13. DNA microarray-based experimental strategy for trustworthy expression profiling of the hippocampal genes by astaxanthin supplementation in adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Soo Yook

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring astaxantin (ASX is one of the noticeable carotenoid and dietary supplement, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and neuroprotective effects in the brain through crossing the blood–brain barrier. Specially, we are interested in the role of ASX as a brain food. Although ASX has been suggested to have potential benefit to the brain function, the underlying molecular mechanisms and events mediating such effect remain unknown. Here we examined molecular factors in the hippocampus of adult mouse fed ASX diets (0.1% and 0.5% doses using DNA microarray (Agilent 4 × 44 K whole mouse genome chip analysis. In this study, we described in detail our experimental workflow and protocol, and validated quality controls with the housekeeping gene expression (Gapdh and Beta-actin on the dye-swap based approach to advocate our microarray data, which have been uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE62197 as a gene resource for the scientific community. This data will also form an important basis for further detailed experiments and bioinformatics analysis with an aim to unravel the potential molecular pathways or mechanisms underlying the positive effects of ASX supplementation on the brain, in particular the hippocampus.

  14. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V; Yoon, Jin H; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-12-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages.

  15. LOCALIZATION OF TRANSCRIPTS OF THE RELATED NUCLEAR ORPHAN RECEPTORS COUP-TF-I AND ARP-1 IN THE ADULT-MOUSE BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DASILVA, SL; COX, JJ; JONK, LJC; KRUIJER, W; BURBACH, JPH

    1995-01-01

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor, COUP-TF I, and the protein ARP-1 (COUP-TF II) are two highly homologous orphan receptors of the nuclear hormone receptor family. In this study we investigated their expression patterns in the adult nervous system of the mouse. In situ hyb

  16. Zinc absorption in adult men from a chicken sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, measured by a double-label stable-isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, S J; Fox, T E; Wharf, S G; Eagles, J; Kennedy, H

    1992-05-01

    Eleven fasted adult men consumed a chicken meat sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, extrinsically labelled with 2 mg 67Zn, on two different occasions. Immediately after eating the sandwich they were given an intravenous injection of 1.5 mg 70Zn. True Zn absorption (which was approximately 7% higher than apparent absorption) was determined by the faecal balance technique by making an allowance for endogenous excretion from measurements of faecal excretion of 70Zn. There was no significant difference in mean true Zn absorption from the white or wholemeal bread sandwich, 33.6 and 25.4% respectively. It was concluded that the substitution of wholemeal for white bread does not reduce Zn absorption from meat-based sandwiches.

  17. Two distinct subpopulations of nestin-positive cells in adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Kato, Fusao; Tozuka, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yusei; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro

    2003-10-15

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus has been proven in a series of studies, but the differentiation process toward newborn neurons is still unclear. In addition to the immunohistochemical study, electrophysiological membrane recordings of precursor cells could provide an alternative view to address this differentiation process. In this study, we performed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-guided selective recordings of nestin-positive progenitor cells in adult dentate gyrus by means of nestin-promoter GFP transgenic mice, because nestin is a typical marker for precursor cells in the adult dentate gyrus. The patch-clamp recordings clearly demonstrated the presence of two distinct subpopulations (type I and type II) of nestin-positive cells. Type I cells had a lower input resistance value of 77.1 M(Omega) (geometric mean), and their radial processes were stained with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. On the other hand, type II nestin-positive cells had a higher input resistance value of 2110 MOmega and expressed voltage-dependent sodium current. In most cases, type II cells were stained with anti-polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. Taken together with a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase analysis, our results may reflect a rapid and dynamic cell conversion of nestin-positive progenitor, from type I to type II, at an early stage of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  18. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    neurogenesis. Quantitative analysis of bromodeoxyuridine labeled cells revealed altered proliferation in the SVZ and NPC migration after in situ MPIO injection. From the labeling strategies presented in this report, intraventricular injection of a small number of MPIOs combined with the transfection agent poly...... the impact on adult neurogenesis when new in situ labeling strategies are developed....

  19. Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in mature granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohira, Koji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell differentiation, but also crucially regulate the progression of cell differentiation. Here, we describe a gene, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO, whose expression distinguishes stem cells from more differentiated cells among the granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus. The use of markers for proliferation, neural progenitors, and immature and mature granule cells indicated that TDO was expressed in mature cells and in some immature cells. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, TDO immunoreactivity was substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. Moreover, a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling experiment revealed that new neurons began to express TDO between 2 and 4 wk after the neurons were generated, when the axons and dendrites of the granule cells developed and synaptogenesis occurred. These findings indicate that TDO might be required at a late-stage of granule cell development, such as during axonal and dendritic growth, synaptogenesis and its maturation.

  20. Cardiomyocyte proliferation and progenitor cell recruitment underlie therapeutic regeneration after myocardial infarction in the adult mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaras, Konstantinos; Zhang, Yiqiang; Seinfeld, Jeffrey; Galang, Giselle; Tseliou, Eleni; Cheng, Ke; Sun, Baiming; Aminzadeh, Mohammad; Marbán, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) have been shown to regenerate infarcted myocardium in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether the cells of the newly formed myocardium originate from the proliferation of adult cardiomyocytes or from the differentiation of endogenous stem cells remains unknown. Using genetic fate mapping to mark resident myocytes in combination with long-term BrdU pulsing, we investigated the origins of postnatal cardiomyogenesis in the normal, infarcted and cell-treated adult mammalian heart. In the normal mouse heart, cardiomyocyte turnover occurs predominantly through proliferation of resident cardiomyocytes at a rate of ∼1.3-4%/year. After MI, new cardiomyocytes arise from both progenitors as well as pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Transplantation of CDCs upregulates host cardiomyocyte cycling and recruitment of endogenous progenitors, while boosting heart function and increasing viable myocardium. The observed phenomena cannot be explained by cardiomyocyte polyploidization, bi/multinucleation, cell fusion or DNA repair. Thus, CDCs induce myocardial regeneration by differentially upregulating two mechanisms of endogenous cell proliferation.

  1. Expression of the Argonaute protein PiwiL2 and piRNAs in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiuling; Ma, Qi; Shehadeh, Lina A.; Wilson, Amber; Xia, Linghui; Yu, Hong [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Webster, Keith A., E-mail: kwebster@med.miami.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Piwi (P-element-induced wimpy testis) first discovered in Drosophila is a member of the Argonaute family of micro-RNA binding proteins with essential roles in germ-cell development. The murine homologue of PiwiL2, also known as Mili is selectively expressed in the testes, and mice bearing targeted mutations of the PiwiL2 gene are male-sterile. PiwiL2 proteins are thought to protect the germ line genome by suppressing retrotransposons, stabilizing heterochromatin structure, and regulating target genes during meiosis and mitosis. Here, we report that PiwiL2 and associated piRNAs (piRs) may play similar roles in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells. We found that PiwiL2 is expressed in the cytoplasm of metaphase mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow of adult and aged mice. Knockdown of PiwiL2 with a specific siRNA enhanced cell proliferation, significantly increased the number of cells in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phases and was associated with increased expression of cell cycle genes CCND1, CDK8, microtubule regulation genes, and decreased expression of tumor suppressors Cables 1, LATS, and Cxxc4. The results suggest broader roles for Piwi in genome surveillance beyond the germ line and a possible role in regulating the cell cycle of mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. The developmental regulator Pax6 is essential for maintenance of islet cell function in the adult mouse pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W Hart

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Pax6 is a developmental regulator with a crucial role in development of the eye, brain, and olfactory system. Pax6 is also required for correct development of the endocrine pancreas and specification of hormone producing endocrine cell types. Glucagon-producing cells are almost completely lost in Pax6-null embryos, and insulin-expressing beta and somatostatin-expressing delta cells are reduced. While the developmental role of Pax6 is well-established, investigation of a further role for Pax6 in the maintenance of adult pancreatic function is normally precluded due to neonatal lethality of Pax6-null mice. Here a tamoxifen-inducible ubiquitous Cre transgene was used to inactivate Pax6 at 6 months of age in a conditional mouse model to assess the effect of losing Pax6 function in adulthood. The effect on glucose homeostasis and the expression of key islet cell markers was measured. Homozygous Pax6 deletion mice, but not controls, presented with all the symptoms of classical diabetes leading to severe weight loss requiring termination of the experiment five weeks after first tamoxifen administration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the pancreata revealed almost complete loss of Pax6 and much reduced expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Several other markers of islet cell function were also affected. Notably, strong upregulation in the number of ghrelin-expressing endocrine cells was observed. These findings demonstrate that Pax6 is essential for adult maintenance of glucose homeostasis and function of the endocrine pancreas.

  3. Histopathologic characterization of the BTBR mouse model of autistic-like behavior reveals selective changes in neurodevelopmental proteins and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Diane T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inbred mouse strain BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR exhibits behavioral deficits that mimic the core deficits of autism. Neuroanatomically, the BTBR strain is also characterized by a complete absence of the corpus callosum. The goal of this study was to identify novel molecular and cellular changes in the BTBR mouse, focusing on neuronal, synaptic, glial and plasticity markers in the limbic system as a model for identifying putative molecular and cellular substrates associated with autistic behaviors. Methods Forebrains of 8 to 10-week-old male BTBR and age-matched C57Bl/6J control mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using free-floating and paraffin embedded sections. Twenty antibodies directed against antigens specific to neurons, synapses and glia were used. Nissl, Timm and acetylcholinesterase (AchE stains were performed to assess cytoarchitecture, mossy fibers and cholinergic fiber density, respectively. In the hippocampus, quantitative stereological estimates for the mitotic marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU were performed to determine hippocampal progenitor proliferation, survival and differentiation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA was quantified by in situ hybridization. Quantitative image analysis was performed for NG2, doublecortin (DCX, NeuroD, GAD67 and Poly-Sialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM. Results In midline structures including the region of the absent corpus callosum of BTBR mice, the myelin markers 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase and myelin basic protein (MBP were reduced, and the oligodendrocyte precursor NG2 was increased. MBP and CNPase were expressed in small ectopic white matter bundles within the cingulate cortex. Microglia and astrocytes showed no evidence of gliosis, yet orientations of glial fibers were altered in specific white-matter areas. In the hippocampus, evidence of reduced neurogenesis included significant reductions in the number of

  4. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  5. Microglial cells in organotypic cultures of developing and adult mouse retina and their relationship with cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M; Martín-Oliva, David; Sierra, Ana; Carrasco, Maria-Carmen; Martín-Estebané, María; Calvente, Ruth; Marín-Teva, José L; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A

    2014-04-01

    Organotypic cultures of retinal explants allow the detailed analysis of microglial cells in a cellular microenvironment similar to that in the in situ retina, with the advantage of easy experimental manipulation. However, the in vitro culture causes changes in the retinal cytoarchitecture and induces a microglial response that may influence the results of these manipulations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the retinal age on changes in retinal cytoarchitecture, cell viability and death, and microglial phenotype and distribution throughout the in vitro culture of developing and adult retina explants. Explants from developing (3 and 10 postnatal days, P3 and P10) and adult (P60) mouse retinas were cultured for up to 10 days in vitro (div). Dead or dying cells were recognized by TUNEL staining, cell viability was determined by flow cytometry, and the numbers and distribution patterns of microglial cells were studied by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The retinal cytoarchitecture was better preserved at prolonged culture times (10 div) in P10 retina explants than in P3 or adult explants. Particular patterns of cell viability and death were observed at each age: in general, explants from developing retinas showed higher cell viability and lower density of TUNEL-positive profiles versus adult retinas. The proportion of microglial cells relative to the whole population of retinal cells was higher in explants fixed immediately after their dissection (i.e., non-cultured) from adult retinas than in those from developing retinas. This proportion was always higher in non-cultured explants than in explants at 10 div, suggesting the death of some microglial cells during the culture. Activation of microglial cells, as revealed by their phenotypical appearance, was observed in both developing and adult retina explants from the beginning of the culture. Immunofluorescence with the anti-CD68 antibody showed that some activated

  6. Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from adult mouse adipose, muscle, and fetal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hulong; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Yang, Xuerong; Liu, Zehui; Mao, Xiangbing; Tian, Gang; He, Jun; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Chen, Daiwen

    2013-02-01

    Recently, increasing evidence supports that adult stem cells are the part of a natural system for tissue growth and repair. This study focused on the differences of mesenchymal stem cells from adult adipose (ADSCs), skeletal muscle (MDSCs) and fetal muscle (FMSCs) in biological characteristics, which is the key to cell therapy success. Stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) expression of MDSCs and FMSCs at passage 3 was two times more than that at passage 1 (P cells (P fetal muscle expressed higher OCN and OPN than ADSCs after 28 days osteogenic induction (P cell source and developmental stage had great impacts on biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells, and proper consideration of all the issues is necessary.

  7. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is ...

  8. Characterization and isolation of immature neurons of the adult mouse piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Belles, M; Belenguer, G; Vidueira, S; Fariñas, I; Nacher, J

    2016-07-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the piriform or primary olfactory cortex of adult mammals exhibits a high degree of synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, a subpopulation of cells in the layer II of the adult piriform cortex expresses neurodevelopmental markers, such as the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) or doublecortin (DCX). This study analyzes the nature, origin, and potential function of these poorly understood cells in mice. As previously described in rats, most of the PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II could be morphologically classified as tangled cells and only a small proportion of larger cells could be considered semilunar-pyramidal transitional neurons. Most were also immunoreactive for DCX, confirming their immature nature. In agreement with this, detection of PSA-NCAM combined with that of different cell lineage-specific antigens revealed that most PSA-NCAM positive cells did not co-express markers of glial cells or mature neurons. Their time of origin was evaluated by birthdating experiments with halogenated nucleosides performed at different developmental stages and in adulthood. We found that virtually all cells in this paleocortical region, including PSA-NCAM-positive cells, are born during fetal development. In addition, proliferation analyses in adult mice revealed that very few cells were cycling in layer II of the piriform cortex and that none of them was PSA-NCAM-positive. Moreover, we have established conditions to isolate and culture these immature neurons in the adult piriform cortex layer II. We find that although they can survive under certain conditions, they do not proliferate in vitro either. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 748-763, 2016.

  9. Impaired adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Zacharias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder linked to expanded CAG-triplet nucleotide repeats within the huntingtin gene. Intracellular huntingtin aggregates are present in neurons of distinct brain areas, among them regions of adult neurogenesis including the hippocampus and the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system. Previously, reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been detected in transgenic rodent models of HD. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutant huntingtin also affects newly generated neurons derived from the subventricular zone of adult R6/2 HD mice. Results We observed a redirection of immature neuroblasts towards the striatum, however failed to detect new mature neurons. We further analyzed adult neurogenesis in the granular cell layer and the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the physiological target region of subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Using bromodeoxyuridine to label proliferating cells, we observed in both neurogenic regions of the olfactory bulb a reduction in newly generated neurons. Conclusion These findings suggest that the striatal environment, severely affected in R6/2 mice, is capable of attracting neuroblasts, however this region fails to provide sufficient signals for neuronal maturation. Moreover, in transgenic R6/2 animals, the hostile huntingtin-associated microenvironment in the olfactory bulb interferes with the survival and integration of new mature neurons. Taken together, endogenous cell repair strategies in HD may require additional factors for the differentiation and survival of newly generated neurons both in neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushaj, Entela B., E-mail: lushaj@surgery.wisc.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  11. Changes in the neural representation of odorants after olfactory deprivation in the adult mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Pottackal, Joseph; Turkel, Daniel J; McGann, John P

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensory deprivation during development has been shown to induce significant alterations in the neurophysiology of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the primary sensory inputs to the brain's olfactory bulb. Deprivation has also been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the adult olfactory system, but the physiological consequences of these changes are poorly understood. Here we used in vivo synaptopHluorin (spH) imaging to visualize odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from ORNs in adult transgenic mice that underwent 4 weeks of unilateral olfactory deprivation. Deprivation reduced odorant-evoked spH signals compared with sham-occluded mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was equivalent between ORNs on the open and plugged sides. Changes in odorant selectivity of glomerular subpopulations of ORNs were also observed, but only in ORNs on the open side of deprived mice. These results suggest that naris occlusion in adult mice produces substantial changes in primary olfactory processing which may reflect not only the decrease in olfactory stimulation on the occluded side but also the alteration of response properties on the intact side. We also observed a modest effect of true sham occlusions that included noseplug insertion and removal, suggesting that conventional noseplug techniques may have physiological effects independent of deprivation per se and thus require more careful controls than has been previously appreciated.

  12. Black and White Children's Perceptions of the Intent and Values in Specific Adult and Child Oriented Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Thomas R.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of television advertising on different types of children--specifically, the cognitive responses and extra-product expectations fostered by television commercials in both white and black children. The subjects, 52 middle-class white children and 30 inner-city black children ranging in age from…

  13. Olfactory Discrimination Training Up-Regulates and Reorganizes Expression of MicroRNAs in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Smalheiser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice (strain C57Bl/6J were trained to execute nose-poke responses for water reinforcement; then they were randomly assigned to either of two groups: Olfactory discrimination training (exposed to two odours with reward contingent upon correctly responding to one odour or pseudo-training (exposed to two odours with reward not contingent upon response. These were run in yoked fashion and killed when the discrimination-trained mouse reached a learning criterion of 70% correct responses in 20 trials, occurring after three sessions (a total of ~40 min of training. The hippocampus was dissected bilaterally from each mouse (N=7 in each group and profiling of 585 miRNAs (microRNAs was carried out using multiplex RT–PCR (reverse transcription–PCR plates. A significant global up-regulation of miRNA expression was observed in the discrimination training versus pseudo-training comparison; when tested individually, 29 miRNAs achieved significance at P=0.05. miR-10a showed a 2.7-fold increase with training, and is predicted to target several learning-related mRNAs including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CAMK2b (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ, CREB1 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein 1 and ELAVL2 [ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like; Hu B]. Analysis of miRNA pairwise correlations revealed the existence of several miRNA co-expression modules that were specific to the training group. These in vivo results indicate that significant, dynamic and co-ordinated changes in miRNA expression accompany early stages of learning.

  14. Diffusion and ADC-map images detect ongoing demyelination on subcortical white matter in an adult metachromatic leukodystrophy patient with autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akiko; Kumabe, Yuri; Kimura, En; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ueda, Akihiko; Hirano, Teruyuki; Uchino, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    Adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) often shows schizophrenia- or encephalopathy-like symptoms at an early stage, such as behavioural abnormalities, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and hallucinations. The authors report the case of an adult woman with MLD who had been given antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia. In the differential diagnosis, screening of auto-antibodies was important for ruling out other encephalopathies as she had a euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis. Diagnosis was based the results of MRI, nerve conduction velocity, sensory evoked potential, motor evoked potential, lysosomal enzyme activity and gene analysis studies. Brain MRI showed diffuse demyelination spreading from the deep white matter to subcortical area as high signals at the edges of these lesions in diffusion and apparent diffusion coefficient-map images with the U-fibres conserved. The authors diagnosed adult-onset MLD coexisting with euthyroid autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  15. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  16. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Monica R P; Lee, Rafael J; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  17. Reduced Glutamate Release in Adult BTBR Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Ma, Yuehong; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Liu, Jianrong; Chang, Qiaoqiao; Hu, Fengyun; Yu, Li

    2016-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. The BTBR T (+) Itpr3 (tf) (BTBR) mice have emerged as a well characterized and widely used mouse model of a range of ASD-like phenotype, showing deficiencies in social behaviors and unusual ultrasonic vocalizations as well as increased repetitive self-grooming. However, the inherited neurobiological changes that lead to ASD-like behaviors in these mice are incompletely known and still under active investigation. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the structure and neurotransmitter release of the glutamatergic synapse in BTBR mice. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used as a control strain because of their high level of sociability. The important results showed that the evoked glutamate release in the cerebral cortex of BTBR mice was significantly lower than in B6 mice. And the level of vesicle docking-related protein Syntaxin-1A was reduced in BTBR mice. However, no significant changes were observed in the number of glutamatergic synapse, level of synaptic proteins, density of dendritic spine and postsynaptic density between BTBR mice and B6 mice. Overall, our results suggest that abnormal vesicular glutamate activity may underlie the ASD relevant pathology in the BTBR mice.

  18. Pharmacological rescue of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a mouse model of X-linked intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Manuela; Spalletti, Cristina; Vignoli, Beatrice; Azzimondi, Stefano; Busti, Irene; Billuart, Pierre; Canossa, Marco; Caleo, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a Rho GTPase activating protein whose mutations cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). How loss of function of Ophn1 affects neuronal development is only partly understood. Here we have exploited adult hippocampal neurogenesis to dissect the steps of neuronal differentiation that are affected by Ophn1 deletion. We found that mice lacking Ophn1 display a reduction in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. A significant fraction of the Ophn1-deficient newly generated neurons failed to extend an axon towards CA3, and showed an altered density of dendritic protrusions. Since Ophn1-deficient mice display overactivation of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, we administered a clinically approved ROCK/PKA inhibitor (fasudil) to correct the neurogenesis defects. While administration of fasudil was not effective in rescuing axon formation, the same treatment completely restored spine density to control levels, and enhanced the long-term survival of adult-born neurons in mice lacking Ophn1. These results identify specific neurodevelopmental steps that are impacted by Ophn1 deletion, and indicate that they may be at least partially corrected by pharmacological treatment.

  19. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  20. A fluid secretion pathway unmasked by acinar-specific Tmem16A gene ablation in the adult mouse salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Choi, Sooji; Crandall, Edward; Borok, Zea; Flodby, Per; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-02-17

    Activation of an apical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) triggers the secretion of saliva. It was previously demonstrated that CaCC-mediated Cl(-) current and Cl(-) efflux are absent in the acinar cells of systemic Tmem16A (Tmem16A Cl(-) channel) null mice, but salivation was not assessed in fully developed glands because Tmem16A null mice die within a few days after birth. To test the role of Tmem16A in adult salivary glands, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking Tmem16A in acinar cells (Tmem16A(-/-)). Ca(2+)-dependent salivation was abolished in Tmem16A(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Tmem16A is obligatory for Ca(2+)-mediated fluid secretion. However, the amount of saliva secreted by Tmem16A(-/-) mice in response to the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (IPR) was comparable to that seen in controls, indicating that Tmem16A does not significantly contribute to cAMP-induced secretion. Furthermore, IPR-stimulated secretion was unaffected in mice lacking Cftr (Cftr(∆F508/∆F508)) or ClC-2 (Clcn2(-/-)) Cl(-) channels. The time course for activation of IPR-stimulated fluid secretion closely correlated with that of the IPR-induced cell volume increase, suggesting that acinar swelling may activate a volume-sensitive Cl(-) channel. Indeed, Cl(-) channel blockers abolished fluid secretion, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity is critical for IPR-stimulated secretion. These data suggest that β-adrenergic-induced, cAMP-dependent fluid secretion involves a volume-regulated anion channel. In summary, our results using acinar-specific Tmem16A(-/-) mice identify Tmem16A as the Cl(-) channel essential for muscarinic, Ca(2+)-dependent fluid secretion in adult mouse salivary glands.

  1. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwid, Samantha; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offsprings were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females; (2) although BPA elevated plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes, it stimulated the expression of StAR and cyp11A1, the two rate-limiting factors in the steroidogenic pathway, only in female adrenal glands; and interestingly (3) BPA did not alter plasma ACTH levels or adrenal expression of the key steroidogenic transcription factor SF-1 in either sex. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the long-term consequences of developmental BPA exposure on adrenal steroidogenesis.

  2. Build a better mouse: directly-observed issues in computer use for adults with SMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Schensul, Jean J; Bowen, Anne M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-03-01

    Integrating information technology into healthcare has the potential to bring treatment to hard-to-reach people. Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), however, may derive limited benefit from these advances in care because of lack of computer ownership and experience. To date, conclusions about the computer skills and attitudes of adults with SMI have been based primarily on self-report. In the current study, 28 psychiatric outpatients with co-occurring cocaine use were interviewed about their computer use and opinions, and 25 were then directly observed using task analysis and think aloud methods as they navigated a multi-component health informational website. Participants reported low rates of computer ownership and use, and negative attitudes towards computers. Self-reported computer skills were higher than demonstrated in the task analysis. However, some participants spontaneously expressed more positive attitudes and greater computer self-efficacy after navigating the website. Implications for increasing access to computer-based health information are discussed.

  3. Multiple Retinal Axons Converge onto Relay Cells in the Adult Mouse Thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hammer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent refinement of neural circuits is a fundamental principle of neural development. This process has been well studied at retinogeniculate synapses—synapses that form between retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and relay cells within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Physiological studies suggest that shortly after birth, inputs from ∼20 RGCs converge onto relay cells. Subsequently, all but just one to two of these inputs are eliminated. Despite widespread acceptance, this notion is at odds with ultrastructural studies showing numerous retinal terminals clustering onto relay cell dendrites in the adult. Here, we explored this discrepancy using brainbow AAVs and serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM. Results with both approaches demonstrate that terminals from numerous RGCs cluster onto relay cell dendrites, challenging the notion that only one to two RGCs innervate each relay cell. These findings force us to re-evaluate our understanding of subcortical visual circuitry.

  4. Comparative analysis of the expression profile of Wnk1 and Wnk1/Hsn2 splice variants in developing and adult mouse tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shekarabi

    Full Text Available The With No lysine (K family of serine/threonine kinase (WNK defines a small family of kinases with significant roles in ion homeostasis. WNK1 has been shown to have different isoforms due to what seems to be largely tissue specific splicing. Here, we used two distinct in situ hybridization riboprobes on developing and adult mouse tissues to make a comparative analysis of Wnk1 and its sensory associated splice isoform, Wnk1/Hsn2. The hybridization signals in developing mouse tissues, which were prepared at embryonic day e10.5 and e12.5, revealed a homogenous expression profile with both probes. At e15.5 and in the newborn mouse, the two probes revealed different expression profiles with prominent signals in nervous system tissues and also other tissues such as kidney, thymus and testis. In adult mouse tissues, the two expression profiles appeared even more restricted to the nervous tissues, kidney, thymus and testis, with no detectable signal in the other tissues. Throughout the nervous system, sensory tissues, as well as in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, were strongly labeled with both probes. Hybridization signals were also strongly detected in Schwann and supporting satellite cells. Our results show that the expression profiles of Wnk1 isoforms change during the development, and that the expression of the Wnk1 splice variant containing the Hsn2 exon is prominent during developing and in adult mouse tissues, suggesting its important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system.

  5. Biodegradation of the ZnO:Eu nanoparticles in the tissues of adult mouse after alimentary application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbik, Paula; Kaszewski, Jaroslaw; Rosowska, Julita; Wolska, Ewelina; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S; Gralak, Mikolaj A; Gajewski, Zdzisław; Godlewski, Marek; Godlewski, Michal M

    2016-11-21

    Biodegradable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered promising materials for future biomedical applications. To fulfil this potential, biodistribution and elimination patterns of ZnO NPs in the living organism need to be resolved. In order to investigate gastrointestinal absorption of ZnO NPs and their intra-organism distribution, water suspension of ZnO or fluorescent ZnO:Eu (Europium-doped zinc oxide) NPs (10mg/ml; 0.3ml/mouse) was alimentary-administered (IG: intra-gastric) to adult mice. Internal organs collected at key time-points after IG were evaluated by AAS for Zn concentration and analysed by cytometric techniques. We found that Zn-based NPs were readily absorbed and distributed (3 h post IG) in the nanoparticle form throughout the organism. Results suggest, that liver and kidneys were key organs responsible for NPs elimination, while accumulation was observed in the spleen and adipose tissues. We also showed that ZnO/ZnO:Eu NPs were able to cross majority of biological barriers in the organism (including blood-brain-barrier).

  6. Enhanced adult neurogenesis increases brain stiffness: in vivo magnetic resonance elastography in a mouse model of dopamine depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Klein

    Full Text Available The mechanical network of the brain is a major contributor to neural health and has been recognized by in vivo magnetic resonance elastography (MRE to be highly responsive to diseases. However, until now only brain softening was observed and no mechanism was known that reverses the common decrement of neural elasticity during aging or disease. We used MRE in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP mouse model for dopaminergic neurodegeneration as observed in Parkinson's disease (PD to study the mechanical response of the brain on adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a robust correlate of neuronal plasticity in healthy and injured brain. We observed a steep transient rise in elasticity within the hippocampal region of up to over 50% six days after MPTP treatment correlating with increased neuronal density in the dentate gyrus, which could not be detected in healthy controls. Our results provide the first indication that new neurons reactively generated following neurodegeneration substantially contribute to the mechanical scaffold of the brain. Diagnostic neuroimaging may thus target on regions of the brain displaying symptomatically elevated elasticity values for the detection of neuronal plasticity following neurodegeneration.

  7. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity.

  8. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  9. Plasticity of astrocytic coverage and glutamate transporter expression in adult mouse cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Genoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play a major role in the removal of glutamate from the extracellular compartment. This clearance limits the glutamate receptor activation and affects the synaptic response. This function of the astrocyte is dependent on its positioning around the synapse, as well as on the level of expression of its high-affinity glutamate transporters, GLT1 and GLAST. Using Western blot analysis and serial section electron microscopy, we studied how a change in sensory activity affected these parameters in the adult cortex. Using mice, we found that 24 h of whisker stimulation elicited a 2-fold increase in the expression of GLT1 and GLAST in the corresponding cortical column of the barrel cortex. This returns to basal levels 4 d after the stimulation was stopped, whereas the expression of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 remained unaltered throughout. Ultrastructural analysis from the same region showed that sensory stimulation also causes a significant increase in the astrocytic envelopment of excitatory synapses on dendritic spines. We conclude that a period of modified neuronal activity and synaptic release of glutamate leads to an increased astrocytic coverage of the bouton-spine interface and an increase in glutamate transporter expression in astrocytic processes.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jordan, Lori [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Khaykin, Elizabeth [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Izbudak, Izlem [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  11. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. Objective To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Design Preliminary cohort study. Methods We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. Results We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001) with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). Conclusions These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer. PMID:28060910

  12. Cognitive deficits are associated with frontal and temporal lobe white matter lesions in middle-aged adults living in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bunce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in old age is well established. However, little is known about this association in midlife. As this information will inform policy for early preventative healthcare initiatives, we investigated non-periventricular frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe white matter hyperintensities (WMH in relation to cognitive function in 428 (232 women community-dwelling adults aged 44 to 48 years. RESULTS: Frontal white matter lesions were significantly associated with greater intraindividual RT variability in women, while temporal WMH were associated with face recognition deficits in men. Parietal and occipital lobe lesions were unrelated to cognitive performance. These findings did not differ when education and a range of health variables, including vascular risk factors, were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Gender differences in WMH-cognition associations are discussed, and we conclude that small vessel disease is present in midlife and has functional consequences which are generally not recognized. Preventative strategies should, therefore, begin early in life.

  13. Synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated currents in anterior piriform cortex are reduced in the adult fragile X mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocel, James; Larson, John

    2012-09-27

    Fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by the transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse exhibits age-dependent deficits in long term potentiation (LTP) at association (ASSN) synapses in anterior piriform cortex (APC). To investigate the mechanisms for this, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of ASSN stimulation-evoked synaptic currents were made in APC of slices from adult Fmr1-KO and wild-type (WT) mice, using the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, CPP, to distinguish currents mediated by NMDA and AMPA receptors. NMDA/AMPA current ratios were lower in Fmr1-KO mice than in WT mice, at ages ranging from 3-18months. Since amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) mediated by AMPA receptors were no different in Fmr1-KO and WT mice at these ages, the results suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated currents are selectively reduced in Fmr1-KO mice. Analyses of voltage-dependence and decay kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated currents did not reveal differences between Fmr1-KO and WT mice, suggesting that reduced NMDA currents in Fmr1-KO mice are due to fewer synaptic receptors rather than differences in receptor subunit composition. Reduced NMDA receptor signaling may help to explain the LTP deficit seen at APC ASSN synapses in Fmr1-KO mice at 6-18months of age, but does not explain normal LTP at these synapses in mice 3-6months old. Evoked currents and mEPSCs were also examined in senescent Fmr1-KO and WT mice at 24-28months of age. NMDA/AMPA ratios were similar in senescent WT and Fmr1-KO mice, due to a decrease in the ratio in the WT mice, without significant change in AMPA receptor-mediated mEPSCs.

  14. Comparative analysis of the frequency and distribution of stem and progenitor cells in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Mohammad G; Blackmore, Daniel G; Large, Beatrice; Azari, Hassan; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Paxinos, George; Franklin, Keith B J; Reynolds, Brent A; Rietze, Rodney L

    2008-04-01

    The neurosphere assay can detect and expand neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitor cells, but it cannot discriminate between these two populations. Given two assays have purported to overcome this shortfall, we performed a comparative analysis of the distribution and frequency of NSCs and progenitor cells detected in 400 mum coronal segments along the ventricular neuraxis of the adult mouse brain using the neurosphere assay, the neural colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), and label-retaining cell (LRC) approach. We observed a large variation in the number of progenitor/stem cells detected in serial sections along the neuraxis, with the number of neurosphere-forming cells detected in individual 400 mum sections varying from a minimum of eight to a maximum of 891 depending upon the rostral-caudal coordinate assayed. Moreover, the greatest variability occurred in the rostral portion of the lateral ventricles, thereby explaining the large variation in neurosphere frequency previously reported. Whereas the overall number of neurospheres (3730 +/- 276) or colonies (4275 +/- 124) we detected along the neuraxis did not differ significantly, LRC numbers were significantly reduced (1186 +/- 188, 7 month chase) in comparison to both total colonies and neurospheres. Moreover, approximately two orders of magnitude fewer NSC-derived colonies (50 +/- 10) were detected using the N-CFCA as compared to LRCs. Given only 5% of the LRCs are cycling (BrdU+/Ki-67+) or competent to divide (BrdU+/Mcm-2+), and proliferate upon transfer to culture, it is unclear whether this technique selectively detects endogenous NSCs. Overall, caution should be taken with the interpretation and employment of all these techniques.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis and dynamic vascular plasticity in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Mannari, Tetsuya; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Wanaka, Akio; Miyata, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    The sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), which comprise the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the area postrema (AP), lack a typical blood-brain barrier (BBB) and monitor directly blood-derived information to regulate body fluid homeostasis, inflammation, feeding and vomiting. Until now, almost nothing has been documented about vascular features of the sensory CVOs except fenestration of vascular endothelial cells. We therefore examine whether continuous angiogenesis occurs in the sensory CVOs of adult mouse. The angiogenesis-inducing factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and the VEGF-A-regulating transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were highly expressed in neurons of the OVLT and SFO and in both neurons and astrocytes of the AP. Expression of the pericyte-regulating factor platelet-derived growth factor B was high in astrocytes of the sensory CVOs. Immunohistochemistry of bromodeoxyuridine and Ki-67, a nuclear protein that is associated with cellular proliferation, revealed active proliferation of endothelial cells. Moreover, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 and the basement membrane marker laminin showed the presence of apoptosis and sprouting of endothelial cells, respectively. Treatment with the VEGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 significantly reduced proliferation and filopodia sprouting of endothelial cells, as well as the area and diameter of microvessels. The mitotic inhibitor cytosine-b-D-arabinofuranoside reduced proliferation of endothelial cells and the vascular permeability of blood-derived low-molecular-weight molecules without changing vascular area and microvessel diameter. Thus, our data indicate that continuous angiogenesis is dependent on VEGF signaling and responsible for the dynamic plasticity of vascular structure and permeability.

  16. In Vivo 3D Digital Atlas Database of the Adult C57BL/6J Mouse Brain by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Smith, David; Hof, Patrick R; Foerster, Bernd; Hamilton, Scott; Blackband, Stephen J; Yu, Mei; Benveniste, Helene

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a 3D digital atlas of the live mouse brain based on magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) is presented. C57BL/6J adult mouse brains were imaged in vivo on a 9.4 Tesla MR instrument at an isotropic spatial resolution of 100 mum. With sufficient signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), 20 brain regions were identified. Several atlases were constructed including 12 individual brain atlases, an average atlas, a probabilistic atlas and average geometrical deformation maps. We also investigated the feasibility of using lower spatial resolution images to improve time efficiency for future morphological phenotyping. All of the new in vivo data were compared to previous published in vitro C57BL/6J mouse brain atlases and the morphological differences were characterized. Our analyses revealed significant volumetric as well as unexpected geometrical differences between the in vivo and in vitro brain groups which in some instances were predictable (e.g. collapsed and smaller ventricles in vitro) but not in other instances. Based on these findings we conclude that although in vitro datasets, compared to in vivo images, offer higher spatial resolutions, superior SNR and CNR, leading to improved image segmentation, in vivo atlases are likely to be an overall better geometric match for in vivo studies, which are necessary for longitudinal examinations of the same animals and for functional brain activation studies. Thus the new in vivo mouse brain atlas dataset presented here is a valuable complement to the current mouse brain atlas collection and will be accessible to the neuroscience community on our public domain mouse brain atlas website.

  17. In vivo 3D digital atlas database of the adult C57BL/6J mouse brain by magnetic resonance microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ma

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 3D digital atlas of the live mouse brain based on magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM is presented. C57BL/6J adult mouse brains were imaged in vivo on a 9.4 Tesla MR instrument at an isotropic spatial resolution of 100 μm. With sufficient signal-to-noise (SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, 20 brain regions were identified. Several atlases were constructed including 12 individual brain atlases, an average atlas, a probabilistic atlas and average geometrical deformation maps. We also investigated the feasibility of using lower spatial resolution images to improve time efficiency for future morphological phenotyping. All of the new in vivo data were compared to previous published in vitro C57BL/6J mouse brain atlases and the morphological differences were characterized. Our analyses revealed significant volumetric as well as unexpected geometrical differences between the in vivo and in vitro brain groups which in some instances were predictable (e.g. collapsed and smaller ventricles in vitro but not in other instances. Based on these findings we conclude that although in vitro datasets, compared to in vivo images, offer higher spatial resolutions, superior SNR and CNR, leading to improved image segmentation, in vivo atlases are likely to be an overall better geometric match for in vivo studies, which are necessary for longitudinal examinations of the same animals and for functional brain activation studies. Thus the new in vivo mouse brain atlas dataset presented here is a valuable complement to the current mouse brain atlas collection and will be accessible to the neuroscience community on our public domain mouse brain atlas website.

  18. Rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables among biracial (black-white) children and young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    2001-03-01

    To assess the annual rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables during childhood and young adulthood, serial data on black and white children (n = 3,459; initial and follow-up mean age, 8.1 and 14.4 years) and young adults (n = 1,263; initial and follow-up mean age, 22.5 and 30.9 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study were examined. Body mass index (BMI) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds were used as indicators of adiposity. In addition, measurements were made of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Annualized rate of change for each variable was estimated. The rate of increase in adiposity was significantly more pronounced during childhood versus adulthood. Race difference (blacks > whites) in the rate of increase in adiposity was seen only among females. Females, black females in particular, displayed greater rate of increase in adiposity than males. In a multivariate analysis, the rate of increase in adiposity was related independently of baseline age and baseline adiposity to adverse changes in measured cardiovascular risk variables, except glucose. Many of these associations were modulated significantly by race, sex, and age group. The impact was relatively greater for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in adults and for triglycerides in children. The changes in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were greater in whites, while the rate of increase in insulin was greater in blacks. Females displayed greater changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. On the other hand, the rate of increase in triglycerides was greater in males. These results indicate that increases in adiposity regardless of initial status of body fatness alter cardiovascular risk variables towards increased risk beginning in childhood, and

  19. Distribution of immunoreactive glutamine synthetase in the adult human and mouse brain. Qualitative and quantitative observations with special emphasis on extra-astroglial protein localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bannier, Jana; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Steiner, Johann; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. Despite a plethora of studies on this enzyme, knowledge about the regional and cellular distribution of this enzyme in human brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we mapped fourteen post-mortem brains of psychically healthy individuals for the distribution of the glutamine synthetase immunoreactive protein. It was found that glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is expressed in multiple gray and white matter astrocytes, but also in oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and certain neurons. Since a possible extra-astrocytic expression of glutamine synthetase is highly controversial, we paid special attention to its appearance in oligodendrocytes and neurons. By double immunolabeling of mouse brain slices and cultured mouse brain cells for glutamine synthetase and cell-type-specific markers we provide evidence that besides astrocytes subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and neurons express glutamine synthetase. Moreover, we show that glutamine synthetase-immunopositive neurons are not randomly distributed throughout human and mouse brain, but represent a subpopulation of nitrergic (i.e. neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing) neurons. Possible functional implications of an extra-astrocytic localization of glutamine synthetase are discussed.

  20. Long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with nerve cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Chun Yan; Yun Lyul Lee; Il-Jun Kang; Moo-Ho Won; Joon Ha Park; Bai Hui Chen; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae-Chul Lee; In Koo Hwang; Jun Hwi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Long-term administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, can inhibit the survival of newly generated cells, but its effect on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus remain poorly understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot methods to weekly detect the biological behaviors of nerve cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice that received intraperito-neal administration of scopolamine for 4 weeks. Expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN;a neuronal marker) and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration) was also detected. After scopolamine treatment, mouse hippocampal neurons did not die, and Ki-67 (a marker for proliferating cells)-immunoreactive cells were reduced in number and reac hed the lowest level at 4 weeks. Doublecortin (DCX; a marker for newly generated neurons)-im-munoreactive cells were gradually shortened in length and reduced in number with time. After scopolamine treatment for 4 weeks, nearly all of the 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newly generated cells were located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, but they did not migrate into the granule cell layer. Few mature BrdU/NeuN double-labeled cells were seen in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These ifndings suggest that long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death.

  1. OASIS regulates chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 gene transcription in the injured adult mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Morita, Shoko; Okuda-Yamamoto, Aya; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Wanaka, Akio

    2014-09-01

    Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the cAMP response element binding/Activating transcription factor family, is induced in reactive astrocytes in vivo and has important roles in quality control of protein synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive astrocytes produce a non-permissive environment for regenerating axons by up-regulating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In this study, we focus on the potential role of OASIS in CSPG production in the adult mouse cerebral cortex. CS-C immunoreactivity, which represents chondroitin sulfate moieties, was significantly attenuated in the stab-injured cortices of OASIS knockout mice compared to those of wild-type mice. We next examined expression of the CSPG-synthesizing enzymes and core proteins of CSPGs in the stab-injured cortices of OASIS knockout and wild-type mice. The levels of chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (C6ST1, one of the major enzymes involved in sulfation of CSPGs) mRNA and protein increased after cortical stab injury of wild-type, but not of OASIS knockout, mice. A C-terminal deletion mutant OASIS over-expressed in rat C6 glioma cells increased C6ST1 transcription by interacting with the first intron region. Neurite outgrowth of cultured hippocampal neurons was inhibited on culture dishes coated with membrane fractions of epidermal growth factor-treated astrocytes derived from wild type but not from OASIS knockout mice. These results suggest that OASIS regulates the transcription of C6ST1 and thereby promotes CSPG sulfation in astrocytes. Through these mechanisms, OASIS may modulate axonal regeneration in the injured cerebral cortex. OASIS, an ER stress-responsive CREB/ATF family member, is up-regulated in the reactive astrocytes of the injured brain. We found that the up-regulated OASIS is involved in the transcriptional regulation of C6ST1 gene, which promotes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) sulfation. We conclude

  2. Culture and establishment of self-renewing human and mouse adult liver and pancreas 3D organoids and their genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutier, Laura; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Hindley, Christopher J; Boj, Sylvia F; Clevers, Hans; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Huch, Meritxell

    2016-09-01

    Adult somatic tissues have proven difficult to expand in vitro, largely because of the complexity of recreating appropriate environmental signals in culture. We have overcome this problem recently and developed culture conditions for adult stem cells that allow the long-term expansion of adult primary tissues from small intestine, stomach, liver and pancreas into self-assembling 3D structures that we have termed 'organoids'. We provide a detailed protocol that describes how to grow adult mouse and human liver and pancreas organoids, from cell isolation and long-term expansion to genetic manipulation in vitro. Liver and pancreas cells grow in a gel-based extracellular matrix (ECM) and a defined medium. The cells can self-organize into organoids that self-renew in vitro while retaining their tissue-of-origin commitment, genetic stability and potential to differentiate into functional cells in vitro (hepatocytes) and in vivo (hepatocytes and endocrine cells). Genetic modification of these organoids opens up avenues for the manipulation of adult stem cells in vitro, which could facilitate the study of human biology and allow gene correction for regenerative medicine purposes. The complete protocol takes 1-4 weeks to generate self-renewing 3D organoids and to perform genetic manipulation experiments. Personnel with basic scientific training can conduct this protocol.

  3. GFAP isoforms in adult mouse brain with a focus on neurogenic astrocytes and reactive astrogliosis in mouse models of Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Kamphuis

    Full Text Available Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is the main astrocytic intermediate filament (IF. GFAP splice isoforms show differential expression patterns in the human brain. GFAPδ is preferentially expressed by neurogenic astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ, whereas GFAP(+1 is found in a subset of astrocytes throughout the brain. In addition, the expression of these isoforms in human brain material of epilepsy, Alzheimer and glioma patients has been reported. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive study of GFAP isoform expression in both wild-type and Alzheimer Disease (AD mouse models. In cortex, cerebellum, and striatum of wild-type mice, transcripts for Gfap-α, Gfap-β, Gfap-γ, Gfap-δ, Gfap-κ, and a newly identified isoform Gfap-ζ, were detected. Their relative expression levels were similar in all regions studied. GFAPα showed a widespread expression whilst GFAPδ distribution was prominent in the SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS, neurogenic astrocytes of the subgranular zone (SGZ, and subpial astrocytes. In contrast to the human SVZ, we could not establish an unambiguous GFAPδ localization in proliferating cells of the mouse SVZ. In APPswePS1dE9 and 3xTgAD mice, plaque-associated reactive astrocytes had increased transcript levels of all detectable GFAP isoforms and low levels of a new GFAP isoform, Gfap-ΔEx7. Reactive astrocytes in AD mice showed enhanced GFAPα and GFAPδ immunolabeling, less frequently increased vimentin and nestin, but no GFAPκ or GFAP(+1 staining. In conclusion, GFAPδ protein is present in SVZ, RMS, and neurogenic astrocytes of the SGZ, but also outside neurogenic niches. Furthermore, differential GFAP isoform expression is not linked with aging or reactive gliosis. This evidence points to the conclusion that differential regulation of GFAP isoforms is not involved in the reorganization of the IF network in reactive gliosis or in neurogenesis in the mouse brain.

  4. Expression of C4.4A, a structural uPAR homolog, reflects squamous epithelial differentiation in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Hald, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    by a comprehensive immunohistochemical mapping. This task was accomplished by staining paraffin-embedded tissues with a specific rabbit polyclonal anti-C4.4A antibody. In the adult mouse, C4.4A was predominantly expressed in the suprabasal layers of the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, esophagus, non-glandular...... expression first appears in the developing squamous epithelium at embryonic day 13.5. This anatomical location of C4.4A is thus concordant with a possible functional role in early differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia....

  5. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P

    2014-11-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  6. Predicting intentions to engage in cancer prevention and detection behaviors: examining differences between Black and White adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Reducing cancer-related mortality rates can be achieved by increasing cancer screening rates and by increasing the number of people who engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study uses the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IM; Fishbein, 2000) to examine differences between Blacks and Whites in the US in the degree to which attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and normative pressure contribute to predicting intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviors (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviors (controlling ones diet to lose weight, eating fruits and vegetables and exercising regularly). Prior research has demonstrated that these behaviors are effective at reducing incidence and mortality rates for some cancers. Results indicated that for Blacks intentions to engage in all behaviors were driven by PBC. Patterns were more varied for Whites and indicated that normative pressure was a particularly important determinant of screening intentions whereas attitudes were most strongly associated with dieting intentions. Results suggest that interventions targeting these behaviors should be tailored by behavior and by ethnicity.

  7. Metformin Prevents Fatty Liver and Improves Balance of White/Brown Adipose in an Obesity Mouse Model by Inducing FGF21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jhun, Joo Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Jeong, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae Kyung; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are related to the onset of fatty liver and the balance of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). We hypothesized that metformin, an effective pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes, would inhibit white adipogenesis, fatty liver, and metabolic dysfunction. Metformin was treated daily for 14 weeks in a high-fat dieting C57BL/6J mice. Serum biomarkers were analyzed and protein level was assessed using confocal staining or flow cytometry. The development of lipid drops in the liver cells and white adipocyte was measured using hematoxylin and eosin or Oil Red O stains. Gene expressions were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Metformin treatment decreased the body weight and improved the metabolic profile of obese mice. In obese mice, metformin also induced the expression of BAT-related markers and increased fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 expression in the liver and in white adipocyte. Metformin suppressed white adipocyte differentiation via induction of FGF21. Metformin improves Treg/Th17 balance in CD4+ T cells in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Metformin also improves glucose metabolism and metabolic disorder. Interleukin-17 deficiency also decreases inflammation in mice. Therefore, metformin may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction.

  8. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: results of a one-year exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Heo, Susie; Prakash, Ruchika S; Erickson, Kirk I; Alves, Heloisa; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; Wójcicki, Thomas R; White, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral white matter (WM) degeneration occurs with increasing age and is associated with declining cognitive function. Research has shown that cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise are effective as protective, even restorative, agents against cognitive and neurobiological impairments in older adults. In this study, we investigated whether the beneficial impact of aerobic fitness would extend to WM integrity in the context of a one-year exercise intervention. Further, we examined the pattern of diffusivity changes to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we assessed whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive performance independent of aerobic fitness gains. Results showed that aerobic fitness training did not affect group-level change in WM integrity, executive function, or short-term memory, but that greater aerobic fitness derived from the walking program was associated with greater change in WM integrity in the frontal and temporal lobes, and greater improvement in short-term memory. Increases in WM integrity, however, were not associated with short-term memory improvement, independent of fitness improvements. Therefore, while not all findings are consistent with previous research, we provide novel evidence for correlated change in training-induced aerobic fitness, WM integrity, and cognition among healthy older adults.

  9. Mouse genetic differences in voluntary wheel running, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning on the multi-strain-adapted plus water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Jennifer R; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-03-01

    Moderate levels of aerobic exercise broadly enhance cognition throughout the lifespan. One hypothesized contributing mechanism is increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, we measured the effects of voluntary wheel running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in 12 different mouse strains, and found increased neurogenesis in all strains, ranging from 2- to 5-fold depending on the strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which increased neurogenesis from wheel running is associated with enhanced performance on the water maze for 5 of the 12 strains, chosen based on their levels of neurogenesis observed in the previous study (C57BL/6 J, 129S1/SvImJ, B6129SF1/J, DBA/2 J, and B6D2F1/J). Mice were housed with or without a running wheels for 30 days then tested for learning and memory on the plus water maze, adapted for multiple strains, and rotarod test of motor performance. The first 10 days, animals were injected with BrdU to label dividing cells. After behavioral testing animals were euthanized to measure adult hippocampal neurogenesis using standard methods. Levels of neurogenesis depended on strain but all mice had a similar increase in neurogenesis in response to exercise. All mice acquired the water maze but performance depended on strain. Exercise improved water maze performance in all strains to a similar degree. Rotarod performance depended on strain. Exercise improved rotarod performance only in DBA/2 J and B6D2F1/J mice. Taken together, results demonstrate that despite different levels of neurogenesis, memory performance and motor coordination in these mouse strains, all strains have the capacity to increase neurogenesis and improve learning on the water maze through voluntary wheel running.

  10. Nop2 is expressed during proliferation of neural stem cells and in adult mouse and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosi, Nina; Alić, Ivan; Kolačević, Matea; Vrsaljko, Nina; Jovanov Milošević, Nataša; Sobol, Margarita; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozák, Pavel; Gajović, Srećko; Pochet, Roland; Mitrečić, Dinko

    2015-02-09

    The nucleolar protein 2 gene encodes a protein specific for the nucleolus. It is assumed that it plays a role in the synthesis of ribosomes and regulation of the cell cycle. Due to its link to cell proliferation, higher expression of Nop2 indicates a worse tumor prognosis. In this work we used Nop2(gt1gaj) gene trap mouse strain. While lethality of homozygous animals suggested a vital role of this gene, heterozygous animals allowed the detection of expression of Nop2 in various tissues, including mouse brain. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy techniques, applied to a mature mouse brain, human brain and on mouse neural stem cells revealed expression of Nop2 in differentiating cells, including astrocytes, as well as in mature neurons. Nop2 was detected in various regions of mouse and human brain, mostly in large pyramidal neurons. In the human, Nop2 was strongly expressed in supragranular and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex and in layer III of the cingulate cortex. Also, Nop2 was detected in CA1 and the subiculum of the hippocampus. Subcellular analyses revealed predominant location of Nop2 within the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus. To test if Nop2 expression correlates to cell proliferation occurring during tissue regeneration, we induced strokes in mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Two weeks after stroke, the number of Nop2/nestin double positive cells in the region affected by ischemia and the periventricular zone substantially increased. Our findings suggest a newly discovered role of Nop2 in both mature neurons and in cells possibly involved in the regeneration of nervous tissue.

  11. Adult Neurogenesis in the Female Mouse Hypothalamus: Estradiol and High-Fat Diet Alter the Generation of Newborn Neurons Expressing Estrogen Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jane; Nettles, Sabin A.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens and leptins act in the hypothalamus to maintain reproduction and energy homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hypothalamus has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, high-fat diet (HFD) and estradiol (E2) have been shown to alter cell proliferation and the number of newborn leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamus of adult female mice. The current study tested the hypothesis that new cells expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) are generated in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) of the adult female mouse, hypothalamic regions that are critical in energy homeostasis. Adult mice were ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing E2 or oil. Within each hormone group, mice were fed an HFD or standard chow for 6 weeks and treated with BrdU to label new cells. Newborn cells that respond to estrogens were identified in the ARC and VMH, of which a subpopulation was leptin sensitive, indicating that the subpopulation consists of neurons. Moreover, there was an interaction between diet and hormone with an effect on the number of these newborn ERα-expressing neurons that respond to leptin. Regardless of hormone treatment, HFD increased the number of ERα-expressing cells in the ARC and VMH. E2 decreased hypothalamic fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) gene expression in HFD mice, suggesting a role for Fgf10 in E2 effects on neurogenesis. These findings of newly created estrogen-responsive neurons in the adult brain provide a novel mechanism by which estrogens can act in the hypothalamus to regulate energy homeostasis in females. PMID:27679811

  12. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively.

  13. A Comparison between the Colony Formation of Adult Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Co cultures with Sertoli and STO (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Koruji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the colony formation of spermatogonialstem cells (SSCs on sertoli and STO (Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line feeder celllayers during a two-week period.Materials and Methods: Initially, sertoli cells and SSCs were isolated from adultmouse testes using a two-step enzymatic digestion and lectin immobilization. Characteristicsof the isolated cells were immunocytochemically confirmed by examiningfor the presence of Oct-4, CDH1, promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger factor (PLZF,SSC C-kit, and the distribution of Sertoli cell vimentin. SSCs were then cultured abovethe Sertoli, STO and the control (without co-culture separately for two weeks. In allthree groups, the number and diameter of colonies were evaluated using an invert microscopeon the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day. β1 and α6-integrin m-RNA expressions wereassessed using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and realtimePCR. Furthermore, Oct-4 m RNA expression was assessed using real time PCR.Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA; and the paired two-sample t test andTukey’s test were used as post-hoc tests for the data analysis of the three sertoli, STOand control cocultures.Results: At the four specified time points, our results showed significant differences (p<0.05in colony numbers and diameters among the sertoli, STO and control groups. The numberand diameter of colonies increased more rapidly in the sertoli coculture than in the othertwo Our results at all four time points also showed significant differences (p<0.05 in themean colony numbers and diameters between the three groups, with the Sertoli coculturehaving the highest mean values for colony numbers and diameters. The RT-PCR results,after two-weeks of culturing, showed that β1-integrin was expressed in all three groups cocultures,but α6-integrin was not expressed. Additionally, based on real time PCR results,the three genes (β1-integrin, α6-integrin

  14. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor alters the growth characteristics and genomic imprinting of mouse multipotent adult germline stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yoon Hee [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Gupta, Mukesh Kumar, E-mail: goops@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Shin Hye [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Sang Jun [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoon Taek, E-mail: htl3675@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-10

    This study evaluated the essentiality of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for in vitro culture of established mouse multipotent adult germline stem (maGS) cell lines by culturing them in the presence of GDNF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or both. We show that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF slows the proliferation of maGS cells and result in smaller sized colonies without any change in distribution of cells to different cell-cycle stages, expression of pluripotency genes and in vitro differentiation potential. Furthermore, in the absence of LIF, GDNF increased the expression of male germ-line genes and repopulated the empty seminiferous tubule of W/W{sup v} mutant mouse without the formation of teratoma. GDNF also altered the genomic imprinting of Igf2, Peg1, and H19 genes but had no effect on DNA methylation of Oct4, Nanog and Stra8 genes. However, these effects of GDNF were masked in the presence of LIF. GDNF also did not interfere with the multipotency of maGS cells if they are cultured in the presence of LIF. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF alters the growth characteristics of maGS cells and partially impart them some of the germline stem (GS) cell-like characteristics.

  15. Adult mouse motor units develop almost all of their force in the subprimary range: a new all-or-none strategy for force recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-19

    Classical studies of the mammalian neuromuscular system have shown an impressive adaptation match between the intrinsic properties of motoneurons and the contractile properties of their motor units. In these studies, the rate at which motoneurons start to fire repetitively corresponds to the rate at which individual twitches start to sum, and the firing rate increases linearly with the amount of excitation ("primary range") up to the point where the motor unit develops its maximal force. This allows for the gradation of the force produced by a motor unit by rate modulation. In adult mouse motoneurons, however, we recently described a regime of firing ("subprimary range") that appears at lower excitation than what is required for the primary range, a finding that might challenge the classical conception. To investigate the force production of mouse motor units, we simultaneously recorded, for the first time, the motoneuron discharge elicited by intracellular ramps of current and the force developed by its motor unit. We showed that the motor unit developed nearly its maximal force during the subprimary range. This was found to be the case regardless of the input resistance of the motoneuron, the contraction speed, or the tetanic force of the motor unit. Our work suggests that force modulation in small mammals mainly relies on the number of motor units that are recruited rather than on rate modulation of individual motor units.

  16. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  17. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  18. Amplification of R-spondin1 signaling induces granulosa cell fate defects and cancers in mouse adult ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cian, De M.C.; Pauper, E.; Bandiera, R.; Vidal, V.P.I.; Sacco, S.; Gregoire, E.P.; Chassot, A.A.; Panzolini, C.; Wilhelm, D.; Pailhoux, E.; Youssef, S.A.; Bruin, De A.; Teerds, K.; Schedl, A.; Gillot, I.; Chaboissier, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    R-spondin1 is a secreted regulator of WNT signaling, involved in both embryonic development and homeostasis of adult organs. It can have a dual role, acting either as a mitogen or as a tumor suppressor. During ovarian development, Rspo1 is a key factor required for sex determination and differentiat

  19. Methods in laboratory investigation. Autoradiographic demonstration of the specific binding and nuclear localization of 3H-dexamethasone in adult mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, D G; Cunha, G R; Malkinson, A M

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the first autoradiographic demonstration of specific nuclear localization of 3H-dexamethasone in different cell types of the lung. Adult mouse lung tissue was incubated in vitro for 90 minutes with 17 nM 3H-dexamethasone in the presence or absence of various nonradioactive steroids. After extensive washing to remove any nonspecifically bound ligand, the specimens were processed for autoradiography using the thaw-mount method. In the absence of competing steroids, silver grains were localized in the nuclei of alveolar type II cells, bronchiolar and arteriolar smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature. No significant nuclear concentration of label was observed in the bronchiolar epithelium, however. The specificity of 3H-dexamethasone labeling was demonstrated by incubating 17 nM 3H-dexamethasone with a 600-fold excess of either unlabeled dexamethasone, estrogen, dihydrotestosterone, or progesterone. These autoradiographic binding and steroid competition studies were confirmed by quantifying with liquid scintillation counting the specific 3H-dexamethasone binding in nuclear and cytosolic fractions prepared from lung tissues that had undergone identical incubation and washing procedures as those for autoradiography. These results demonstrate that many cell types in adult lung are targets for glucocorticoids and may respond to physiologic concentrations of this hormone.

  20. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate.

  1. Synergistic and additive effects of enriched environment and lithium on the generation of new cells in adult mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Cerulli, Fabiana G; Souza, Hélio O X; Catanozi, Sergio; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-07-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is reported in several neuropathological disorders. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a brain region where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. There are some reports suggesting the ability of endogenous neurogenesis to initiate neuronal repair in the hippocampus in response to neuropathological conditions, but its capacity to compensate for neuronal loss is limited. Among strategies to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis are enriched environment and lithium. This study aimed to assess whether both strategies could interact to potentiate the generation of new cells in the adult DG. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four treatment groups for 28 days: control, lithium, enriched environment, enriched environment plus lithium. The animals were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) shortly before the start of the treatments and killed 28 days later for analysis of newly generated cells. Two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed a significant synergistic interaction between enriched environment and lithium in the total number of BrdU(+) cells in the entire DG (p = 0.019), a trend towards significant synergistic interaction in the dorsal DG (p = 0.075), and a significant additive effect in the ventral DG (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the combination of enriched environment and lithium has both synergistic and additive effects on the generation of new cells in the healthy adult DG (these effects being possibly segregated along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus), and suggest that it might be worth investigating whether this combination would have a similar effect in neuropathological conditions.

  2. The Effect of Oral Administration of Fermented Rice by Monascus purpureus JmbA on Blood of Hypercholesterolemia White Mouse (Rattus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Fermented rice by Monascus purpureus, namely angkak, produces lovastatin. Lovastatin is believed and studied as anti-hypercholesterolemic agent. Somehow, its effects on blood parameters were less known. Therefore, a study on the effect of angkak on erythrocyte, leukocyte, thrombocyte, and haemoglobin level was conducted, involving 15 male Sprague Dawley strain white mice that were divided into 5 treatment groups. The result showed that oral administration of angkak beared lovastatin to the hipercholesterolemic mice could increase the number of trombocyte during the study. Increasing the number of thrombocyte was different depended on dosage of angkak. The optimum dosage was 0.1 g/day. Angkak could also increase haemoglobin concentration and the number of leucocyte, although that raise did not depend on dosage of angkak. Meanwhile, the number of erythrocyte was not affected by angkak.

  3. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprise a family of proteins that feature intracellular phosphatase domains and an ectodomain with putative ligand-binding motifs. Several RPTPs are expressed in the brain, including RPTP-kappa which participates in homophilic cell-cell interactions...... in vitro [Y.-P. Jiang, H. Wang, P. D'Eustachio, J.M. Musacchio, J. Schlessinger, J. Sap, Cloning and characterization of R-PTP-kappa, a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family with a proteolytically cleaved cellular adhesion molecule-like extracellular region, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13...... processes such as axonal growth and target recognition, as has been demonstrated for certain Drosophila RPTPs. The brain distribution of RPTP-kappa-expressing cells has not been determined, however. In a gene-trap mouse model with a beta-gal+neo (beta-geo) insertion in the endogenous RPTP-kappa gene...

  4. Loss of sigma factor RpoN increases intestinal colonization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in an adult mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, W Brian; Richards, Gary P; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2014-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, yet little is known about how this pathogen colonizes the human intestine. The alternative sigma factor RpoN/sigma-54 is a global regulator that controls flagellar synthesis, as well as a wide range of nonflagellar genes. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutation in rpoN (VP2670) in V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, a clinical serogroup O3:K6 isolate, and examined the effects in vivo using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of colonization. We confirmed that deletion of rpoN rendered V. parahaemolyticus nonmotile, and it caused reduced biofilm formation and an apparent defect in glutamine synthetase production. In in vivo competition assays between the rpoN mutant and a wild-type RIMD2210633 strain marked with the β-galactosidase gene lacZ (WBWlacZ), the mutant colonized significantly more proficiently. Intestinal persistence competition assays also demonstrated that the rpoN mutant had enhanced fitness and outcompeted WBWlacZ. Mutants defective in the polar flagellum biosynthesis FliAP sigma factor also outcompeted WBWlacZ but not to the same level as the rpoN mutant, which suggested that lack of motility is not the sole cause of the fitness effect. In an in vitro growth competition assay in mouse intestinal mucus, the rpoN mutant also outcompeted the wild type and exhibited faster doubling times when grown in mucus and on individual components of mucus. Genes in the pathways for the catabolism of mucus sugars also had significantly higher expression levels in a ΔrpoN mutant than in the wild type. These data suggest that in V. parahaemolyticus, RpoN plays an important role in carbon utilization regulation, which may significantly affect host colonization.

  5. Fast, potent pharmacological expansion of endogenous hes3+/sox2+ cells in the adult mouse and rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pacioni

    Full Text Available The adult hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. As a consequence, it is a brain region of remarkable plasticity. This plasticity exhibits itself both as cellular changes and neurogenesis. For neurogenesis to occur, a population of local stem cells and progenitor cells is maintained in the adult brain and these are able to proliferate and differentiate into neurons which contribute to the hippocampal circuitry. There is much interest in understanding the role of immature cells in the hippocampus, in relation to learning and memory. Methods and mechanisms that increase the numbers of these cells will be valuable in this research field. We show here that single injections of soluble factors into the lateral ventricle of adult rats and mice induces the rapid (within one week increase in the number of putative stem cells/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. The established progenitor marker Sox2 together with the more recently established marker Hes3, were used to quantify the manipulation of the Sox2/Hes3 double-positive cell population. We report that in both adult rodent species, Sox2+/Hes3+ cell numbers can be increased within one week. The most prominent increase was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. This study presents a fast, pharmacological method to manipulate the numbers of endogenous putative stem cells/progenitor cells. This method may be easily modified to alter the degree of activation (e.g. by the use of osmotic pumps for delivery, or by repeat injections through implanted cannulas, in order to be best adapted to different paradigms of research (neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, learning, memory, plasticity, etc.

  6. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-08-30

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/W(v) mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo.

  7. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/Wv). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/Wv mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/Wv mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  8. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its partial reversal by chronic treatment of fluoxetine in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Dey, Parthanarayan; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-04

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits, caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited Ube3a. Ube3a-maternal deficient mice (AS model mice) recapitulate many essential features of AS, but how the deficiency of Ube3a lead to such behavioural abnormalities is poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated significant impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice brain. Although, the number of BrdU and Ki67-positive cell in the hippocampal DG region was nearly equal at early postnatal days among wild type and AS mice, they were significantly reduced in adult AS mice compared to wild type controls. Reduced number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in this region of AS mice further indicated impaired neurogenesis. Unaltered BrdU and Ki67-positive cells number in the sub ventricular zone of adult AS mice brain along with the absence of imprinted expression of Ube3a in the neural progenitor cell suggesting that Ube3a may not be directly linked with altered neurogenesis. Finally, we show that the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in these mice can be partially rescued by the chronic treatment of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results suggest that the chronic stress may lead to reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice and that impaired neurogenesis could contribute to cognitive disturbances observed in these mice.

  9. No Evidence That Short-Term Cognitive or Physical Training Programs or Lifestyles Are Related to Changes in White Matter Integrity in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C.; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A. F.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive and physical activities can benefit cognition. However, knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these activity-induced cognitive benefits is still limited, especially with regard to the role of white matter integrity (WMI), which is affected in cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of cognitive or physical training on WMI, as well as the association between cognitive and physical lifestyles and changes in WMI over a 6-month period. Additionally, we explored whether changes in WMI underlie activity-related cognitive changes, and estimated the potential of both trainings to improve WMI by correlating training outcomes with WMI. In an observational and interventional pretest, posttest, 3-month follow-up design, we assigned 47 community-dwelling older adults at risk of dementia to 50 sessions of auditory processing and working memory training (n = 13), 50 sessions of cardiovascular, strength, coordination, balance and flexibility exercises (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). We measured lifestyles trough self-reports, cognitive training skills through training performance, functional physical fitness through the Senior Fitness Test, and global cognition through a cognitive test battery. WMI was assessed via a composite score of diffusion tensor imaging-based fractional anisotropy (FA) of three regions of interest shown to be affected in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: the genu of corpus callosum, the fornix, and the hippocampal cingulum. Effects for training interventions on FA outcomes, as well as associations between lifestyles and changes in FA outcomes were not significant. Additional analyses did show associations between cognitive lifestyle and global cognitive changes at the posttest and the 3-month follow-up (β ≥ 0.40, p ≤ 0.02) and accounting for changes in WMI did not affect these relationships. The targeted training outcomes were

  10. No Evidence That Short-Term Cognitive or Physical Training Programs or Lifestyles Are Related to Changes in White Matter Integrity in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive and physical activities can benefit cognition. However, knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these activity-induced cognitive benefits is still limited, especially with regard to the role of white matter integrity (WMI), which is affected in cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of cognitive or physical training on WMI, as well as the association between cognitive and physical lifestyles and changes in WMI over a 6-month period. Additionally, we explored whether changes in WMI underlie activity-related cognitive changes, and estimated the potential of both trainings to improve WMI by correlating training outcomes with WMI. In an observational and interventional pretest, posttest, 3-month follow-up design, we assigned 47 community-dwelling older adults at risk of dementia to 50 sessions of auditory processing and working memory training (n = 13), 50 sessions of cardiovascular, strength, coordination, balance and flexibility exercises (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). We measured lifestyles trough self-reports, cognitive training skills through training performance, functional physical fitness through the Senior Fitness Test, and global cognition through a cognitive test battery. WMI was assessed via a composite score of diffusion tensor imaging-based fractional anisotropy (FA) of three regions of interest shown to be affected in aging and Alzheimer's disease: the genu of corpus callosum, the fornix, and the hippocampal cingulum. Effects for training interventions on FA outcomes, as well as associations between lifestyles and changes in FA outcomes were not significant. Additional analyses did show associations between cognitive lifestyle and global cognitive changes at the posttest and the 3-month follow-up (β ≥ 0.40, p ≤ 0.02) and accounting for changes in WMI did not affect these relationships. The targeted training outcomes were related

  11. Cardiometabolic plasticity in response to a short-term diet and exercise intervention in young Hispanic and nonHispanic white adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy L Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young adult Mexican Americans (MA exhibit lower insulin sensitivity (Si than nonHispanic whites (NHW, even when controlling for fitness and adiposity. It is unclear if MA are as responsive to the same lifestyle intervention as NHW. OBJECTIVE: We developed a model to examine cardiometabolic plasticity (i.e., changes in Si and plasma lipids in MA compared to NHW adults in response to a diet-exercise intervention. DESIGN: Sedentary subjects (20 NHW: 11F, 9M, 23.0 y, 25.5 kg/m(2; 17 MA: 13F, 4M, 22.7 y, 25.4 kg/m(2 consumed their habitual diets and remained sedentary for 7 days, after which fasting blood samples were obtained, and a 3-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed with the insulin area under the curve (IAUC used to estimate Si. Subjects then completed a 7-day diet/exercise intervention (diet: low saturated fat, low added sugar, high fiber; exercise: cycling, six total sessions lasting 40-45 min/session at 65% VO(2 max. Pre-intervention tests were repeated. RESULTS: Pre intervention IAUC was 28% higher (p<0.05 in MA (IAUC pre  =  2298 µU*180 min/mL than in NHW (IAUC = 1795 µU*180 min/mL. Following the intervention, there was a significant reduction in IAUC in MA (29% and NHW (32%, however, the IAUC remained higher (p<0.05 for MA (post  = 1635 µU*180 min/mL than for NHW (post = 1211 µU*180 min/mL. Pre test plasma lipids were not different in MA compared to NHW. Plasma cholesterol and TG concentrations significantly improved in both groups, but concentrations of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and small dense LDL particles significantly improved only in the NHW. CONCLUSION: With a short-term diet-exercise intervention, the magnitude of improvements in Si and serum cholesterol and TG in Hispanics are similar to those in NHW. However, because at the outset MA were less insulin sensitive compared to NHW, within the short timeframe studied the ethnic gap in insulin sensitivity remained.

  12. Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Itahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA, to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder.

  13. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  14. A chemokine targets the nucleus: Cxcl12-gamma isoform localizes to the nucleolus in adult mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Torres

    Full Text Available Chemokines are extracellular mediators of complex regulatory circuits involved principally in cell-to-cell communication. Most studies to date of the essential chemokine Cxcl12 (Sdf-1 have focused on the ubiquitously expressed secreted isoforms alpha and beta. Here we show that, unlike these isoforms and all other known chemokines, the alternatively transcribed gamma isoform is an intracellular protein that localizes to the nucleolus in differentiated mouse Cardiac tissue. Our results demonstrate that nucleolar transportation is encoded by a nucleolar-localization signal in the unique carboxy-terminal region of Sdf-1gamma, and is competent both in vivo and in vitro. The molecular mechanism underlying these unusual chemokine properties involves cardiac-specific transcription of an mRNA containing a unique short-leader sequence lacking the signal peptide and translation from a non-canonical CUG codon. Our results provide an example of genome economy even for essential and highly conserved genes such as Cxcl12, and suggest that chemokines can exert tissue specific functions unrelated to cell-to-cell communication.

  15. High-efficiency transfection and survival rates of embryonic and adult mouse neural stem cells achieved by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Bettina; Wiese, Stefan; von Holst, Alexander

    2012-08-15

    Cells of the central nervous system are notoriously difficult to transfect. This is not only true for neurons and glial cells but also for dividing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). About ten years ago a major advance was provided by introduction of the nucleofection technology that allowed for transfection of approximately half of the exposed NSCs. However, limitations were encountered with the need for large numbers of NSCs for a single transfection and compromised survival rates with typically only one-third of the cells surviving the pulse conditions. Here, we report the establishment of a pulse protocol that targets NSCs with high efficiency and twofold higher NSC survival rates using the 4D Nucleofector device. We demonstrate that the established protocol not only provides a clear and significant improvement over existing protocols with transfection rates above 80% and two-thirds of the NSCs surviving for at least 48h, but also their unaltered differentiation along neuronal and glial lineages. This improved protocol for the transfection of sensitive mouse central nervous system derived cells will provide an important step forward for studies of gene function by overexpression or knock-down of genes in cultured NSCs.

  16. The effects of cellular phone waves on the frequency micronucleus in newborn and adult Balb/C mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the widespread use of microwave producing instruments specially cell phones; result in growing concern regarding the possible effects associated with these waves on human health especially pregnant woman and neonates. In present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of cell phone radiation on the mice (Balb/C and their offspring. Materials and Method: In this experimental research, pregnant mice were irradiated with cell phone for 4 days of gestational age (days 14th-18th, 6h per day, from 9am until 3pm and after litter, 2nd-day offspring studied for morphology, weight and CR length. By following, for assessment of possible genetic damages in erythrocytes after bleeding from heart, smears of spleen tissue prepeard for histological studies. Mice peripheral blood and bone marrow smears prepared and stained with May-Granowald and Gimsa.Results: The finding in experimental group indicated that cell phone radiation decreased offsprings’ weight and CR length (p0.05. An increase in micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood erythrocytes were seen in experimental newborn (p=0.006 and adult mice (p0.05.Conclusion: Above findings indicated that cell phone radiation (940 MHZ are able to increase the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood erythrocytes of adult mice and their of fsprings and induce a genotoxic response

  17. Identification and Characterization of Lineage(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL Phenotypic Cells Residing in Adult Mouse Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Ryusuke; Iwaki, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Sumide, Keisuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Yutaka; Uemura, Yasushi; Asano, Hiroaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Sonoda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Murine bone marrow (BM)-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (BM VSELs), defined by a lineage-negative (Lin(-)), CD45-negative (CD45(-)), Sca-1-positive (Sca-1(+)) immunophenotype, were previously reported as postnatal pluripotent stem cells (SCs). We developed a highly efficient method for isolating Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) small cells using enzymatic treatment of murine bone. We designated these cells as bone-derived VSELs (BD VSELs). The incidences of BM VSELs in the BM-derived nucleated cells and that of BD VSELs in bone-derived nucleated cells were 0.002% and 0.15%, respectively. These BD VSELs expressed a variety of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), and endothelial cell markers. The gene expression profile of the BD VSELs was clearly distinct from those of HSCs, MSCs, and ES cells. In the steady state, the BD VSELs proliferated slowly, however, the number of BD VSELs significantly increased in the bone after acute liver injury. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-mouse derived BD VSELs transplanted via tail vein injection after acute liver injury were detected in the liver parenchyma of recipient mice. Immunohistological analyses suggested that these BD VSELs might transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. This study demonstrated that the majority of the Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL phenotypic cells reside in the bone rather than the BM. However, the immunophenotype and the gene expression profile of BD VSELs were clearly different from those of other types of SCs, including BM VSELs, MSCs, HSCs, and ES cells. Further studies will therefore be required to elucidate their cellular and/or SC characteristics and the potential relationship between BD VSELs and BM VSELs.

  18. Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the β1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring.

  19. Astrocytic TRPV1 ion channels detect blood-borne signals in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannari, Tetsuya; Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Tominaga, Makoto; Miyata, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    The circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP) sense a variety of blood-borne molecules because they lack typical blood-brain barrier. Though a few signaling pathways are known, it is not known how endogenous ligands for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 ion channel (TRPV1) are sensed in the CVOs. In this study, we aimed to examine whether or not astrocytic TRPV1 senses directly blood-borne molecules in the OVLT, SFO, and AP of adult mice. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western analysis revealed the expression of TRPV1 in the CVOs. Confocal microscopic immunohistochemistry further showed that TRPV1 was localized prominently at thick cellular processes of astrocytes rather than fine cellular processes and cell bodies. TRPV1-expressing cellular processes of astrocytes surrounded the vasculature to constitute dense networks. The expression of TRPV1 was also found at neuronal dendrites but not somata in the CVOs. The intravenous administration of a TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) prominently induced Fos expression at astrocytes in the OVLT, SFO, and AP and neurons in adjacent related nuclei of the median preoptic nuclei (MnPO) and nucleus of the solitary tract (Sol) of wild-type but not TRPV1-knockout mice. The intracerebroventricular infusion of RTX induced Fos expression at both astrocytes and neurons in the CVOs, MnPO, and Sol. Thus, this study demonstrates that blood-borne molecules are sensed directly by astrocytic TRPV1 of the CVOs in adult mammalians.

  20. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  1. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  2. PGC-1α is required for exercise- and exercise training-induced UCP1 up-regulation in mouse white adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Ringholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that 1 a single exercise bout increases UCP1 mRNA in both inguinal (iWAT and epididymal (eWAT, 2 UCP1 expression and responsiveness to exercise are different in iWAT and eWAT, 3 PGC-1α determines the basal levels of UCP1 and PRDM16 in WAT and 4 exercise and exercise training regulate UCP1 and PRDM16 expression in WAT in a PGC-1α-dependent manner. METHODS: Whole body PGC-1α knockout (KO and wildtype (WT littermate mice performed a single treadmill exercise bout at 14 m/min and 10% slope for 1 hour. Mice were sacrificed and iWAT, eWAT and quadriceps muscle were removed immediately after, 2, 6 and 10 hours after running, and from sedentary mice that served as controls. In addition, PGC-1α KO mice and WT littermates were exercise trained for 5 weeks with sedentary mice as untrained controls. Thirty-six-37 hours after the last exercise bout iWAT was removed. RESULTS: UCP1 mRNA content increased 19-fold in iWAT and 7.5-fold in eWAT peaking at 6 h and 0' of recovery, respectively, in WT but with no changes in PGC-1α KO mice. UCP1 protein was undetectable in eWAT and very low in iWAT of untrained mice but increased with exercise training to 4.4 (AU in iWAT from WT mice without significant effects in PGC-1α KO mice. CONCLUSION: The present observations provide evidence that exercise training increases UCP1 protein in iWAT through PGC-1α, likely as a cumulative effect of transient increases in UCP1 expression after each exercise bout. Moreover, the results suggest that iWAT is more responsive than eWAT in exercise-induced regulation of UCP1. In addition, as PRDM16 mRNA content decreased in recovery from acute exercise, the present findings suggest that acute exercise elicits regulation of several brown adipose tissue genes in mouse WAT.

  3. Single cell electroporation for longitudinal imaging of synaptic structure and function in the adult mouse neocortex in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane ePages

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal imaging studies of neuronal structures in vivo have revealed rich dynamics in dendritic spines and axonal boutons. Spines and boutons are considered to be proxies for synapses. This implies that synapses display similar dynamics. However, spines and boutons do not always bear synapses, some may contain more than one, and dendritic shaft synapses have no clear structural proxies. In addition, synaptic strength is not always accurately revealed by just the size of these structures. Structural and functional dynamics of synapses could be studied more reliably using fluorescent synaptic proteins as markers for size and function. These proteins are often large and possibly interfere with circuit development, which renders them less suitable for conventional transfection or transgenesis methods such as viral vectors, in utero electroporation and germline transgenesis. Single cell electroporation has been shown to be a potential alternative for transfection of recombinant fluorescent proteins in adult cortical neurons. Here we provide proof of principle for the use of single cell electroporation to express and subsequently image fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins over days to weeks in vivo.

  4. Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with markers of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in black and white community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Lower 25(OHD concentrations are associated with disturbances in metabolic health in both blacks and whites. Whether correcting vitamin D deficiency could offer a beneficial therapy for disease prevention requires further study.

  5. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  6. Despite strong behavioral disruption, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect cell proliferation in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochman, Linda J; dos Santos, Angela Amancio; Fornal, Casimir A; Jacobs, Barry L

    2006-10-01

    Marijuana is a widely abused illicit drug known to cause significant cognitive impairments. Marijuana has been hypothesized to target neurons in the hippocampus because of the abundance of cannabinoid receptors present in this structure. While there is no clear evidence of neuropathology in vivo, suppression of brain mitogenesis, and ultimately neurogenesis, may provide a sensitive index of marijuana's more subtle effects on neural mechanisms subserving cognitive functions. We examined the effects of different doses and treatment regimens of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient in marijuana, on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult male mice. Following drug treatment, the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered two hours prior to sacrifice to assess cell proliferation, the first step in neurogenesis. Administration of THC produced dose-dependent catalepsy and suppression of motor activity. The number of BrdU-labeled cells was not significantly changed from vehicle control levels following either acute (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), sequential (two injections of 10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p., separated by 5 h), or chronic escalating (20 to 80 mg/kg, p.o.; for 3 weeks) drug administration. Furthermore, acute administration of the potent synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist R-(+)-WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 5 mg/kg, i.p.) also had no significant effect on cell proliferation. These findings provide no evidence for an effect of THC on hippocampal cell proliferation, even at doses producing gross behavioral intoxication. Whether marijuana or THC affects neurogenesis remains to be explored.

  7. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Siddharth

    Full Text Available The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets correlating with formula (vs breast feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  8. Prenatal stress enhances severity of atherosclerosis in the adult apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse offspring via inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, H; Lhotak, S; Solano, M E; Karimi, K; Pincus, M K; Austin, R C; Arck, P

    2013-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Endothelial cell dysfunctions are early events in atherosclerosis, resulting in the recruitment of circulating monocytes. The immune system can elicit an inflammatory response toward the atherosclerotic lesion, thereby accelerating lesion growth. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include hypertension, smoking, stress perception or low birth weight. As prenatal stress challenge decreases the birth weight and affects the offspring's postnatal immune response, we aimed to investigate whether prenatal stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Syngenic pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) dams were exposed to sound stress on gestation days 12.5 and 14.5. The presence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the offspring at the age of 15 weeks was evaluated by histomorphology, accompanied by flow cytometric analysis of the frequency and phenotype of monocytes/macrophages and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood. Further, cytokine secretion of peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed. In response to prenatal stress challenge, an increased frequency of large atherosclerotic plaques was detectable in apoE-/- offspring, which was particularly profound in females. Prenatal stress also resulted in alterations of the offspring's immune response, such as a decreased frequency of Treg cells in blood, alterations of macrophage populations in blood and an increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. We provide novel evidence that prenatally stressed adult offspring show an increased severity of atherosclerosis. As Treg cells are key players in dampening inflammation, the observed increase in atherosclerosis may be due to the lack of Treg cell frequency. Future interdisciplinary research is urgently required to understand the developmental origin of prenatal stress-induced atherosclerosis. The availability of our model may facilitate and foster such research endeavors.

  9. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions.

  10. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain

  11. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions.

  12. Spontaneous kisspeptin neuron firing in the adult mouse reveals marked sex and brain region differences but no support for a direct role in negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croft, Simon; Piet, Richard; Mayer, Christian; Mai, Oliver; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-11-01

    Kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is critical for the GnRH neuronal network controlling fertility. The present study reports on a kisspeptin (Kiss)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model enabling brain slice electrophysiological recordings to be made from Kiss neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). Using dual immunofluorescence, approximately 90% of GFP cells in the RP3V of females, and ARN in both sexes, are shown to be authentic Kiss-synthesizing neurons in adult mice. Cell-attached recordings of ARN Kiss-GFP cells revealed a marked sex difference in their mean firing rates; 90% of Kiss-GFP cells in males exhibited slow irregular firing (0.17 ± 0.04 Hz) whereas neurons from diestrous (0.01 ± 0.01 Hz) and ovariectomized (0 Hz) mice were mostly or completely silent. In contrast, RP3V Kiss-GFP cells were all spontaneously active, exhibiting tonic, irregular, and bursting firing patterns. Mean firing rates were significantly (P neurons at the time of the proestrous GnRH surge revealed a significant decline in firing rate after the surge. Together, these observations demonstrate unexpected sex differences in the electrical activity of ARN Kiss neurons and markedly different patterns of firing by Kiss neurons in the ARN and RP3V. Although data supported a positive influence of gonadal steroids on RP3V Kiss neuron firing, no direct evidence was found to support the previously postulated role of ARN Kiss neurons in the estrogen-negative feedback mechanism.

  13. Maternal choline supplementation in a mouse model of Down syndrome: Effects on attention and nucleus basalis/substantia innominata neuron morphology in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Kelley, Christy M; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2017-01-06

    The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits cognitive impairment and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Our prior studies demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves attention and spatial cognition in Ts65Dn offspring, normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis, and lessens BFCN degeneration in the medial septal nucleus (MSN). Here we determined whether (i) BFCN degeneration contributes to attentional dysfunction, and (ii) whether the attentional benefits of perinatal MCS are due to changes in BFCN morphology. Ts65Dn dams were fed either a choline-supplemented or standard diet during pregnancy and lactation. Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) control offspring were tested as adults (12-17months of age) on a series of operant attention tasks, followed by morphometric assessment of BFCNs. Ts65Dn mice demonstrated impaired learning and attention relative to 2N mice, and MCS significantly improved these functions in both genotypes. We also found, for the first time, that the number of BFCNs in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/substantia innominata (NBM/SI) was significantly increased in Ts65Dn mice relative to controls. In contrast, the number of BFCNs in the MSN was significantly decreased. Another novel finding was that the volume of BFCNs in both basal forebrain regions was significantly larger in Ts65Dn mice. MCS did not normalize any of these morphological abnormalities in the NBM/SI or MSN. Finally, correlational analysis revealed that attentional performance was inversely associated with BFCN volume, and positively associated with BFCN density. These results support the lifelong attentional benefits of MCS for Ts65Dn and 2N offspring and have profound implications for translation to human DS and pathology attenuation in AD.

  14. Dopamine D1 Receptor Immunoreactivity on Fine Processes of GFAP-Positive Astrocytes in the Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata of Adult Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Suga, Sechiko; Saitoh, Masato; Kogawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamada, Katsuya

    2017-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons. To address this, we used D1R promotor-controlled, mVenus-expressing transgenic mice. When cells were acutely dissociated from SNr of mouse brain, prominent mVenus fluorescence was detected in fine processes of glia-like cells, but no such fluorescence was detected from neurons in the same preparation, except for the synaptic bouton-like structure on the neurons. Double immunolabeling of SNr cells dissociated from adult wild-type mice brain further revealed marked D1R immunoreactivity in the processes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Such D1R imunoreactivity was significantly stronger in the SNr astrocytes than that in those of the visual cortex in the same preparation. Interestingly, GFAP-positive astrocytes dissociated from the striatum demonstrated D1R immunoreactivity, either remarkable or minimal, similarly to that shown in neurons in this nucleus. In contrast, in the SNr and visual cortex, only weak D1R immunoreactivity was detected in the neurons tested. These results suggest that the SNr astrocyte may be a candidate recipient for dendritically released dopamine. Further study is required to fully elucidate the physiological roles of divergent dopamine receptor immunoreactivity profiles in GFAP-positive astrocytes. PMID:28203148

  15. Effects of cyclophosphamide and acrolein in organoid cultures of mouse limb bud cells grown in the presence of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, J; Merker, H J

    1992-01-01

    The effects were evaluated of cyclophosphamide (CPA) and its metabolite, acrolein, on chondrogenesis in organoid cultures of mouse limb bud mesenchymal cells co-cultured with non-enzymatically isolated adult rat hepatocytes. The studies were conducted with or without the simultaneous addition of 2-mercaptoethanesulphonic acid sodium (mesna) or glutathione (GSH). Alcian blue binding assay and light and electron microscopic techniques were used. Increasing concentrations of the two compounds (bioactivated CPA, 18-180 mum; acrolein, 50-500 mum) led to a dose-dependent inhibition of chondrogenesis associated with cellular dedifferentiation and/or cytotoxicity. Addition of mesna (1 mm) or GSH (1 mm) partially protected the cultures against CPA and acrolein. However, the protective effect depended on the dose of CPA or acrolein used. A higher protection was observed with mesna than with GSH, and the effect was more pronounced with acrolein than with CPA. The morphological findings suggested that CPA and acrolein acted by different mechanisms. Bioactivated CPA primarily inhibited the differentiation process, whereas acrolein exhibited a high cytotoxic activity affecting particularly monolayer cells that normally grow on the periphery of the cultures. These findings suggest that acrolein possesses a specific mode of action directed towards this type of cell. This could be explained by the specific shape and/or behaviour of the cells (i.e. cytoskeletal arrangement, proliferation rate, migration activity, intercellular communication pattern, etc.). The results demonstrated that the cell system used was suitable for the performance of cytotoxicity and teratogenicity studies such as those conducted with CPA and acrolein.

  16. Depressive Symptoms Are More Strongly Related to Executive Functioning and Episodic Memory Among African American compared with Non-Hispanic White Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  17. Use of dual section mRNA in situ hybridisation/immunohistochemistry to clarify gene expression patterns during the early stages of nephron development in the embryo and in the mature nephron of the adult mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Wilkinson, Lorine; Chiu, Han Sheng; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Thierry; Little, Melissa H

    2008-11-01

    The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.

  18. Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into brite (brown-in-white adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier F Pisani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well established now that adult humans possess active brown adipose tissue which represents a potential pharmacological target to combat obesity and associated diseases. We had shown previously that human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS cells are able to differentiate into cells which exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, and to convert into functional brown adipocytes upon PPARγ activation that could explain UCP1-expressing cells within islets surrounded by white adipocytes. Herein we further characterize hMADS cells differentiation into brown adipocytes that behave like mouse brite adipocytes previously described. We analyzed the expression of gene markers known to be associated with mouse white and brown adipocytes. When shifting from a white to a brown fat cell phenotype, the striking enhancement of uncoupling activity appears mainly due, if not all, to an increase in UCP1 expression whereas induction of UCP2 is weak and UCP3 expression is unchanged. Conversion of white hMADS adipocytes is dependent on PPARγ activation with rosiglitazone as the most potent agonist and is inhibited by a PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore our data show that, in contrast to mouse cellular models, hMADS cells conversion into brown adipocytes is not induced by BMP7 treatment and not modulated by activation of the Hedgehog pathway. No primary or clonal precursor cells of human brown adipocytes have been obtained so far that can be used as a tool to develop therapeutic drugs and to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of brown adipogenesis in humans. Thus hMADS cells represent a suitable cell model to delineate the formation and/or the uncoupling capacity of human brown/brite adipocytes that could help to dissipate caloric excess intake among individuals.

  19. An additional field method to sex adult Barn Swallows during the non-breeding season in Zambia: white spot length in the outer tail feather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Dijk, van J.G.B.; Kraus, R.H.S.; Kerlen-Matema, A.C.; Brink, van den B.; Hooft, van W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Adult Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica exhibit strong sexual size dimorphism in the length of the outermost tail feathers, which are longer in males compared with females. This trait is traditionally used to sex adult Barn Swallows in the field. However, due to the wear and breakage of the tips of the

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Increased frequency of white matter impairment and temporal lobe structures dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is an inherited recessive disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. The enzymes most commonly affected are 21-hydroxylase. Past reports suggested brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities in CAH patients, affecting white matter signal, temporal lobe and amygdala structure and function. Aims: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of white matter changes and temporal lobes structures dysgenesis in a population of patients having CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Neurological examination and brain MRI were performed in 26 patients. Results: Neurological examination revealed mental retardation in three patients, tremor in two patients, tendon reflexes asymmetry in one patient, and cerebellar syndrome in one patient. Eleven patients (42.3% showed MRI abnormalities: Eight of them had white matter hyperintensities, one patient had moderate atrophy in the right temporal, and hippocampal dysgenesis was found in the remaining two patients. Conclusions: Brain MRI abnormalities in CAH patients include white matter hyperintensities and temporal lobe structures dysgenesis. The mechanisms involved seem related to hormonal imbalances during brain development and exposure to excess exogenous glucocorticoids. Clinical implications of such lesions remain unclear. More extensive studies are required to define better the relationships between brain involvement and different CAH phenotypes and treatment regimens.

  1. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler G. Shollenbarger

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  2. Progressive volume loss and white matter degeneration in cstb-deficient mice: a diffusion tensor and longitudinal volumetry MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Manninen

    Full Text Available Unverricht-Lundborg type progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1, OMIM 254800 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset at the age of 6 to 16 years, incapacitating stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cystatin B. Previously, widespread white matter changes and atrophy has been detected both in adult EPM1 patients and in 6-month-old cystatin B-deficient mice, a mouse model for the EPM1 disease. In order to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain atrophy and white matter changes in EPM1, we conducted longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging accompanied with tract-based spatial statistics analysis to compare volumetric changes and fractional anisotropy in the brains of 1 to 6 months of age cystatin B-deficient and control mice. The results reveal progressive but non-uniform volume loss of the cystatin B-deficient mouse brains, indicating that different neuronal populations possess distinct sensitivity to the damage caused by cystatin B deficiency. The diffusion tensor imaging data reveal early and progressive white matter alterations in cystatin B-deficient mice affecting all major tracts. The results also indicate that the white matter damage in the cystatin B-deficient brain is most likely secondary to glial activation and neurodegenerative events rather than a primary result of CSTB deficiency. The data also show that diffusion tensor imaging combined with TBSS analysis provides a feasible approach not only to follow white matter damage in neurodegenerative mouse models but also to detect fractional anisotropy changes related to normal white matter maturation and reorganisation.

  3. Body mass index and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort of white and black U.S. Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available Remaining controversies on the association between body mass index (BMI and mortality include the effects of smoking and prevalent disease on the association, whether overweight is associated with higher mortality rates, differences in associations by race and the optimal age at which BMI predicts mortality. To assess the relative risk (RR of mortality by BMI in Whites and Blacks among subgroups defined by smoking, prevalent disease, and age, 891,572 White and 38,119 Black men and women provided height, weight and other information when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 434,400 deaths in Whites and 18,702 deaths in Blacks. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Smoking and prevalent disease status significantly modified the BMI-mortality relationship in Whites and Blacks; higher BMI was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality among never smokers without prevalent disease. All levels of overweight and obesity were associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of mortality compared to the reference category (BMI 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, except among Black women where risk was elevated but not statistically significant in the lower end of overweight. Although absolute mortality rates were higher in Blacks than Whites within each BMI category, relative risks (RRs were similar between race groups for both men and women (p-heterogeneity by race  = 0.20 for men and 0.23 for women. BMI was most strongly associated with mortality when reported before age 70 years. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that the BMI-mortality relationship differs for men and women who smoke or have prevalent disease compared to healthy never-smokers. These findings further support recommendations for maintaining a BMI between 20-25 kg/m2 for optimal health and longevity.

  4. Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in a Large Prospective Cohort of White and Black U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpa V.; Hildebrand, Janet S.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Remaining controversies on the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality include the effects of smoking and prevalent disease on the association, whether overweight is associated with higher mortality rates, differences in associations by race and the optimal age at which BMI predicts mortality. To assess the relative risk (RR) of mortality by BMI in Whites and Blacks among subgroups defined by smoking, prevalent disease, and age, 891,572 White and 38,119 Black men and women provided height, weight and other information when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 434,400 deaths in Whites and 18,702 deaths in Blacks. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Smoking and prevalent disease status significantly modified the BMI-mortality relationship in Whites and Blacks; higher BMI was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality among never smokers without prevalent disease. All levels of overweight and obesity were associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of mortality compared to the reference category (BMI 22.5–24.9 kg/m2), except among Black women where risk was elevated but not statistically significant in the lower end of overweight. Although absolute mortality rates were higher in Blacks than Whites within each BMI category, relative risks (RRs) were similar between race groups for both men and women (p-heterogeneity by race  = 0.20 for men and 0.23 for women). BMI was most strongly associated with mortality when reported before age 70 years. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that the BMI-mortality relationship differs for men and women who smoke or have prevalent disease compared to healthy never-smokers. These findings further support recommendations for maintaining a BMI between 20–25 kg/m2 for optimal health and longevity. PMID:25295620

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  6. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  7. Expression and Identification of a Novel Apoptosis Gene Spata17 (MSRG-11)in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun DENG; Liang-Sha HU; Guang-Xiu LU

    2006-01-01

    In this study, anti-spermatogenesis-associated 17 (Spata17) polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits with a synthesized peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence 7-23 of the mouse Spata17 protein. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Spata17 protein was most abundant in the cytoplasm of round spermatids and elongating spermatids within seminiferous tubules of the adult testis. The expression of Spata17 mRNA in cultured mouse spermatogonia (GC-1) cells was almost undetectable. In an experimental unilateral cryptorchidism model of an adult mouse, the expression of Spata17 mRNA had no obvious difference with the normal testis until postoperation day 1, but gradually decreased from day 3 and was almost undetectable on day 17. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the protein was almost undetectable within seminiferous tubules of an experimental unilateral cryptorchidism model of the adult testis on postoperation day 8. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of Spata17 protein in the GC-1 cell line could accelerate GC-1 cell apoptosis. The effect increases with the increasing of the transfected dose of pcDNA3.1 (-)/Spata17. By Hoechst 33258 staining, a classical way of identifying apoptotic cells, we further confirmed that the apoptosis was induced by expression of Spata17 in transfected GC-1 cells.

  8. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Monica; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Walsh, Mary Norine; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Allen, Larry A; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dickinson, Michael G; Dries, Daniel L; Ewald, Gregory A; Fang, James C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Whellan, David J; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    The presentation, natural history, clinical outcomes, and response to therapy in patients with heart failure differ in some ways across populations. Women, older adults, and non-Caucasian racial or ethnic groups compose a substantial proportion of the overall heart failure population, but they have typically been underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, uncertainty exists about the efficacy of some guideline-directed medical therapies and devices in specific populations, which may result in the under- or overtreatment of these patients. Even when guideline-based treatments are prescribed, socioeconomic, physical, or psychologic factors may affect non-Caucasian and older adult patient groups to a different extent and affect the application, effectiveness, and tolerability of these therapies. Individualized therapy based on tailored biology (genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), socioeconomic and cultural considerations, and individual goals and preferences may be the optimal approach for managing diverse patients. This comprehensive approach to personalized medicine is evolving, but in the interim, the scientific community should continue efforts focused on intensifying research in special populations, prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy unless contraindicated, and implementing evidence-based strategies including patient and family education and multidisciplinary team care in the management of patients.

  9. Plasma BDNF is associated with age-related white matter atrophy but not with cognitive function in older, non-demented adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Driscoll

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF seems to be involved in regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA, we examined whether BDNF plasma concentration was associated with rates of age-related change in cognitive performance (n = 429 and regional brain volume (n = 59. Plasma BDNF levels, which were significantly higher in females (p0.05. Sex differences in the relationship between BDNF and the trajectories of regional brain volume changes were observed for the whole brain and frontal white matter volumes (p<0.05, whereby lower plasma BDNF was associated with steeper volume decline in females but not males. Together, our findings contribute to furthering the understanding of the relationships between plasma BDNF, structural brain integrity and cognition. Potential mechanisms mediating these relationships merit further investigation.

  10. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  11. Interactive effects of apolipoprotein E4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating white matter regions in neurologically healthy older aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jessica M; Salat, David H; Stricker, Nikki H; Zink, Tyler A; Grande, Laura J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Leritz, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Possession of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele and diabetes risk are independently related to reduced white matter (WM) integrity that may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions among healthy elderly individuals at risk of AD. A sample of 107 healthy elderly (80 APOE4-/27 APOE4+) individuals underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were prepared using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from T1-based WM parcellations. Regions of interest included later myelinating frontal/temporal/parietal WM regions and control regions measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). There were no APOE group differences in DTI for any ROI. Within the APOE4 group, we found negative relationships between hemoglobin A1c/fasting glucose and APOE4 on FA for all later myelinating WM regions but not for early/middle myelinating control regions. Results also showed APOE4/diabetes risk interactions for WM underlying supramarginal, superior temporal, precuneus, superior parietal, and superior frontal regions. Results suggest interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions, which supports preclinical detection of AD among this particularly susceptible subgroup.

  12. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former....... The construction of the film, however, also allows Haneke to critically comment upon his protagonist’s paranoia and demonstrate its ill-foundedness, for instance by pointing to a possible ‘banal conviviality’ (Paul Gilroy) between people of different ethnicities, cultures and religions....

  13. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes...... sensitivity indices using area under the ROC curve (aROC) analysis and χ(2) test. RESULTS: The novel formula for SPISE was computed as follows: SPISE = 600 × HDL-C(0.185)/(TG(0.2) × BMI(1.338)), with fasting HDL-C (mg/dL), fasting TG concentrations (mg/dL), and BMI (kg/m(2)). A cutoff value of 6...

  14. Impact of cerebral white matter changes on functionality in older adults: An overview of the LADIS Study results and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoni, Leonardo; Fierini, Fabio; Poggesi, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The evidence on the clinical significance of cerebral white matter changes (WMC) has mounted over the past few decades. WMC are recognized as one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease, and are associated with various disturbances and a poor prognosis. The Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study has contributed substantially to this body of knowledge. LADIS is a European multicenter collaboration aimed at assessing the role of WMC as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in initially non-disabled patients aged 65-84 years. Besides the demonstration that severe WMC cause a more than double risk of transition from an autonomous to a dependent status after 3 years of follow-up, the LADIS Study has also provided evidence on the role of WMC in relation to the decline of cognitive and motor performances, depressive symptoms associated with aging and cerebrovascular diseases, the presence of urinary disturbances, and various neurological abnormalities. The possible role of other lesions (lacunar infarcts, cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum morphology) and microstructural abnormalities (diffusion-weighted imaging changes in normal appearing brain tissue and in WMC) has also been investigated. In the present article, we review the main results of the LADIS Study and offer some considerations for future developments in the field, paying attention to the potential use of WMC progression as a surrogate marker in intervention trials in cerebral small vessel diseases. We also discuss some therapeutic perspectives regarding the beneficial impact of physical activity on the risk of vascular cognitive impairment in patients with WMC.

  15. Fine structural study of the innervation of muscle spindles in the internal oblique muscle of the abdominal wall in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Ezaki, Taichi; Nishida, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    We examined by electron microscopy the innervation of muscle spindles in the internal oblique muscle of the mouse abdominal wall. In the equatorial region, in addition to the sensory innervation on individual intrafusal muscle fibers, sensory cross terminals were often observed between nuclear chain fibers. In the area from the juxtaequatorial region to the polar region, nuclear bag fibers were supplied by trail and plate-type motor endings, while nuclear chain fibers were innervated by sensory endings, being probably secondary sensory endings. From these findings, it is clear that the innervation patterns differ between two types of intrafusal muscle fibers.

  16. 华山松大小蠹成虫粪便挥发性物质分析%Volatile Compounds in the Frass of Adult Chinese White Pine Beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍平; 陈辉; 吴琼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from phloem of healthy Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Franch) and fresh frass of Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the most substances were sesquitertenes, followed by monoterpenes, no diterpenes were detected in frass and phloem. There was significant difference both in constituents and contents between beetle adult frass and trees phloem. The content of monoterpene was much more but the sesquitertene was less in frass of Chinese white pine beetle than those in phloem of healthy Chinese white pine. Fifteen substances such as 6 ,6-dimethyl- bicyclo[3. 1. 1] hept-2-ene-2-carboxaldehyde, 1, 3 , 3-trimethyl-bicyclo[2. 2. l]heptan-2-ol, 2 ,3-dimethyl-tricycle [2. 2. 1. 0(2,6)] heptane-3-methanol, and so on were detected only in adult D. armandi frass, of which eight substances such as 4 ,6 ,6-trimethyl-(lS)-bicycle[3. 1. l]hept-3-en-2-one, 1,3, 3- trimethyl-bicycle[2. 2. l]heptan-2-one, pallyl-anisole were only detected in female frass and 3,7-dimeth-yl-1, 6~octadien-3-ol, 2 , 2 , 3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentene-l-acetaldehyde, butylated hydroxytoluene in male frass, which provided theoretical basis to the host selection of adults D. armandi to Chinese white pine and secretion of D. armandi pheromone.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li)成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中的挥发性物质进行了分析.结果表明,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质以倍半萜类物质最多,其次是单萜类物质,而未见有二萜类物质,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质在成分和含量上都有较大差别,粪便中单萜类物质含量明显高于韧皮部,而倍半萜含量则低于韧皮部.此外,6,6-二甲基-2-

  17. CSF markers of Alzheimer’s pathology and microglial activation are associated with altered white matter microstructure in asymptomatic adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melah, Kelsey E; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Alexander, Andrew L; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Gleason, Carey E; Dowling, N Maritza; Bratzke, Lisa C; Rowley, Howard A; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2015-01-01

    Background The immune response in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves activation of microglia which may remove β-amyloid. However, overproduction of inflammatory compounds may exacerbate neural damage in Alzheimer’s disease. AD pathology accumulates years before diagnosis, yet the extent to which neuroinflammation is involved in the earliest disease stages is unknown. Objective To determine whether neuroinflammation exacerbates neural damage in preclinical AD. Methods We utilized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging collected in 192 asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults (mean age=60.98 years). Neuroinflammatory markers chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in CSF were utilized as markers of neuroinflammation. Neural cell damage was assessed using CSF neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), CSF total tau (T-Tau), and neural microstructure assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). With regard to AD pathology, CSF Aβ42 and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-Tau181) were used as markers of amyloid and tau pathology, respectively. We hypothesized that higher YKL-40 and MCP-1 in the presence of AD pathology would be associated with higher NFL, T-Tau, and altered microstructure on DTI. Results Neuroinflammation was associated with markers of neural damage. Higher CSF YKL-40 was associated with both higher CSF NFL and T-Tau. Inflammation interacted with AD pathology, such that greater MCP-1 and lower Aβ42 was associated with altered microstructure in bilateral frontal and right temporal lobe and that greater MCP-1 and greater P-Tau181 was associated with altered microstructure in precuneus. Conclusion Inflammation may play a role in neural damage in preclinical AD. PMID:26836182

  18. Adult glucocorticoid exposure leads to transcriptional and DNA methylation changes in nuclear steroid receptors in the hippocampus and kidney of mouse male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) are commonly prescribed for the management of inflammatory and endocrine disorders. However, nothing is known regarding the effects of sGC on adult germline methylome and whether these effects can be transmitted to the next generation. We hypothesized that administration of sGC to adult male mice alters DNA methylation in mature sperm and modifies the transcription and methylation of steroid receptors in male F1 offspring. Adult C57BL/6 males (n = 10/group) were injected on five consecutive days with 1 mg/kg sGC (i.e., dexamethasone) or vehicle and euthanized 35 or 60 days after initial treatment or bred with control females (60 days postinitial treatment; n = 5/group). A significant increase in global non-CpG methylation was observed in F0 sperm 60 days following sGC treatment. In the hippocampus and kidney of Postnatal Day 50 (PND50) and PND240 male offspring derived from fathers exposed to sGC, significant differences in mineralocorticoid receptor (Nr3c2; Mr), estrogen alpha receptor (Nr3a1; Ers1), and glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1; Gr) expression were observed. Furthermore, significant demethylation in regulatory regions of Mr, Gr, and Esr1 was observed in the PND50 kidney derived from fathers exposed to sGC. This is the first demonstration that paternal pharmacological exposure to sGC can alter the expression and DNA methylation of nuclear steroid receptors in brain and somatic tissues of offspring. These findings provide proof of principle that adult male exposure to sGC can affect DNA methylation and gene expression in offspring, indicating the possibility that adult experiences that evoke increases in endogenous glucocorticoid (i.e., stress) might have similar effects.

  19. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  20. White-light Quantitative Phase Imaging Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, YoonSeok; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool.

  1. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Hafez, Alexander K.; Solomon, Elizabeth R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity alters the epigenome, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50 ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and expression of associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3 K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region- specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3 K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development induces alterations in the adult brain via histone modifications and chromatin modifiers a sex- and

  2. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Hafez, Alexander K; Solomon, Elizabeth R; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity has a profound effect on the epigenetic landscape, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region-specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development leads to long-lasting changes in histone methylation and acetylation in the adult brain

  3. RNAi silencing of P/Q-type calcium channels in Purkinje neurons of adult mouse leads to episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Julie; Bertaso, Federica; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Metz, Alexandra; Lemmers, Céline; Ango, Fabrice; Fagni, Laurent; Lory, Philippe; Mezghrani, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Episodic ataxia type-2 (EA2) is a dominantly inherited human neurological disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes the CaV2.1 subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels. It remains however unknown whether the deficit of cerebellar CaV2.1 in adult is in direct link with the disease. To address this issue, we have used lentiviral based-vector RNA interference (RNAi) to knock-down CaV2.1 expression in the cerebellum of adult mice. We show that suppression of the P/Q-type channels in Purkinje neurons induced motor abnormalities, such as imbalance and ataxic gait. Interestingly, moderate channel suppression caused no basal ataxia, while β-adrenergic activation and exercise mimicked stress induced motor disorders. Moreover, stress-induced ataxia was stable, non-progressive and totally abolished by acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat EA2. Altogether, these data reveal that P/Q-type channel suppression in adult mice supports the episodic status of EA2 disease.

  4. Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNFα and blocks TNFα-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNFα-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNFα-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNFα generated from either implanted TNFα-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNFα, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1α, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNFα complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNFα and IL1α, but not interferon γ, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation

  5. Mapping of neurotrophins and their receptors in the adult mouse brain and their role in the pathogenesis of a transgenic murine model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Salazar, P; Márquez, M; Fondevila, D; Rabanal, R M; Torres, J M; Pumarola, M; Vidal, E

    2014-05-01

    Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that act on neuronal cells. The neurotrophins include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3, -4 and -5. The action of neurotrophins depends on two transmembrane-receptor signalling systems: (1) the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk A, Trk B and Trk C) and (2) the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). The interaction between neurotrophic factors and their receptors may be involved in the mechanisms that regulate the differential susceptibility of neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) using a transgenic mouse overexpressing bovine prnp (BoTg 110). Histochemistry for Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and the receptors Trk A, Trk B, Trk C and p75(NTR) was performed. The lesions and the immunolabelling patterns were assessed semiquantitatively in different areas of the brain. No significant differences in the immunolabelling of neurotrophins and their receptors were observed between BSE-inoculated and control animals, except for p75(NTR), which showed increased expression correlating with the distribution of lesions, PrP(d) deposition and gliosis in the BSE-inoculated mice.

  6. CX3 chemokine receptor 1 defciency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that microglia impact the proliferation and differentiation of neurons during hippocampal neurogenesis via the fractalkine/CX3 chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1 signaling pathway. However, whether microglia can influence the maturation and dendritic growth of newborn neurons during hippocampal neurogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus was decreased, and the dendritic length and number of intersections in newborn neurons in the hippocampus were reduced in transgenic adult mice with CX3CR1 deficiency (CX3CR1GFP/GFP. Furthermore, after experimental seizures were induced with kainic acid in these CX3CR1-deficient mice, the expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was reduced compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, the experimental findings indicate that the functional maturation of newborn neurons during hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice is delayed by CX3CR1 deficiency.

  7. Transgenerational disruption of functional 5-HT1AR-induced connectivity in the adult mouse brain by traumatic stress in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razoux, F; Russig, H; Mueggler, T; Baltes, C; Dikaiou, K; Rudin, M; Mansuy, I M

    2016-09-27

    Traumatic stress in early life is a strong risk factor for psychiatric disorders that can affect individuals across several generations. Although the underlying mechanisms have been proposed to implicate serotonergic transmission in the brain, the neural circuits involved remain poorly delineated. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we demonstrate that traumatic stress in postnatal life alters 5-HT1A receptor-evoked local and global functions in both, the exposed animals and their progeny when adult. Disrupted functional connectivity is consistent across generations and match limbic circuits implicated in mood disorders, but also networks not previously linked to traumatic stress. These findings underscore the neurobiology and functional mapping of transgenerational effects of early life experiences.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 27 September 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.146.

  8. Physical activity and environmental enrichment regulate the generation of neural precursors in the adult mouse substantia nigra in a dopamine-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaissle Philipp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a continuous loss of neurons within the substantia nigra (SN leading to a depletion of dopamine. Within the adult SN as a non-neurogenic region, cells with mainly oligodendrocytic precursor characteristics, expressing the neuro-glial antigen-2 (NG2 are continuously generated. Proliferation of these cells is altered in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Exercise and environmental enrichment re-increase proliferation of NG2+ cells in PD models, however, a possible mechanistic role of dopamine for this increase is not completely understood. NG2+ cells can differentiate into oligodendrocytes but also into microglia and neurons as observed in vitro suggesting a possible hint for endogenous regenerative capacity of the SN. We investigated the role of dopamine in NG2-generation and differentiation in the adult SN stimulated by physical activity and environmental enrichment. Results We used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-model for dopamine depletion and analysed newborn cells in the SN at different maturation stages and time points depending on voluntary physical activity, enriched environment and levodopa-treatment. We describe an activity- induced increase of new NG2-positive cells and also mature oligodendrocytes in the SN of healthy mice. Running and enriched environment refused to stimulate NG2-generation and oligodendrogenesis in MPTP-mice, an effect which could be reversed by pharmacological levodopa-induced rescue. Conclusion We suggest dopamine being a key regulator for activity-induced generation of NG2-cells and oliogodendrocytes in the SN as a potentially relevant mechanism in endogenous nigral cellular plasticity.

  9. Nogo-A deletion increases the plasticity of the optokinetic response and changes retinal projection organization in the adult mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik-Kornacka, Anna; van der Bourg, Alexander; Vajda, Flora; Joly, Sandrine; Christ, Franziska; Schwab, Martin E; Pernet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory action of Nogo-A on axonal growth has been well described. However, much less is known about the effects that Nogo-A could exert on the plasticity of neuronal circuits under physiological conditions. We investigated the effects of Nogo-A knock-out (KO) on visual function of adult mice using the optokinetic response (OKR) and the monocular deprivation (MD)-induced OKR plasticity and analyzed the anatomical organization of the eye-specific retinal projections. The spatial frequency sensitivity was higher in intact Nogo-A KO than in wild-type (WT) mice. After MD, Nogo-A KO mice reached a significantly higher spatial frequency and contrast sensitivity. Bilateral ablation of the visual cortex did not affect the OKR sensitivity before MD but reduced the MD-induced enhancement of OKR by approximately 50% in Nogo-A KO and WT mice. These results suggest that cortical and subcortical brain structures contribute to the OKR plasticity. The tracing of retinal projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) revealed that the segregation of eye-specific terminals was decreased in the adult Nogo-A KO dLGN compared with WT mice. Strikingly, MD of the right eye led to additional desegregation of retinal projections in the left dLGN of Nogo-A KO but not in WT mice. In particular, MD promoted ectopic varicosity formation in Nogo-A KO dLGN axons. The present data show that Nogo-A restricts visual experience-driven plasticity of the OKR and plays a role in the segregation and maintenance of retinal projections to the brain.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  11. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  12. Fibromodulin-deficiency alters temporospatial expression patterns of transforming growth factor-β ligands and receptors during adult mouse skin wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng

    Full Text Available Fibromodulin (FMOD is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan required for scarless fetal cutaneous wound repair. Interestingly, increased FMOD levels have been correlated with decreased transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 expression in multiple fetal and adult rodent models. Our previous studies demonstrated that FMOD-deficiency in adult animals results in delayed wound closure and increased scar size accompanied by loose package collagen fiber networks with increased fibril diameter. In addition, we found that FMOD modulates in vitro expression and activities of TGF-β ligands in an isoform-specific manner. In this study, temporospatial expression profiles of TGF-β ligands and receptors in FMOD-null and wild-type (WT mice were compared by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a full-thickness, primary intention wound closure model. During the inflammatory stage, elevated inflammatory infiltration accompanied by increased type I TGF-β receptor levels in individual inflammatory cells was observed in FMOD-null wounds. This increased inflammation was correlated with accelerated epithelial migration during the proliferative stage. On the other hand, significantly more robust expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-β receptors in FMOD-null wounds during the proliferative stage was associated with delayed dermal cell migration and proliferation, which led to postponed granulation tissue formation and wound closure and increased scar size. Compared with WT controls, expression of TGF-β ligands and receptors by FMOD-null dermal cells was markedly reduced during the remodeling stage, which may have contributed to the declined collagen synthesis capability and unordinary collagen architecture. Taken together, this study demonstrates that a single missing gene, FMOD, leads to conspicuous alternations in TGF-β ligand and receptor expression at all stages of wound repair in various cell types. Therefore

  13. Protective Effect of Lupeol Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation via the p38/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Haroon; Ali, Tahir; Shafiq-ur Rehman; Faiz-ul Amin; Ullah, Faheem; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close interaction between neuroinflammatory responses, increased production of inflammatory mediators, and neurodegeneration. Pathological findings in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease have shown common signs of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lupeol, a natural pentacyclic triterpene, has revealed a number of pharmacological properties including an anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lupeol against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in the cortex and hippocampus of adult mice. Our results showed that systemic administration of LPS induced glial cell production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin (IL)-1β, while co-treatment with lupeol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, and decreased the LPS-induced generation of TNF-α, iNOS, and IL-1β. The intracellular mechanism involved in the LPS-induced activation of inflammatory responses includes phosphorylation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was significantly inhibited by lupeol. We further elucidated that lupeol inhibited the LPS-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and reversed the LPS-induced expression of apoptotic markers such as Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Taken together; our results suggest that lupeol inhibits LPS-induced microglial neuroinflammation via the P38-MAPK and JNK pathways and has therapeutic potential to treat various neuroinflammatory disorders.

  14. Changes in pericytic expression of NG2 and PDGFRB and vascular permeability in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse by osmotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shoko; Hourai, Atsushi; Miyata, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a barrier that prevents free access of blood-derived substances to the brain through the tight junctions and maintains a specialized brain environment. Circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the typical BBB. The fenestrated vasculature of the sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP), allows parenchyma cells to sense a variety of blood-derived information, including osmotic ones. In the present study, we utilized immunohistochemistry to examine changes in the expression of NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) in the OVLT, SFO and AP of adult mice during chronic osmotic stimulation. The expression of NG2 and PDGFRB was remarkably prominent in pericytes, although these angiogenesis-associated proteins are highly expressed at pericytes of developing immature vasculature. The chronic salt loading prominently increased the expression of NG2 in the OVLT and SFO and that of PDGFRB in the OVLT, SFO and AP. The vascular permeability of low-molecular-mass tracer fluorescein isothiocyanate was increased significantly by chronic salt loading in the OVLT and SFO but not AP. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates changes in pericyte expression of NG2 and PDGFRB and vascular permeability in the sensory CVOs by chronic osmotic stimulation, indicating active participation of the vascular system in osmotic homeostasis.

  15. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions.

  16. Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, Maria de Los Angeles; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Trejo-Castro, Lauro; Montenegro-Cristino, Natividad; Almanza-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; de la Rosa-Arana, Jorge Luis

    2015-08-28

    We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-γ were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-γ increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen whereas in AS, AL and AF groups recovering was of 25%, 12% and 8%, respectively. Macroscopical lesions in the liver were scarce in AL and AF groups. Our data suggest that immunisation of mice with antigens of F. hepatica enhances the immune response avoiding both liver damage and worm establishment after challenge infection. The murine model of fasciolosis has appeared to be useful to elucidate the mechanism by which the parasite modulates immune responses toward a Th2 type but also the development of Th1 type-inducing vaccines.

  17. Lineage tracing in the adult mouse corneal epithelium supports the limbal epithelial stem cell hypothesis with intermittent periods of stem cell quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Dorà

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC hypothesis proposes that LESCs in the corneal limbus maintain the corneal epithelium both during normal homeostasis and wound repair. The alternative corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC hypothesis proposes that LESCs are only involved in wound repair and CESCs in the corneal epithelium itself maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis. We used tamoxifen-inducible, CreER-loxP lineage tracing to distinguish between these hypotheses. Clones of labelled cells were induced in adult CAGG-CreER;R26R-LacZ reporter mice and their distributions analysed after different chase periods. Short-lived clones, derived from labelled transient amplifying cells, were shed during the chase period and long-lived clones, derived from stem cells, expanded. At 6 weeks, labelled clones appeared at the periphery, extended centripetally as radial stripes and a few reached the centre by 14 weeks. Stripe numbers depended on the age of tamoxifen treatment. Stripes varied in length, some were discontinuous, few reached the centre and almost half had one end at the limbus. Similar stripes extended across the cornea in CAGG-CreER;R26R-mT/mG reporter mice. The distributions of labelled clones are inconsistent with the CESC hypothesis and support the LESC hypothesis if LESCs cycle between phases of activity and quiescence, each lasting several weeks.

  18. Inflammation in White Matter: Clinical and Pathophysiological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasure, David; Soulika, Athena; Singh, Sunit K.; Gallo, Vittorio; Bannerman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While the central nervous system (CNS) is generally thought of as an immunopriviledged site, immune-mediated CNS white matter damage can occur in both the perinatal period and in adults, and can result in severe and persistent neurological deficits. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is an inflammatory white matter disease of premature infants…

  19. Mapping of Cbln1-like immunoreactivity in adult and developing mouse brain and its localization to the endolysosomal compartment of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Smeyne, Richard J; Bao, Dashi; Parris, Jennifer; Morgan, James I

    2007-11-01

    Cbln1 is a secreted glycoprotein essential for synapse structure and function in cerebellum that is also expressed in extracerebellar structures where its function is unknown. Furthermore, Cbln1 assembles into homomeric complexes and heteromeric complexes with three family members (Cbln2-Cbln4), thereby influencing each other's degradation and secretion. Therefore, to understand its function, it is essential to establish the location of Cbln1 relative to other family members. The localization of Cbln1 in brain was determined using immunohistochemistry and cbln1-lacZ transgenic mice. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity (CLI) was always punctate and localized to the cytoplasm of neurons. The punctate CLI colocalized with cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, but not with markers of endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi, indicating that Cbln1 is present in neuronal endosomes/lysosomes. This may represent the cellular mechanism underlying the regulated degradation of Cbln1 observed in vivo. Outside the cerebellum, CLI mapped to multiple brain regions that were frequently synaptically interconnected, warranting their analysis in cbln1-null mice. Furthermore, whereas CLI increased dramatically in the cerebellum of cbln3-null mice it was unchanged in extracerebellar neurons. This opens the possibility that other family members that are coexpressed in these areas control Cbln1 levels, potentially by modulating processing in the endolysosomal pathway. During development of cbln1-lacZ mice, beta-galactosidase staining was first observed in proliferating granule cell precursors prior to synaptogenesis and thereafter in maturing and adult granule cells. As cbln3 is only expressed in post-mitotic, post-migratory granule cells, Cbln1 homomeric complexes in precursors and Cbln1-Cbln3 heteromeric complexes in mature granule cells may have distinct functions and turnover.

  20. Differential distribution of tight junction proteins suggests a role for tanycytes in blood-hypothalamus barrier regulation in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullier, Amandine; Bouret, Sebastien G; Prevot, Vincent; Dehouck, Bénédicte

    2010-04-01

    The median eminence is one of the seven so-called circumventricular organs. It is located in the basal hypothalamus, ventral to the third ventricle and adjacent to the arcuate nucleus. This structure characteristically contains a rich capillary plexus and features a fenestrated endothelium, making it a direct target of blood-borne molecules. The median eminence also contains highly specialized ependymal cells called tanycytes, which line the floor of the third ventricle. It has been hypothesized that one of the functions of these cells is to create a barrier that prevents substances in the portal capillary spaces from entering the brain. In this paper, we utilize immunohistochemistry to study the expression of tight junction proteins in the cells that compose the median eminence in adult mice. Our results indicate that tanycytes of the median eminence express occludin, ZO-1, and claudin 1 and 5, but not claudin 3. Remarkably, these molecules are organized as a continuous belt around the cell bodies of the tanycytes that line the ventral part of the third ventricle. In contrast, the tanycytes at the periphery of the arcuate nucleus do not express claudin 1 and instead exhibit a disorganized expression pattern of occludin, ZO-1, and claudin 5. Consistent with these observations, permeability studies using peripheral or central injections of Evans blue dye show that only the tanycytes of the median eminence are joined at their apices by functional tight junctions, whereas tanycytes located at the level of the arcuate nucleus form a permeable layer. In conclusion, this study reveals a unique expression pattern of tight junction proteins in hypothalamic tanycytes, which yields new insights into their barrier properties.

  1. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  2. Novos valores de referência para espirometria forçada em brasileiros adultos de raça branca New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    2007-08-01

    capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEV1/forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6 were best fitted by linear regression. Flows were best fitted using log equations. For both genders, greater height resulted in lower values for FEV1/FVC, FEV1/FEV6 and flow/FVC ratios. The reference values for FEV1 and FVC in the present study were higher than those derived for Brazilian adults in 1992. CONCLUSION: New predicted values for forced spirometry were obtained in a sample of white Brazilians. The values are greater than those obtained in 1992, probably due to technical factors.

  3. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of Growth and Other Growth Related Characters of White Hairs from Both Temples of an Adult Man%中年男性两鬓白发的生长速度等有关性状测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳宇; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    在985 d内,连续拔取一位中年男性两鬓的白发样本左右各12份,每份5~7根.测量其白色段的长度和距发根1 cm处头发的微观性状.用SPSS17.0软件对各性状配对样本T检验和二元定距变量相关分析.结果表明:两鬓头发生长速度差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(0.59±0.05)mm/d;右鬓(0.58±0.06)mm/d.距发根1 cm处,两鬓发干细度差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(92.52±6.34)μm,右鬓(91.18±4.47)μm;髓质细度存在极显著差异(p=0.01):左鬓(28.44±9.25)μm,右鬓(21.59±3.69)μm;髓质指数有差异(0.05>p>0.01):左鬓(30.41±8.26)%,右鬓(23.59±4.21)%;鳞片游离缘间距差异不显著(P>0.05):左鬓(5.00±0.37)μm,右鬓:(4.78±0.16)μm.头发生长速度、距发根1 cm处发干细度、鳞片游离缘间距两侧对称.其中生长速度有季节差异.各相关性状间存在相关关系.%Twelve samples with 5-7 growing white hairs each were obtained respectively from each side of temples of an adult man during 985 days. The lengths of the white segments of each sample were measured by ruler, and the microcosmic structure of the hair segments 1 cm away from their hairy root was studied. The analysis of paired-samples T test and Bivariate correlation with SPSS17.0 software were made. An insignificant difference in hair growth rate was observed between the left temple and the fight temple. The average rate of the white hair growth for the left temple is (0.59±0.05)mm/d and that for the right is (0.58±0.06)mm/d. The average diameter of hair segments 1 cm away from their hairy root is (92. 52±6. 34) μm for the left temple and that for the right is (91.18±4.47) μm. There is an extremely significant difference in hair medullar diameter between the left and the right temples. The average medullar diameter is (28.44±9.25) μm for the left temple and (21.59 ±3.69 ) μm for the right. The average medullar index is ( 30.41 ±8.26 ) percent for the left temple and (23.59±4.21) percent for

  5. Impact of the chronic arsenic poisoning on the ultraturcture of adult mouse brain temporal lobe cortex%慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花伟; 臧贵勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the temporal lobe cortex for the brains of these mouse with chronic arsenicpoisoning ,to explore the mechanism of arsenic toxicity on the brain .Method 60 healthy adult Kunming mouse ( 30 male and 30 female) were selected and divided into control group ,low and high dose groups . There were 20 mouse in each group . The dye arsenic group respectively with distilled water , 1/5LD50 ,1/50LD50 ,As2 O3 solution to fill the stomach ,for three consecutive months .After building ,canister , based on the determination of arsenic in groups of mice brain ,Nepal’s dyeing were used to observe the cerebral cor‐tex of temporal morphology change ,transmission electronmicroscope to observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the cerebral cortex temporal lobe in mice .Result It might be the type the type of arsenic content in the cerebral cor‐tex was significantly higher than the control group (P<0 .05) .It was observed the decrease in the number of infec‐ted each cortical neurons ,shape was irregular ,intracytoplasmic austenite reduced .It was observed under electron microscope the prion edema groups of nerve cells ,organelles decreased ,mitochondrial cristae fracture and cavity . Conclusion Arsenic poisoning can cause nerve cell pathology and ultrastructure change of cerebral cortex .%目的:观察慢性砷中毒对小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的改变,探讨砷对大脑的毒性机制。方法选取健康成年昆明小鼠60只,雌雄各半,分为对照组、慢性砷中毒低、高剂量组,每组20只,各染砷组分别以蒸馏水、1/5LD50、1/50 LD50的As2 O3溶液灌胃,连续3个月。经造模、染毒、取材后,测定各组小鼠大脑中砷含量,采用尼氏染色观察大脑皮质颞叶形态学改变,透射电镜观察小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的变化。结果(1)染毒各组小鼠大脑皮质中砷含量明显高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)

  6. [Preparation and application of rabbit anti-mouse Setd8 polyclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haitao; Guo, Jiaqian; Xia, Jing; Niu, Changmin; Shen, Xueyi; Sun, Hongya; Zheng, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Objective To purify the recombinant Setd8 protein and prepare rabbit anti-mouse Setd8 polyclonal antibody. Methods The recombinant plasmid pET-30a-Setd8 was constructed by double enzyme digestion and linkage, and then transformed into E.coli BL21. The expression of the target protein was induced by IPTG and the expression product was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatograph. The purified protein was used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody. The titer and specificity of the antibody were identified by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results The prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a-Setd8 was constructed successfully. After induced by IPTG, the recombinant Setd8 protein was expressed effectively in E.coli BL21. Polyclonal antibody against Setd8 was generated by immunizing rabbits with the routine method. ELISA showed that the titer of rabbit anti-Setd8 antiserum was 1:1 000 000. Western blotting demonstrated that the polyclonal antibody could recognize the native mouse Setd8 protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Setd8 protein recognized by the polyclonal antibody was mainly distributed in the nucleus of spermatogonia in adult mouse testis. Conclusion Using the prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a-Setd8, we have prepared successfully the polyclonal antibody with high affinity and specificity.

  7. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  8. Inherent plasticity of brown adipogenesis in white fat of mice allows for recovery from effects of post-natal malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P Kozak

    Full Text Available Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT is formed during fetal development and stable for the life span of the mouse. In addition, brown adipocytes also appear in white fat depots (wBAT between 10 and 21 days of age in mice maintained at a room temperature of 23 °C. However, this expression is transient. By 60 days of age the brown adipocytes have disappeared, but they can re-emerge if the adult mouse is exposed to the cold (5 °C or treated with β3-adrenergic agonists. Since the number of brown adipocytes that can be induced in white fat influences the capacity of the mouse to resist the obese state, we determined the effects of the nutritional conditions on post-natal development (birth to 21 days of wBAT and its long-term effects on diet-induced obesity (DIO. Under-nutrition caused essentially complete suppression of wBAT in inguinal fat at 21 days of age, as indicated by expression of Ucp1 and genes of mitochondrial structure and function based upon microarray and qRT-PCR analysis, whereas over-nutrition had no discernible effects on wBAT induction. Surprisingly, the suppression of wBAT at 21 days of age did not affect DIO in adult mice maintained at 23 °C, nor did it affect the reduction in obesity or cold tolerance when DIO mice were exposed to the cold at 5 °C for one week. Gene expression analysis indicated that mice raised under conditions that suppressed wBAT at 21 days of age were able to normally induce wBAT as adults. Therefore, neither severe hypoleptinemia nor hypoinsulinemia during suckling permanently impaired brown adipogenesis in white fat. In addition, energy balance studies of DIO mice exposed to cold indicates that mice with reduced adipose stores preferentially increased food intake, whereas those with larger adipose tissue depots preferred to utilize energy from their adipose stores.

  9. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. United States national prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in black and white middle-age (45- to 64-Year) and older (≥65-Year) adults (from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prineas, Ronald J; Le, Anh; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Howard, Virginia J; Ostchega, Yechiam; Howard, George

    2012-04-15

    A United States national sample of 20,962 participants (57% women, 44% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study provided general population estimates for electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among black and white men and women. The participants were recruited from 2003 to 2007 by random selection from a commercially available nationwide list, with oversampling of blacks and those from the stroke belt, with a cooperation rate of 49%. The measurement of risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms (centrally coded using Minnesota code criteria) showed 28% had ≥1 major ECG abnormality. The prevalence of abnormalities was greater (≥35%) for those ≥65 years old, with no differences between blacks and whites. However, among men <65 years, blacks had more major abnormalities than whites, most notably for atrial fibrillation, major Q waves, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Men generally had more ECG abnormalities than women. The most common ECG abnormalities were T-wave abnormalities. The average heart rate-corrected QT interval was longer in women than in men, similar in whites and blacks, and increased with age. However, the average heart rate was greater in women than in men and in blacks than in whites and decreased with age. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was related to the presence of hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, and age. In conclusion, black men and women in the United States have a significantly greater prevalence of ECG abnormalities than white men and women at age 45 to 64 years; however, these proportions, although larger, tended to equalize or reverse after age 65.

  11. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  12. Behavioral responses of encountering adults of the white-striped longhorn beetle, Batocera lineolata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae ), in the laboratory conditions%室内条件下云斑天牛成虫相遇行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桦; 杨伟; 杨春平; 杨茂发; 王保新; 朱天辉; 黄琼

    2012-01-01

    为了探索云斑天牛Batocera lineolata Chevrolat雌雄成虫的交配机制,采用室内饲养观察和视频轨迹捕捉系统( EthoVision 3.1)自动记录分析相结合的方法,对云斑天牛的两性相遇行为进行了研究.行为仪分析结果表明,雌雌、雄雄与雌雄相遇过程中,雌雄在轨迹相交时间和净相对运动上显著长于雌雌和雄雄(P<0.05),而在反应前时间上显著短于雌雌和雄雄相遇情况(P<0.05).室内试验观察表明,云斑天牛成虫相遇包括避让、打斗和交配3种行为.雌雌相遇发生避让的频率最高为80.98% (P <0.05).雄雄相遇发生避让的频率为78.03%,显著高于发生打斗的频率21.96% (P <0.05);雌、雄成虫与正在交配的一对成虫相遇发生避让的频率显著高于另外3种行为[打斗(继续交配)、打斗(结束交配)、打斗(与后来者交配)](P<0.05),雌、雄成虫发生避让、打斗(继续交配)和打斗(结束交配)3种行为的发生频率存在性别差异(P<0.05);当雄雄相遇中成虫是初次相遇时,在发生打斗的频率上显著高于再次相遇(P<0.05),成虫在雄雄相遇发生避让的频率上,再次相遇显著高于初次相遇(P<0.05),雌雄成虫初次相遇发生交配的频率显著高于再次相遇的频率(P<0.05).云斑天牛成虫相遇行为的研究为研究云斑天牛召唤机制、性信息素的生物合成及成虫繁殖行为学提供了依据.%In order to search the mating system of male and female adults of the white-striped longhorn beetle, Batocera lineolata Chevrolat, we studied the encountering behavior of male and female of B. Lineolata by laboratory observation in combination with automatic record and analysis through video tracking capture system ( EthoVision 3.1). The test results by behavior instrument showed that the intersection time of two tracks and net relative movements between one male and one female were longer than that between one female and one

  13. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  15. Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560

  16. 小鼠外周血白细胞节律基因bmal1、clock、cry1、per1表达的近日节律性研究%Circadian rhythm expression of bmal1, clock, cry1, per1 in peripheral white blood cells of mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆敏; 唐瑛; 沈俊; 刘秋红; 时粉周; 李科华; 戴圣龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate circadian rhythm of four genes (bmal1,clock,cry1,per1) in mouse peripheral white blood cells under the 12 h-light and 12 h-dark cycle (12L/12D) condition.Methods Forty-eight male mice were kept under the light regime of 12L/12D for four weeks.According to random number table,they were randomly and averagely divided into 6 groups.Then,the blood samples were taken and white blood cells were separated every four hours in a circadian day (9:00,13:00,17:00,21:00,1:00 and 5:00).The total RNA was extracted from the white blood cells and the mRNA level of each gene was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR).The data were fitted by cosine function for getting the rhythm.The difference between apex and trough was analyzed by one-ANOVA.Results Under the light regime of 12L/12D,the four genes in peripheral white blood cells showed a significant circadian oscillation with different apex and trough.The apexes of four genes were higher than the troughs (P<0.01).The equation fitted apex phase of clock gene was at about 5:00,compared to the apex time of the other three genes were at about 13:00-15:00.The apex time of clock mRNA was ahead of brnal1,and the apex and amplitude of it were higher than those of brnal1.However,the mRNAs of cry1 and per1 showed a similar apex time and apex level.Conclusions The findings demonstrate that the expression of the four genes in white blood cells shows an obvious circadian rhythm.It seems that clock plays more important role than bmal1 in the positive regulation,and cry1 and per1 play a similar role in negative regulation.This result will not only be helpful to understand the circadian fluctuation of immune function,but also to provide a target for implementing diagnosis and therapy of immune disorders.Further study is needed to elucidate the control effect of these genes in different immune cells in peripheral blood.%目的 探讨12 h光照、12h黑暗交替(12 h-light and 12 h-dark cycle,12L

  17. Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S; Friedman, A R; Taravosh-Lahn, K; Kirby, E D; Mirescu, C; Guo, F; Krupik, D; Nicholas, A; Geraghty, A C; Krishnamurthy, A; Tsai, M-K; Covarrubias, D; Wong, A T; Francis, D D; Sapolsky, R M; Palmer, T D; Pleasure, D; Kaufer, D

    2014-12-01

    Stress can exert long-lasting changes on the brain that contribute to vulnerability to mental illness, yet mechanisms underlying this long-term vulnerability are not well understood. We hypothesized that stress may alter the production of oligodendrocytes in the adult brain, providing a cellular and structural basis for stress-related disorders. We found that immobilization stress decreased neurogenesis and increased oligodendrogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult rat hippocampus and that injections of the rat glucocorticoid stress hormone corticosterone (cort) were sufficient to replicate this effect. The DG contains a unique population of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) that give rise to adult newborn neurons, but oligodendrogenic potential has not been demonstrated in vivo. We used a nestin-CreER/YFP transgenic mouse line for lineage tracing and found that cort induces oligodendrogenesis from nestin-expressing NSCs in vivo. Using hippocampal NSCs cultured in vitro, we further showed that exposure to cort induced a pro-oligodendrogenic transcriptional program and resulted in an increase in oligodendrogenesis and decrease in neurogenesis, which was prevented by genetic blockade of glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Together, these results suggest a novel model in which stress may alter hippocampal function by promoting oligodendrogenesis, thereby altering the cellular composition and white matter structure.

  18. Physical white chaos generation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Anbang; Wang, Bingjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    Physical chaos is a fascinating prospect for high-speed data security by serving as a masking carrier or a key source, but suffers from a colored spectrum that divulges system's intrinsic oscillations and degrades randomness. Here, we demonstrate that physical chaos with a white spectrum can be achieved by the optical heterodyning of two delayed-feedback lasers. A white chaotic spectrum with 1-dB fluctuation in a band of 11 GHz is experimentally obtained. The white chaos also has a perfect delta-like autocorrelation function and a high dimensionality of greater than 10, which makes chaos reconstruction extremely difficult and thus improves security.

  19. Carpenter in White Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  20. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  1. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  2. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the Comprehensive Care...

  3. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  4. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  5. Snow White Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. 'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Botha, Judith M; Emmett, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos.

  7. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M Ferreira

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros (rhinos is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682 white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as

  8. Lucky White Elephant Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈法林

    2001-01-01

    white elephant在英语中是“累赘物”的代名词,为此,据说国产的“白象牌电池”曾经在欧美市场曾一度滞销。而缅甸人对white elephant却情有独钟!该国有一传统说法:白象的出现,是国运昌盛的预兆。国家将在辟邪中走向祥和、丰收和繁荣。】

  9. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  10. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  11. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  12. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tuck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures. A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource.

  13. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  14. Inguinal Herniography in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. T.; Park, K. J. [57th Evacuation Hospital, Korea Army, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    Inguinal hernia in children is easily diagnosed in most cases: however, it is sometimes different or impossible to detect by physical examination. The some is true of a contralateral asymptomatic hernia. White have reported that herniography is easy to perform and has a high degree of accuracy and minimal morbidity. The diagnostic accuracy of herniography in detection of patent process vaginalis is 95-98% by white. Rowe found 40% of children over age of of 2 years and adults with a unilateral congenital hernia had an open process vaginalis in contralateral normal site and concluded that 20% of patients with a unilateral hernia will develop a contralateral hernia sometimes during life. It is necessary to check the condition of the normal site before surgery in unilateral hernia by herniogram. But in adults, the hernigraphy was not performed due to some reason. We found that the herniography in adults is also easy ro perform and high degree of accuracy. The results are: 1. Total number of studies are 25 patient of unilateral inguinal hernia. 2. We found 32% of adults male with unilateral hernia had an open process viginalis in contralateral normal site. 3. Slight more abdominal disconfort than children is noted during injection of Hypaque. 4. Prominent lateral recess of Douglaspouch and poor coating of contrast media to peritoneum are different radiologic finding from children.

  15. Ontogenetic Change in the Regional Distribution of Dehydroepiandrosterone-Synthesizing Enzyme and the Glucocorticoid Receptor in the Brain of the Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tracey A; Ratnayake, Udani; Dickinson, Hayley; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2016-01-01

    The androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has trophic and anti-glucocorticoid actions on brain growth. The adrenal gland of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) synthesizes DHEA. The aim of this study was to determine whether the brain of this precocial species is also able to produce DHEA de novo during fetal, neonatal and adult life. The expression of P450c17 and cytochrome b5 (Cytb5), the enzyme and accessory protein responsible for the synthesis of DHEA, was determined in fetal, neonatal and adult brains by immunocytochemistry, and P450c17 bioactivity was determined by the conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA. Homogenates of fetal brain produced significantly more DHEA after 48 h in culture (22.46 ± 2.0 ng/mg tissue) than adult brain homogenates (5.04 ± 2.0 ng/mg tissue; p < 0.0001). P450c17 and Cytb5 were co-expressed in fetal neurons but predominantly in oligodendrocytes and white matter tracts in the adult brain. Because DHEA modulates glucocorticoids actions, the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was also determined. In the brainstem, medulla, midbrain, and cerebellum, the predominant GR localization changed from neurons in the fetal brain to oligodendrocytes and white matter tracts in the adult brain. The change of expression of P450c17, Cytb5 and GR proteins with cell type, brain region and developmental age indicates that DHEA is an endogenous neurosteroid in this species that may have important trophic and stress-modifying actions during both prenatal and postnatal life.

  16. Racial Identity, Phenotype, and Self-Esteem among Biracial Polynesian/White Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. E. Kawika; Garriott, Patton O.; Reyes, Carla J.; Hsieh, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined racial identity, self-esteem, and phenotype among biracial Polynesian/White adults. Eighty-four Polynesian/White persons completed the Biracial Identity Attitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and a Polynesian phenotype scale. Profile analyses showed participants identified more with their Polynesian parent. A…

  17. Death due to volvulus in a white rhinoceros ceratotherium simum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Vos

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal obstruction due to volvulus is described as the cause of death in an adult white rhinoceros cow. It is also pointed out that the gross anatomical features which predispose volvulus in the horse, are also present in the white rhinoceros and is considered to have some significance in the aetiology of the present case.

  18. Snow White II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Jan

    1978-01-01

    Presented as a fairy tale with the characters of Snow White and the seven dwarves, this paper points out some of the professional, emotional, and health characteristics and problems of individual teachers, and ways an administrator might deal with them. (SJL)

  19. Snow White 5 Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long. Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe. Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Liquid White Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  1. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  2. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  3. The Knockout Mouse Project

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Christopher P.; Battey, James F.; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F.; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T.; Grieder, Franziska B.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and e...

  4. Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research - Susan White perspective

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights of the autism research of Susan White, Psychology professor and the co-director of the VT Autism clinic, are explained. Topics include anxiety, treatment development, ASD in adults, and biomarker pursuit. Fit of research of the clinic to the Center for Autism Research is explained, with potential for leadership in technology applications, environmental considerations, and interdisciplinary work.

  5. Maternal nutrition induces pervasive gene expression changes but no detectable DNA methylation differences in the liver of adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V Cannon

    Full Text Available AIMS: Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that maternal diet can influence metabolism in adult offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the phenotypes induced by maternal obesity in a mouse model and examine gene expression and epigenetic changes induced by maternal diet in adult offspring. METHODS: We analyzed genetically identical male mice born from dams fed a high- or low-fat diet throughout pregnancy and until day 21 postpartum. After weaning, half of the males of each group were fed a high-fat diet, the other half a low-fat diet. We first characterized the genome-wide gene expression patterns of six tissues of adult offspring - liver, pancreas, white adipose, brain, muscle and heart. We then measured DNA methylation patterns in liver at selected loci and throughout the genome. RESULTS: Maternal diet had a significant effect on the body weight of the offspring when they were fed an obesogenic diet after weaning. Our analyses showed that maternal diet had a pervasive effect on gene expression, with a pronounced effect in liver where it affected many genes involved in inflammation, cholesterol synthesis and RXR activation. We did not detect any effect of the maternal diet on DNA methylation in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings highlighted the persistent influence of maternal diet on adult tissue regulation and suggested that the transcriptional changes were unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation differences in adult liver.

  6. Replacing the computer mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Dernoncourt, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In a few months the computer mouse will be half-a-century-old. It is known to have many drawbacks, the main ones being: loss of productivity due to constant switching between keyboard and mouse, and health issues such as RSI. Like the keyboard, it is an unnatural human-computer interface. However the vast majority of computer users still use computer mice nowadays. In this article, we explore computer mouse alternatives. Our research shows that moving the mouse cursor can be done efficiently ...

  7. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Tan; Wenzhi Sun; Tsai-Wen Chen; Douglas Kim; Na Ji

    2015-01-01

    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a compara...

  8. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  9. An MRI-based atlas and database of the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Nelson; Mori, Susumu; Yamamoto, Akira; Jiang, Hangyi; Ye, Xin; Xu, Xin; Richards, Linda J; Nathans, Jeremy; Miller, Michael I; Toga, Arthur W; Sidman, Richard L; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2011-01-01

    The advent of mammalian gene engineering and genetically modified mouse models has led to renewed interest in developing resources for referencing and quantitative analysis of mouse brain anatomy. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative characterization of anatomical phenotypes in the developing mouse brain. As an anatomical reference for neuroscience research using mouse models, this paper presents DTI based atlases of ex vivo C57BL/6 mouse brains at several developmental stages. The atlas complements existing histology and MRI-based atlases by providing users access to three-dimensional, high-resolution images of the developing mouse brain, with distinct tissue contrasts and segmentations of major gray matter and white matter structures. The usefulness of the atlas and database was demonstrated by quantitative measurements of the development of major gray matter and white matter structures. Population average images of the mouse brain at several postnatal stages were created using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping and their anatomical variations were quantitatively characterized. The atlas and database enhance our ability to examine the neuroanatomy in normal or genetically engineered mouse strains and mouse models of neurological diseases.

  10. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  11. White Light Heterodyne Interferometry SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. White Light ...White Light Heterodyne Interferometry SNR J.B. Ashcom Group 91...public release; distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT White light heterodyne interferometry is a powerful technique for obtaining high-angular

  12. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  13. The MOUSE Squad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  14. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...... central for race ideologier, som skabte den australske nation. Denne bog forfølger fundamenterne af hvide Australien på tværs af forskellige lokaliteter. Den placerer også  udviklingen af Australisk hvidhed som led i den bredere kejserlige og globale indflydelse. Som den seneste Undskyldning til Stjålne...

  15. 'Snow White' Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.' Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  17. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  18. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. How Age Affects Pointing with Mouse and Touchpad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2010-01-01

    Effects of age on pointing performance have become increasingly important as computers have become extensively used by still larger parts of the population. This study empirically investigates young (12-14 years), adult (25-33 years), and elderly (61-69 years) participants' performance when...... pointing with mouse and touchpad. The goal is to provide an integrated analysis of (a) how these three age groups differ in pointing performance, (b) how these differences are affected by the two pointing devices, and (c) how the submovement structure of cursor trajectories may explain performance...... neither more nor less errors than young and adult participants. All three age groups were slower and made more errors with the touchpad than the mouse, but the touchpad slowed down elderly participants more than young participants, who in turn were slowed down more than adult participants. Adult...

  20. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  1. In vivo high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Jiadi; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M; Mori, Susumu; Northington, Frances J; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2013-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the laboratory mouse brain provides important macroscopic information for anatomical characterization of mouse models in basic research. Currently, in vivo DTI of the mouse brain is often limited by the available resolution. In this study, we demonstrate in vivo high-resolution DTI of the mouse brain using a cryogenic probe and a modified diffusion-weighted gradient and spin echo (GRASE) imaging sequence at 11.7 T. Three-dimensional (3D) DTI of the entire mouse brain at 0.125 mm isotropic resolution could be obtained in approximately 2 h. The high spatial resolution, which was previously only available with ex vivo imaging, enabled non-invasive examination of small structures in the adult and neonatal mouse brains. Based on data acquired from eight adult mice, a group-averaged DTI atlas of the in vivo adult mouse brain with 60 structure segmentations was developed. Comparisons between in vivo and ex vivo mouse brain DTI data showed significant differences in brain morphology and tissue contrasts, which indicate the importance of the in vivo DTI-based mouse brain atlas.

  2. Computer mouse movement patterns: A potential marker of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Hagler, Stuart; Mattek, Nora; Diane B Howieson; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subtle changes in cognitively demanding activities occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but are difficult to assess with conventional methods. In an exploratory study, we examined whether patterns of computer mouse movements obtained from routine home computer use discriminated between older adults with and without MCI. Methods Participants were 42 cognitively intact and 20 older adults with MCI enrolled in a longitudinal study of in-home monitoring technologies. Mouse pointe...

  3. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  4. White matter and behavioral neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M

    2005-12-01

    Although the study of higher brain function has traditionally focused on the cortical gray matter, recent years have witnessed the recognition that white matter also makes an important contribution to cognition and emotion. White matter comprises nearly half the brain volume and plays a key role in development, aging, and many neurologic and psychiatric disorders across the life span. More than 100 disorders exist in which white matter neuropathology is the primary or a prominent feature. A variety of neurobehavioral syndromes may result from these disorders; the concept of white matter dementia has been introduced as characteristic of many patients with white matter involvement, and a wide range of focal neurobehavioral syndromes and psychiatric disorders can also be related to dysfunction of myelinated tracts. Understanding the neurobehavioral aspects of white matter disorders is important for clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and research on brain-behavior relationships. Central to these investigations is the use of modern neuroimaging techniques, which have already provided substantial information on the characterization of white matter and its disorders, and which promise to advance our knowledge further with continued innovation. Diffusion tensor imaging is an exciting method that will assist with the identification of critical white matter tracts in the brain, and the localization of specific lesions that can be correlated with neurobehavioral syndromes. A behavioral neurology of white matter is thus emerging in which clinical observation combined with sophisticated neuroimaging will enable elucidation of the role of white matter connectivity in the distributed neural networks subserving higher brain function.

  5. The white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ∼ 10 Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other relevant ingredients are needed to compare theory and observations. In this review we summarize the recent attempts to empirically determine the white dwarf luminosity function for the different Galactic populations. We also discuss the biases that may affect its interpretation. Finally, we elaborate on the theoretical ingredients needed to model the white dwarf luminosity function, paying special attention to the remaining uncertainties, and we comment on some applications of the white dwarf cooling theory. Astrophysical problems for which white dwarf stars may provide useful leverage in the near future are also discussed.

  6. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongchao; Sun, Wenzhi; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas; Ji, Na

    2015-01-01

    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a comparable percentage of the neuronal population responds to UV and visible stimuli, with similar pattern selectivity and receptive field properties. In young mice, the orientation selectivity for UV stimuli increased steadily during development, but not direction selectivity. Our results suggest that, by expanding the spectral window through which the mouse can acquire visual information, UV sensitivity provides an important component for mouse vision. PMID:26219604

  7. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  8. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water. This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008). The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  11. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells (ASCs reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014. Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013. Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4cKO mice, we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4cKO mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014. Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155.

  12. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  13. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  14. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  15. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  16. White matter development in adolescence: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, M R; Terwilliger, R; Woo, J; Luna, B

    2010-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of physical and cognitive development that includes concurrent pubertal changes and sex-based vulnerabilities. While diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show white matter maturation throughout the lifespan, the state of white matter integrity specific to adolescence is not well understood as are the contributions of puberty and sex. We performed whole-brain DTI studies of 114 children, adolescents, and adults to identify age-related changes in white matter integrity that characterize adolescence. A distinct set of regions across the brain were found to have decreasing radial diffusivity across age groups. Region of interest analyses revealed that maturation was attained by adolescence in broadly distributed association and projection fibers, including those supporting cortical and brain stem integration that may underlie known enhancements in reaction time during this period. Maturation after adolescence included association and projection tracts, including prefrontal-striatal connections, known to support top-down executive control of behavior and interhemispheric connectivity. Maturation proceeded in parallel with pubertal changes to the postpubertal stage, suggesting hormonal influences on white matter development. Females showed earlier maturation of white matter integrity compared with males. Together, these findings suggest that white matter connectivity supporting executive control of behavior is still immature in adolescence.

  17. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  18. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  19. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bwhite dwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999

  1. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells after transplantation into the adult rat brain%小鼠胚胎干细胞植入大鼠脑内分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘述; 谢瑶; 陈系古; 姚志彬

    2003-01-01

    目的观察小鼠胚胎干 (ES)细胞植人大鼠隔区和海马内后的分化情况 , 并对其作研究和分析.方法成年 SD大鼠 35只,体质量 200~ 250 g,雌雄不限.以 SD大鼠为宿主,将 ES细胞移植入宿主隔区和海马内,移植后 l,2,3,4和 8周后取脑,冷冻切片,进行 Nissl,M6,NSE,GFAP免疫组织化学染色.结果 ES细胞移植入大鼠隔区和海马内后,从第 2周开始表达 M6、 GFAP、 NSE等抗原,持续至第 4周,主要位于移植区内,较少迁移.结论小鼠 ES细胞移植入大鼠隔区和海马内后,分化为神经元,神经胶质细胞.%Aim To observe differentiation of ES cells of mice in adult rat brain after transplantation into septum and hippocampus.Methods 35 adult SD rats weighed 200- 250 g without limitation of sex were used.ES- BALB/C cells were implanted into hippocampus and septum of adult rat,brain was taken at 1st,2nd,3th,4th,8th week.Sections were frozen and Nissl's staining,M6,NSE,GFAP immunohistochemical staining were performed.Results ES grafts expressed M6,GFAP,NSE antigen from second week after implantation into septum and hippocampus which were mainly located in implantation region.Conclusion Transplanted mice ES cells can differentiate into neurons, glia in the septum and hippocampus of rat brain.

  2. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Ohba, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  3. Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells during mouse development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe hematopoietic system is comprised of many different cell types that fulfill important physiological functions throughout embryonic and adult stages of mouse development. As the mature blood cells have a limited life-span, the pool of blood cells needs constant replenishing. At the ba

  4. White Religious Educators Resisting White Fragility: Lessons from Mystics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Decades of work in dismantling racism have not yielded the kind of results for which religious educators have hoped. One primary reason has been what scholars term "white fragility," a symptom of the structural racism which confers systemic privilege upon White people. Lessons learned from Christian mystics point to powerful ways to…

  5. Multiple Pathways to Whiteness: White Teachers' Unsteady Racial Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin T.

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education programs in the US, recognizing the mismatch that exists in preschool provision between mostly white teachers and a very diverse intake of young children, have begun to explore ways of raising racial awareness among pre-service teachers, with the aim of improving non-white children's classroom experiences and outcomes. This paper…

  6. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  7. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  8. SOX2 expression is upregulated in adult spinal cord after contusion injury in both oligodendrocyte lineage and ependymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Joon; Wu, Junfang; Chung, Jumi; Wrathall, Jean R

    2013-02-01

    The upregulation of genes normally associated with development may occur in the adult after spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this, we performed real-time RT-PCR array analysis of mouse spinal cord mRNAs comparing embryonic day (E)14.5 spinal cord with intact adult and adult cord 1 week after a clinically relevant standardized contusion SCI. We found significantly increased expression of a large number of neural development- and stem cell-associated genes after SCI. These included Sox2 (sex determining region Y-box 2), a transcription factor that regulates self-renewal and potency of embryonic neural stem cells and is one of only a few key factors needed to induce pluripotency. In adult spinal cord of Sox2-EGFP mice, Sox2-EGFP was found mainly in the ependymal cells of the central canal. After SCI, both mRNA and protein levels of Sox2 were significantly increased at and near the injury site. By 1 day, Sox2 was upregulated in NG2(+) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the spared white matter. By 3 days, Sox2-EGFP ependymal cells had increased proliferation and begun to form multiple layers and clusters of cells in the central lesion zone of the cord. Expression of Sox2 by NG2(+) cells had declined by 1 week, but increased numbers of other Sox2-expressing cells persisted for at least 4 weeks after SCI in both mouse and rat models. Thus, SCI upregulates many genes associated with development and neural stem cells, including the key transcription factor Sox2, which is expressed in a pool of cells that persists for weeks after SCI.

  9. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  11. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D M; Calancha, C; Fujii, K; Graf, N; Haber, H E; Ishikawa, A; Kanemura, S; Kawada, S; Kurata, M; Miyamoto, A; Neal, H; Ono, H; Potter, C; Strube, J; Suehara, T; Tanabe, T; Tian, J; Tsumura, J; Watanuki, S; Weiglein, G; Yagyu, K; Yokoya, H

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  12. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A nivel demográfico, los resultados clásicos de los modelos matriciales separan a las especies de tiempo generacional corto de las especies de tiempo generacional largo en cuanto a la importancia de la supervivencia adulta para la dinámica poblacional. Específicamente, la supervivencia adulta no debería contribuir de manera importante en la tasa de cambio poblacional de especies de tiempo generacional corto. Sin embargo, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 propusieron que la supervivencia adulta sería el parámetro demográfico más importante para determinar la tasa de cambio poblacional en pequeños roedores cuando se toma en consideración una escala de tiempo mensual. Con el fin de poner a prueba esta hipótesis en este trabajo, utilizamos cinco años de datos de captura-marcaje-recaptura para estimar la supervivencia y la maduración de las hembras del lauchón orejudo, Phyllotis darwini, en una localidad de Chile central. El análisis mostró que las probabilidades de supervivencia disminuían con el promedio anual de la cantidad de lluvia y que las probabilidades de maduración disminuían con la densidad poblacional. Basados en las probabilidades de supervivencia y maduración, construimos un modelo matricial estacional para medir la importancia relativa de cada parámetro demográfico en el ciclo de vida de la especie a través de un análisis de perturbación. A fin de reflejar la variabilidad estacional del ambiente, dos estaciones fueron incorporadas en el modelo matricial: una estación de lluvia de cinco meses y una estación seca. Se observó que la supervivencia adulta era en efecto el parámetro demográfico con la elasticidad más fuerte. Por lo tanto, estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de Yoccoz et al. (1998Classic results of matrix models predict that, in species with a long generation time, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving population dynamics whereas, in species

  13. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  14. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  15. American white pelican predation on Cui-ui in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, Gayton G.; Rissler, Peter H.; Fabes, Mark C.; Withers, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to the Pyramid Lake–Truckee River ecosystem in Nevada are suspected to have altered the predator–prey balance between American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and Cui-ui Chasmistes cujus. We estimated the loss of the adult Cui-ui population to pelican predation over a 13-year period by netting and tagging Cui-uis as they aggregated at the mouth of the Truckee River prior to their spawning migration into the Truckee River. Cui-ui access to the Truckee River typically required traversing a shallow delta (a foraging advantage for these American white pelicans). Dams and greater frequency of low stream flows also contributed to American white pelican foraging success. We used tag recoveries from Pyramid Lake's nesting colony of American white pelicans along with an experiment to estimate the chance of tag recovery within the colony to calculate the number of tagged fish taken by American white pelicans. We also used numbered tags to test whether there was a size preference for Cui-uis taken. Our results showed that the primary source of adult Cui-ui mortality was from American white pelican predation in the Truckee River. Within a 13-year period American white pelicans had taken 90% of the tags deployed during the first 7 years of the interval. There was no preference for the size of Cui-uis taken. A better understanding of the effects of heavy cropping by American white pelicans on Cui-ui population dynamics is still needed.

  16. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  17. Access, use and completion of a brief disaster mental health intervention among Hispanics, African-Americans and Whites affected by Hurricane Ike

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionally affected by disasters. We evaluated differences in the use and completion of a web-based mental health intervention, Disaster Recovery Web (DRW), by White, African-American and Hispanic adults in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. Approximately one year after the hurricane, a telephone survey was carried out with adults from Galveston and Chambers counties. A total of 1249 adults participated in the survey (80% White, 14% African-American and...

  18. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  19. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  20. The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) completes nephrogenesis before birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Wintour, E Marelyn; Moritz, Karen

    2005-08-01

    The spiny mouse is relatively mature at birth. We hypothesized that like other organs, the kidney may be more developed in the spiny mouse at birth, than in other rodents. If nephrogenesis is complete before birth, the spiny mouse may provide an excellent model with which to study the effects of an altered intrauterine environment on renal development. Due to its desert adaptation, the spiny mouse may have a reduced cortex-to-medulla ratio but an equivalent total nephron number to the C57/BL mouse. Kidneys were collected from fetal and neonatal spiny mice and sectioned for gross examination of metanephric development. Kidneys were collected from adult spiny mice (10 wk of age), and glomerular number, volume, and cortex-to-medulla ratios were determined using unbiased stereology. Nephrogenesis is complete in spiny mouse kidneys before birth. Metanephrogenesis begins at approximately day 18, and by day 38 of a 40-day gestation, the nephrogenic zone is no longer present. Spiny mice have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower total nephron number compared with C57/BL mice, although the total glomerular volume is similar. The cortex-to-medulla ratio of the spiny mouse is significantly (P < 0.01) smaller. The spiny mouse is the first rodent species shown to complete nephrogenesis before birth. This makes it an attractive candidate for the study of fetal and neonatal kidney development and function. The reduced total nephron number and cortex-to-medulla ratio in the spiny mouse may contribute to its ability to highly concentrate its urine under stressful conditions (i.e., dehydration).

  1. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  2. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2004-01-01

    AMP sensitivity. Suppression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Rb(-/-)MEFs blocked the brown adipocyte-like gene expression pattern without affecting differentiation per se. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that pRB is present in the nuclei of white but not brown adipocyte precursor cells......Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo...... fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Retinoblastoma gene-deficient (Rb-/-) MEFs and stem cells, but not the corresponding wild-type cells, differentiate...

  3. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  4. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  5. Black, White and Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nooshfar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Development of science and"nart achieved with saving independence, separation"nclassification and studying their details. The other hand"nis combination of these to create a new world with"nwide dimensions and take a place to human needs."nMaterials and Methods: Our attempt is to make"nhealth-care places pleasant and attractive for patients."nWe offer best services, but they are not comfortable"nand happy in these places. They are afraid of the staff,"nequipment and the environment. For this purpose"nwe mixed the brightness and darkness of radiologic"nimages with white and black photographs or paintings"ncomplementary to create analog artistic images that"ncould be converted to digital printing by DICOM"ninterfaces on hard copies."nConclusion: Fear, pictures a bad memory in the"npatient's mind forever. We mixed radiology and"nimaging with photography as a science and art mixture"nto conflict with these problems, it is more effective in"nchildren who are suffering from social and known"ndiseases and can not adapt themselves with their"nsituations. This could create a good memory between"nthe human body image and sentimental experience."nIn the literature, printed radiologic images were used"nas fine art on glass and paper, metal and flowers were"nemployed to mix.* *Wim Delvoye (born 1965 ,Wervik"nand Steven N.Meyers and Merille Raikes

  6. White Light Focusing Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  7. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  8. Whiteness formula in CIELAB uniform color space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxin He; Mingxun Zhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many attempts have been made to standardize the calculation of whiteness. Whiteness formulas currently in use satisfactorily characterize the appearance of commercial whiteness. However, they have poor correlations with the observers' evaluations, and are often unsuccessful in assessing tinted white samples.A whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space is developed in this paper. Several whiteness formulas are analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space agrees well with the visual ranking, and it is superior to the CIE whiteness formula and the others in visual correlativity, uniformity and applicability.

  9. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  10. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  11. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  12. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism sp

  13. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  14. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ket

  15. White-tailed jackrabbit relocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes a plan to relocate white-tailed jackrabbits to Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) during 1997.

  16. Another Day, Another White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the proposals in the 2005 White Paper can be largely explained by a New Labour emphasis on "meritocracy" merging with a right-wing belief in education as a means of creating an hierarchical society.

  17. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  18. Adult Attachment Security and Young Adults' Dating Relationships over Time: Self-Reported, Observational, and Physiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ashley S.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental significance of adult attachment security--as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview--for romantic relationship functioning concurrently and approximately 1 year later in a sample of heterosexual dating couples between the ages of 18 and 25 (115 dyads at Time 1 [T1] and 57 dyads at T2, 74% White). The…

  19. The SH2 domain-containing 5-phosphatase SHIP2 is expressed in the germinal layers of embryo and adult mouse brain: increased expression in N-CAM-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraille, E; Dassesse, D; Vanderwinden, J M; Cremer, H; Rogister, B; Erneux, C; Schiffmann, S N

    2001-01-01

    The germinative ventricular zone of embryonic brain contains neural lineage progenitor cells that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The ability to generate neurons persists at adulthood in restricted brain areas. During development, many growth factors exert their effects by interacting with tyrosine kinase receptors and activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Ras/MAP kinase pathways. By its ability to modulate these pathways, the recently identified Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase 2, SHIP2, has the potential to regulate neuronal development. Using in situ hybridization technique with multiple synthetic oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that SHIP2 mRNA was highly expressed in the ventricular zone at early embryonic stages and subventricular zones at latter stages of brain and spinal cord and in the sympathetic chain. No significant expression was seen in differentiated fields. This restricted expression was maintained from embryonic day 11.5 to birth. In the periphery, large expression was detected in muscle and kidney and moderate expression in thyroid, pituitary gland, digestive system and bone. In the adult brain, SHIP2 was mainly restricted in structures containing neural stem cells such as the anterior subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream and the olfactory tubercle. SHIP2 was also detected in the choroid plexuses and the granular layer of the cerebellum. The specificity of SHIP2 expression in neural stem cells was further demonstrated by (i) the dramatic increase in SHIP2 mRNA signal in neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)-deficient mice, which present an accumulation of progenitor cells in the anterior subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream, (ii) the abundant expression of 160-kDa SHIP2 by western blotting in proliferating neurospheres in culture and its downregulation in non-proliferating differentiated neurospheres. In conclusion, the close correlation between

  20. Mystery of the White Gardenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marsha Arons

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every year on my birthday, from the time I turned 12, a white gardenia was delivered to my house in Bethesda, Md. No card or note came with it. Calls to the florist were always in vain - it was a cash purchase. After a while I stopped trying to discover the sender's identity and just delighted in the beauty and heady perfume of that one magical, perfect white flower nestled in soft pink tissue paper.

  1. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  2. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  3. New Phosphors for White LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-Shi

    2004-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or UV LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. GaN-based highly efficient blue InGaN LEDs combined with phosphors can produce white light. These solid-state LED lamps have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability, and long operating lifetime (about 100,000 hours). For the purpose of development of high energy-efficient white light sources, we need to produce highly efficient new phosphors, which can absorb excitation energy from blue or UV LEDs and generate emissions.In this paper, we investigate the development of blue or UV LEDs by the appropriate combination of new phosphors which can lead us to obtain high brightness white light. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (380-450 nm) and UV (360-400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance light between the light emission from blue LEDs and the yellow YAG:Ce,Gd phosphor is important to obtain white light with high color temperature. The phosphors with high efficiency which can be excited by UV LEDs are important to obtain the white light with high color rendering index.

  4. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  6. Mouse anatomy ontologies: enhancements and tools for exploring and integrating biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; Baldock, Richard A; Ringwald, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Mouse anatomy ontologies provide standard nomenclature for describing normal and mutant mouse anatomy, and are essential for the description and integration of data directly related to anatomy such as gene expression patterns. Building on our previous work on anatomical ontologies for the embryonic and adult mouse, we have recently developed a new and substantially revised anatomical ontology covering all life stages of the mouse. Anatomical terms are organized in complex hierarchies enabling multiple relationships between terms. Tissue classification as well as partonomic, developmental, and other types of relationships can be represented. Hierarchies for specific developmental stages can also be derived. The ontology forms the core of the eMouse Atlas Project (EMAP) and is used extensively for annotating and integrating gene expression patterns and other data by the Gene Expression Database (GXD), the eMouse Atlas of Gene Expression (EMAGE) and other database resources. Here we illustrate the evolution of the developmental and adult mouse anatomical ontologies toward one combined system. We report on recent ontology enhancements, describe the current status, and discuss future plans for mouse anatomy ontology development and application in integrating data resources.

  7. CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS DE NERVIO CIÁTICO Y DE GANGLIO DE LA RAÍZ DORSAL DE RATÓN ADULTO Cell Cultures of the Sciatic Nerve and Dorsal Root Ganglia from Adult Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C OCHOA

    different supports with and without mitogens. An elevated percentage of SC was obtained when the epineurium and the perineurium were removed in the SN (90%±3 and in the GRD (94%±3 before the enzymatic dissociation compared to seventy percentage when the micro dissection was omitted or eighty percentage without the epineurium micro dissection. The EF was adhered in the first twenty four hours and the twenty percentage of serum improved their growth. In the first passage, there is 99 percentage SC or EF, and they get the confluence in the six and eight day, respectively. The PC or the cells of the DRG don´t have neither a good dissociation, nor a growth in subcultures, they only grow from the perineurium explants that forms a lamina of several cellular layers more than a monolayer. In conclusion, the DRG and SN micro dissection and dissociated are indispensable to acquire in few days SC, EF and PC cultures with a high purity from adult animals.

  8. 成年C57BL/6小鼠空肠Cajal间质细胞的分离、培养及鉴定%Isolation, culture and identification of interstitial cells of Cajal from jejunum of adult C57BL/6 mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登群; 龙爽; 王军平; 史春梦; 冉新泽; 粟永萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the cultivation method of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from jejunum of adult mouse, and provide a cellular model in vitro to study the biological function of ICC. Methods C57BL/6 mice (6 ~ 8 weeks old) were starved for 24 hours, and a jejunum fragment of 3 ~ 5 cm was isolated under sterile condition. The muscularis was dissected under anatomic microscope, digested using collagenase II for 20 minutes and then collected for primary tissue culture. The morphology of ICC was observed. C-Kit staining was conducted to confirm the phenotype of ICC. Cytoplasmic calcium was stained using Fluo-3 AM to show the calcium oscillation. Results The dissected tissue did not contain epithelium and lamina propria, and only included muscularis. Collagenase digestion combined with tissue culture could get the primary cells conveniently. Cultured cells appeared to be spindle shaped with cell processes and formed network. They were positive for c-Kit, but negative for SMA. Fluo-3 AM staining showed they could generate calcium oscillation. Conclusion ICC can be isolated from jejunum of adult mouse using combination of collagenase digestion and tissue culture, which provides us a certain cellular model to further study the biology of ICC in vitro.%目的 尝试优化体外培养成年小鼠小肠Cajal间质细胞的操作方法,为深入研究该细胞的生理功能提供一定细胞模型.方法 6~8周龄C57BL/6小鼠禁食24 h,无菌条件下截取3~5 cm中段空肠,分离平滑肌肌条并剪至小块后使用Ⅱ型胶原酶消化20 min,离心后进行组织块原代培养,观察不同时期细胞形态.使用c-Kit免疫荧光染色鉴定细胞表型是否为Cajal间质细胞.Fluo-3 AM染色细胞内钙,观察细胞能否自发产生钙离子振荡.结果 分离所得组织不含空肠上皮和固有层组织,仅为小肠肌层.联合使用胶原酶消化和组织块原代培养能够较方便地培养出原代细胞,该细胞呈梭形,且具有细胞

  9. Pattern of normal age-related regional differences in white matter microstructure is modified by vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2009-11-10

    Even successful aging is associated with regional brain shrinkage and deterioration of the cerebral white matter. Aging also brings about an increase in vascular risk, and vascular impairment may be a potential mechanism behind the observed patterns of aging. The goals of this study were to characterize the normal age differences in white matter integrity in several brain regions across the adult life span and to assess the modifying effect of vascular risk on the observed pattern of regional white matter integrity. We estimated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter in nine cerebral regions of interest in 77 healthy adults (19-84 years old). There was a widespread reduction of white matter anisotropy with age, and prefrontal and occipital regions evidenced the greatest age-related differences. Diffusivity increased with age, and the magnitude of age differences increased beginning with the middle of the fifth decade. Vascular risk factors modified age differences in white matter integrity. Clinically diagnosed and treated arterial hypertension was associated with reduced white matter anisotropy and increased diffusivity beyond the effects of age. In the normotensive participants, elevation of arterial pulse pressure (a surrogate of arterial stiffness) was linked to deterioration of the white matter integrity in the frontal regions. Although the causal role of vascular risk in brain aging is unclear, the observed pattern of effects suggests that vascular risk may drive the expansion of age-related white matter damage from anterior to posterior regions.

  10. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  11. Mouse models in oncoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Pitt, Jonathan M; Daillère, Romain; Smyth, Mark J; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental cancer research and the development of efficacious antineoplastic treatments both rely on experimental systems in which the relationship between malignant cells and immune cells can be studied. Mouse models of transplantable, carcinogen-induced or genetically engineered malignancies - each with their specific advantages and difficulties - have laid the foundations of oncoimmunology. These models have guided the immunosurveillance theory that postulates that evasion from immune control is an essential feature of cancer, the concept that the long-term effects of conventional cancer treatments mostly rely on the reinstatement of anticancer immune responses and the preclinical development of immunotherapies, including currently approved immune checkpoint blockers. Specific aspects of pharmacological development, as well as attempts to personalize cancer treatments using patient-derived xenografts, require the development of mouse models in which murine genes and cells are replaced with their human equivalents. Such 'humanized' mouse models are being progressively refined to characterize the leukocyte subpopulations that belong to the innate and acquired arms of the immune system as they infiltrate human cancers that are subjected to experimental therapies. We surmise that the ever-advancing refinement of murine preclinical models will accelerate the pace of therapeutic optimization in patients.

  12. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-08-03

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  13. White Vegetables: Glycemia and Satiety12

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, G. Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with ot...

  14. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  15. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  16. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Quantitative trait loci for interhemispheric commissure development and social behaviors in the BTBR T⁺ tf/J mouse model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy M Jones-Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism and Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (AgCC are interrelated behavioral and anatomic phenotypes whose genetic etiologies are incompletely understood. We used the BTBR T⁺ tf/J (BTBR strain, exhibiting fully penetrant AgCC, a diminished hippocampal commissure, and abnormal behaviors that may have face validity to autism, to study the genetic basis of these disorders. METHODS: We generated 410 progeny from an F2 intercross between the BTBR and C57BL/6J strains. The progeny were phenotyped for social behaviors (as juveniles and adults and commisural morphology, and genotyped using 458 markers. Quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified using genome scans; significant loci were fine-mapped, and the BTBR genome was sequenced and analyzed to identify candidate genes. RESULTS: Six QTL meeting genome-wide significance for three autism-relevant behaviors in BTBR were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 10, 12, and X. Four novel QTL for commissural morphology on chromosomes 4, 6, and 12 were also identified. We identified a highly significant QTL (LOD score = 20.2 for callosal morphology on the distal end of chromosome 4. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several QTL and candidate genes for both autism-relevant traits and commissural morphology in the BTBR mouse. Twenty-nine candidate genes were associated with synaptic activity, axon guidance, and neural development. This is consistent with a role for these processes in modulating white matter tract development and aspects of autism-relevant behaviors in the BTBR mouse. Our findings reveal candidate genes in a mouse model that will inform future human and preclinical studies of autism and AgCC.

  19. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  20. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  1. Apoptosis in the lens anlage of the heritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, S; Tashiro, M; Baba, R; Sawaki, M; Noda, S; Fujita, M

    1998-08-01

    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities, such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode seems to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle progresses abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. We examined cell death in the lens anlage of this mutant. The lens anlagen of homozygous lap and normal mice from days 10 to 12 of gestation were observed by light microscopy after DNA end-labeling by immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. By light microscopy, a slight frequency of cell death was detected in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and in the anlage or in the anlage of both homozygous lap mice and normal mice at day 10 of gestation. Cell death was seen in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm in the normal mouse and sporadically in the anlage of the homozygous lap mouse at day 10.5 of gestation. Cell death was visible at the area of the lens vesicle attached to the surface ectoderm and encircling the surrounding surface ectoderm in the normal mouse, and in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and the apex areas of the lens anlage in the homozygous lap mouse at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of gestation, almost no cell death was observed in the lens anlage of the normal mouse. However, extensive areas of cell death were still seen in the lens anlage at its apex, at the inner region, and encircling the surface ectoderm in the homozygous lap mouse. Electron microscopic observation showed that the dead cells observed in the lens anlagen by light microscopy in normal and lap mice are the result of apoptosis. In lap mice, cells with cytoplasmic condensation were observed mainly at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. Many apoptotic bodies which had been phagocytosed by adjacent cells were seen predominantly at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of

  2. Mouse genetics: catalogue and scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young Hoon; Baek, In-Jeoung; Seong, Je Kyung; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Han-Woong

    2012-12-01

    Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO) mice has revolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. As the use of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is inevitable for conventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout mice remains a very time-consuming and expensive process. To accelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses of KO mice, international efforts have organized global consortia such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC), and they are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that is publicly available for the researches studying specific genes of interests in vivo. However, new technologies, adopting zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) or Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) Nucleases (TALENs) to edit the mouse genome, are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternative for the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, we introduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate the significance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  3. Mouse genetics: Catalogue and scissors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Woong Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO mice hasrevolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. Asthe use of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells is inevitable forconventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout miceremains a very time-consuming and expensive process. Toaccelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses ofKO mice, international efforts have organized global consortiasuch as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMCand International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC, andthey are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that ispublicly available for the researches studying specific genes ofinterests in vivo. However, new technologies, adoptingzinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs or Transcription Activator-LikeEffector (TALE Nucleases (TALENs to edit the mouse genome,are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternativefor the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, weintroduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate thesignificance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  4. Genetic Mouse Models: The Powerful Tools to Study Fat Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xingxing; Williams, Kevin W; Liu, Tiemin

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with a variety of comorbidities that contribute to mortality around the world. Although significant effort has been expended in understanding mechanisms that mitigate the consequences of this epidemic, the field has experienced limited success thus far. The potential ability of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to counteract obesity and metabolic disease in rodents (and potentially in humans) has been a topical realization. Recently, there is also another thermogenic fat cell called beige adipocytes, which are located among white adipocytes and share similar activated responses to cyclic AMP as classical BAT. In this chapter, we review contemporary molecular strategies to investigate the role of adipose tissue depots in metabolism. In particular, we will discuss the generation of adipose tissue-specific knockout and overexpression of target genes in various mouse models. We will also discuss how to use different Cre (cyclization recombination) mouse lines to investigate diverse types of adipocytes.

  5. Mouse genetic models for temporomandibular joint development and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Iwata, J

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a synovial joint essential for hinge and sliding movements of the mammalian jaw. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are dysregulations of the muscles or the TMJ in structure, function, and physiology, and result in pain, limited mandibular mobility, and TMJ noise and clicking. Although approximately 40-70% adults in the USA have at least one sign of TMD, the etiology of TMD remains largely unknown. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TMD in mouse models.

  6. Muscle Moment Arms and Sensitivity Analysis of a Mouse Hindlimb Musculoskeletal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    and 9). The Fig. 3 Select musculotendon units of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculoskeletal model . (a) Various hip extensors in a lateral view . (b) A...adult mouse model for examining the sensorimotor control of locomotion. J Neurophysiol 107, 500–515. Ogihara N, Makishima H, Aoi S, et al. (2009...and tendon: properties, models , scaling, and application to biomechanics and motor control . Crit Rev Biomed Eng 17, 359–411. Zuniga J, Katsavelis D

  7. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  8. Entangled light from white noise

    CERN Document Server

    Plenio, M B

    2002-01-01

    An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonance-like behaviour. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.

  9. Entangled light from white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2002-05-13

    An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonancelike behavior. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.

  10. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  11. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  12. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  13. Distribution, morphology and origins of nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the brain of adult mouse%小鼠脑内不同脑区中一氧化氮合酶免疫阳性神经元的分布、形态特征和起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄增金; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution, morphology and origins of nNOS-expressing neurons in the brain of a-dult mice. Methods-. By using immunohistochemistry methods, we explored the distribution and morphology of nNOS-expressing neurons; BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) birth-dating methods were used to examine when the nNOS-expressing neurons were genesis; and the origin of nNOS-expressing neurons was traced in Nkx2. 1 and Shh lineage by Cre-Loxp recombination. Results: nNOS-expressing neurons widely distributed in the brain of adult mouse, especially in the neocortex, stria-tum and septum/diagonal band (DB) ; nNOS-expressing neurons located in the neocortex and striatum were greatly produced between E13. 5 and E14. 5, and nNOS-expressing neurons in the septum/DB production peaks around Ell. 5 and E12. 5. The majority of nNOS-expressing neurons were derived from Nkx2. 1 and Shh (Sonic hedgehog) lineages. Conclusion: the nNOS-expressing neurons are widely distributed in the brain of adult mice. The nNOS-expressing neurons located in different brain regions are produced during different embryonic stages. The majority of nNOS-expressing neurons are derived from Nkx2. 1 lineages and a small part are from Shh lineages.%目的:研究小鼠前脑一氧化氮合酶(nNOS)免疫阳性(nNOS阳性)神经元在成年小鼠大脑的分布、形态特征和起源.方法:免疫组织化学显色观察nNOS阳性神经元在成年小鼠大脑中分布及其形态特征;BrdU标记新生神经元,研究脑内nNOS阳性神经元产生的时间;通过Nkx2.1 (NK2 homeobox 1)-Cre和Shh (Sonic hedgehog)-Cre转基因小鼠与基因报告小鼠杂交后追踪其子代细胞的方法,观察成年小鼠脑内nNOS阳性神经元的起源.结果:nNOS阳性神经元在小鼠大脑中广泛表达;BrdU实验结果表明,皮质和纹状体中nNOS阳性神经元主要在胚胎期13.5d到14.5d产生,而隔区/钭角带中的这部分神经元则主要在胚胎期11.5d到12.5d产生;大部分

  14. In vivo axial loading of the mouse tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Katherine M; Robling, Alexander G; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as anabolic procedures to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days.

  15. Mouse models of medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochong Wu; Paul A. Northcott; Sidney Croul; Michael D. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Despite its prevalence and importance in pediatric neuro-oncology, the genes and pathways responsible for its initiation, maintenance,and progression remain poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models are an essential tool for uncovering the molecular and cellular basis of human diseases, including cancer, and serve a valuable role as preclinical models for testing targeted therapies. In this review, we summarize how such models have been successfully applied to the study of medulloblastoma over the past decade and what we might expect in the coming years.

  16. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future

  17. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’ s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future.

  18. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. Flk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type II collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class I molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  19. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Feng; ZHANG WenJie; CHEN FanFan; ZHOU GuangDong; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; CAO YiLin

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. FIk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class Ⅰ molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  20. The Black- White Earnings Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sandra; Bernard, Keith

    1974-01-01

    Using projected labor force data (race, sex, and education) nondiscriminatory and discriminatory black-white occupational patterns and earnings ratios are defined to the year 2000. Rather than realistic estimates, the projections are designed as standards to measure progress in eliminating racial discrimination in the labor market. (EA)

  1. White Resentment in Settler Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  2. 'Snow White' and Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Deborah Aldrich

    1987-01-01

    Noting that knowledge of grammar rules does not ensure correct usage in one's own writing, describes an approach used in a summer workshop to promote awareness of appropriate idiom where 35 highly motivated black students produced 'Snow White' using their own script, half in standard dialect and half in black dialect. (JG)

  3. Excitotoxic damage to white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Carlos; Alberdi, Elena; Domercq, María; Sánchez-Gómez, María-Victoria; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate kills neurons by excitotoxicity, which is caused by sustained activation of glutamate receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that glutamate can also be toxic to white matter oligodendrocytes and to myelin by this mechanism. In particular, glutamate receptor-mediated injury to these cells can be triggered by activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, kainate and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor types. Thus, these receptor classes, and the intermediaries of the signal cascades they activate, are potential targets for drug development to treat white matter damage in acute and chronic diseases. In addition, alterations of glutamate homeostasis in white matter can determine glutamate injury to oligodendrocytes and myelin. Astrocytes are responsible for most glutamate uptake in synaptic and non-synaptic areas and consequently are the major regulators of glutamate homeostasis. Activated microglia in turn may secrete cytokines and generate radical oxygen species, which impair glutamate uptake and reduce the expression of glutamate transporters. Finally, oligodendrocytes also contribute to glutamate homeostasis. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge about the mechanisms leading to oligodendrocyte cell death and demyelination as a consequence of alterations in glutamate signalling, and their clinical relevance to disease. In addition, we show evidence that oligodendrocytes can also be killed by ATP acting at P2X receptors. A thorough understanding of how oligodendrocytes and myelin are damaged by excitotoxicity will generate knowledge that can lead to improved therapeutic strategies to protect white matter. PMID:17504270

  4. White Light Interferometric Surface Profiler

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Vincent; Bowe, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We describe an optical system for 3-D profilometry based on the white light interferometer. We detail a simple way to construct a profiler that uses two simple algorithms which deal efficiently and quickly with the data. The system has a theoretically unlimited range and can deal with rough and smooth surfaces

  5. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  6. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) provide excellent laboratories to study the effect that the accretion of matter, energy and angular momentum has on the structure of white dwarfs, with important implications on the evolution of these compact binaries, the ignition of thermonuclear surface burning, and potentially their explosion as SNIa. I will provide an overview of our current understanding of CV white dwarfs, with a particular emphasis on the results of a recent large HST program. I will review our knowledge regarding the mass distribution of CV white dwarfs, as well as the secular mean accretion rates that can be inferred from their effective temperatures, and compare those statistics with predictions from CV population models. I will also discuss a sub-set of CVs which underwent thermal-time scale mass transfer, one of the channels that is often discussed as a pathway to SN Ia, and I will illustrate how the study of these "failed SNIa" can contribute to the discussion of SNIa progenitors. Finally, I will discuss the occurrence of non-radial pulsations in white dwarfs, both in CVs and their detached progenitors.

  7. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  8. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found dea

  9. Oviposition behaviour as influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone in the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnstra, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with a detailed analysis of egglaying behaviour of adult females of the Large White Butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and the way this behaviour is influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone (ODP) in order to investigate the prospects for field application of this pheromone in ca

  10. Intergenerational Factors in the Utilization of Social Services by Black and White Elderly: A Causal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, Charles H.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    Little is known about the roles of the family, kin and non-kin support networks in determining the use of social services by the elderly. An examination of the role of the formal and informal support systems to explain social service utilization by black and white older adults used path analytic procedures to test an explanatory model of…

  11. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were c

  12. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  13. White matter asymmetry in healthy individuals: a diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, H; Hayashi, N; Ohtomo, K

    2011-10-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate white matter asymmetry across the whole brain and evaluate the effects of age and sex on white matter asymmetry in a large sample of healthy adults. A total of 857 normal subjects (310 females and 547 males, mean age=56.1±9.9 years, age range=24.9-84.8 years) were included in this study. With use of tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we investigated white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) asymmetry and evaluated the effects of age and sex on white matter FA asymmetry. The voxel-wise analysis showed a large number of white matter FA asymmetries including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus and cingulum. The effects of age and sex on white matter FA asymmetry were minor compared to overall FA asymmetries. Small regions showed a significant effect of age or sex, due to the large sample, but this may not be relevant in practice. There was no significant interaction between age and sex. The results of our study demonstrate white matter asymmetry in healthy adults and suggest that white matter asymmetry is relatively stable during aging and not much different between males and females.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  15. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  16. Characterization of piRNAs across postnatal development in mouse brain

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-04-26

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are responsible for maintaining the genome stability by silencing retrotransposons in germline tissues– where piRNAs were first discovered and thought to be restricted. Recently, novel functions were reported for piRNAs in germline and somatic cells. Using deep sequencing of small RNAs and CAGE of postnatal development of mouse brain, we identified piRNAs only in adult mouse brain. These piRNAs have similar sequence length as those of MILI-bound piRNAs. In addition, we predicted novel candidate regulators and putative targets of adult brain piRNAs.

  17. White Matter Integrity Reductions in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Evia, Arnold M; Fanning, Jennifer; Keedy, Sarah; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-10-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED), as described in DSM-5, is the categorical expression of pathological impulsive aggression. Previous work has identified neurobiological correlates of the disorder in patterns of frontal-limbic brain activity and dysregulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. Given the importance of short- and-long range white matter connections of the brain in social and emotional behavior, studies of white matter connectivity in impulsive aggression are warranted. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in the related conditions of antisocial and borderline personality disorder have produced preliminary evidence of disturbed white matter connectivity in these disorders, but to date there have been no DTI studies in IED. A total of 132 male and female adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years underwent Turboprop-DTI on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner. Of these, 42 subjects had IED, 40 were normal controls, and 50 were clinical psychiatric controls with psychiatric disorders without IED. All subjects were free of alcohol, psychotropic medications, or drugs of abuse. The diffusion tensor was calculated in each voxel and maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) were generated. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to compare FA along the white matter skeleton among the three subject groups. IED was associated with lower FA in two clusters located in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) when compared with the psychiatric and healthy controls. Impulsive aggression and borderline personality disorder, but not psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder, was associated with lower FA in the two clusters within the SLF. In conclusion, IED was associated with lower white matter integrity in long-range connections between the frontal and temporoparietal regions.

  18. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease.

  19. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  20. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  1. Fast quantitative diffusion-tensor imaging of cerebral white matter from the neonatal period to adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.L.; Martin, E. [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Children' s Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zuerich (Switzerland); Il' yasov, K.A.; Hennig, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Medical Physics, University Medical Centre, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the isotropic diffusion coefficient (D') and fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter (WM) during brain development, using an optimised diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) method with whole brain coverage in a clinically acceptable time. We images 52 children with no evident neurological abnormality (30 boys, 22 girls aged 1 day-16 years) using high-angle DTI with optimised temporal gradient performance. D' and FA were calculated in 10 regions of interest in white matter. We saw that the age-related reduction in D' and increase in FA follow a mono- or biexponential model in white matter, probably depending on the compactness and myelination rate of the fibre tracts. In contrast to other areas, in which adult values were reached during the third year, there is a trend to continuous increase in FA in all deep white-matter areas, suggesting continuing maturation and organisation of deep tracts not detected on conventional MRI. (orig.)

  2. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  3. Gankyrin expression during mouse embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建民; 刘淑琴; 曾锦章; 李慎菁; 付晓勇; 邱秀华; 吴孟超; 王红阳

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the gene expression of Gankyrin during mouse embryogenesis and reveal the gene biological significance during organs and tissues formation. Methods: The expressions of Gankyrin mRNA in various organs and tissues were detected by in situ hybridization at indicated times during embryogenesis. Results: The expression of Gankyrin mRNA in mouse day 12.5 embryo was mainly in midbrain, interbrain and endbrain; in mouse day 14.5 embryo mainly in midbrain, aorta, liver, gonad, cranium and rib; in mouse day 16.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and vertebra;and in mouse day 18.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and intestinal mucosa. Conclusion: Gankyrin gene probably participates in the development of the neural tissues (such as midbrain, interbrain and endbrain etc. ), aorta, liver and gonad, intestinal mucosa and bone tissues, which may be closely associated with the function of the organs and tissues.

  4. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  5. Multiculturalism, Teaching Slavery, and White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that multiculturalism, especially when it is led and controlled by Whites, and in the absence of collective anti-racist struggles, can reproduce the ontologies, epistemologies, and practices of white supremacy. I use a case study of a reenactment of Atlantic black slavery, produced by white teachers to investigate whether…

  6. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate...

  7. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  8. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  9. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  10. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age.

  11. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Steffi; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Ridwan, Rahmawati

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of cooked starch is known to cause starch retrogradation which increases resistant starch content. This study aimed to determine the effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response in healthy subjects. Resistant starch contents were analyzed on freshly cooked white rice (control rice), cooked white rice cooled for 10 hours at room temperature (test rice I), and cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated (test rice II). The results showed that resistant starch contents in control rice, test rice I, and test rice II were 0.64 g/100 g, 1.30 g/100 g, and 1.65 g/100 g, respectively. Test rice II had higher resistant starch content than test rice I, hence used in the clinical study along with control rice to characterize glycemic response in 15 healthy adults. The clinical study was a randomized, single-blind crossover study. In the clinical study, test rice II significantly lowered glycemic response compared with control rice (125±50.1 vs 152±48.3 mmol.min/L, respectively; p=0.047). In conclusion, cooling of cooked white rice increased resistant starch content. Cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated lowered glycemic response compared with freshly cooked white rice.

  12. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  13. MouseCyc: a curated biochemical pathways database for the laboratory mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Evsikov, Alexei V.; Dolan, Mary E.; Genrich, Michael P; Patek, Emily; Bult, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Linking biochemical genetic data to the reference genome for the laboratory mouse is important for comparative physiology and for developing mouse models of human biology and disease. We describe here a new database of curated metabolic pathways for the laboratory mouse called MouseCyc . MouseCyc has been integrated with genetic and genomic data for the laboratory mouse available from the Mouse Genome Informatics database and with pathway data from other organisms, including human.

  14. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The p