WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult mexican smokers

  1. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  2. [Tobacco advertising and promotions: changes in reported exposure in a cohort of Mexican smokers].

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    Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Thrasher, James F; Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Ibáñez-Hernández, Norma A

    2012-06-01

    To determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the General Tobacco Control Law of 2008. Data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four Mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. GEE models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. Increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%), branded clothing (3.6-6.4%), noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7%) and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%). Noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%). Our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. There is a need to monitor compliance with marketing bans while working to make them comprehensive.

  3. Perspectives of Mexican-Origin Smokers on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L.; Hoover, Diana S.; Heredia, Natalia I.; Krasny, Sarah; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Key modifiable risk behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity often cluster and may have multiplicative adverse effects on health. This study investigated barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) in overweight Mexican-origin smokers to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based smoking cessation…

  4. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  5. The maximum willingness to pay for smoking cessation method among adult smokers in Mexico.

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    Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Servan-Mori, Edson; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for an effective smoking cessation treatment among smokers in Mexico and to identify the environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors associated with the WTP. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample contained 777 smokers (willingness to quit using a WTP of >0) who had responded to the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Mexico. Statistical associations and descriptive analyses were conducted to describe smokers and their WTP by using tobacco-related environmental, socioeconomic, and demographic variables. Overall, 74.4% of the smokers were men and 51.4% were daily smokers. On average, the smokers had been consuming tobacco for more than 15 years, 58.6% had made cessation attempts in the past, and around 10.0% knew about the existence of centers to aid in smoking cessation. The average WTP for an effective cessation method was US $191. Among men, the WTP was US $152 lower than among women. In all the estimated models, the higher an individual's education and socioeconomic level, the higher his or her WTP. This study suggests that Mexican smokers interested in quitting smoking attribute a high monetary value to an effective cessation method. Male smokers demonstrated less altruistic behavior than did female smokers. Mexico requires the implementation of more policies designed to support smoking cessation and to limit tobacco addiction. Expanding the availability of cessation programs and access to pharmacological treatments may contribute to reaching universal coverage by integrating new pharmacological alternatives into the health sector's medicine formulary. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [First Mexican Consensus of Vaccination in Adults].

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    Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Caro-López, Elizabeth; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; García-Lara, Juan Miguel; Medina-López, Zaira; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Díaz-López, Elsa; Avila-Fematt, Flor Maria de Guadalupe; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes

    2017-03-01

    For years our efforts have been focused on vaccination during childhood. Today we know that this is not enough to ensure health in the rest of the life. Childhood is as important as any other stage and, therefore, vaccination must be permanent and differentiated, according to our age, throughout life. Introducing a life course perspective in vaccination programs, with emphasis on adult vaccination, particularly in older adults, offers us the opportunity to review the performance of health programs, actions, and services in the field of immunization, as well as strengthening health promotion actions. In this context, the first Mexican Consensus on Adult Vaccination was carried out in a joint effort of the National Institute of Geriatrics, bringing together a group of specialists who worked on three central objectives: establishing vaccination guidelines throughout the life course, with emphasis on new vaccines; defining priority groups according to their risk factors; and contributing to the effort to promote healthy aging.

  7. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Perceptions of e-cigarettes: a comparison of adult smokers and non-smokers in a Mechanical Turk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; Montero, Adrian; Scharf, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p's smokers quit (ps never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps smokers' top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers' top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.

  9. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  10. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effects of dissuasive packaging on young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Wong, Christiane; Gendall, Philip; Louviere, Jordan; Cong, Karen

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour. A 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus control (completely plain pack) best-worst experiment was conducted via face-to-face interviews with 292 young adult smokers from a New Zealand provincial city. The Juster Scale was also used to estimate cessation-linked behaviours among participants. Of the 13 options tested, respondents were significantly less likely to choose those featuring fewer branding elements or larger health warnings. Options that featured more branding elements were still preferred even when they also featured a 50% health warning, but were significantly less likely to be chosen when they featured a 75% warning. Comparison of a control pack representing the status quo (branded with 30% front of pack warning) and a plain pack (with a 75% warning) revealed the latter would be significantly more likely to elicit cessation-related behaviours. Plain packs that feature large graphic health warnings are significantly more likely to promote cessation among young adult smokers than fully or partially branded packs. The findings support the introduction of plain packaging and suggest use of unbranded package space to feature larger health warnings would further promote cessation.

  13. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New Mexican Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  15. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  16. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adult non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study was commissioned by the DHSSPS as part of their smoke-free monitoring and evaluation strategy after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Northern Ireland in April 2007.The research was undertaken to determine the impact of smoke-free legislation on non-smoking adults who live with a smoker.Using research carried out both before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this study details for the first time the attitudes and knowledge of non-smoking...

  18. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.

  19. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva Ø.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [χ(1, N=55)2 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity. PMID:28936178

  20. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  1. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F. Marsiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  2. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors in African American young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilla, Cassandra; Cheney, Marshall K

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults have higher rates of smoking and chronic disease than Whites. Understanding the association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors could improve cessation strategies for young adult smokers. African American young adult smokers aged 18-29 years (n = 243) were administered surveys assessing smoking beliefs and behaviors. Participants indicated if they had physician-diagnosed asthma, diabetes, and/or hypertension. Responses were analyzed using logistic regression, comparing responses of those diagnosed with a chronic disease to those without that disease. Smokers with asthma were 2.20 times more likely to acknowledge smoking negatively affected their health yet were no more likely to make a quit attempt than those without asthma. Diabetic smokers were 4.10 times more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt, yet were 3.24 times more likely to disagree that they were in control of their smoking. Hypertensive smokers were more likely to be heavier smokers and were 3.12 times more likely to disagree that they would stop smoking if they knew it affected the health of others than those without hypertension. Smokers with chronic disease were less likely to be influenced to quit by their physician than smokers without. African American young adult smokers with a chronic disease often diverge from smokers without that chronic disease in smoking beliefs and behaviors. These may influence how young adults respond to cessation messages and programs.

  4. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  6. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  7. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  8. Crossing the smoking divide for young adults: expressions of stigma and identity among smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Gifford, Heather

    2013-02-01

    Denormalizing campaigns reframe smoking as an unappealing behavior, more likely to lead to social exclusion than inclusion. Social identity theory suggests this strategy will reinforce smoke-free norms and, as these become mainstream, decrease smoking prevalence. However, little is known about how these campaigns affect perceptions of smoking among young adult smokers and nonsmokers, or behavior toward smokers. A qualitative study was conducted to a) explore how smokers and smoking were perceived in an environment where smoking has become an increasingly unacceptable social behavior and b) examine whether and how this environment stigmatized smokers. About 14 group discussions and 4 in-depth interviews involving 86 participants, aged between 18 and 24 and of Māori, Pacific, and NZ European ethnicities, were conducted as part of a wider study examining young adults' responses to tobacco branding and plain packaging. The themes identified illustrated how nonsmokers' perception of smoking as illogical and self-destructive supported harsh reactions, including stigmatizing behaviors that antagonized smokers. Nonsmokers, who recognized smoking's addictiveness, were more empathic and less judgmental of smokers. Including empathic content in smoking denormalizing campaigns may reduce judgmental reactions that inadvertently create a gulf between status of young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A supportive/empathic tobacco-control denormalization approach could enhance young adult smokers' willingness to make the transition from smoker to smoke free and elicit stronger support for their efforts from nonsmokers.

  9. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Flores, Mario; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; Kanter, Rebecca; Rivera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2005-2006. A total of 33023 adults > 20 years old were included; 39.7% were found to be overweight and 29.9% were found to be obese; 75.9% of all adults had abdominal obesity. In Mexico between 2000 and 2006, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults increased approximately 12%. Mexican-Americans showed a higher prevalence of morbid obesity compared to native Mexicans. Mexico has experienced a rapid increase in the number of adults who have experienced excess weight gain between the years 2000 and 2006.

  10. Impact of smoking on aerobic capacity in young adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, ,Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, It is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking .[23]Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers[13]. This study was carried out in university of hail ,physiotherapy lab, ,30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A ,15 nonsmoker (B .All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in non smoker (P:0.0001., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56. Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. . also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Non smokers .

  11. Indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Joseph L; Wong, Rebeca; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution may negatively affect cognitive functioning in older adults, but less is known about the link between indoor sources of air pollution and cognitive functioning. We examine the association between exposure to indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults in Mexico, a developing country where combustion of biomass for domestic energy remains common. Data come from the 2012 Wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The analytic sample consists of 13 023 Mexican adults over age 50. Indoor air pollution is assessed by the reported use of wood or coal as the household's primary cooking fuel. Cognitive function is measured with assessments of verbal learning, verbal recall, attention, orientation and verbal fluency. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine cross-sectional differences in cognitive function according to indoor air pollution exposure while accounting for demographic, household, health and economic characteristics. Approximately 16% of the sample reported using wood or coal as their primary cooking fuel, but this was far more common among those residing in the most rural areas (53%). Exposure to indoor air pollution was associated with poorer cognitive performance across all assessments, with the exception of verbal recall, even in fully adjusted models. Indoor air pollution may be an important factor for the cognitive health of older Mexican adults. Public health efforts should continue to develop interventions to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution in rural Mexico. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  13. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  14. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  15. The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Sembower, Mark A; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gerlach, Karen K; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Smoking-Cessation Efforts by US Adult Smokers with Medical Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Kruse, Gina R; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2018-03-01

    Continued cigarette smoking by individuals with chronic medical diseases can adversely affect their symptoms, disease progression, and mortality. We assessed the association between medical comorbidities and smoking-cessation efforts among US adult smokers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,494 past-year cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. We assessed the association between self-reported medical comorbidities and past-year quit attempts, use of evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment or electronic cigarettes, and successful smoking cessation using logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, insurance status, geographic region, and having a past-year doctor visit. In the study sample, 39% were aged 18 to 34 years, 45% were female, 70% were non-Hispanic white, and 48% reported ≥1 comorbidity. Smokers with any comorbidity, compared with those without comorbidities, had higher odds of trying to quit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30), but no higher likelihood of quitting success. Having more medical comorbidities was associated with increased odds of trying to quit. Smokers with a comorbidity used evidence-based treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities (43% vs 26%); use of e-cigarettes to quit was similar between smokers with and without comorbidities (27% vs 28%). Adult smokers with chronic medical diseases try to quit and use evidence-based tobacco-cessation treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities, but they are no more likely to quit, suggesting that their quit attempts are less likely to succeed. Smokers with medical comorbidities may require more intensive, prolonged, and repeated treatment to stop smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoker identity and its potential role in young adults' smoking behavior: A meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Herbec, Aleksandra; Neale, Joanne; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16-34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals' defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker's identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Coexistence of Obesity and Anemia in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Michaels-Obregon, Alejandra; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-12-08

    INTRODUCTION: Developing countries in Latin America (LA) are experiencing rapid aging as a result of advances in medical interventions. This rapid aging has not occurred with comparable improvements in standards of living. Chronic conditions are becoming highly prevalent while exposure to infectious communicable diseases is very common. This unique situation where communicable and non-communicable diseases coexist in the presence of low socioeconomic status place countries in LA in a unique epidemiological situation. Mexico presents a very good example where the impact of this situation on health warrants further analysis. METHODS: We use data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006), a cross-sectional study representative of all urban and rural areas of Mexico. A total of 5,605 adults older than 60 years of age with valid values for Body Mass Index and Hemoglobin were analyzed. We first included a descriptive analysis of the coexistence of anemia and obesity by age, gender and characteristics of the living environment. We reported the weighted percentages for each covariate by each of four nutritional condition categories (obese and anemic, only-obese, only-anemic, not obese and not anemic). We used multinomial logit regressions to determine the association of socioeconomic characteristics, health status and the living environment with the presence of the three nutritional condition categories. RESULTS: In the ENSANut cohort 10.3% of older adults are anemic, 25.0% are obese and 2.6% are both anemic and obese. Approximately 62% has neither anemia nor obesity. Within the 38% that fall in the three nutritional condition categories, the co-existence of obesity & anemia appears to be associated with metropolitan area residence, living alone, being male, having relatively high wealth, and reporting two or more chronic health conditions. Analyzing the effect of the covariates to distinguish between outcome categories, living environment, age

  19. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Avila, Jaqueline C; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P

    2017-01-31

    Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study's aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27-2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40-2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12-2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults.

  20. Differential Responsiveness to Cigarette Price by Education and Income among Adult Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that examine the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. Objective The goal of this study is to estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China using individual level longitudinal survey data. We also examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted to estimate the conditional cigarette demand price elasticity using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China. The first three waves of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Findings Our results show that overall conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from −0.12 to −0.14, implying a 10% increase in cigarette price would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption among adult urban Chinese smokers by 1.2% to 1.4%. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high income smokers and medium income smokers. However, cigarette consumption among low income smokers did not seem to decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Conclusion Relative to many other low- and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviors such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. PMID

  1. Adult smokers' receptivity to a television advert for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padvertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A difference that makes a difference: young adult smokers' accounts of cigarette brands and package design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, J

    2008-04-01

    To explore young adult smokers' construction of meaning and identity in accounts of cigarette brands and cigarette package design, and the processes by which positive associations with a brand may be reinforced and sustained. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 21 smokers aged 18-23 in Norway, where advertising for tobacco has been banned since 1975. Cigarette brand and cigarette package design appear as an integrated part of young smokers' constructions of smoker identities, enabling the communication of personal characteristics, social identity and positions in hierarchies of status. Through branding and package design tobacco companies appear to be able to promote their products in a country where advertising is banned, by means of similar principles that make advertising effective: by creating preferences, differentiation and identification.

  3. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the foll...

  4. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  5. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  6. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (Plow-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (Plow-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  7. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  8. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Perceptions of Little Cigar and Cigarillo Smoking Among Adult Current Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Majeed, Ban A; Nyman, Amy; Eriksen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined the perceptions of risk of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking among cigarette smokers, which is important for expanding regulatory policies and developing prevention programs. We examined current cigarette smokers' perceived harm of LCC smoking, and determined whether these perceptions were associated with susceptibility and intention to continue smoking LCCs. Data were from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a probability sample of 5717 US adults. Data were analyzed for a subsample of 1191 current cigarette smokers who were stratified into three groups: (1) dual current cigarette smokers who had ever used LCCs, (2) current smokers susceptible to LCC smoking, and (3) current smokers who were not susceptible to LCC smoking. Overall, 47.2% of participants were dual smokers, 12.7% were susceptible to LCC smoking, and 40.1% were not susceptible. Perceptions of risk of LCCs varied across the groups. Dual smokers were more likely to perceive that daily LCC smoking is "very risky" (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.41) while occasional LCC smoking is only "somewhat risky" (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.87). Of the dual smokers, 20.7% intended to continue smoking LCCs in the future. Perceptions of addiction and risk of daily LCC smoking significantly predicted intention to continue LCC smoking. Addiction perceptions also significantly predicted susceptibility to initiate LCC smoking. Perceptions about harms from and addiction to LCCs could predict future LCC smoking. Health communication campaigns need to address the harms of LCCs. Our data suggest that perceptions of risk about the addictiveness of LCCs and frequency of use are important determinants of the LCC smoking susceptibility among some cigarette smokers and intended continued use among cigarette smokers with a history of LCC use. Health communication campaigns should address misperceptions related to LCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  12. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  13. Facebook recruitment of young adult smokers for a cessation trial: Methods, metrics, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Ramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms, previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette, appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo. Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13–7/29/13, targeted by age (18–25, location (U.S., and language (English, and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2024 ($0.34/click. Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5895 unique clicks, 586 (10% were study eligible and 230 (39% consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n = 79 was largely Caucasian (77% and male (69%, averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD = 8.3 and 2.7 years smoking (SD = 0.7. Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  14. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Rodriguez, Theresa M.S.; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook’s Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 – 7/29/13), targeted by age (18–25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  15. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  16. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1 expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2 frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p menor que 0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses. Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  17. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of 'comida corrida' or restaurant food and street food. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (pConsumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  18. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Barquera, Simón; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the number of Mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. The study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006). Subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861) were excluded. Prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. Almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. As for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. Another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. A total of 21.4 million Mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. A large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in Mexico.

  19. Nicotine dependence and transitional shifts in exercise behavior among young U.S. adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between nicotine dependence and longitudinal exercise transitional shift patterns among young U.S. adult daily smokers. Data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey was used, which is a longitudinal study over a two year period. Participants included 1168 US adult daily smokers (18-24years). Nicotine dependence was assessed using the modified Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Four transitional shift patterns were created based on meeting current exercise guidelines; stable inactive (inactive across time), activity relapsers (starts out active and then becomes inactive), activity adopters (inactive and then becomes active), and stable active (active across time). After adjustments, for every 1-unit increase in baseline nicotine dependence, participants had 16% (OR=1.16, p=0.01) greater odds of being in the stable inactive group compared to the stable active group. Nicotine dependence appears to play an important role in shaping longitudinal exercise patterns among young U.S. adult smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Villalpando, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gilabert, César; Durazo-Arvizú, Ramón; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. The primary data source came from adults (>20 years) sampled (n=33366) in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >or=140 and/or diastolic was >or= 90 or patients previously diagnosed. A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (p<0.05) between hypertension and BMI, abdominal obesity, previous diagnosis of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with hypertension had a significantly higher odd of having a history of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension had a higher prevalence in Mexico than among Mexican-Americans living in the US. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Mexico. In the last six years in Mexico, a substantial increase (25%) has been observed in contrast to the reduction seen among Mexican-Americans (-15%).

  1. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  2. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  3. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers.

  4. Linking mass media campaigns to pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages: a cross-sectional study to evaluate effects among Mexican smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Murukutla, Nandita; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Alday, Jorge; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Cedillo, Claudia; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and a linked media campaign in Mexico. Cross-sectional data were collected from a population-based sample of 1756 adult smokers, aged 18-55 years, during the initial implementation of pictorial HWLs, which some smokers had seen on cigarette packages while others had seen only the text-based HWLs. Exposure to the campaign and pictorial HWLs was assessed with aided recall methods, and other questions addressed attention and cognitive impact of HWLs, knowledge related to HWL and campaign content, and quit-related thoughts and behaviours. Logistic and linear regression models were estimated to determine associations between key outcomes and intervention exposure. In bivariate and multivariate adjusted models, recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were positively associated with greater attention to and cognitive impact of HWLs, whereas only pictorial HWL exposure was associated with having refrained from smoking due to HWLs. Both recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were independently associated with greater knowledge of secondhand smoke harms and toxic tobacco constituents. Smokers who recalled only the pictorial HWLs were more likely to try to quit than smokers who recalled neither the pictorial HWLs nor the campaign (17% vs 6%, pmedia campaign was associated with independent additive effects on campaign-related knowledge, and it enhanced psychosocial responses to pictorial HWLs.

  5. Social support, stressors, and frailty among older Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, M Kristen; Howrey, Bret T; Ternent, Rafael Samper; Ray, Laura A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty. Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group. To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ). We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor. Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty. Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority populations.

  6. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Method...

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Sleep Duration and Variability: The Moderating Role of Cultural Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination is central to the experiences of Latino young adults, yet we know little about the ways in which and the conditions under which ethnic discrimination relates to Latino young adults' sleep patterns. Using a sample of 246 Mexican-origin young adults (M age  = 21.11, SD = 1.54; 50 % female), the current study investigated the longitudinal links between perceived ethnic discrimination and both sleep duration and night-to-night variability in duration, while also examining the moderating roles of Anglo and Mexican orientations in the associations. The results revealed that perceived discrimination predicted greater sleep variability, and this link was not moderated by cultural orientations. The relation between perceived discrimination and hours of sleep, however, was moderated by Anglo and Mexican orientations. Individuals with high Anglo and Mexican orientations (bicultural) and those with only high Mexican orientations (enculturated), showed no association between discrimination and hours of sleep. Individuals with low Anglo and Mexican orientations (marginalized) displayed a positive association, whereas those with high Anglo and low Mexican orientations (acculturated) displayed a negative association. The results suggest that discrimination has long term effects on sleep variability of Mexican-origin young adults, regardless of cultural orientations; however, for sleep duration, bicultural and enculturated orientations are protective.

  8. Observed differentials in the levels of selected environmental contaminants among Mexican and other Hispanic American children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2018-02-01

    Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly

  9. High sedentary behavior and compromised physical capabilities in adult smokers despite the suitable level of physical activity in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Tonon Lauria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p62   Sedentary behavior may play an important role for health outcomes, regardless of the amount of physical activity in daily life (PADL.We aimed to evaluate and compare sedentary behavior as well as physical capabilities in physically active smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-eight adult smokers and 38 non-smokers free of lung disease were matched for age, sex, body mass index, body composition, cardiovascular risk and moderate-to-vigorous PADL. Participants underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET, six-minute walk test (6MWT, isokinetic dynamometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance.Despite the similar amount of moderate-to-vigorous PADL(median, 4.5h/week for smokers and 4.0h/week for non-smokers, smokers spent more time lying (median, 8.2h/week: 95% confidence interval, 5.4 to 19.1 vs. 6.1h/week: 3.7 to 11.2 and in sedentary activities (median, 100h/week: 66 to 129 vs. 78h/week: 55 to 122 compared to non-smokers. Smokers also presented worse spirometry, peak V’O2 and maximum heart rate in the CPET, 6MWT, and isokinetic indices (p<0.05. We observed a strong correlation between the time spent lying and spirometry (r = - 0.730 in smokers. Smoking is related to higher sedentary behavior, despite the suitable PADL. An appropriate PADL did not reduce the deleterious effects of smoking on physical capabilities. Interrupting sedentary behavior may be an appropriate intervention target in smokers for reducing the risk of diseases.

  10. Análisis del impacto en fumadores mexicanos de los avisos gráficos en las cajetillas de cigarros Analysis of the impact of cigarette pack graphic warnings on Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto de los avisos gráficos (imágenes en las etiquetas que indican el daño a la salud que causa el tabaco en las cajetillas de cigarros entre fumadores adultos mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el método antropológico de sorteo de montones a 60 fumadores adultos para determinar cuáles los hacían pensar en dejar de fumar. Se sacaron promedios y se utilizaron métodos estadísticos no paramétricos. RESULTADOS: Los avisos gráficos más impactantes mostraban las siguientes imágenes: un tumor de bronquio fuente visto a través del broncoscopio; un hombre con cáncer de laringe con una gran masa tumoral externa en el cuello; un hombre joven inconsciente en una cama de la unidad de cuidados intensivos, con texto mencionando benceno, formaldehído y cianuro de hidrógeno como componentes del tabaco, y una de dos niños sanos que indica que el cigarro contiene amoníaco, monóxido de carbono; un feto muerto en un frasco con formol; y una boca con dientes amarillos y con texto que menciona la pérdida de dientes y cáncer bucal como resultados del tabaco. CONCLUSIONES: Los avisos gráficos que se utilizan en las cajetillas de cigarros en otros países podrían contribuir a la cesación entre fumadores mexicanos y deben implementarse en México.OBJECTIVE: To determine which graphic warnings on cigarette packs (images on the labels indicating the negative impact on health that tobacco can have provoke the strongest desire to quit smoking among adult Mexican smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pile sort method was used among 60 smokers over 18 years old to determine which images made them think about quitting smoking. Averages were determined and non-parametric statistical methods were used to determine differences in ranks. RESULTS: Within each of the five themes, one or two graphic warnings provoked the strongest responses in smokers. The graphic warnings with the greatest impact used the following images: a close

  11. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, PSocial media advertisements designed to target smokers were cost-effective and

  12. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers

  13. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  14. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers? social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talkin...

  15. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja

    2008-01-01

    The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...

  16. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have lower odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and less decline in lung function than non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Celli, Bartolomé; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiology of cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease. The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry. The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior. Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this "Hispanic protection."

  17. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  18. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p = .01). Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Co-use in Adult Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-03-01

    We examined effects of long-term medical marijuana legalization on cigarette co-use in a sample of adults. We conducted secondary analysis using data from the 2014 US Tobacco Attitudes and Beliefs Survey, which consisted of cigarette smokers, aged ≥ 45 years (N = 506). Participants were categorized by their state residence, where medical marijuana was (1) illegal, (2) legalized legalized ≥ 10 years. The Web-based survey assessed participants' marijuana use, beliefs and attitudes on marijuana, and nicotine dependence using Fagerstrom Tolerance for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) scores. In cigarette smokers aged ≥ 45 years, long-term legalization of medical marijuana was associated with stable positive increases in marijuana use prevalence (ever in a lifetime) (p = .005) and frequency (number of days in past 30 days) (unadjusted p = .005; adjusted p = .08). Those who reported marijuana co-use had greater FTND and HONC scores after adjusting for covariates (p = .05). These preliminary findings warrant further examination of the potential impact of long-term legalization of medical marijuana on greater cigarette and marijuana co-use in adults and higher nicotine dependence among co-users at the population level.

  20. Abstinent adult daily smokers show reduced anticipatory but elevated saccade-related brain responses during a rewarded antisaccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Denlinger, Rachel; Sparacino, Gina; Donny, Eric C

    2014-08-30

    Chronic smoking may result in reduced sensitivity to non-drug rewards (e.g., money), a phenomenon particularly salient during abstinence. During a quit attempt, this effect may contribute to biased decision-making (smoking>alternative reinforcers) and relapse. Although relevant for quitting, characterization of reduced reward function in abstinent smokers remains limited. Moreover, how attenuated reward function affects other brain systems supporting decision-making has not been established. Here, we use a rewarded antisaccade (rAS) task to characterize non-drug reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control, key elements underlying decision-making, in abstinent smokers vs. non-smokers. Abstinent (12-hours) adult daily smokers (N=23) and non-smokers (N=11) underwent fMRI while performing the rAS. Behavioral performances improved on reward vs. neutral trials. Smokers showed attenuated activation in ventral striatum during the reward cue and in superior precentral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex during response preparation, but greater responses during the saccade response in posterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Smokers' attenuated anticipatory responses suggest reduced motivation from monetary reward, while heightened activation during the saccade response suggests that additional circuitry may be engaged later to enhance inhibitory task performance. Overall, this preliminary study highlights group differences in decision-making components and the utility of the rAS to characterize these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging in Security Work: Selective Disclosure in Friendships of Korean and Mexican Undocumented Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Esther Y

    2017-01-01

    While much of the literature on undocumented immigrants has focused on employment and education outcomes, we know little about the effects of their precarious legal status on interpersonal relationships. Based on interviews with 50 Korean and Mexican undocumented young adults, I find that, regardless of ethnoracial background, undocumented immigrants approach relationships cautiously, engaging in "security work" to protect themselves and their loved ones. Security work is a negotiated process...

  2. Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of structural packaging design on young adult smokers' perceptions of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Savvas, Steven; Sharkie, Fiona; Moore, Karen

    2013-03-01

    To examine the extent that novel cigarette pack shapes and openings have on smokers' perceptions of those packs and the cigarettes contained within. Using a web-based survey, 160 young adult ever-smokers (18-29 years) were shown computer images of plain packaged cigarette packs in five different shapes. This was followed by packs illustrating five different methods of opening. Brand (prestige or budget) and size of the health warnings (30% or 70% warning size) were between-subject conditions. Respondents ranked packs on attractiveness, perceived quality of the cigarettes contained within and extent that the pack distracted from health warnings. Ratings of attractiveness and perceived quality were significantly associated in both substudies, but tendency to distract from warnings was more independent. Significant differences were found between the pack shapes on attractiveness, perceived quality and distraction from warnings. Standard, 2×10 and 4×5 packs were ranked less attractive than Bevelled and Rounded packs. 2×10 and 4×5 packs were also perceived as lower quality than Bevelled and Rounded packs. The Standard pack was less distracting to health warnings than all other shapes except the 2×10 pack. Pack openings were perceived as different on quality of cigarettes contained and extent of distraction to warnings. The Standard Flip-top was rated significantly lower in distracting from warnings than all other openings. Pack shape and pack opening affect ever-smokers' perceptions of the packs and the cigarettes they contain. This means that they have the potential to create appeal and differentiate products and thus should be regulated.

  4. Anxiety and depressed mood decline following smoking abstinence in adult smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point - prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Results Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (p<0.001). Depressed mood was lower for abstainers than non-abstainers at Week 1 (p<0.05), but no longer at Week 6 (p=0.83). Treatment with OROS-MPH relative to placebo showed significant reductions at Week 6 after TQD for both anxiety (p<0.05) and depressed mood (p<0.001), but not at Week 1. Differential abstinence effects of gender were observed. Anxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Conclusion Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. PMID:26272693

  5. Semantic verbal fluency in elderly Mexican adults: Reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Acosta-Castillo, I; García-Ramírez, N; Rojas de la Torre, G; Sosa-Ortiz, A L

    2015-05-01

    The semantic verbal fluency test (SVF) is sensitive to detecting cognitive decline. It is fast and easy to use in any cultural context; therefore, it is included in most of the neuropsychological assessment protocols. To estimate normative values for the SVF test (animals), in an elderly population aged 65 years and over. 1233 subjects who were healthy, cognitively preserved, residents of two areas (rural and urban) of Mexico were assessed. A neurological and neuropsychological exploration battery was applied, including SVF. The age average was 73+6 and schooling was 4.0+3.9 years, with 59% women. The average of the words generated in the SVF test was 14+5, and a correlation of 0.16 of these scores with age, education, and gender was found (pimportant contribution provided by this study was that the data analysis enabled normative values to be obtained for an elderly Mexican population aged 65 years and over. It was also confirmed, as other neuropsychological assessment studies have done, that the SVF test is influenced by socio-demographic variables, such as age and education, aspects to be considered at the time of obtaining normative values. Finally, it was noted that the average scores obtained were lower than other published reference values, due to the low educational level of our sample. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses to antismoking radio and television advertisements among adult smokers and non-smokers across Africa: message-testing results from Senegal, Nigeria and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Rebecca; Murukutla, Nandita; Occleston, Jessica; Bayly, Megan; Lien, Mego; Wakefield, Melanie; Mullin, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether adaptation of existing antitobacco television and radio advertisements (ads) from high-income countries is a viable tobacco control strategy for Africa. 1078 male and female adult smokers and non-smokers, aged 18-40 years, from major and smaller urban locations in Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, were recruited into groups using locally appropriate convenience sampling methods and stratified by smoking status, gender, age and socioeconomic status. Eligibility criteria included age, smoking status and literacy. Each participant rated five radio and five TV antismoking ads on five-point scales, which were later aggregated into measures of perceived effectiveness, potential behaviour change and antitobacco industry sentiment/support for government actions. For radio ads across all three countries, two health harms-focused ads-Coughing Child followed by Suffering-had the highest odds of a positive rating on the Perceived Effectiveness measure among smokers and non-smokers. For television ads, the strong graphic ad Baby Alive tended to be rated most positively across the majority of measures by all subgroups. This first systematic study of tobacco control advertisements in Africa is consistent with findings from other countries, suggesting that graphic health-harms ads developed and used in other countries could also be effective in African countries. This implies that adaptation would be a successful approach in Africa, where scarce resources for tobacco control communications can be focused on advertising dissemination, saving programmes from the cost, time and technical expertise required for development of new materials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Doubova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014 of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Results Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Conclusions Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  8. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-09-09

    To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014) of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  9. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is all risk bad? Young adult cigarette smokers fail to take adaptive risk in a laboratory decision-making test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Sugar, Catherine A; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking has been linked to real-world risky behavior, but this association has been based largely on retrospective self-reports. Limitations of self-report data can be avoided by using laboratory, performance-based measures, such as the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., J Exp Psychol Appl 8:75-84, 2002). Initial studies have suggested that smokers display greater risk-taking on this task than nonsmokers, but these studies did not account for drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities, which are commonplace among smokers. We sought to examine the performance of smokers and nonsmokers on the BART after excluding drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidities. We conducted a study of late adolescent/young adult (age 18 to 21) smokers (n = 26) and nonsmokers (n = 38) performing the BART and excluded individuals with positive drug or alcohol toxicology screens, substance abuse or dependence diagnoses, and/or current psychiatric conditions. Contrary to previous findings, smokers did not display greater risk-taking on the BART than nonsmokers. In fact, when performance was examined trial-by-trial, the nonsmokers displayed progressively greater pumping relative to smokers over time (p adaptive.

  11. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Metabolic syndrome in adults from 20 to 40 years old in a rural Mexican community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; Hernández-Lomelí, Adrián; Alcocer-Gamba, Marco Antonio; Morales-Flores, Héctor; Vázquez-Mellado, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is the main health problem in Mexico. Its two principal complications (ischemic cardiopathy and type-2 diabetes) are the two main causes of death in Mexico since 2000. To describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adults from 20 to 40 years old in a Mexican rural community (Senegal de Palomas, San Juan del Río, Querétaro) using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP III) definition. A descriptive study with a random sample was carried out. We present a univariate analysis with a 95% confidence interval. 73 cases were studied. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 45.2% slightly higher in men (48.4%) than in women (42.8%). The prevalence of hypertension was 27.3%. The prevalence of obesity was 26.1% using the definition of the WHO and this prevalence rises up to 49.4% using the definition of the Mexican Official Norm. 90.5% of women and 93.5% of men had low HDLc. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults from 20 to 40 years old in this Mexican rural community is much higher than the national mean for the same age cohort. The results show the necessity to increase the research of our rural communities in order to identify the possible causes to this problem and to create therapeutic programs for patients with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  14. Expectancies for and use of e-cigarettes and hookah among young adult non-daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Brikmanis, Kristin

    2016-09-01

    Understanding predictors of e-cigarette and hookah use among young adults is important in light of their increasing prevalence, particularly in younger populations. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that young adult non-daily cigarette smokers' use of e-cigarettes and hookah would be positively associated with their expectancies about these products. Young adults (n=377, 58.0% male) aged 18-24years (M=20.5, SD=1.8) who had been non-daily smokers for at least six months but had never been daily smokers completed a baseline assessment online or via mobile phone as part of a larger, longitudinal study. Approximately one in three participants reported any e-cigarette (34.0%) and/or hookah (33.4%) use in the past 14days; 37% of those who used either product reported using both. More positive e-cigarette expectancies were associated with higher odds of any e-cigarette use and with heavier use in the past two weeks. Similarly, more positive expectancies for hookah use predicted greater odds of any use as well as more frequent use of hookah (all pssmokers also use these nicotine products. These data also suggest use of e-cigarettes and/or hookah may be as common as not among young adult nondaily smokers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  16. Autorreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos Tobacco advertising and promotions: changes in reported exposure in a cohort of Mexican smokers

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    Rosaura Pérez-Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia de la industria tabacalera (IT, a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT en 2008. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1 051 post-LGCT de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE. RESULTADOS: Se incrementó el autorreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7 a 8.1%, ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6 a 6.4%, haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9 a 4.7%, y publicidad en bares y discotecas para mayores de edad (21.4 a 28%. Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIÓN: Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the General Tobacco Control Law of 2008. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four Mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. GEE models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. RESULTS: Increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%, branded clothing (3.6-6.4%, noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7% and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%. Noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. There is a need to monitor

  17. Does e-cigarette use predict cigarette escalation? A longitudinal study of young adult non-daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Delucchi, Kevin; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Luczak, Susan; Myers, Mark; Strong, David

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that e-cigarette use among youth may be associated with increased risk of cigarette initiation. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of e-cigarettes among young adult non-daily cigarette smokers would be associated with increased cigarette consumption. Participants (n=391; 52% male) were 18-24year-old non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from across California. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were assessed online or via mobile phone every three months for one year between March 2015 and December 2016. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models showed that, adjusted for propensity for baseline e-cigarette use, non-daily smokers who reported more frequent use of e-cigarettes upon study entry reported greater quantity and frequency of cigarette smoking at baseline and greater increases in cigarette quantity over 12months than non-daily cigarette only smokers (psnon-daily smokers, young adults who use e-cigarettes tend to smoke more cigarettes and to do so more frequently. Such individuals may be at greater risk for chronic tobacco use and dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of young adult smokers in the U.S. in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mary E; Sabado, Melanie; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-09-01

    The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809). We applied weighted multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations between demographics, tobacco use behaviors, exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco messages, and the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. 59.0% of U.S. young adult smokers are in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Unemployment was positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Smoking every day (vs. some days), more cigarettes smoked per day, using roll-your-own cigarettes (vs. manufactured cigarettes only), currently smoking cigars, and signing up for promotional offers were positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (p Non-Hispanic Black was negatively associated with precontemplation stage (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.59). Not smoking after viewing a health warning on a cigarette pack was negatively associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.51). Many U.S. young adult smokers classify as being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Interventions to motivate these smokers to quit smoking with considerations of their specific characteristics (e.g., being unemployed) are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  20. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  1. Young adult social smokers: their co-use of tobacco and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lee, Youn O; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-12-01

    Young adults frequently report social smoking. This study examined the relationship between different social smoking definitions and the co-use of cigarettes and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts. Cross-sectional data were collected at bars using randomized time location sampling among young adults aged 21-26 in San Diego, California from 2010 to 2011 (73% response rate). Multivariable logistic regression examined if current smoking and quit attempts were associated with tobacco-related attitudes, and whether social smoking self-identification or behavior was associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, tobacco-related attitudes, quit attempts, or quitline use. Among 537 current smokers, 80% self-identified and 49% behaved as social smokers. Social smoking self-identification was positively associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, and quit attempts. Social smoking behavior was negatively associated with tobacco marketing receptivity, quit attempts, and quitline use. Tobacco-related attitudes were associated with smoking but did not generally differ by social smoking status. Identification and behavior as a social smoker have opposing associations with co-use of cigarettes and alcohol and quit attempts. Tobacco cessation programs for self-identified social smokers should address co-use. Interventions denormalizing the tobacco industry or emphasizing the health effects of temporary smoking and secondhand smoke may address smoking among young adult bar patrons regardless of social smoking status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand Survey

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    Aree Jampaklay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43% (57% remaining quit; (b surviving at least six months (medium-term (31%; (c relapse between one and six months (45%; (d having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence (14%; and (e relapse from six months on (44% compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%. Predictors for early relapse (<1 month differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  3. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  4. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  5. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  6. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-08-05

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers' social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers' understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects.

  7. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  8. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40–89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women. PMID:29742176

  9. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal-spontaneous or automatic-attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. 187 young adult (mean age=21.9; SD=4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rauda, Juan; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Villalpando, Salvador; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated risk factors in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older, using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The ENSANUT 2006 was conducted between October 2005 and May 2006. Questionnaires were administered to 45 446 adult subjects aged 20 years or older who were residents from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained from all subjects and fasting blood specimens were provided by 30% of participants. We randomly selected a sub-sample of 6 613 from which laboratory measurements were carried out for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. For this analysis, we included only results from eight or more hours of fasting samples (n=6 021). We used individual weighted factors in the statistical analysis and considered the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances and confidence intervals. All analyses were done using SPSS 15.0. In accordance with definitions by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MS in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older was 36.8, 41.6 and 49.8%, respectively. Women were more affected than men due to the higher prevalence of central obesity among females. Prevalence of MS increased with age and was higher among populations living in metropolitan areas, in the west-central region, and those with lower education. Regardless of the MS definition, a large proportion of Mexican adults has the condition, so preventive measures are needed to decrease the prevalence of the MS components in this population. MS can predict type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two of the main causes of death in the adult population in Mexico. The intentional search of MS components allows

  12. Multidimensional social support is associated with healthcare utilization among older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Hernández-Serrato, María; Enríquez-Rosas, María Del Rocío; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between social support and healthcare utilization among older Mexican adults. We conducted a prospective study with 4027 older adults aged 65-74 in rural areas in seven Mexican states. Data were collected at baseline (2007) and 14 months later (2009). Healthcare utilization was defined as number of visits to a physician for preventive or curative purposes in the last 6 months. Multidimensional social support was operationalized into two components: structural (living arrangements, marital status and network size) and functional (perceived availability of support; and perceived support across emotional, instrumental, economic and information domains). Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the probability of healthcare use and to examine the association between social support and the number of visits to a physician. Results showed that perceived availability of social support was associated with the probability of visits to a physician (OR 1.44; p  social support were associated with the probability of visits to a physician: instrumental (OR 1.55; p  social support, measured from a multidimensional viewpoint, and healthcare utilization, in which greater social support was related to a greater extent of use of health services.

  13. Point-of-sale cigarette purchase patterns among U.S. adult smokers-National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Lee, Joseph G L; Kennedy, Sara; Banks, Asha; Sharapova, Saida; Agaku, Israel

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco products are ubiquitous in most U.S. retail environments. Given that data on preferred point-of-sale purchase locations among U.S. adult tobacco users are limited, an enhanced understanding of tobacco purchase locations can help inform tobacco control policy, planning, and practice. We investigated prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with cigarette purchase location among U.S. adult smokers. Pooled data came from the 2012-2013 (N=60,192) and 2013-2014 (N=75,233) National Adult Tobacco Surveys. Current cigarette smokers (n=18,005) aged ≥18 were asked if they purchased cigarettes within the previous 30days (n=15,182) and, if so, where they last purchased cigarettes. In 2016, logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education level and annual household income was used to assess characteristics associated with purchase location. Among current smokers, 90.2% reported purchasing cigarettes in the past 30days. The most common purchase locations were convenience stores/gas stations (69.1%), tobacco discount stores (9.9%), drug stores (5.0%), supermarkets (4.9%), and liquor stores (3.6%). The odds of purchasing cigarettes at convenience stores/gas stations were higher among men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-1.5) than women; and among adults aged 18-24 (AOR=3.1; 95% CI=2.4-3.9), 25-44 (AOR=3.1; 95% CI=2.7-3.7), and 45-64years (AOR=1.8 95% CI=1.6-2.1) than adults aged ≥65years. Over two-thirds of U.S. smokers last purchased cigarettes from convenience stores/gas stations. Understanding the relationship between purchase location and smoker characteristics may inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Do personality traits related to affect regulation predict other tobacco product use among young adult non-daily smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence non-cigarette tobacco use is important given these products' prevalence and health risks. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality traits related to affect regulation would be associated with greater frequency of other tobacco product (OTP) use in a sample of young adult non-daily smokers. Participants (n=518, 51% male) aged 18-24 were non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Personality characteristics (impulsivity, anhedonia, and negative affectivity) were measured at baseline, and participants reported recent tobacco use at baseline and 3, 6, and 9months later. Assessments were conducted online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 33-52% of participants reported recent OTP use, with frequency of use decreasing over time. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models indicated that greater sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were associated with more frequent OTP use (psnon-daily cigarette smokers with greater propensity for immediately rewarding behaviors may use OTPs more frequently. Young, non-daily cigarette smokers with high levels of sensation seeking and/or lack of premeditation may be at increased risk for harms related to OTP use and may benefit from prevention and cessation strategies that specifically address affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah; Zanna, Mark P; Fotuhi, Omid

    2010-10-01

    Limited longitudinal studies on smoking cessation have been reported in Asia, and it remains unclear whether determinants of quitting are similar to those found in Western countries. This study examined prospective predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Four thousand and four smokers were surveyed in Malaysia and Thailand in 2005. Of these, 2,426 smokers were followed up in 2006 (61% retention). Baseline measures of sociodemographics, dependence, and interest in quitting were used to predict both making quit attempts and point prevalence maintenance of cessation. More Thai than Malaysian smokers reported having made quit attempts between waves, but among those who tried, the rates of staying quit were not considerably different between Malaysians and Thais. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking fewer cigarettes per day, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more immediate quitting intentions were predictive of both making a quit attempt and staying quit in both countries. Previous shorter quit attempts and higher health concerns about smoking were only predictive of making an attempt, whereas prior abstinence for 6 months or more and older age were associated with maintenance. In Malaysia and Thailand, predictors of quitting activity appear to be similar. However, as in the West, predictors of making quit attempts are not all the same as those who predict maintenance. The actual predictors differ in potentially important ways from those found in the West. We need to determine the relative contributions of cultural factors and the shorter history of efforts to encourage quitting in Asia.

  17. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Takiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction.We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7 or as the lower limit of the normal.Among 323 patients presenting with FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7, 43 had asthma and 280 did not. Among the non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34% were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001, or were non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p < 0.001. Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005 and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001. Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p < 0.001. Using the lower limit of the normal to define airflow obstruction yielded similar results.There are a substantial number of non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  18. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  20. Awareness, use and perceptions about E-cigarettes among adult smokers in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Maryam; Rahim Khan, Hamza Abdur; Urooba, Amna; Manan, Zainab; Irfan, Omar; Nadeem, Ramlah; Baqir, Huma; Farooq, Saad; Khan, Zarrar; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Saleem, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of awareness, current use and intention to use of e-cigarettes among adult smokers. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July to August 2016, and comprised people aged above 18 years who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. Convenience sampling method was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis.. Of the 387 participants, 359(92.8%) were male. The overall mean age was 32.4±12.6 years. Moreover, 215(55.5%) respondents belonged to the middle socio-economic class. Besides, 249(64.3%) respondents were aware of e-cigarettes while 39(10.1%) used them, and 81(20.9%) wanted to use them. Socio-economic status was the best predictor for awareness about e-cigarettes (p<0.001), while gender (p=0.001), occupation

  1. Flavored E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Cessation-A Large National Study among Young Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julia Cen

    2018-04-06

    E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used. Univariate and multivariate regressions were conducted to examine the associations between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current e-cigarette flavor use at wave 2. At wave 2, 25.9% of respondents either reduced or quit smoking, and 6.7%, 5.2%, and 6.3% of them reported currently using e-cigarettes with tobacco/menthol (TM) flavors, one non-tobacco/non-menthol (NTM) flavor, and multiple NTM flavors, respectively. E-cigarette users with one (AOR = 2.5, p e-cigarette users. NTM flavor use was positively associated with e-cigarette use of a higher frequency and larger amount. The positive association between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current NTM flavored e-cigarette use may be explained by young adults' escalated e-cigarette use with NTM flavors. Public health professionals should prevent and reduce multiple tobacco use through enhanced education about the harm of vaping NTM flavors and by advising young adult smokers to quit tobacco altogether using evidence-based methods.

  2. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  3. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Brenda Martínez-Tapia; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Mario Flores-Aldana; Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutr...

  4. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie

    2018-01-27

    Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of current adult smokers (18 and older) were used to estimate the correlates of menthol smoking among all cigarette brands and separately for the top three cigarette brands (Newport, Camel, and Marlboro). Adjusted models examined the main effect of menthol smoking on harm perceptions of one's own brand of cigarette and interactions with race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Menthol cigarettes were used by nearly 40% of current smokers, although the prevalence of menthol smoking differed across the top three brands (94% Newport, 46% Camel, and 18% Marlboro). Among menthol smokers, 80% perceived their cigarette as equally harmful, 14% perceived their brand as more harmful, and 7% perceived their brand as less harmful. In adjusted models, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to misperceive their own brand as more harmful than other brands (compared to no difference in harm). Race and gender emerged as moderators of the association between menthol brand preference and harm perceptions. In adjusted analyses, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their brand as more harmful than other brands, with differences by sub-groups who disproportionately use menthol. Menthol cigarettes have been historically marketed with messages conveying lower harm than other cigarettes. Little is known about how contemporary adult menthol smokers perceive the harm of their usual brand, and potential differences by race, gender, and young adult versus older adult age group. After adjusting for other factors, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their cigarette brand as more harmful than other brands

  6. Influence of mealtime habits on the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosamantes-Carrasco, Libia Darina; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Flores, Yvonne N; Siani, Carole; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Ramírez, Paula; Rivera-Paredez, Berenice; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    To prospectively examine the extent to which mealtime habits influences the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults. We performed a prospective cohort study. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale was used for assessing participants' MHQ; the outcomes of interest were gain ≥5 % of body weight, developing overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, after 7 years of follow-up. In order to estimate the independent effect of MHQ on anthropometric indicators, generalized linear models were computed to obtain adjusted relative risks (95 % CI). The state of Morelos, Mexico. Mexican adults (n 837) aged 18-70 years participating in a cohort study. Compared with participants classified in the higher MHQ category, individuals in the middle and lower MHQ groups had a 4·1 (2·5, 6·7) and 6·2 (3·9, 9·7) fold greater risk of gain ≥5 % of body weight, respectively; 6·6 (2·8, 15·5) and 8·6 (3·7, 19·8) fold greater risk of becoming overweight/obese, respectively; and 3·8 (2·0, 7·3) and 5·3 (2·8, 9·8) fold greater risk of developing abdominal obesity, respectively. This study provides evidence about the influence of a set of mealtime habits on obesity indicators, showing that greater adherence to unadvisable mealtime habits increases the risk of developing unhealthy anthropometric indicators. Since the meal is one of the most important sources of food intake, and consequently weight status, the MHQ scale can be a useful population tool to predict weight gain and obesity.

  7. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  8. Tax, price and cigarette brand preferences: a longitudinal study of adult smokers from the ITC Mexico Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz de Miera Juárez, Belén; Thrasher, James F; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Recent tax increases in Mexico differed in structure and provided an opportunity to better understand tobacco industry pricing strategies, as well as smokers' responses to any resulting price changes. To assess if taxes were passed onto consumers of different cigarette brands, the extent of brand switching and predictors of preference for cheaper national brands. Using data from three waves of the Mexican administration of the International Tobacco Control Survey, we analysed self-reported brand and price paid at last cigarette purchase. Generalised estimating equations were used to determine predictors of price and preference for national brands. The average price of premium/international brands increased each year from 2008 to 2011; however, the price for discount/national brands increased only from 2010 to 2011. The percentage of smokers who smoked national brands remained stable between 2008 and 2010 but dropped in 2011. Factors related to smoking national brands as opposed to international brands included being male and having relatively older age, lower education, lower income and higher consumption. Tobacco industry pricing strategies in the wake of ad valorem taxes implemented in Mexico prior to 2011 had the impact of segmenting the market into discount national brands and premium international brands. The specific tax increase implemented in 2011 reduced the price gap between these two segments by raising the price of the national brands relative to the international brands. Evidence for trading up was found after the 2011 tax increase. These results provide further evidence for the relevance of tax policy as a tobacco control strategy; in particular, they illustrate the importance of how specific rather than ad valorem taxes can reduce the potential for downward brand switching in the face of decreasing cigarette affordability.

  9. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa De la; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Flores-Aldana, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, adjusting by confounders and survey design. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micronutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  10. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  11. Gender differences in negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence differ between African American and White adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-06-15

    Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline session, adult daily smokers (10 cigarettes per day; women: n=297, 83.8% Non-Hispanic African American; men: n=492, 86.2% Non-Hispanic African American) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours abstinent vs. non-abstinent) and completed self-report measures of negative affect followed by a laboratory analogue smoking reinstatement task. We found a gender race interaction for several negative affect states and composite negative affect (ßs=-.12 to -.16, psNon-Hispanic White women compared to Non-Hispanic White men exhibited greater abstinence-induced increases in anger, anxiety, and composite negative affect (ßs=-.20 to -.29, psNon-Hispanic African American smokers (ßs=.00 to -.04, ps>.05). These findings suggest that negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence may be a clinically important and intervenable factor that can inform cessation interventions specifically for Non-Hispanic White women smokers. Further empirical exploration of mechanisms underlying interactions of gender and race in tobacco addiction may benefit smoking cessation efforts in Non-Hispanic African American women smokers. The current study contributes to a scant body of research examining the intersectional influence of race and gender on abstinence-induced negative affect-a central, motivationally prepotent feature of tobacco withdrawal. Using a laboratory-based design to experimentally manipulate abstinence, we provide evidence

  12. Time to First Cigarette, Physical Activity, and Pulmonary Function in Middle-aged to Older Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Russell T; Mercincavage, Melissa; Branstetter, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    How addiction severity relates to physical activity (PA), and if PA moderates the relation between PA and lung function among smokers, is unknown. This study explored the independent and interactive associations of nicotine addiction severity and PA with lung function. The study used cross-sectional data from 343 adult smokers aged 40 to 79 participating in the 2009-10 and 2011-12 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Assessed were the independent relations of nicotine addiction severity, as measured by the time to first cigarette (TTFC), and average daily minutes of moderate and vigorous PA with lung function ratio (FEV1/FVC). Additional analysis examined whether PA moderated the relationship between addiction severity and lung function. Greater lung function was independently associated with moderate PA and later TTFC, but not vigorous PA, when controlling for cigarettes per day (CPD), past month smoking, ethnicity, years smoked, and gender (P-values smokers, increased PA and lower addiction severity were associated with greater lung function, independent of CPD. This may inform research into the protective role of PA and identification of risk factors for interventions.

  13. The association between social support and cognitive function in Mexican adults aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin

    Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-29

    Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ(2) tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS exposure at home and workplace

  15. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah; Zanna, Mark P.; Fotuhi, Omid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Limited longitudinal studies on smoking cessation have been reported in Asia, and it remains unclear whether determinants of quitting are similar to those found in Western countries. This study examined prospective predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Methods: Four thousand and four smokers were surveyed in Malaysia and Thailand in 2005. Of these, 2,426 smokers were followed up in 2006 (61% retention). Baseline measures of sociodemographics, dependence, and interest in quitting were used to predict both making quit attempts and point prevalence maintenance of cessation. Results: More Thai than Malaysian smokers reported having made quit attempts between waves, but among those who tried, the rates of staying quit were not considerably different between Malaysians and Thais. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking fewer cigarettes per day, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more immediate quitting intentions were predictive of both making a quit attempt and staying quit in both countries. Previous shorter quit attempts and higher health concerns about smoking were only predictive of making an attempt, whereas prior abstinence for 6 months or more and older age were associated with maintenance. Discussion: In Malaysia and Thailand, predictors of quitting activity appear to be similar. However, as in the West, predictors of making quit attempts are not all the same as those who predict maintenance. The actual predictors differ in potentially important ways from those found in the West. We need to determine the relative contributions of cultural factors and the shorter history of efforts to encourage quitting in Asia. PMID:20889478

  16. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  17. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  18. Comparison of two methods for estimating the number of undocumented Mexican adults in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M; Passel, J F

    1987-01-01

    This article compares 2 different methods for estimating the number of undocumented Mexican adults in Los Angeles County. The 1st method, the survey-based method, uses a combination of 1980 census data and the results of a survey conducted in Los Angeles County in 1980 and 1981. A sample was selected from babies born in Los Angeles County who had a mother or father of Mexican origin. The survey included questions about the legal status of the baby's parents and certain other relatives. The resulting estimates of undocumented Mexican immigrants are for males aged 18-44 and females aged 18-39. The 2nd method, the residual method, involves comparison of census figures for aliens counted with estimates of legally-resident aliens developed principally with data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). For this study, estimates by age, sex, and period of entry were produced for persons born in Mexico and living in Los Angeles County. The results of this research indicate that it is possible to measure undocumented immigration with different techniques, yet obtain results that are similar. Both techniques presented here are limited in that they represent estimates of undocumented aliens based on the 1980 census. The number of additional undocumented aliens not counted remains a subject of conjecture. The fact that the proportions undocumented shown in the survey (228,700) are quite similar to the residual estimates (317,800) suggests that the number of undocumented aliens not counted in the census may not be an extremely large fraction of the undocumented population. The survey-based estimates have some significant advantages over the residual estimates. The survey provides tabulations of the undocumented population by characteristics other than the limited demographic information provided by the residual technique. On the other hand, the survey-based estimates require that a survey be conducted and, if national or regional estimates are called for, they may

  19. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  20. Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. adult smokers, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2011-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR

  1. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  2. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  3. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations and cognitive function among older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Moreno-Banda, Grea Litai; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Lin, Hualiang

    2018-04-25

    Recent epidemiological research has shown that exposure to fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) is associated with a reduction in cognitive function in older adults. However, primary evidence comes from high-income countries, and no specific studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries where higher air pollution levels exist. To estimate the association between the exposure to PM 2.5 and cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older Mexican adults and the associated effect modifiers. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition in Mexico carried out in 2012. A total of 7986 older adults composed the analytical sample. Cognitive function was assessed using two tests: semantic verbal fluency and three-word memory. The annual concentration of PM 2.5 was calculated using satellite data. Association between exposure to PM 2.5 and cognitive function was estimated using two-level logistic and linear regression models. In adjusted multilevel regression models, each 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 raised the odds of a poorer cognitive function using the three-word memory test (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.74), and reduced the number of valid animal named in the verbal fluency test (β = -0.72, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.40). Stratified analyses did not yield any significant modification effects of age, sex, indoor pollution, urban/rural dwelling, education, smoking and other factors. This study supports an association between exposure to PM 2.5 concentrations and cognitive function in older adults. This is particularly relevant to low- and middle-income countries, which are marked by a rapid growth of their aging population and high levels of air pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, Texas. 475 adults from 161 Mexican-origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Two-level logistic regression modeling. Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p = .010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p = .046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican-origin adults.

  5. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  6. The Primary Results of the Treating Adult Smokers at Risk for Weight Gain with Interactive Technology (TARGIT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen C; Thomas, Fridtjof; Richey, Phyllis; Tran, Quynh T; Tylavsky, Fran; Miro, Danielle; Coday, Mace

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether a behavioral weight management program combined with a smoking cessation program delivered via interactive technology could prevent postcessation weight gain. Three hundred and thirty young adult smokers, age 18 to 35 years, were randomized to a smoking cessation program alone (comparison group), which included behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement, or to a behavioral weight management program adapted from the Look AHEAD trial plus the same smoking cessation program (intervention group). The Treating Adult Smokers at Risk for Weight Gain with Interactive Technology study randomized 164 participants to the comparison group and 166 participants to the intervention group. On average, the participants gained 0.91 kg after 24 months in the trial (comparison group + 1.45 kg and intervention group + 0.32; P = 0.157). The only variable systematically affecting weight change over time was smoking abstinence, in which those who were abstinent, on average, gained 0.14 kg more per month compared with those who continued to smoke (P technology was not associated with greater long-term weight gain prevention. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    OpenAIRE

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitti...

  8. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Caraballo, Ralph S; Promoff, Gabbi R

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.

  9. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Promoff, Gabbi R.

    2017-01-01

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non–American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations. PMID:28395142

  10. The impact of flavoring on the rewarding and reinforcing value of e-cigarettes with nicotine among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Wileyto, E Paul

    2016-09-01

    Flavored e-cigarette use has risen rapidly, especially among young adults who also smoke cigarettes. We sought to determine whether flavoring enhances the subjective rewarding value, relative reinforcing value, and absolute reinforcing value of an e-cigarette with nicotine compared to an unflavored e-cigarette with nicotine. Using a within-subjects design, young adult smokers (n=32) participated in three human laboratory sessions. Session 1 evaluated the rewarding value of flavoring by having participants rate unflavored and flavored e-cigarettes with nicotine. Session 2 assessed the relative reinforcing value of a flavored vs unflavored e-cigarette via a choice task that evaluated the willingness to "work" to hit targets on a computer screen to earn flavored or unflavored e-cigarette puffs. Session 3 measured the absolute reinforcing value of flavored versus unflavored e-cigarettes via a 90-min ad-libitum vaping session where puffs from each e-cigarette were counted. Subjective reward value was higher for the flavored versus the unflavored e-cigarette (β=0.83, CI 0.35-1.32, p=0.001). Participants worked harder for flavored e-cigarette puffs versus unflavored e-cigarette puffs (breakpoint=5.7; 597 responses versus 127 responses; β=460.733, CI 246.58-674.88, pe-cigarettes with nicotine, and thus their abuse liability in young adult smokers. Further research is necessary to determine whether the use of flavoring in e-cigarettes impacts cigarette smoking behavior among young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),* ,† which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  12. Adult Cigarette Smokers at Highest Risk for Concurrent Alternative Tobacco Product Use Among a Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hyland, Andrew; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switching. Data for this analysis are from the International Tobacco Control 2006-2011 US adult smoker cohort survey waves 5-8 (N=3248). A switch between brands was defined as reporting two different cigarette brand names for two successive waves, while switching within brand was defined as reporting the same brand name, but a different brand style. Repeated measures regression was used to determine factors associated with both switch types. A total of 1475 participants reported at least two successive waves of data with complete information on brand name and style. Overall switching increased from 44.9% in 2007-2008 to 58.4% in 2010-2011. Switching between brand names increased from 16% to 29%, while switches within the same brand name to a different style ranged from 29% to 33%. Between-brand switching was associated with younger age, lower income, non-white racial group and use of a discount brand, whereas, within-brand switching was associated with younger age and the use of a premium brand cigarette. Nearly half of smokers in the USA switched their cigarette brand or brand style within a year. Switching between brands may be more price motivated, while switching within brands may be motivated by price and other brand characteristics such as product length. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Salmerón, Jorge; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón

    2016-01-01

    To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  15. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

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    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  16. Effects of Functional Disability and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Older Mexican-American Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Mutambudzi, Miriam; Chen, Nai-Wei; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability on mortality in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus. Longitudinal cohort study. Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (HEPESE) survey conducted in the southwestern United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California). Community-dwelling Mexican Americans with self-reported diabetes mellitus participating in the HEPESE survey (N = 624). Functional disability was assessed using a modified version of the Katz activity of daily living scale. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Mortality was determined by examining death certificates and reports from relatives. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the hazard of mortality as a function of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability. Over a 9.2-year follow-up, 391 participants died. Co-occurring high depressive symptoms and functional disability increased the risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-4.34). Risk was greater in men (HR = 8.11, 95% CI = 4.34-16.31) than women (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.42-3.43). Co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus increases mortality risk, especially in men. These findings have important implications for research, practice, and public health interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

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    Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740 was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years. The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively or alcohol (moderate or high (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.

  18. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

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    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  19. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

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    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  20. [Acetabular anteversion angle of the hip in the Mexican adult population measured with computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, J; Gómez-García, F; Ríos-Reina, J L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiogrametric characteristics of a specific skeletal segment in a healthy population is of the utmost clinical importance. The main justification for this study is that there is no published description of the radiogrametric parameter of acetabular anteversion in a healthy Mexican adult population. A prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. Individuals of both genders older than 18 years and orthopedically healthy were included. They underwent a two-dimensional axial tomographic study of both hips to measure the acetabular anteversion angles. The statistical analysis consisted of obtaining central trend and scatter measurements. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical significance were performed. 118 individuals were studied, 60 males and 58 females, with a mean age of 47.7 +/- 16.7, and a range of 18-85 years. The anteversion of the entire group was 18.6 degrees + 4.1 degrees. Anteversion in males was 17.3 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees (10 degrees - 25 degrees) and in females 19.8 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees (10 degrees - 31 degrees). There were no statistically significant differences (p right and left anteversion in the entire group. However, there were statistically significant differences (p > or = 0.005) both in the right and left sides when males and females were compared. Our study showed that there are great variations in the anteversion ranges of a healthy population. When our results are compared with those published by other authors the mean of most measurements exceeds 15 degrees. This should be useful to make therapeutic decisions that involve acetabular anteversion.

  1. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  2. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

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    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, ad­justing by confounders and survey design. Results. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Conclusions. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micro­nutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  3. Younger smokers continue to smoke as adults: implications for raising the smoking age to 21

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    Robbins RA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A review article published in Pediatrics assesses the evidence that smoking is particularly harmful the younger a smoker begins (1. Not only do youths tend to accumulate more pack-years but they have more difficulty quitting. The recent shift in smoking trends from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigarettes may not be helpful since both contain the addictive component, nicotine. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation tool, there is no strong evidence to support these claims, the authors report."I think most people realize nicotine is addictive, but I don't know if there's an understanding of just how addictive it is – particularly for youths," said Lorena M. Siqueira, MD, MSPH, lead author of the report (2. Evidence shows that the earlier in life a person is exposed to nicotine, the more likely they will consume greater quantities and the less likely they will be able to quit (1,2. The vast majority …

  4. Adaptive regression modeling of biomarkers of potential harm in a population of U.S. adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers

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    Mendes Paul E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH: white blood cell count (WBC, 24 h urine 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (EPI8, 24 h urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (DEH11, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL. Methods Random Forest was used for initial variable selection and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline was used for developing the final statistical models Results The analysis resulted in the generation of models that predict each of the BOPH as function of selected variables from the smokers and nonsmokers. The statistically significant variables in the models were: platelet count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, race and biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke for WBC (R-squared = 0.29; creatinine clearance, liver enzymes, weight, vitamin use and biomarkers of exposure for EPI8 (R-squared = 0.41; creatinine clearance, urine creatinine excretion, liver enzymes, use of Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, vitamins and biomarkers of exposure for DEH11 (R-squared = 0.29; and triglycerides, weight, age, sex, alcohol consumption and biomarkers of exposure for HDL (R-squared = 0.39. Conclusions Levels of WBC, EPI8, DEH11 and HDL were statistically associated with biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoking and demographics and life style factors. All of the predictors togather explain 29%-41% of the variability in the BOPH.

  5. "I'm Scared of the Disappointment": Young Adult Smokers' Relational Identity Gaps and Management Strategies as Sites of Communication Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Samantha J; Pitts, Margaret Jane

    2018-02-22

    While cigarette smoking is decreasing among young adults, rates of nicotine consumption through other devices, most notably electronic cigarettes, are on the rise. Framed by communication theory of identity, this study examines young adult smokers' experiences with relational others in regard to their smoking. Focus group discussions and individual interviews convened with 20 young adult cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers revealed identity gaps implicating the relational layer of identity, including personal-relational, enacted-relational, and personal-enacted-relational identity gaps. Participants used communicative and behavioral strategies to manage relational discrepancies. The documented identity gaps and management strategies present opportunities for targeted smoking cessation interventions that amplify dissonance created through identity gaps as a motivational tactic.

  6. Targeting cessation: understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among urban adult daily tobacco smokers.

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    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Sackey, Naa; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-03-01

    Many people continue to smoke tobacco products despite known negative health consequences, including increased risk of chronic disease and death. Disparities exist in rates of smoking and chronic disease, underscoring the importance of understanding the barriers and motivations to smoking cessation among vulnerable populations, such as socioeconomically disadvantaged people of color. This study uses data from a cross-sectional randomized household survey conducted in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, USA (N=1205). The objectives were to examine barriers and motivations to quitting smoking among daily tobacco smokers (31.6% of respondents) and sociodemographic differences in endorsement of barriers and motivations. The two most common barriers to quitting were perceiving it to be too difficult and not wanting to quit. Financial costs, social support, and social influence were themes endorsed highly across both barriers and motivations to quitting. Sociodemographic differences were found, such as women and Black participants being more likely to be interested in a free quitline or quit website; women and Latinos being more likely to be afraid of gaining weight; and women, participants with less education, and older participants being more likely to be concerned about the cost of cessation products. Understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among disadvantaged populations is crucial. Financial issues, social support, and social norms should be targeted in promoting cessation among disadvantaged, urban populations. Programs, interventions, and policies can also use research about specific barriers and motivations for sociodemographic sub-groups to be tailored, targeted, and more effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

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    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shisha (waterpipe smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers. The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73 of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75–85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group.

  8. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

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    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  9. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican origin adults: Implications for diet and physical activity

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    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Design Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Setting Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Subjects 475 adults from 161 Mexican origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Measures Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Analysis Two-level logistic regression modeling. Results Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p=.010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p=.046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Conclusions Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican origin adults. PMID:22208416

  10. Use of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine by adult smokers in the United States: Comparison from the 2002 and 2007 NHIS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Eric; Muramoto, Myra L; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Govindarajan, Lubna

    2014-01-01

    To provide a snapshot of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine (pbCAM) use among adult smokers and assess the opportunity for these providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys. Nationally representative sample. A total of 54,437 (31,044 from 2002; 23,393 from 2007) adults 18 years and older. The analysis focuses on 10 types of pbCAM, including acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic care, energy therapy, folk medicine, hypnosis, massage, and naturopathy. The proportions of current smokers using any pbCAM as well as specific types of pbCAM in 2002 and 2007 are compared using SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC. Between 2002 and 2007, the percentage of recent users of any pbCAM therapy increased from 12.5% to 15.4% (p = .001). The largest increases occurred in massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Despite a decrease in the national average of current smokers (22.0% to 19.4%; p = .001), proportions of smokers within specific pbCAM disciplines remained consistent. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, particularly those in chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage, represent new cohorts in the health care community to promote tobacco cessation. There is an opportunity to provide brief tobacco intervention training to CAM practitioners and engage them in public health efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco use in the United States.

  11. Is the cigarette pack just a wrapper or a characteristic of the product itself? A qualitative study of adult smokers to inform U.S. regulations.

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    Lee, Joseph G L; Averett, Paige E; Blanchflower, Tiffany; Gregory, Kyle R

    2018-03-01

    In the U.S., tobacco products are now regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Litigation has quickly followed. One area of controversy is when a change to the design of the cigarette pack requires approval through FDA's rigorous premarket review process. In this paper, we examine how adult U.S. smokers view the connection between the design of cigarette packs and the characteristics of the cigarettes within. Data for this qualitative study came from six focus groups conducted in March 2017 with adult smokers. Two groups consisted of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants; two groups of participants with less than four years of college education; one group of LGB and straight identity; and, one group of the general population. All groups were selected for regional, gender, and racial/ethnic diversity. Participants (n = 33) represented all nine U.S. Census divisions. We conducted constant comparison qualitative analysis utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants' views reflected a belief that pack design is clearly a reflection of the cigarettes within and that a change in the pack signaled a change in the cigarettes. However, some participants felt price was the salient characteristic of cigarettes and design mattered more for enticing young people to smoke. Changes in pack design signal changes to the product for smokers. Pack design and changes to pack design are seen as particularly relevant to new and young smokers. These findings provide support for regulations that require assessment of cigarette pack design changes for impacts on public health.

  12. Sibling Relationship Quality and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' and Young Adults' Familism Values and Adjustment

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    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: "Positive," "Negative," and "Affect-Intense." Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using…

  13. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  14. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  15. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

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    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  16. Financial strain and cognitive-based smoking processes: The explanatory role of depressive symptoms among adult daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Anjum, Sahar; Garey, Lorra; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Langdon, Kirsten J; Neighbors, Clayton; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms that may link financial strain and smoking processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that financial strain would exert an indirect effect on cognitive-based smoking processes via depressive symptoms. Three clinically significant dependent variables linked to the maintenance of smoking were evaluated: negative affect reduction motives, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Participants included 102 adult daily smokers (M age =33.0years, SD=13.60; 35.3% female) recruited from the community to participate in a self-guided (unaided; no psychological or pharmacological intervention) smoking cessation study. Results indicated that depressive symptoms explain, in part, the relation between financial strain and smoking motives for negative affect reduction, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Results indicate that smoking interventions for individuals with high levels of financial strain may potentially benefit from the addition of therapeutic tactics aimed at reducing depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vulnerability Following Hurricane Katrina Among a Sample of Adult Cigarette Smokers from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ali, Jeanelle; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Read, Mary; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-02-01

    Although blacks are more likely than whites to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a natural disaster, the reasons for this disparity are unclear. This study explores whether race is associated with PTSD after adjusting for differences in preexisting vulnerabilities, exposure to stressors, and loss of social support due to Hurricane Katrina using a representative sample of 279 black and white adult current and past smokers who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and identified it as the most traumatic event in their lifetime. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated whether differential vulnerability (pre-hurricane physical and mental health functioning, and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support deterioration reduced the association of race with PTSD. Blacks were more likely than whites to screen positive for PTSD (49 vs. 39 %, respectively, p = 0.030). Although blacks reported greater pre-hurricane vulnerability (worse mental health functioning and lower educational attainment) and hurricane-related stressor exposure and had less social support after the hurricane, only pre-hurricane mental health functioning attenuated the association of race with screening positive for PTSD. Thus, racial differences in pre-hurricane functioning, particularly poorer mental health, may partially explain racial disparities in PTSD after natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively using representative cohorts of black and whites and include measures of residential segregation and discrimination, which may further our understanding of racial disparities in PTSD after a natural disaster.

  18. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  19. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  20. Atomoxetine treatment for nicotine withdrawal: a pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverstone Peter H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many effective treatments for nicotine addiction inhibit noradrenaline reuptake. Three recent studies have suggested that another noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, may reduce smoking behaviors. Methods The present double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study was carried out over 21 days during which administration of 40 mg atomoxetine was compared to placebo in 17 individuals. Of these, nine were randomized to atomoxetine and eight to placebo. Baseline and weekly measurements were made using the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS, Cigarette Withdrawal Scale (CWS, Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU, reported number of cigarettes smoked, and salivary cotinine levels. Results The study results showed that all those on placebo completed the study. In marked contrast, of the nine individuals who started on atomoxetine, five dropped out due to side effects. In a completer analysis there were statistically significant differences at 14 and 21 days in several measures between the atomoxetine and placebo groups, including CDS, CWS, QSU, number of cigarettes smoked (decreasing to less than two per day in the treatment group who completed the study, and a trend towards lower mean salivary cotinine levels. However, these differences were not seen in a last observation carried forward (LOCF analysis. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to examine the use of atomoxetine in non-psychiatric adult smokers for a period of more than 7 days, and the findings suggest that atomoxetine might be a useful treatment for nicotine addiction. However, the dose used in the current study was too high to be tolerated by many adults, and a dose-finding study is required to determine the most appropriate dose for future studies of this potential treatment for smoking cessation.

  1. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Obesidad y adiposidad central en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000 and to Mexican-Americans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000 and 2005-2006. RESULTS: A total of 33023 adults > 20 years old were included; 39.7% were found to be overweight and 29.9% were found to be obese; 75.9% of all adults had abdominal obesity. In Mexico between 2000 and 2006, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults increased approximately 12%. Mexican-Americans showed a higher prevalence of morbid obesity compared to native Mexicans. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has experienced a rapid increase in the number of adults who have experienced excess weight gain between the years 2000 and 2006.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso, obesidad y adiposidad central en México, y explorar las tendencias, comparándola con la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 (ENSA 2000 y con los mexicano-americanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 fue usada para describir la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, asi como de adiposidad central. Las tendencias a través del tiempo fueron obtenidas usando la ENSA 2000, y se compararon con datos de la ENSANUT 2006 y con mexicano-americanos participantes de las National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000 y 2005-2006 de EUA. RESULTADOS: De un total de 33023 adultos > 20 años de edad, 39.7% tuvo sobrepeso y 29.9% obesidad. El 75.9% tuvo obesidad abdominal. En México, entre 2000 y 2006 la prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y

  2. Differences in Subjective Experiences to First Use of Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes in a National Sample of Young Adult Cigarette Smokers.

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    D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-08-17

    Menthol has been hypothesized to ease the harshness of cigarette smoke. Thus, sensory experiences at first cigarette use may be one mechanism by which menthol facilitates progression to regular smoking. This study examined differences in subjective experiences to first use of a menthol vs. non-menthol cigarette among new young adult smokers. Data were drawn from Waves 5-8 of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, a national sample of 18-34 year olds assessed every six months. Analyses included a subset of young adult current smokers (n=251) who initiated smoking in the past six months. Subjective responses to first cigarette use were assessed across menthol and non-menthol initiators in bivariate analyses and adjusted models controlling for smoking correlates. Fifty-two percent of new young adult smokers used a menthol cigarette at first use. First use of a menthol cigarette was higher in those aged 18-24 (vs. 25-34). Most Black smokers (93.1%) were menthol initiators compared to 43.9% of White smokers. More than half of menthol and non-menthol initiates felt relaxed or calm, dizzy, lightheaded, liking the taste and a rush or buzz at first use. Menthol initiators were less likely in bivariate and multivariable analyses to experience feeling nauseated at first use (AOR=0.45; p=.020) compared to non-menthol initiators. While few differences were found between menthol and non-menthol initiators in their subjective experiences, fewer menthol initiates felt nauseated at first cigarette use. Future research needs to identify additional mechanisms linking menthol initiation to smoking progression. Menthol initiators were more likely to be younger (18-24 vs. 25-34) and Black (vs. White) compared to non-menthol initiators. Our finding that menthol initiators were less likely to feel nauseated at first cigarette use compared to non-menthol initiators, suggests that menthol may reduce aversion to early cigarette use among young smokers and thus has the potential to

  3. Effectiveness of a Web-based multiple tailored smoking cessation program: a randomized controlled trial among Dutch adult smokers.

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    Smit, Eline Suzanne; de Vries, Hein; Hoving, Ciska

    2012-06-11

    Distributing a multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention through the Internet has several advantages for both provider and receiver. Most important, a large audience of smokers can be reached while a highly individualized and personal form of feedback can be maintained. However, such a smoking cessation program has yet to be developed and implemented in The Netherlands. To investigate the effects of a Web-based multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation program on smoking cessation outcomes in a sample of Dutch adult smokers. Smokers were recruited from December 2009 to June 2010 by advertising our study in the mass media and on the Internet. Those interested and motivated to quit smoking within 6 months (N = 1123) were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 552) or control group (n = 571). Respondents in the experimental group received the fully automated Web-based smoking cessation program, while respondents in the control group received no intervention. After 6 weeks and after 6 months, we assessed the effect of the intervention on self-reported 24-hour point prevalence abstinence, 7-day point prevalence abstinence, and prolonged abstinence using logistic regression analyses. Of the 1123 respondents, 449 (40.0%) completed the 6-week follow-up questionnaire and 291 (25.9%) completed the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. We used a negative scenario to replace missing values. That is, we considered respondents lost to follow-up to still be smoking. The computer-tailored program appeared to have significantly increased 24-hour point prevalence abstinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-2.65), 7-day point prevalence abstinence (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.44-3.27), and prolonged abstinence (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.28-3.09) rates reported after 6 weeks. After 6 months, however, no intervention effects could be identified. Results from complete-case analyses were similar. The results presented suggest that the Web-based computer

  4. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and frailty: A population-based, cross-sectional study of Mexican older adults.

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    Castrejón-Pérez, Roberto Carlos; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cesari, Matteo; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-06-01

    Chronic diseases are frequent in older adults, particularly hypertension and diabetes. The relationship between frailty and these two conditions is still unclear. The aim of the present analyses was to explore the association between frailty with diabetes and hypertension in Mexican older adults. Analyses of the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional survey, are presented. Data on diabetes and hypertension were acquired along with associated conditions (time since diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, among others). A 36-item frailty index was constructed and rescaled to z-values (individual scores minus population mean divided by one standard deviation). Multiple linear regression models were carried out, adjusted for age and sex. From 7164 older adults, 54.8% were women, and their mean age was 70.6 years with a mean frailty index score of 0.175. The prevalence of diabetes was of 22.2%, and 37.3% for hypertension. An independent association between diabetes, hypertension or both conditions (coefficients 0.28, 0.4 and 0.63, respectively, P diabetic complication was significantly associated with frailty with a coefficient of 0.55 (95% CI 0.45-0.65, P Diabetes and hypertension are associated with frailty. In addition, an incremental association was found when both conditions were present or with worse associated features (any complication, more time since diagnosis). Frailty should be of particular concern in populations with a high prevalence of these conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 925-930. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Qualitative description of dental hygiene practices within oral health and dental care perspectives of Mexican-American adults and teenagers.

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    Maupome, Gerardo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette; Westerhold, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dental hygiene themes voiced by adults and teenagers of Mexican origin [or Mexican Americans (MAs)] and place these themes within the larger landscape of oral health and dental care perceptions. Interviews with urban-based MAs were analyzed to identify barriers, beliefs, and behaviors influencing engagement in dental hygiene practices. Adult (n = 16, ages 33-52) and teenage (n = 17, ages 14-19) MAs reported themes pertaining to structural factors (financial and economic-related barriers, the dual challenges of reduced access to care vis-à-vis successfully navigating the dental care system, and the effects of reduced social support derived from migration) and to individual factors (different agendas between MAs and health systems for dental care utilization and indications for oral self-care, including limited dental hygiene instruction from professionals and larger impacts from school-based and mass media). Also, prior experiences with dental hygiene, prevention, and associated themes were characterized by a range of attitudes from fatalistic to highly determined agency. Good family upbringing was instrumental for appropriate dental hygiene, anteceding good oral health; and outlining a loose structure of factors affecting oral health such as diet, having "weak" teeth, or personal habits. Themes from adults and teenagers in the Midwest United States were generally similar to other groups of MA parents and younger children. Dental hygiene was not salient relative to other oral health and dental care matters. Several opportunities for improvement of knowledge and enhancing motivation for dental hygiene practices were identified, both within and outside professional resources. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Levels and correlates of awareness of tobacco promotional activities among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA) Survey.

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    Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Hammond, D; Sirirassamee, B; Ritthiphakdee, B; Awang, R; Omar, M; Kin, F; Zain, Z bt M; Lee, W B; Siahpush, M; Fong, G T

    2008-02-01

    To examine the impact of tobacco advertising policy on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco promotion in two developing countries--Malaysia and Thailand. Data from 2004 Malaysian and 2000 Thai adult smokers who participated in the baseline wave of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked in a face-to-face interview conducted between January and March 2005 to indicate their levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities in the last six months. Unprompted awareness of any tobacco marketing activities was very low in Thailand (20%) but significantly higher in Malaysia (53%; OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 3.5 to 8.9, ptobacco advertising where it was banned, being highest around point of sale, particularly street vendors (7.5%). In contrast, Malaysian adult smokers reported significantly higher levels of awareness of tobacco advertising in all locations (range = 17.7% noticing in disco lounges to 59.3% on posters) including where they are notionally banned (for example, billboards). These findings demonstrate that comprehensive tobacco advertising legislation when well implemented can lead to dramatic decline in awareness of tobacco promotion, thus supporting strong implementation of Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  7. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  9. Australian adult smokers' responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April-September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October-November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012-November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Impact of Australia's introduction of tobacco plain packs on adult smokers' pack-related perceptions and responses: results from a continuous tracking survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Dobbins, Timothy; Young, Jane M; Perez, Donna; Currow, David C

    2014-12-18

    To investigate the impact of Australia's plain tobacco packaging policy on two stated purposes of the legislation--increasing the impact of health warnings and decreasing the promotional appeal of packaging--among adult smokers. Serial cross-sectional study with weekly telephone surveys (April 2006-May 2013). Interrupted time-series analyses using ARIMA modelling and linear regression models were used to investigate intervention effects. 15,745 adult smokers (aged 18 years and above) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random selection of participants involved recruiting households using random digit dialling and selecting the nth oldest smoker for interview. The introduction of the legislation on 1 October 2012. Salience of tobacco pack health warnings, cognitive and emotional responses to warnings, avoidance of warnings, perceptions regarding one's cigarette pack. Adjusting for background trends, seasonality, antismoking advertising activity and cigarette costliness, results from ARIMA modelling showed that, 2-3 months after the introduction of the new packs, there was a significant increase in the absolute proportion of smokers having strong cognitive (9.8% increase, p=0.005), emotional (8.6% increase, p=0.01) and avoidant (9.8% increase, p=0.0005) responses to on-pack health warnings. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smokers strongly disagreeing that the look of their cigarette pack is attractive (57.5% increase, p<0.0001), says something good about them (54.5% increase, p<0.0001), influences the brand they buy (40.6% increase, p<0.0001), makes their pack stand out (55.6% increase, p<0.0001), is fashionable (44.7% increase, p<0.0001) and matches their style (48.1% increase, p<0.0001). Changes in these outcomes were maintained 6 months postintervention. The introductory effects of the plain packaging legislation among adult smokers are consistent with the specific objectives of the legislation in regard to reducing

  11. Cigarettes with different nicotine levels affect sensory perception and levels of biomarkers of exposure in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Diana L; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Oldham, Michael J; Fisher, Michael T; Wang, Jingzhu; Gogova, Maria; Kobal, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Few clinical studies involving cigarettes have provided a comprehensive picture of smoke exposure, test article characterization, and insights into sensory properties combined. The purpose of these pilot studies was to determine whether cigarettes with different levels of nicotine but similar tar levels would affect sensory experience or smoking behavior so as to significantly alter levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOE). In 2 confined, double-blind studies, 120 adult smokers switched from Marlboro Gold cigarettes at baseline to either 1 of 2 lower nicotine cigarettes or 1 of 2 higher nicotine cigarettes and then to the other cigarette after 5 days. Urinary excretion of exposure biomarkers (nicotine equivalents [NE], total and free 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL], 1-hydroxypyrene, and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid) as well as carboxyhemoglobin and plasma cotinine were measured at baseline, Day 5, and Day 10. Daily cigarette consumption was monitored and sensory characteristics were rated for each cigarette. With higher nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine increased while nonnicotine BOE decreased without changes in cigarette consumption. In contrast, with lower nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine dropped while nonnicotine BOE and cigarettes per day increased. Higher nicotine cigarettes were rated harsher and stronger than at baseline while lower nicotine cigarettes were less strong. All 4 test cigarettes were highly disliked. These studies demonstrate that abrupt increases or decreases in nicotine and the resulting sensory changes impact BOE through changes in intensity or frequency of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Behavioral and neural markers of cigarette-craving regulation in young-adult smokers during abstinence and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Faulkner, Paul; M Cox, Chelsea; London, Edythe D

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette craving contributes substantially to the maintenance of tobacco use disorder. Behavioral strategies to regulate craving may facilitate smoking cessation but remain underexplored. We adapted an emotion-regulation strategy, using proximal/distal self-positioning, to the context of cigarette craving to examine craving regulation in 42, daily smokers (18-25 years old). After overnight abstinence from smoking, before and after smoking their first cigarette of the day, participants viewed videos of natural scenes presenting young adults who were either smoking cigarettes ("smoke") or not ("non-smoke"). Before each video, participants were instructed to imagine themselves either immersed in the scene ("close") or distanced from it ("far"). They rated their craving after each video. Task-based fMRI data are presented for a subsample of participants (N = 21). We found main effects of smoking, instruction, and video type on craving-lower ratings after smoking than before, following the "far" vs. "close" instructions, and when viewing non-smoke vs. smoke videos. Before smoking, "smoke" vs. "non-smoke" videos elicited activation in, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, mid-occipital cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, and midbrain. Smoking reduced activation in anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal poles. Activation was reduced in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex after the "far" vs. the "close" instruction, suggesting less engagement with the stimuli during distancing. The results indicate that proximal/distal regulation strategies impact cue-elicited craving, potentially via downregulation of the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, and that smoking during abstinence may increase cognitive control capacity during craving regulation.

  13. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an

  14. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  15. [Myasthenia gravis in adults of institutions pertaining to the Mexican public health system: an analysis of hospital discharges during 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa-Tort, Paulina; Chiquete, Erwin; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Vega-Boada, Felipe; Reyes-Melo, Isael; Flores-Silva, Fernando; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; García-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel; Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Cantú-Brito, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on myasthenia gravis (MG) in Mexico is mainly derived from experiences in referral centers. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of hospital discharges during 2010 with the diagnosis of MG in adults hospitalized in the Mexican public health system. We consulted the database of hospital discharges during 2010 of the National Health Information System (Ministry of Health, IMSS, IMSS oportunidades, ISSSTE, PEMEX, and the Ministry of Defense). The MG records were identified by the code G70.0 of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision. During 2010 there were 5,314,132 hospital discharges (4,254,312 adults). Among them, 587 (0.01%) were adults with MG (median age: 47 years, 60% women). Women with MG were significantly younger than men (median age: 37 vs. 54 years, respectively; p < 0.001). The median hospital stay was six days. The case fatality rate was 3.4%, without gender differences. Age was associated with the probability of death. We confirmed the bimodal age-gender distribution in MG. The in-hospital case fatality rate in Mexico is consistent with recent reports around the world.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in older adults and its associated factors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vega, María Fernanda; García-Peña, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was common in older adults from a country with adequate sun exposure. The variables associated with this deficiency provide insight into the next steps needed to characterize older adults with this deficiency and to treat it accordingly. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency among Mexican older adults. This was a secondary analysis of the last wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Vitamin D levels along with other biomarkers were obtained from a sub-sample of Mexican adults older than 60 years. Prevalence was described by sex and age group, and a multivariate analysis was performed to test the factors associated with this condition. Data from 1088 adults over the age of 60 years were analyzed. The mean serum vitamin D level was 23.1 ± 8.1 ng/mL and was significantly higher among men than women (25.6 ± 0.6 and 22.8 ± 0.5 ng/mL, respectively; p vitamin D deficiency, 65% of whom were women. Low 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels were associated with female sex (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.59-2.42), current smoking (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.39), education (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.06-1.13), physical activity (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.31-2.23), and high levels of glycated hemoglobin (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.25). Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in Mexican older adults and was associated with a number of factors, indicating the multifactorial causality of this deficiency.

  17. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  19. Emotional dysfunction associated with diabetes in Mexican adolescents and young adults with type-1 diabetes

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    Lerman-Garber Israel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the emotional dysfunction associated with diabetes in Mexican young individuals with type-1 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to perform a complete clinical and psychosocial evaluation of 93 consecutive type-1 diabetes patients, aged 14 to 30 years. RESULTS: Adolescents had higher scores of emotional dysfunction related to diabetes and a diminished knowledge in diabetes-related areas. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that an inadequate emotional response to diabetes (high problem areas in diabetes or PAID scores was mainly associated with a poor glycemic control (OR=2.9, 95% CI 0.9-9.7, p=0.09. Apprehension about the future and the possibility of serious complications had the highest mean PAID score in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: New strategies should be developed to improve the routine care and support of young individuals with type-1 diabetes.

  20. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes, 30-day use, and disease symptoms among current adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.

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    Tingting Yao

    Full Text Available To examine the relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and disease symptoms compared with the relationship between 30-day e-cigarette use and disease symptoms among adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.We analyzed data from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey which included 533 respondents aged 24+ who were current cigarette smokers and e-cigarette ever users. Fifteen self-reported disease symptoms were included as outcome variables. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for each disease symptom with total spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days and with reported 30-day e-cigarette use. All models controlled for cigarettes smoked per day (CPD and sociodemographic characteristics.We found that those who spent more on e-cigarettes were more likely to report chest pain (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52, to notice blood when brushing their teeth (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49, to have sores or ulcers in their mouth (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.72, and to have more than one cold (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.78 than those with no spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days in an adjusted analysis. After controlling for CPD and other covariates, there were no significant relationships between 30-day e-cigarette use and symptoms. Even after controlling for CPD, e-cigarette expenditures or use was associated with greater odds of wheezing and shortness of breath.E-cigarette expenditures might be a more useful measure of intensity of e-cigarette use. The additional health effect of e-cigarette use or expenditures among smokers independent of the effect of CPD suggests that e-cigarette use adds adverse health effects even among cigarette smokers.

  2. Relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes, 30-day use, and disease symptoms among current adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Glantz, Stanton A; Goldberg, Rachel L; Wang, Julie B; Wang, Yingning; Lightwood, James; Cataldo, Janine

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and disease symptoms compared with the relationship between 30-day e-cigarette use and disease symptoms among adult cigarette smokers in the U.S. We analyzed data from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey which included 533 respondents aged 24+ who were current cigarette smokers and e-cigarette ever users. Fifteen self-reported disease symptoms were included as outcome variables. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for each disease symptom with total spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days and with reported 30-day e-cigarette use. All models controlled for cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and sociodemographic characteristics. We found that those who spent more on e-cigarettes were more likely to report chest pain (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52), to notice blood when brushing their teeth (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49), to have sores or ulcers in their mouth (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.72), and to have more than one cold (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.78) than those with no spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days in an adjusted analysis. After controlling for CPD and other covariates, there were no significant relationships between 30-day e-cigarette use and symptoms. Even after controlling for CPD, e-cigarette expenditures or use was associated with greater odds of wheezing and shortness of breath. E-cigarette expenditures might be a more useful measure of intensity of e-cigarette use. The additional health effect of e-cigarette use or expenditures among smokers independent of the effect of CPD suggests that e-cigarette use adds adverse health effects even among cigarette smokers.

  3. Sibling relationship quality and Mexican-origin adolescents' and young adults' familism values and adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: Positive, Negative and Affect-Intense. Links between profiles and youths’ familism values and adjustment were assessed using longitudinal data. Siblings in the Positive profile reported the highest familism values, followed by siblings in the Affect-Intense profile and, finally, siblings in the Negative profile. Older siblings in the Positive and Affect-Intense profiles reported fewer depressive symptoms than siblings in the Negative profile. Further, in the Positive and Negative profiles, older siblings reported less involvement in risky behaviors than younger siblings. In the Negative profile, younger siblings reported greater sexual risk behaviors in late adolescence than older siblings; siblings in opposite-sex dyads, as compared to same-sex dyads, engaged in riskier sexual behaviors. Our findings highlight sibling relationship quality as promotive and risky, depending on sibling characteristics and adjustment outcomes. PMID:28239217

  4. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Young adult daily smokers (age 18-35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers' ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  6. Optimal cutoff points for the detection of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída

    2012-01-01

    To compare the waist circumference cutoff points established by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) with those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for the screening of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults. This study comprised a subsample of the ENSANUT 2006. Subjects without diabetes and hypertension and non-pregnant women were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were compared using AUC and the positive likelihood ratio test [LR(+)]. In subjects aged ≥40 years, sensitivity for detection of diabetes and hypertension was higher for the IDF thresholds (85.34 and 86.87%, respectively) compared with those of the AHA/NHLBI (59.49 and 52.41%, respectively). LR(+) were higher for IDF thresholds compared with AHA/NHLBI. Similar results in subjects aged ≥65 years were observed. The measurement of abdominal obesity defined by the IDF was a better screening tool for diabetes and hypertension, considering that initially a high sensitivity and low cost tool at population level is required.

  7. Self-rated health, multimorbidity and depression in Mexican older adults: Proposal and evaluation of a simple conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Vázquez, Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Astudillo-Garcia, Claudia Iveth

    2017-04-01

    Self-rated health is an individual and subjective conceptualization involving the intersection of biological, social and psychological factors. It provides an invaluable and unique evaluation of a person's general health status. To propose and evaluate a simple conceptual model to understand self-rated health and its relationship to multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms in Mexican older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a national representative sample of 8,874 adults of 60 years of age and older. Self-perception of a positive health status was determined according to a Likert-type scale based on the question: "What do you think is your current health status?" Intermediate variables included multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms, as well as dichotomous exogenous variables (sex, having a partner, participation in decision-making and poverty). The proposed conceptual model was validated using a general structural equation model with a logit link function for positive self-rated health. A direct association was found between multimorbidity and positive self-rated health (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.55), disability and positive self-rated health (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.30-0.40), depressive symptoms and positive self-rated health (OR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.43). The model also validated indirect associations between disability and depressive symptoms (OR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01- 2.52), multimorbidity and depressive symptoms (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.61-2.00) and multimorbidity and disability (OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.78-2.20). A parsimonious theoretical model was empirically evaluated, which enabled identifying direct and indirect associations with positive self-rated health.

  8. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  9. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

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    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  12. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional

  13. Receipt of evidence-based brief cessation interventions by health professionals and use of cessation assisted treatments among current adult cigarette-only smokers: National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010

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    Judy Kruger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helping tobacco smokers to quit during a medical visit is a clinical and public health priority. Research suggests that most health professionals engage their patients in at least some of the ‘5 A’s’ of the brief cessation intervention recommended in the U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline, but information on the extent to which patients act on this intervention is uncertain. We assessed current cigarette-only smokers’ self-reported receipt of the 5 A’s to determine the odds of using optimal cessation assisted treatments (a combination of counseling and medication. Methods Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS, a nationally representative landline and mobile phone survey of adults aged ≥18 years. Among current cigarette-only smokers who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, we assessed patients’ self-reported receipt of the 5 A’s, use of the combination of counseling and medication for smoking cessation, and use of other cessation treatments. We used logistic regression to examine whether receipt of the 5 A’s during a recent clinic visit was associated with use of cessation treatments (counseling, medication, or a combination of counseling and medication among current cigarette-only smokers. Results In this large sample (N = 10,801 of current cigarette-only smokers who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, 6.3 % reported use of both counseling and medication for smoking cessation within the past year. Other assisted cessation treatments used to quit were: medication (19.6 %; class or program (3.8 %; one-on-one counseling (3.7 %; and telephone quitline (2.6 %. Current cigarette-only smokers who reported receiving all 5 A’s during a recent clinic visit were more likely to use counseling (odds ratio [OR]: 11.2, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 7.1–17.5, medication (OR: 6.2, 95 % CI: 4.3–9.0, or a combination of

  14. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Obesidad y adiposidad central en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Barquera; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Lucía Hernández-Barrera; Mario Flores; Ramón Durazo-Arvizu; Rebecca Kanter; Juan A Rivera

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the...

  15. Food Sources of Sodium Intake in an Adult Mexican Population: A Sub-Analysis of the SALMEX Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola Vanessa; Tovar-Villegas, Verónica Ivette; Arcand, JoAnne; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. PMID:28749449

  16. Nutritional status and nosocomial infections among adult elective surgery patients in a Mexican tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Rodríguez-García

    Full Text Available Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI. According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS distribution in the hospital setting.The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI.We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82 adult ES patients (21-59 years old who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test, and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios.The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%, normal-weight (28.05%, overweight (35.36%, and obese (32.93%. The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001 for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs.

  17. [Biodiversity and depressive symptoms in Mexican adults: Exploration of beneficial environmental effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Tagles, Héctor; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Búrquez, Alberto; Corral-Verdugo, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent illness among adults, and it is the second most frequently reported mental disorder in urban settings in México. Exposure to natural environments and its components may improve the mental health of the population. To evaluate the association between biodiversity indicators and the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the adult population (20 to 65 years of age) in México. Information from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and the Compendio de Estadísticas Ambientales 2008 was analyzed. A biodiversity index was constructed based on the species richness and ecoregions in each state. A multilevel logistic regression model was built with random intercepts and a multiple logistic regression was generated with clustering by state. The factors associated with depressive symptoms were being female, self-perceived as indigenous, lower education level, not living with a partner, lack of steady paid work, having a chronic illness and drinking alcohol. The biodiversity index was found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms when defined as a continuous variable, and the results from the regression were grouped by state (OR=0.71; 95% CI = 0.59-0.87). Although the design was cross-sectional, this study adds to the evidence of the potential benefits to mental health from contact with nature and its components.

  18. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  19. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-04-22

    Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' 'lived experience' of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be disseminated to the scientific and lay community through presentations

  20. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

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    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  1. Household food insecurity, diabetes and hypertension among Mexican adults: results from Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity (HFI) with diabetes and hypertension in a nationally representative cross-sectional sample from Mexico. We assessed the association between HFI and self-reported doctor diagnosed diabetes and hypertension among 32 320 adult individuals using multiple logistic regression. HFI was measured using an adapted version for Mexico of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). HFI was a risk factor for diabetes among women but not men and for hypertension among both genders. Diabetes odds were higher by 31, 67 and 48%, among women living in mild, moderate, and severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households, respectively. Living in moderate to severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households was associated with hypertension odds that were 28 and 32% higher, respectively. Decreasing HFI may help improve public health and national development in Mexico.

  2. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  3. The Recruitment Experience of a Randomized Clinical Trial to Aid Young Adult Smokers to Stop Smoking without Weight Gain with Interactive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coday, Mace; Richey, Phyllis; Thomas, Fridtjof; Tran, Quynh T; Terrell, Sarah B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miro, Danielle; Caufield, Margaret; Johnson, Karen C

    2016-04-15

    Multiple recruitment strategies are often needed to recruit an adequate number of participants, especially hard to reach groups. Technology-based recruitment methods hold promise as a more robust form of reaching and enrolling historically hard to reach young adults. The TARGIT study is a randomized two-arm clinical trial in young adults using interactive technology testing an efficacious proactive telephone Quitline versus the Quitline plus a behavioral weight management intervention focusing on smoking cessation and weight change. All randomized participants in the TARGIT study were required to be a young adult smoker (18-35 years), who reported smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day, had a BMI technology-based strategies using standard descriptive statistics based on counts and proportions to describe the recruitment process from initial pre-screening (PS) to randomization into TARGIT. Participants at PS were majority Black (59.80%), female (52.66%), normal or over weight (combined 62.42%), 29.5 years old, and smoked 18.4 cigarettes per day. There were differences in men and women with respect to reasons for ineligibility during PS (p < 0.001; ignoring gender specific pregnancy-related ineligibility). TARGIT experienced a disproportionate loss of minorities during recruitment as well as a prolonged recruitment period due to either study ineligibility or not completing screening activities. Recruitment into longer term behavioral change intervention trials can be challenging and multiple methods are often required to recruit hard to reach groups.

  4. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  5. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  6. Validity of the IPAQ among Mexican adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuris Yohana Caravali-Meza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate the short and long version of the IPAQ in adults with diabetes in Tijuana. Methods: Direct interview of the short version (IPAQ-S and long (IPAQ-L version was applied twice over a period of five days. The participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer (AA model GT1M during seven days. Data from accelerometer was processed using Actilife v4.4.1 and Meterplus v4.0 software. The test-retest reliability and the validity of the questionnaires were assessed using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: 31 subjects with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. The mean age was 51.5 years old and BMI was 30.8 Kg/m2. The tes-retest results for the IPAQ-S were for vigorous PA 0.89(p=0.0001, for light PA 0.74(p=0.001, for the IPAQ-L were for vigorous PA 0.74 (p=0.0001, for light PA 0.70 (p=0.01, for moderate PA was 0.69 (p=0.02. The correlation coefficients between AA counts/min/d with moderate PA from IPAQ-S and IPAQ-L were 0.37 (p=0.04 and 0.39 (p=0.03 respectively. Conclusions: Although it was shown a good reproducibility there was modest significant correlations between the direct measures of PA and the questionnaires for moderate and light PA.

  7. Effects of health-oriented descriptors on combustible cigarette and electronic cigarette packaging: an experiment among adult smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Yie, Kyeungyeun

    2017-10-05

    Certain tobacco companies use health-oriented descriptors (eg, 100% organic) on product packaging and advertising of combustible cigarettes or electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) that create a 'health halo' around smoking and vaping. Previous observational research suggests that such language may be associated with more favourable attitudes and reduced risk perceptions toward these brands compared with others. This study aimed to determine the effects of health-oriented descriptors on smokers' attitude toward the brand, perception of packaging information, comparative harm versus other brands and intention to purchase either combustible cigarettes or e-cigarettes. US adult smokers were randomly assigned to view either a health-oriented language package ('100% organic,' 'all natural' or 'no additives'), traditional marketing language package ('fine quality,' 'premium blend' or '100% original') or a no-language package of a combustible cigarette brand (Study 1, n=405) or an e-cigarette brand (Study 2, n=396) in an experimental design. Study 1: Participants in the health-oriented condition reported more favourable perceptions toward the package information, lower comparative harm and higher intention to purchase combustible cigarettes versus the no language control. In addition, participants in the health-oriented condition reported more positive attitude toward the brand and lower comparative harm versus the traditional marketing condition. Study 2: Compared with the traditional marketing condition, participants in the health-oriented condition reported greater intention to purchase Absolute e-cigarettes. There were no significant differences in attitude toward the brand, perception of packaging information and comparative harm versus other brands across conditions. The effect of health-oriented language was significant for combustible cigarettesand e-cigarette packages. Policies to restrict health-oriented language on cigarette and e-cigarette packaging are

  8. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004 and after (2012 legislation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues. In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05 and after the second law (2011-12. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012 of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles and salivary cotinine concentration. RESULTS: Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8 in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0 in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05 in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11 at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001 during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001 in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  9. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  10. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  12. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  13. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  14. Associations between perceptions of e-cigarette advertising and interest in product trial amongst US adult smokers and non-smokers: results from an internet-based pilot survey

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Danielle M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O?Connor, Richard J.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Hyland, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have risen in popularity in the U.S. While recent studies have described the prevalence and demographics of e-cigarette users, few studies have evaluated the impact of advertising on perceptions and interest in trial. This pilot study was conducted to assess whether exposure to ads for e-cigarettes or a comparison product (snus), elicited differences in interest to try e-cigarettes between smokers and non-smokers. Methods A web-based survey was ...

  15. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  16. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  17. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  19. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  20. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  1. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Sussan; Fatima G. Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Joanna E. Cohen; Robert A. Wise; Michael J. Blaha; Janet T. Holbrook; Shyam Biswal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determi...

  2. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  3. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  4. "My First Thought was Croutons": Perceptions of Cigarettes and Cigarette Smoke Constituents Among Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Hall, Marissa G; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-07-01

    Understanding what people think about harmful and potentially harmful constituents in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has new urgency given legislation requiring US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to disclose constituent information. Our study sought to obtain qualitative information on what people think about these constituents and the language they use to talk about them. We conducted six focus groups in 2014 with 40 adults in North Carolina. Open-ended questions focused on cigarette and cigarette smoke constituents in general and on the 18 constituents on the FDA's abbreviated list. We coded the transcripts for emergent themes, and all four coders discussed themes until we reached consensus. Participants knew that cigarette smoke contains chemicals but did not know how many chemicals nor what those chemicals are, beyond tar and nicotine. Dangers of constituents mentioned included "chemicals," physical disease, and addiction. Participants incorrectly believed harmful constituents came primarily from tobacco companies' additives. For unfamiliar constituents, people tried to make associations based on similar-sounding words. Recognizable constituents that participants associated with health harms most discouraged them from wanting to smoke. Most participants wanted to know health harms associated with constituents and what else the chemicals were in. Participants showed enthusiasm for learning more information about constituents, and also showed substantial misunderstandings about the source of harmful constituents. Our findings contribute to the limited body of research on adults' knowledge and perceptions of cigarette smoke constituents and can aid the FDA as it plans to disclose constituent information to the public. Our study provides information about adults' understanding of cigarette smoke constituents and what adults would like to know about these constituents. This information can help communication campaigns describe cigarette smoke constituents in a

  5. Young adult non-smokers' exposure to real-world tobacco marketing: results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray

    2017-08-31

    The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults' exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.

  6. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  7. "Una persona derechita (staying right in the mind)": perceptions of Spanish-speaking Mexican American older adults in South Texas colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Sharf, Barbara F; St John, Julie A

    2009-06-01

    This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by promotoras (community health workers) from clusters of colonias in Hidalgo County to participate in focus group discussions conducted in Spanish. After participants completed a 19-item questionnaire (in Spanish), a bilingual and bicultural researcher from the community, trained as a moderator, conducted 4 focus groups using a semistructured interview guide, culturally modified with the assistance of promotoras. All discussions were audio recorded; audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in Spanish and then translated into English. Analyses were conducted in English. Almost 85% had less than a high school education and 100% reported a household income less than $20,000/year. Groups attached cultural meaning to aging well. The idea of "staying straight in the mind" resonated as a depiction of brain health. Participants also mentioned the types of activities they could do to stay "right in the mind." Particular attention must be focused on development of programs that provide satisfying culturally appropriate activities for older participants and the delivery of health messages that take into consideration culture and language.

  8. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  10. Asthma Is a Risk Factor for Respiratory Exacerbations Without Increased Rate of Lung Function Decline: Five-Year Follow-up in Adult Smokers From the COPDGene Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lystra P; Hardin, Megan E; Qiu, Weiliang; Lynch, David A; Strand, Matthew J; van Beek, Edwin J; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2018-02-01

    Previous investigations in adult smokers from the COPDGene Study have shown that early-life respiratory disease is associated with reduced lung function, COPD, and airway thickening. Using 5-year follow-up data, we assessed disease progression in subjects who had experienced early-life respiratory disease. We hypothesized that there are alternative pathways to reaching reduced FEV 1 and that subjects who had childhood pneumonia, childhood asthma, or asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) would have less lung function decline than subjects without these conditions. Subjects returning for 5-year follow-up were assessed. Childhood pneumonia was defined by self-reported pneumonia at < 16 years. Childhood asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a health professional at < 16 years. ACO was defined as subjects with COPD who self-reported asthma diagnosed by a health-professional at ≤ 40 years. Smokers with and those without these early-life respiratory diseases were compared on measures of disease progression. Follow-up data from 4,915 subjects were examined, including 407 subjects who had childhood pneumonia, 323 subjects who had childhood asthma, and 242 subjects with ACO. History of childhood asthma or ACO was associated with an increased exacerbation frequency (childhood asthma, P < .001; ACO, P = .006) and odds of severe exacerbations (childhood asthma, OR, 1.41; ACO, OR, 1.42). History of childhood pneumonia was associated with increased exacerbations in subjects with COPD (absolute difference [β], 0.17; P = .04). None of these early-life respiratory diseases were associated with an increased rate of lung function decline or progression on CT scans. Subjects who had early-life asthma are at increased risk of developing COPD and of having more active disease with more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations without an increased rate of lung function decline over a 5-year period. ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT00608764; https

  11. Modifications in the Consumption of Energy, Sugar, and Saturated Fat among the Mexican Adult Population: Simulation of the Effect When Replacing Processed Foods that Comply with a Front of Package Labeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mendoza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP, free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20–59 years old after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults. A food database from the INSP was used. Weighted medians and 25–75 inter-quartile ranges (IQR of energy and nutrient intake were calculated for all subjects by sociodemographic characteristics before and after replacing foods. Significant decreases were observed in energy (−5.4%, saturated fatty acids (−18.9%, trans-fatty acids (−20%, total sugar (−36.8% and sodium (−10.7% intake and a significant increase in fiber intake (+15.5% after replacing foods, using the MCNE nutrition criteria. Replacing commonly consumed processed foods in the diet with foods that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria set by the MCNE can lead to improvements in energy and nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population.

  12. Association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older: a multivariate analysis of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Kowolik, Michael J; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    The possible association between oral infection and chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied intensively. The present study is designed to determine the strength of association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older. Using the tools and sampling strategies of the World Health Survey of the World Health Organization, cross-sectional data were collected in Mexico in the National Performance Assessment Survey (probabilistic, multistage, and cluster sampling). Dental information was available for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico. Angina and edentulism are self-reported in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using binary logistic regression adjusting for complex samples. A total of 13,966 participants, representing a population of 29,853,607 individuals, were included. Of the complete study population, 3,052,263 (10.2%) were completely toothless, and 673,810 (2.3%) were diagnosed with angina pectoris. After adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, body mass index, and sex, the effect of edentulism on angina was modified by age (interaction), being more marked in the younger age group (odds ratio [OR] = exp(2.5597) =12.93) than in the older individuals surveyed (OR = exp(2.5597 + (-0.0334)) =12.51). Additionally, low physical activity (OR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.22) and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.90) were more likely to be associated with angina pectoris. Overall, the results of this study, conducted in a representative sample of Mexican adults, suggest that an association exists between edentulism and angina pectoris. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this association.

  13. Ansiedad y depresión en fumadores mexicanos y su relación con el grado de adicción Anxiety and depression in Mexican smokers, and their relationship with the severity of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryka del Carmen Urdapilleta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la asociación entre el grado de adicción (GA y patrón de consumo de tabaco (PCT con la ansiedad y depresión en fumadores que quieren dejar de fumar (FQDF. Material y métodos. En 495 sujetos que acudieron a un programa para dejar de fumar se determinó la ansiedad (inventario IDARE y depresión (cuestionario BECK, el GA (cuestionario de Fagerström y PCT (paquetes-año. Resultados. El GA>= a 6 puntos se asoció con niveles de ansiedad altos [RM=1.94, (IC95%1.02-3.72, p= a 21 paquetes año, se asoció con ansiedad rasgo media; [RM=3.19 (IC95%1.94-5.25, pObjective. To determine the relationship between the degree of addiction (DA and pattern of tobacco consumption (PTC with anxiety and depression in smokers who want to quit smoking. Material and Methods. At admission to a smoking cessation program 495 smokers were surveyed to determine anxiety (IDARE Test, depression (Beck Inventory Test, DA (Fagerström Test and PTC (pack-years. Results. DA>= 6 points was associated with high anxiety levels RM=1.94, (IC95%1.02-3.72, p<0.04]; and with symptoms of severe depression; [RM=2.24, (IC95%1.00-4.99, p<0.04]. The PCT equal or greater than 21 pack-year, was associated with moderate anxiety; [RM=3.19 (IC95%1.94-5.25, p<.00]; high anxiety; [RM=3.36 (IC95% 1.66-6-80, p<.00]; with moderate depressive symptoms; [RM=3.14, (IC95% 1.75-5-62, p<.00] and severe depressive symptoms; [RM=9.85, (IC95% 3.30-29.37, p<.00]. Conclusion. A significant association exists in smokers having high GA and PCT, with moderate and high anxiety and depressive symptoms that should be considered during interventions to quit.

  14. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

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    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  15. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J Mark; Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica

    2015-02-03

    We aimed to conduct culturally-based participatory research to assess cultural and belief contexts for smoking behaviours within Mandarin and Cantonese communities. Outcome variables were smoking-related knowledge, smoking patterns, attitudes and beliefs, and perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. A community-based approach was applied involving smokers, community key-informants and professionals in study design and implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted and findings were used to develop study instrument. Participants responded once to study questionnaire after informed consent. Community based in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada. 16 Chinese smokers participated in focus groups and subsequently, 167 current Chinese immigrant (137 males and 30 females) smokers from Mandarin and Cantonese communities, recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. We found that a majority believed smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (Cantonese smokers (pculturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programmes impacted on their ability to quit smoking. Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco beliefs and perceptions among Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as well. Study participants were generally aware of the health risks and were willing to quit. Access to appropriate cessation programmes would fulfil their willingness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  17. Adult smokers' reactions to pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs in Thailand and moderating effects of type of cigarette smoked: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers' reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers' reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking.

  18. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  19. Hábito alimentar, níveis de lipídios sangüíneos e o status antioxidante de adultos jovens fumantes e não fumantes Food habits, blood lipid levels and antioxidant status of young adults smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellencristina da Silva Batista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o hábito alimentar, os níveis dos lipídios sangüíneos e o status antioxidante de jovens fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal em que 68 indivíduos, de 18 a 26 anos, emparelhados por sexo e idade, foram divididos em dois grupos: fumantes (n=34 e não fumantes (n=34. Os voluntários selecionados em instituições de ensino, em Viçosa (MG foram questionados quanto a: hábito de fumar, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e atividade física; também foi estimada a dependência nicotínica. O hábito alimentar foi avaliado por questionário de freqüência de consumo. Quantificaram-se níveis séricos de lipídios, nível plasmático de malondialdeído, vitamina E e vitamina C. RESULTADOS: Os jovens começaram a fumar precocemente, independentemente do sexo. O hábito de fumar foi estratificado e encontrou-se 58,8% de fumantes leves e 41,2% de fumantes pesados. Os fumantes apresentaram hábitos alimentares inadequados e consumo freqüente de bebida alcoólica. De acordo com a recomendação do International Physical Activity Questionnaire 69% dos fumantes eram ativos e 27,6% eram muito ativos. Não se observou diferença significante na concentração sérica de lipídios entre fumantes e não fumantes. No grupo de fumantes mulheres, verificou-se correlação positiva entre o número de cigarros fumados por dia e os triglicerídeos séricos (r=0,824 e p=0,0001 e também entre o tempo que fumavam em anos e o nível de colesterol total (r=0,523 e p=0,031. Os fumantes apresentaram concentração inferior de vitaminas E e C (p=0,002 e p=OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the food habits, blood lipid levels and antioxidant status of young adult smokers and non smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study divided 68 individuals aged 18 to 26 years, matched for age and sex, into two groups: smokers (n=34 and non-smokers (n=34. The individuals, selected from schools in Viçosa (MG, were asked about

  20. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Version of the SARC-F to Assess Sarcopenia in Mexican Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Szlejf, Claudia; García-González, Ana Isabel; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F in Mexican community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 487 men and women older than 60 years, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Information from questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, nutritional status, dependence in activities of daily living, frailty, and quality of life. Objective measurements of muscle mass, strength and function were as follows: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was taken using dual-energy x-ray, grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, peak torque and power for knee extension using a isokinetic dynamometer, lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and balance using evaluation on a foam surface, with closed eyes, in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration. The SARC-F scale translated to Spanish and the consensus panels' criteria from European, international, and Asian sarcopenia working groups were applied to evaluate sarcopenia. The Spanish language version of the SARC-F scale showed reliability (Cronbach alfa = 0.641. All items in the scale correlated to the scale's total score, rho = 0.43 to 0.76), temporal consistency evaluated by test-retest (CCI = 0.80), criterion validity when compared to the consensus panels' criteria (high specificity and negative predictive values). The scale was also correlated to other measures related to sarcopenia (such as age, quality of life, self-rated health status, cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, nutritional status, depression, gait speed, grip strength, peak torque and power for knee extension, SPPB, balance, SMI, and frailty). The SARC-F scale was successfully adapted to

  2. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are

  3. Association of household and community characteristics with adult and child food insecurity among Mexican-origin households in colonias along the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2011-05-13

    Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and for those living in rural or

  4. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim

    2002-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

  5. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  6. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  7. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    The protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW) is a condition of malnutrition, inflammation, anorexia and wasting of body reserves resulting from inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).One way of assessing PEW, extensively described in the literature, is using the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS). To assess the reliability and consistency of MIS for diagnosis of PEW in Mexican adults with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Study of diagnostic tests. A sample of 45 adults with CKD on HD were analyzed during the period June-July 2014.The instrument was applied on 2 occasions; the test-retest reliability was calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC); the internal consistency of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's αcoefficient. A weighted Kappa test was used to estimate the validity of the instrument; the result was subsequently compared with the Bilbrey nutritional index (BNI). The reliability of the questionnaires, evaluated in the patient sample, was ICC=0.829.The agreement between MIS observations was considered adequate, k= 0.585 (p <0.001); when comparing it with BNI, a value of k = 0.114 was obtained (p <0.001).In order to estimate the tendency, a correlation test was performed. The r² correlation coefficient was 0.488 (P <0.001). MIS has adequate reliability and validity for diagnosing PEW in the population with chronic kidney disease on HD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

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    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  9. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

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    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  10. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use among a population-based sample of adult smokers: association with smoking cessation and motivation to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Hargraves, J Lee

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly popular electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be the most promising development yet to end cigarette smoking. However, there is sparse evidence that their use promotes cessation. We investigated whether e-cigarette use increases smoking cessation and/or has a deleterious effect on quitting smoking and motivation to quit. Representative samples of adults in 2 US metropolitan areas were surveyed in 2011/2012 about their use of novel tobacco products. In 2014, follow-up interviews were conducted with 695 of the 1,374 baseline cigarette smokers who had agreed to be re-contacted (retention rate: 51%). The follow-up interview assessed their smoking status and history of electronic cigarette usage. Respondents were categorized as intensive users (used e-cigarettes daily for at least 1 month), intermittent users (used regularly, but not daily for more than 1 month), and non-users/triers (used e-cigarettes at most once or twice). At follow-up, 23% were intensive users, 29% intermittent users, 18% had used once or twice, and 30% had not tried e-cigarettes. Logistic regression controlling for demographics and tobacco dependence indicated that intensive users of e-cigarettes were 6 times more likely than non-users/triers to report that they quit smoking (OR: 6.07, 95% CI = 1.11, 33.2). No such relationship was seen for intermittent users. There was a negative association between intermittent e-cigarette use and 1 of 2 indicators of motivation to quit at follow-up. Daily use of electronic cigarettes for at least 1 month is strongly associated with quitting smoking at follow-up. Further investigation of the underlying reasons for intensive versus intermittent use will help shed light on the mechanisms underlying the associations between e-cigarette use, motivation to quit, and smoking cessation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  11. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7%...

  12. [Demographic analysis of a congenital heart disease clinic of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, with special interest in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-González, Horacio; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli; Rivera-May, Jimena Lucely; López-Gallegos, Diana; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2017-11-07

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has an incidence of 8-10 cases per 1000 live births. In Mexico, there are 18,000-20,000 new cases per year. Most tertiary care centers for CHD attend only pediatric population; the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) has a clinic that attends pediatric and adult population. To analyze the demographic aspects of the CHD clinic of IMSS. From 2011 to 2016 a cross-sectional study of the CC clinic of a third level hospital of the IMSS, including all patients with confirmed structural heart disease of recent diagnosis was carried out. The sex, age, reference entity, antecedent of pregnancy and treatment were registered. The population was divided into age ranges (17.1 years). Descriptive statistics and χ 2 test were used in qualitative variables. 3,483 patients with CHD (male:female ratio, 0.8:1.2) were included. Increased pulmonary flow acyanogenic cardiopathies were the most frequent CHD group (47.2%), with atrial septal defect being the most frequent diagnosis overall; 25.6% were adults and 35% of women with a history of pregnancy. Chiapas was Federal entity with greater proportion of patients diagnosed in the adult stage (33.82%); 7% were not candidates for any treatment for complications of the disease. CHD is a late diagnosis; it is necessary to create a national register to promote new health policies and a rational distribution of resources for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of neighborhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviors among a cohort of smokers in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898

  14. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  15. Bioavailability of two single-dose oral formulations of omeprazole 20 mg: an open-label, randomized sequence, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Mexican adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Galán, Juan Francisco; Rosete, Alejandra; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; González-de la Parra, Mario; Jiménez, Patricia; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador

    2008-04-01

    Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that acts to reduce acid secretion in the stomach and is used for treating various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. There are several generic formulations of omeprazole available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole 20-mg capsules, marketed for use in Mexico, in healthy volunteers: Inhibitron (test formulation) and LosecA 20 mg (reference formulation). This study used a single-dose, open-label, randomized sequence, 2 x 2 crossover (2 administration periods x 2 treatments) design to compare the 2 formulations. Eligible subjects were healthy adult Mexican volunteers of both sexes. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 7-day washout period between administration periods. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of the corresponding formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 12-hour period after administration. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were analyzed by a nonstereospecific high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2, 2.50, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, and if P disability, or required intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled and completed the study (25 men and 9

  16. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Nondependent Smokers (Tobacco Chippers) in Comparison to Heavy Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carim-Todd, Laura; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Oken, Barry S

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco chippers are light smokers with stable patterns of smoking that exhibit lower nicotine dependence severity than heavy smokers. Chippers may provide valuable information about the factors influencing drug dependence. Impulsivity and stress are two factors known to influence smoking. By comparing nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers, n = 25) to dependent smokers (heavy smokers, n = 23) and nonsmokers (n = 25), this study examines the relationship between nicotine dependence, impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity. A total of 73 adult participants completed a study visit that included questionnaires to measure nicotine dependence, chronic stress, personality, affect, withdrawal, and craving. Impulsivity was measured with the delay discounting task and the flanker task. Stress reactivity was assessed by monitoring respiration, heart rate, and salivary cortisol during performance of a titrated Stroop task. Effects of acute stress on affect and craving were examined. Tobacco chippers were as impulsive as heavy smokers on the delay discounting task but no different from nonsmokers on the flanker task. Heavy smokers reported higher perceived stress than chippers and nonsmokers. Perceived stress was a significant predictor of discounting only in heavy smokers. Acute stress induced changes in respiration, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Craving and negative affect increased after stress in both smoking groups, but craving was associated with affect only in chippers. Tobacco chippers do not differ from heavy smokers in impulsivity, but do differ in perceived stress. One's perception and experience of stress might be associated to nicotine dependence resistance and could inform smoking cessation treatments. By examining impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity in nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers) compared to dependent smokers and nonsmokers, this study contributes to the understanding of nicotine addiction and informs smoking

  17. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-05

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit.

  18. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  19. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  20. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de Los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo Y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35-55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  1. The effect of a medical opinion on self-perceptions of weight for Mexican adults: perception of change and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Román Sicilia, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the relationship between perceived and actual Body Mass Index (BMI) and the effect of a prior identification of obesity by a medical professional for adults using difference in response for two distinct BMI self-perception questions. Typically, self-perception studies only investigate the relation with current weight, whereas here the focus is on the self-perception of weight differences. A statistical approach was used to assess responses to the Mexican ENSANUT 2006 survey. Adults in the range of BMI from 13 to 60 were tested on responses to a categorical question and a figure rating scale self-perception question. Differences in response by gender and identification of obesity by a medical professional were analysed using linear regression. Results indicated that regardless of current BMI and gender, a verbal intervention by a medical professional will increase perceived BMI independently of actual BMI but does not necessarily make the identified obese more accurate in their BMI estimates. A shift in the average self-perception was seen with a higher response for the identified obese. A linear increase in perceived BMI as a function of actual BMI was observed in the range BMI self-image, to be considerably less. It was seen that an identification of obesity by a health care professional did not improve ability to judge weight but, rather, served as a new anchor from which the identified obese judge their weight, suggesting that even those identified obese who have lost weight, perceive their weight to be greater than it actually is. We believe that these results can be explained in terms of two cognitive biases; the self-serving bias and the anchoring bias.

  2. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  3. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  4. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs....

  5. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  6. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  7. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  8. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  9. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Mauro E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg and height (Ht, cm were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms and reactance, Xc (ohms were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM. Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R + 0.1763 * (BW - 0.1773 * (Age + 0.1198 * (Xc - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg. The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg. Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample.

  10. Impact of cigarette price differences across the entire European Union on cross-border purchase of tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Blecher, Evan; Filippidis, Filippos T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Vozikis, Athanassios; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the impact of cigarette price differences across the European Union (EU) on cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers. Individual-level tobacco-related data (including cross-border tobacco purchasing behavior) were from the Special Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1), a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years from 27 EU Member States during 2012. Country-specific weighted average prices (WAP) per 1000 cigarettes (as of 1 July 2012) were obtained from the European Commission, and divided by 50 to yield WAP per cigarette pack. The dispersion in EU cigarette prices was measured with the coefficient of variation. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to measure the relationship between EU-wide cigarette price differential and cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers (n=6896). The coefficient of variation for cigarette WAP within the EU was 0.39 (mean price=€3.99/pack). Of all current cigarette smokers in the EU, 26.2% (27.5 million persons) engaged in a cross-border tobacco purchase within the past 12 months, of which 56.3% did so because of cheaper price in another country. EU-wide cigarette price differential was significantly associated with making a cross-border tobacco purchase because of cheaper price (adjusted OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47). Reducing differences in cigarette tax and price within the EU, coupled with a stricter limitation on the quantity of cigarettes that it is possible to carry from one Member State to another, may help reduce cross-border tax avoidance strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. [Experience, prevalence, severity, treatment needs for dental caries and care index in Mexican adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, José Obed; Mejia-Cruz, Jorge Adrián; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Orozco-De la Torre, Guillermo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Carlo; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Islas-Granillo, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    To determine the experience, prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as to establish the treatment needs and restorative care in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study included 638 subjects 16-25 years old candidates to enter to state public university of San Luis Potosí, México. For caries detection was used the DMFT index (sum of decayed teeth + missing teeth + filled teeth in the permanent dentition). With DMFT index data were calculated the experience, the prevalence and the severity of caries. Also are reported the significant caries index (SiC), the treatment needs index (TNI) and the care index (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests. The mean DMFT index was 4.24 ± 3.85, prevalence 76.5% and severity of 52.3% for DMFT > 3 and 26.2% for DMFT > 6. The SiC index was 8.7. The TNI was 43.0% and 52.8% CI. No variation was observed (p > 0.05) on the experience, prevalence and severity of caries by age. The component "filled teeth" showed differences by age (p caries experience and severity than men (p dental caries in this sample of adolescents and young adults. We found almost 40% of untreated caries lesions. We found some differences by sex.

  12. The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Explaining the Association Between Acculturation and Obesity Among Mexican-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Albrecht, Sandra S; Daviglus, Martha L; Kershaw, Kiarri N

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations of acculturation with various types of activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], moderate-vigorous work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity), and whether these activities mediated the acculturation-obesity association among Mexican-Americans. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Mexican-American NHANES participants aged ≥20 years (n = 1902). Demographic characteristics, physical activity, sedentary behavior, acculturation, and body mass index. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations of acculturation with categories of self-reported activity. Path analysis was used to test whether the activity measures mediated acculturation-obesity associations. In adjusted models, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans, foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest LTPA and sedentary activity categories, and more likely to be in the highest total and transportation activity categories. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for 10 years or more were significantly less likely to engage in high sedentary activity but more likely to engage in high transportation activity. Sedentary behavior was the strongest mediator of the acculturation-obesity association, accounting for 40.7% and 57.1% of the total effect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years and for 10 years or more, respectively, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans. Reducing sedentary behavior may lower the negative impact of acculturation on obesity.

  13. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  14. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  16. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  17. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  18. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  19. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  20. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, M.E.; Ballesteros, M.N.; Ortega, M.I.; Noriega Gonzalez, E.; Gallegos, A.C.; Calderon de la Barca, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  2. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, M E; Ballesteros, M N; Ortega, M I; Noriega Gonzalez, E; Gallegos, A C; Calderon de la Barca, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  3. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers Impacto diferencial de la legislación federal y local de espacios libres de humo de tabaco en México: un estudio longitudinal entre fumadores adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods. Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC Policy Evaluation Suvey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results. Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions. Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la legislación federal y del Distrito Federal (DF de espacios libres de humo de tabaco (ELHT sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco y el apoyo a las leyes. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos antes y después de la ley en una cohorte de fumadores adultos de cuatro ciudades mexicanas donde se aplicó la Encuesta Internacional para Evaluar las Políticas Públicas para el Control del Tabaco (Encuesta ITC. Para cada indicador, se estimó la prevalencia, cambios en la prevalencia y diferencias entre ciudades en las tasas de cambio. Resultados. La exposición autorreportada a las campañas sobre los ELHT incrementaron dramáticamente en el DF. El apoyo para prohibir fumar en lugares regulados aumentó en general, pero aumentó más en el DF. La exposici

  4. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  6. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W; D'Ruiz, Carl D

    2016-07-01

    Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs.

  7. The association of tobacco and other factors with recurrent aphthous stomatitis in an US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hidalgo, F; Shulman, J D; Beach, M M

    2004-11-01

    To determine point and annual prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Reported prevalence of RAS in textbooks and much of the literature varies according to study location, patient selection and whether point prevalence (presence of lesions at examination) or period prevalence (history of lesions during a specified period) is reported. Many studies are based on non-probability samples and this may contribute to significant variation in reported prevalence and factors presumed to be associated with RAS. We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, a large United States probability sample, for RAS and covariates suggested in the literature using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Oral mucosal examinations were performed on 17 235 adults 17 years and older. Of these, 146 (0.89%) had at least one clinically apparent aphthous lesion. For annual (reported) prevalence, Whites (20.87%) and Mexican-Americans (12.88%) had several fold higher prevalence of RAS than Blacks (4.96%). Adults younger than 40 years of age had almost twice the prevalence (22.54%) of those older than 40 years (13.42%). Annual prevalence was significantly higher in whites and Mexican-Americans (compared with blacks), individuals 17-39 years of age, cigarette non-smokers, and those with recurrent herpes labialis history; while it was lower in males. Point prevalence was significantly higher in whites, Mexican-American, individuals 17-39 years of age, cigarette non-smokers, and males.

  8. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  9. The meanings and context of smoking among Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Bentley, Mararet E

    2006-01-01

    We sought to describe the dominant social contexts and meanings of smoking among Mexican university students. Structured observations were made and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 43 university students who were at five levels of involvement with smoking (i.e., never smoker; ex-smoker; experimenter; regular smoker; frequent smoker). Content analysis of interview transcripts was used to distill the primary settings and themes that students associated with smoking. Outside their homes and away from the purview of their parents, the environments that students frequented were permissive of smoking, supporting their perceptions of smoking behavior, cigarettes, and the tobacco industry as normal and socially acceptable. Cigarette smoking was a highly social practice, with students practicing simultaneous smoking and cigarette sharing to underscore bonds with others. Moreover, the leisure times and places in which students smoked appeared to bolster their perceptions of cigarettes as offering them pleasurable relaxation and escape from boredom and conflictual social relations. All students believed that smoking was addictive and that second-hand smoke was dangerous to non-smokers. The short-term negative outcomes of smoking appeared more salient to students than either the longer-term health outcomes of smoking or the practices of the tobacco industry. The meanings and context of smoking were comparable to those found among youth in other parts of the world. Successful tobacco prevention messages and policies to prevent smoking in other youth populations may also succeed among Mexican youth.

  10. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  11. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  12. A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Yu, Qing; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2016-03-01

    African-Americans smoke fewer cigarettes per day than Whites but experience greater smoking attributable morbidity and mortality. African-American-White differences may also exist in cessation but rigorously designed studies have not been conducted to empirically answer this question. Quit2Live is, to our knowledge, the first head-to-head trial designed with the primary aim of examining African-American-White disparities in quitting smoking. Secondary aims are to identify mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relationship between race and quitting. The study is ongoing. Study aims are accomplished through a 5-year prospective cohort intervention study designed to recruit equal numbers of African-Americans (n=224) and Whites (n=224) stratified on age (White disparities in quitting smoking exist but, more importantly, will examine mechanisms underlying the difference. Attention to proximal, modifiable mechanisms (e.g., adherence, response to treatment, depression, stress) maximizes Quit2Live's potential to inform practice. Findings will provide an empirically-derived approach that will guide researchers and clinicians in identifying specific factors to address to improve cessation outcomes and reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in African-American and White smokers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01836276. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral higiene effectiveness in smoker and non smoker young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Feser, Gustavo; Funosas, Esteban; Marí, Gonzalo; Escovich, Livia

    2003-01-01

    Para este estudio se escogió una muestra probabilística de una población de adultos jóvenes cursantes de cuarto año de la carrera de odontología de la Facultad de Odontología de Rosario, Argentina. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la prevalencia de fumadores en este grupo poblacional y luego establecer el grado de eficacia en la higiene oral llevada a cabo por este grupo de estudiantes. En una primera etapa, para determinar la prevalencia de fumadores se tomaron 150 alumnos de cuarto año y me...

  14. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Constituents in a Population of Adult Cigarette Smokers in the U.S. Who Spontaneously Switched to Cigarettes with Lower or Higher Machine Measured ‘Tar’ Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Kah RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in exposure to cigarette smoke and smoking behavior were assessed in adult smokers participating in a multi-center, cross-sectional study who spontaneously switched to > 3 mg lower or higher machine measured ‘tar’ yield. Of 2,542 consenting smokers only 23 down-switchers (DWNSW and 68 up-switchers (UPSW met study eligibility criteria. Biomarkers of exposure (BOE to selected smoke constituents were measured. Large variability was observed in the BOEs (e.g. CV% for nicotine equivalents (nicotine and five of its metabolites, NE per day ranged from 59% to 78%. On average, DWNSW smoked two more cigarettes/day (+ 9% that had ~ 5.9 mg lower ‘tar’ yield. Mean NE/day were 12.0 ± 6.2 mg/day compared to 13.9 ± 8.2 mg/day after down switching. Slightly lower levels of NE/cigarette (-8%, total NNAL/day and per cigarette were observed (-18% and -23% in the DWNSW's. UPSW smoked two fewer cigarettes/day (-13% with higher ‘tar’ yield (~ 8.4 mg higher ‘tar’. NE/day was 12.5 ± 9.7 vs. 12.8 ± 9.0 mg/day. Total NNAL values per day and per cigarette were lower (-24% and -17%. Due to the large variability and insufficient power to detect significant differences in exposure based on post-hoc power calculations, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study. These results suggest that it might not be feasible to conduct a definitive assessment of changes in exposure among spontaneous switchers.

  15. Scale for assessing the quality of Mexican adults' mealtime habits Escala para evaluar la calidad de los hábitos al comer en adultos mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Dosamantes-Carrasco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To construct a scale for assessing the quality of mealtime habits in a sample of urban Mexican adults, computing the contribution of a set of advisable and unadvisable mealtime habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed an exploratory factor analysis among 7 472 adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study, to assess the mealtime habits quality. Likelihood ratio test for difference of two probabilities and test for the difference of two means were used to identify differences between low and high categories of the Mealtime Habits Quality Scale (MHQS across variables of interest. RESULTS: Participants with the top quality of mealtime habits showed lower rates of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated body fat. They were also more adherent to a prudent dietary pattern than a western dietary pattern, and consumed more fruits and vegetables. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric and dietary variables differed across MHQS categories. However, further validation of the scale, and assessment of their ability to predict weight gain or related diseases are needed, using prospective and intervention studies.OBJETIVO: Construir una escala para evaluar la calidad de los hábitos al comer, calculando la contribución de un grupo de hábitos recomendables y no recomendables, en población adulta urbana de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un análisis exploratorio de factores en 7 472 adultos participantes en el Estudio de Cohorte de Trabajadores de la Salud para evaluar la calidad de los hábitos al comer. Para identificar diferencias entre la baja y alta calidad de los hábitos al comer a través de las variables de interés, utilizamos la prueba de razón de probabilidades a fin de evaluar la diferencia entre dos proporciones y la prueba de comparación de medias. RESULTADOS: Los participantes clasificados en la categoría de alta calidad de los hábitos al comer presentaron prevalencias m

  16. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  17. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  18. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  19. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  1. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  5. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  6. Physical activity and overweight/obesity in adult Mexican population: the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Actividad física y sobrepeso/obesidad en población adulta mexicana: encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between physical activity and overweight/obesity in Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design. Adults 20 to 69 years of age were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity and the independent variable was recalled physical activity. Analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, residence area, region, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity, smoking, schooling, work activity, alcohol consumption and sitting time. RESULTS: Data from 15 901 adults were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight/obesity had an inverse association with physical activity among men but not among women. CCONCLUSIONS: The practice of physical activity was negatively associated with the prevalence of overweight/obesity only in adult men. These results underscore the importance of promoting physical activity to prevent and control overweight/obesity.OBJETIVO: Determinar la asociación entre la actividad física y el sobrepeso/obesidad en adultos mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño transversal. Se incluyeron 15901 adultos de entre 20 a 69 años de edad, de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. La variable dependiente fue sobrepeso/obesidad y la variable independiente fue la práctica de actividad física. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística ajustando por sexo, edad, área de residencia, región, nivel socioeconómico, indigenismo, tabaquismo, escolaridad, actividad laboral, consumo de alcohol y tiempo sentado. RESULTADOS: Se estudió a 15 901 adultos. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad tuvo una asociación inversa con la práctica de actividad física en hombres pero no en mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: La práctica de actividad física se asoció negativamente con la prevalencia del sobrepeso/obesidad únicamente en adultos hombres. Estos resultados subrayan la importancia de promover la

  7. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Hipertensión en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The primary data source came from adults (>20 years sampled (n=33366 in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >140 and/or diastolic was >90 or patients previously diagnosed. RESULTS: A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (pOBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial de adultos mexicanos y compararla con la observada en mexicanos residentes en Estados Unidos (EUA. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La principal fuente de información fue la muestra de adultos (>20 años que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 (n=33366. El diagnóstico de hipertensión se definió cuando la tensión arterial sistólica y/o diastólica fue >140/> 90 mmHg, o tenían diagnóstico médico previo. RESULTADOS: El 43.2% tuvo diagnóstico de hipertensión. Se encontró una asociación positiva (p<0.05 entre hipertensión e índice de masa corporal (IMC, obesidad abdominal, diagnóstico previo de diabetes e hipercolesterolemia. Los hipertensos tuvieron una razón de momios mayor de tener antecedente de diabetes o hipercolesterolemia. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue mayor en México, que entre mexicanos residentes en EU. CONCLUSIONES: La hipertensión es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en México. En los últimos seis años se observó un incremento en la prevalencia en mexicanos (25% en comparación con la reducción en la de mexicanos residentes en EUA (-15%.

  8. Alcohol, tabaco y deterioro cognoscitivo en adultos mexicanos mayores de 65 años Cognitive impairment and alcohol and cigarette consumption in Mexican adults older than 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gloria Aguilar-Navarro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y tabaco y su asociación con deterioro cognoscitivo en la población mexicana mayor de 65 años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4 872 mayores de 65 años en la muestra del Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM 2001. Se interrogó sobre el consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Para la clasificación de los sujetos con deterioro cognoscitivo, se utilizó la escala total de los diferentes dominios cognoscitivos. Se aplicaron ji cuadrada, Mann Whitney U y regresión logística para encontrar asociaciones. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alcoholismo según CAGE fue de 2.8% y la del consumo de tabaco de 14 por ciento. Factores asociados con el consumo de alcohol: edad 65-69 años (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking and their association with cognitive impairment among older Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 4 872 people over 65 years of age included in the sample of the National Mexican Health and Aging Study carried out in 2001 were questioned about their consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking. For the classification of those subjects with cognitive impairment, the total scale of the different cognitive domains was used. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistical regression were used in order to find associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcoholism according to CAGE was 2.8% and the prevalence of the consumption of cigarette smoking was 14%. Factors associated with the consumption of alcohol were:age 65-69 (p <0.001, men (RR 3.17,p <0.001, and high level of education (p <0.001. The association between the consumption of alcohol and cognitive impairment (X2=6.59, p <0.01 was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking in older Mexican adults are similar to that reported in other countries; the consumption of alcohol and its

  9. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  10. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  11. Attitudes and behaviors of Hispanic smokers: implications for cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R

    1990-01-01

    The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.

  12. The relationship between trajectories of family/cultural stressors and depression and suicidal ideation among substance using Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Cepeda, Alice; Lee King, Patricia A; Valdez, Avelardo

    2013-12-01

    We used an intersectional minority stress perspective to examine the association between family/cultural stress and mental health among substance-using Mexican-Americans. Employing a unique longitudinal sample of 239 socioeconomically disadvantaged, non-injecting heroin-using Mexican-Americans from San Antonio, Texas, we examined how culturally relevant stressors are related to depression and suicidal ideation. First, we identified depression and suicidal ideation prevalence rates for this disadvantaged sample. Second, we determined how cultural stress is experienced over time using stress trajectories. Third, we evaluated how family/cultural stressors and stress trajectories are related to depression and suicidal ideation outcomes. Results showed high rates of baseline depression (24 %) and suicidal ideation (30 %). We used latent class growth analysis to identify three primary stress trajectories (stable, high but decreasing, and increasing) over three time points during 1 year. We found that the increasing stressors trajectory was associated with higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation, and that stress trajectories had unique relationships with mental illness. We also showed that baseline stressors, sum stressors, and high but decreasing stressors maintained positive associations with mental illness after controlling for baseline depression. Our results highlight the importance of focusing on within-group, culturally specific stressors and addressing both operant and cumulative stressors in the study of mental health for marginalized populations and suggest the importance of early intervention in minimizing stressors.

  13. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  14. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  15. Non‐smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S‐H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non‐smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non‐smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n  =  349 110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n  =  2143 non‐smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non‐smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English‐speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English‐speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian‐speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non‐smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non‐smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

  16. Attitudes towards passive smoking at restaurants and effects of the provision of information: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers via a web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Reiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Goto, Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to conduct a web-based survey using adult participants to investigate 1) differences in attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers between smokers and non-smokers and 2) the potential impact of knowledge regarding the harmful effects of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) on smoker behavior in a restaurant.Method Japanese smokers and non-smokers aged 20 to 69 were separately sampled and both groups were randomly allocated to either a knowledge group or a control group. The participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire to capture their attitudes and how they think they would behave in a restaurant where it was not clear whether smoking is prohibited or not. Data were analyzed using a t-test for numerical variables and a χ 2 test for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was also conducted to elucidate the factors influencing the smoking behavior near non-smokers.Results Overall, 2,157 participants were surveyed (smokers, n=1,084; non-smokers, n=1,073). Among smokers who intended to smoke in the restaurant, 24.8% answered that they would ask for permission from nearby persons before lighting up. However, only 2.8% of non-smokers had ever actually been asked for such permission. The percentage of smokers who would smoke in the restaurant was significantly lower in the knowledge group (16.4%) than the control group (22.8%). The most common reason for refraining from smoking was a lack of an ashtray on the table in both groups. Among the non-smokers, 37.4% of the knowledge group and 27.6% of the control group answered that they did not like nearby smoking. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking in restaurants was significantly associated with nicotine dependence, household income, pregnancy, smoking place in the home, age, and SHS knowledge.Conclusion This study suggested that most non-smokers do not inform smokers that they do not like nearby smoking. It was also

  17. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  18. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  19. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, pbrain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  20. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Anticipated motivation for genetic testing among smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers: an exploratory qualitative study of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the public's interest in genetic testing related to cigarette smoking, comparing the public's motivations with researchers' intentions for this technology. Adult nonsmokers (n=463), former smokers (n=163), and current smokers (n=129) completed an online survey. Within a hypothetical scenario, respondents decided whether they desired genetic testing related to smoking and explained their decision making. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the interest in genetic testing by smoking history group. Inductive content analysis was used to investigate respondents' explanations for their testing decisions. Most nonsmokers (64%) and former smokers (58%) did not want genetic testing. While most current daily smokers were interested in testing (56%), most current occasional smokers were not (52%). Respondents' decision-making explanations were categorized into 3 major themes: Causality, Relevancy and Utility (e.g. personal benefits or harms). The use of causality, relevancy and utility explanations varied by smoking history. Notable perceived benefits of testing included recreation and altruism. Notable perceived harms included fear of fatalistic thoughts and concern about genetic discrimination. Interest in genetic testing was highest among current daily smokers, despite potential utility in other groups. Although respondents' motivations for testing paralleled researchers' intentions of tailoring smoking cessation therapies and increasing motivation to quit or abstain, respondents also raised alternative motivations and fears that healthcare providers would need to address. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  3. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.C. Neves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  4. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A

    2017-10-19

    Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  5. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  6. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers' consumption, non-smokers' perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-04-08

    To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Barcelona, Spain. Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  8. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  9. Factors Associated with Short-Term Transitions of Nondaily Smokers: Socio-demographic Characteristics and Other Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652

  10. Urinary NNAL in hookah smokers and non-smokers after attending a hookah social event in a hookah lounge or a private home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R; Chatfield, Dale A; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco smoking and exposure to tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) can cause lung cancer. We determined uptake of NNK (4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone), a tobacco specific potent pulmonary carcinogen, in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to hookah tobacco SHS. We analyzed data from a community-based convenience sample of 201 of adult (aged ≥18 years) exclusive hookah smokers (n = 99) and non-smokers (n = 102) residing in San Diego County, California. Participants spent an average of three consecutive hours indoors, in hookah lounges or private homes, where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. Total NNAL [the sum of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides], the major metabolites of NNK, were quantified in spot urine samples provided the morning of and the morning after attending a hookah event. Among hookah smokers urinary NNAL increased significantly (pnon-smokers the increase was not significant (p = 0.059). Post hookah event urinary NNAL levels were highest in daily hookah smokers, and significantly higher than in non-daily smokers or non-smokers (GM: 14.96 pg/mg vs. 3.13 pg/mg and 0.67 pg/mg, respectively). For both hookah smokers and non-smokers, pre-to-post event change in urinary NNAL was not significantly different between hookah lounges and homes. We suggest posting health warning signs inside hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans of smoking hookah tobacco in private homes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  12. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  13. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Síndrome metabólico en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its associated risk factors in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older, using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ENSANUT 2006 was conducted between October 2005 and May 2006. Questionnaires were administered to 45 446 adult subjects aged 20 years or older who were residents from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained from all subjects and fasting blood specimens were provided by 30% of participants. We randomly selected a sub-sample of 6 613 from which laboratory measurements were carried out for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. For this analysis, we included only results from eight or more hours of fasting samples (n=6 021. We used individual weighted factors in the statistical analysis and considered the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances and confidence intervals. All analyses were done using SPSS 15.0. RESULTS: In accordance with definitions by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the prevalence of MS in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older was 36.8, 41.6 and 49.8%, respectively. Women were more affected than men due to the higher prevalence of central obesity among females. Prevalence of MS increased with age and was higher among populations living in metropolitan areas, in the west-central region, and those with lower education. DISCUSSION: Regardless of the MS definition, a large proportion of Mexican adults has the condition, so preventive measures are needed to decrease the prevalence of the MS components in this population. MS can predict type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two of the main causes of death in the adult

  14. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2013-10-24

    In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people's perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15-22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents' views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents.

  15. Quantifying how smokers value attributes of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; MacMonegle, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have increased quickly among US adults (3.3% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2013) and youth (4.5% in 2013 to 13.4% in 2014). As state and local governments consider regulatory policies, understanding what smokers believe about e-cigarettes and how they value e-cigarettes is important. Using data from a convenience sample of Florida adult smokers (N=765), we investigated the value smokers place on specific attributes of e-cigarettes (availability of flavours, effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, ability to use e-cigarettes in public places) by asking smokers how much they would be willing to pay for e-cigarettes with and without each of these attributes. For cigarette-only and dual users, losing the ability to use an e-cigarette as a quit aid and losing the harm reduction of an e-cigarette significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. For cigarette-only users, not being able to use an e-cigarette indoors and losing flavours also significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. Our results suggest that smokers value multiple attributes of e-cigarettes. Our valuation measures also appear to align with smokers' beliefs about e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  19. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  20. The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Pebley, Anne R; Hsih, Katie; Chung, Chang Y; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-02-01

    Obesity among the Mexican-origin adult population in the US has been associated with longer stays in the US and with being US- vs. Mexican-born, two proxies for acculturation. This pattern is less clear for Mexican-origin children and young adults: recent evidence suggests that it may be reversed, with foreign-born Mexican youth in the US at higher risk of obesity than their US-born Mexican-American counterparts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the immigrant advantage in obesity prevalence for Mexican-origin populations in the US does not hold for children and young adults. We use data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1143) and the California Health Interview Survey (N = 25,487) for respondents ages 4-24 to calculate the odds of overweight/obesity by ethnicity and nativity. We find support for the hypothesis that overweight/obesity prevalence is not significantly lower for first-generation compared to second- and third-generation Mexican-origin youth. Significantly higher obesity prevalence among the first generation was observed for young adult males (ages 18-24) and adolescent females (ages 12-17). The previously-observed protective effect against obesity risk among recent adult immigrants does not hold for Mexican-origin youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  2. Non-suicidal self-injury in Mexican young adults: Prevalence, associations with suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders, and DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; González-Herrera, Irene; Castro-Silva, Everardo; Méndez, Enrique; Borges, Guilherme; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) may lead to scarring, infection, accidental death and psychological distress. Little is known about NSSI in the general population of young adults in developing countries like Mexico. The current study examined the prevalence of any NSSI and each type of NSSI, the prevalence of meeting DSM-5 proposed criteria, and finally the association of NSSI with socio-demographic variables, suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders. This study was conducted in a community sample of 1071 young adults between 19 and 26 years of age residents of Mexico City. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 18.56% with females having 87% greater odds. The 12-month prevalence was 3.19%. Only 0.22% of the total sample and 6.96% of those that self-injured in the past 12 months met full criteria proposed by DSM-5, in part due to the lack of reported impairment; 39.99% of those that self-injured reported impairment. Suicidal behavior commonly co-occurred with NSSI. All lifetime anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior and substance use disorders were associated with greater risk for lifetime NSSI whereas only 12-month depression and substance use disorder was associated with greater risk of 12-month NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of the study precludes conclusions of causality and directionality and the study excluded institutionalized and homeless young adults. NSSI is a concerning problem in young adults from Mexico City due to the important associations with all types of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Because many who self-injure do not perceive impairment, they are unlikely to seek treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of a cutoff point for the short version of the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies in older Mexican adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify a valid cutoff point associated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Depression Scale (CES-D of seven items, which allows the classification of older adults according to presence/absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Materials and methods. Screening study with 229 older adults residing in two states of Mexico (Morelos and Tlaxcala, which were part of the sample from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition, 2012. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity associated with the selected cutoff points using the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Results. The cutoff point estimated was CES-D=5. According to the ICD-10 sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 90.2%, and ROC was 87%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 85, 83.2, and 84%, respectively. Conclusions. The short version of the CES-D can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of older adults with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  4. [Validation of a cutoff point for the short version of the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies in older Mexican adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Acosta-Castillo, Gilberto Isaac; Franco-Núñez, Aurora; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2014-01-01

    To identify a valid cutoff point associated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Depression Scale (CES-D) of seven items, which allows the classification of older adults according to presence/absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Screening study with 229 older adults residing in two states of Mexico (Morelos and Tlaxcala), which were part of the sample from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition, 2012. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity associated with the selected cutoff points using the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition). The cutoff point estimated was CES-D=5. According to the ICD-10 sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 90.2%, and ROC was 87%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 85, 83.2, and 84%, respectively. The short version of the CES-D can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of older adults with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  5. Adult Smokers? Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers? reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representat...

  6. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  7. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  8. Smokers who report smoking but do not consider themselves smokers: a phenomenon in need of further attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Zablocki, Rong W; Edland, Steven D; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2015-07-01

    Heightened stigma surrounding the action of smoking may decrease the likelihood that individuals who engage in smoking identify with the label 'smoker'. Non-identifying smokers (NIS) may undermine accurate smoking prevalence estimates and can be overlooked by tobacco control efforts. We sought to characterise NIS in a cross-sectional study using a sample representative of the population of adults (>18 years) in California who reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, smoking at least some days and at least once in the last 30 days (n=1698). Individuals were considered NIS if they met the above criteria and answered 'no' when asked if they 'considered themselves a smoker'. We estimate that 395 928 (SD=54 126) NIS were living in California in 2011 (a prevalence of 12.3% of all smokers in California). The odds of being NIS were higher among non-daily smokers who were previously daily smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=7.63, 95% CI 2.67 to 21.8) or were never previously daily smokers (AOR=7.14, CI 2.78 to 18.3) compared with daily smokers. The odds of being an NIS were also higher among those who did not believe they were addicted to cigarettes (AOR=3.84, CI 1.68 to 9.22), were older than 65 years (vs less than 45 years) (AOR=3.35, CI 1.16 to 9.75) or were from ethnic minorities including Black and Asian (vs non-Hispanic white) (AOR=3.16, CI 1.19 to 8.49). Smoking surveillance should restructure selection criteria to more accurately account for NIS in areas with high stigma toward smokers. Targeted interventions may be needed for NIS including educating healthcare providers to enquire more deeply into smoking habits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  10. [Estimation of mercury in the urine of cigarette smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska-Karpińska, Elżbieta; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common habits of the modern world. According to a NATPOL PLU study, every third adult Pole is dependent on nicotine. Tobacco smoke contains about 5,000 components, of which over 1,000 are very toxic chemical substances (3,4-benzopyrene, heavy metals, free radicals, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and N-nitrosamines). Exposure to tobacco smoke is an example of a complex, with a significant number of interactions. To assess the concentration of copper in the urine of smokers. Based on the results, an attempt was made to determine whether smoking can affect the level of copper in the body. The study involved 170 healthy volunteers, 99 smokers and 71 non-smokers (control group). The age of patients in both groups were in the range of 20-60 years. The mean age for men and women was 41 years. The average length of cigarette smoking was 18 years for women and 21 years for men, and the number of cigarettes smoked 1-40 ⁄ 24. The urine concentrations of Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and serum creatinine kinetic method using a set of BIOLAB. Cu concentration in urine was expressed in mg / g creatinine. Smokers were found to have reduced levels of copper in the urine, depending on sex, age and brand of cigarettes. In male smokers, copper concentration in the urine was dependent on age and time of smoking, whereas among women this relationship was not observed. Cigarette smoking significantly influences the level of copper in the urine. Both female and male smokers showed reduced levels of copper in the urine, which may indicate its increased accumulation in the body. Excessive accumulation of copper is very dangerous since it may exhibit toxic effects towards many organs and systems.

  11. Reduction of physical activity in daily life and its determinants in smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Bisca, Gianna; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Zabatiero, Juliana; Proença, Mahara; Kovelis, Demétria; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In smokers without airflow obstruction, detailed, objective and controlled quantification of the level of physical inactivity in daily life has never been performed. This study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in daily life in adult smokers without airflow obstruction in comparison with matched non-smokers, and to investigate the determinants for daily physical activity in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 50 (39-54) years) and 50 non-smokers (aged 48 (40-53) years) matched for gender, age, anthropometric characteristics, educational level, employment status and seasons of the year assessment period were cross-sectionally assessed regarding their daily physical activity with a step counter, besides assessment of lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-reported comorbidities carbon monoxide level, nicotine dependence and smoking habits. When compared with non-smokers, smokers walked less in daily life (7923 ± 3558 vs 9553 ± 3637 steps/day, respectively), presented worse lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Multiple regression analyses identified functional exercise capacity, Borg fatigue, self-reported motivation/physical activity behaviour and cardiac disease as significant determinants of number of steps/day in smokers (partial r(2)  = 0.10, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.05; b = 15, -997, 1207 and -2330 steps/day, respectively; overall fit of the model R(2)  = 0.38; P smokers without airflow obstruction presented reduced level of daily physical activity. Functional exercise capacity, extended fatigue sensation, aspects of motivation/physical activity behaviour and self-reported cardiac disease are significant determinants of physical activity in daily life in smokers. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. One cigarette is one too many: evaluating a light smoker-targeted media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, John P; Johns, Michael; Mbamalu, Ijeoma; Auer, Kari; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2015-07-01

    Light smokers represent an increasing share of adult smokers in various parts of the world including New York City (NYC). Since 2007, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has aired hard-hitting antitobacco media campaigns paired with time-limited nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) giveaways. We evaluated an original antitobacco media campaign, developed to increase awareness of smoking risks and encourage cessation service use among light smokers in NYC. We compared cessation service request volume during the campaign to historical periods without ads targeting light smokers. We used a cross-sectional online panel survey to assess the ad's perceived effectiveness and its impact on learning something new, quit intentions and concern for smoking-related health risks among non-daily, light daily and heavy daily smokers. The proportion of light smokers among smokers requesting cessation services increased 50% (from 13% to 20%) relative to previous time-limited NRT giveaways. Compared to heavy daily smokers, non-daily (aOR: 1.95, phealth risks after viewing the ad. Perceived effectiveness of the ad did not differ by smoker type. This study provides evidence that light smokers were receptive to a targeted antitobacco message encouraging use of cessation services. The campaign appears to have been particularly effective in increasing smoking-related health concerns in this group. The lack of difference in perceived ad effectiveness by smoker type suggests the potential to develop such ads without sacrificing broad impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  14. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  15. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  16. Trends in Daily Cannabis Use Among Cigarette Smokers: United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Pacek, Lauren R; Copeland, Jan; Moeller, Scott J; Dierker, Lisa; Weinberger, Andrea; Gbedemah, Misato; Zvolensky, Michael J; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-01-01

    To estimate changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014 in the United States. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a nationally representative cross-sectional study conducted annually among persons aged 12 years and older in the United States. Daily cannabis use occurs nearly exclusively among nondaily and daily cigarette smokers compared with former and never smokers (8.03%, 9.01%, 2.79%, 1.05%, respectively). Daily cannabis use increased over the past decade among both nondaily (8.03% [2014] vs 2.85% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (9.01% [2014]; 4.92% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (2.79% [2014] vs 0.98% [2002]; linear trend P smokers in the United States. Daily cannabis use increased among current, former, and never smokers over the past decade, with particularly rapid increases among youth and female cigarette smokers. Future research is needed to monitor the observed increase in daily cannabis use, especially among youths and adults who smoke cigarettes.

  17. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  18. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  19. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    ños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at

  20. E-cigarette marketing and older smokers: Road to renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldo, JK; Petersen, AB; Hunter, M; Wang, J; Sheon, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, PNG Publications. All rights reserved. Objectives: To describe older smokers' perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods: Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results: Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smo...

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  2. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Anxiety sensitivity in smokers with indicators of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-09-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of understanding the nature of the associations between anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD), although limited research has examined mechanisms that may explain the anxiety-CVD link. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive-affective risk factor implicated in the development of anxiety psychopathology and various behavioral risk factors for CVD, although has not been examined among individuals with CVD. Adult daily smokers (n = 619; 50.9% female; M age  = 44.0, SD = 13.67) completed an online survey that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The presence of CVD was assessed via the presence of ≥1 of the following: heart attack, heart murmur, positive stress test, heart valve abnormality, angina, and heart failure. Smokers with CVD indicators (n = 66, 10.7%) had significantly higher scores on the ASI-3 (M = 33.5, SD = 22.15), relative to smokers without CVD (M = 22.0, SD = 17.92; Cohen's d = .57). Those with CVD were significantly more likely to have moderate or high anxiety sensitivity (66.7%) relative to those without CVD (49.4%). Physical and social concerns about the meaning of somatic sensations were common among smokers with CVD.

  4. Indices of anti-dengue immunoglobulin G subclasses in adult Mexican patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Mondragón, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, José Leopoldo; Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Guillén-Salomón, Edith; Alcántara-Farfán, Verónica; Luna-Rojas, Lucero; Ávila-Trejo, Amanda Marineth; Del Carmen Pacheco-Yépez, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Heterologous secondary infections are at increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) because of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). IgG subclasses can fix and activate complement and bind to Fcɣ receptors. These factors may also play an important role in the development of ADE and thus in the pathogenesis of DHF. The aim of this study was to analyze the indices of anti-dengue IgG subclasses in adult patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase. In 2013, 129 patients with dengue fever (DF) and 57 with DHF in Veracruz, Mexico were recruited for this study and anti-dengue IgM and IgG determined by capture ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG subclasses were detected by indirect ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses were detected in patients with dengue. IgG1 increased significantly in the sera of patients with both primary and secondary infections and DHF, but was higher in patients with secondary infections. The IgG4 subclass index was significantly higher in the sera of patients with DHF than in that of those with DF, who were in the early and late acute phase of both primary and secondary infection. In conclusion, indices of subclasses IgG1 and IgG4 were higher in patients with DHF. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 Diabetes mellitus in Mexican adults: results from the 2000 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Olaiz-Fernández

    2007-01-01

    xico. Su efecto se magnifica al afectar con mayor frecuencia a grupos de población cuyos factores sociales o económicos limitan su acceso al tratamiento. Los datos informados son útiles para la institución de programas de escrutinio y prevención. Los resultados confirman que la diabetes debe ser motivo de investigación en familiares de primer grado e individuos que tengan uno o más de los componentes del síndrome metabólico (hipertensión, dislipidemia, obesidad y microalbuminuria.OBJECTIVE: To show the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and its associated factors in adults, using data derived from the 2000 National Health Survey (NHS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 2000 NHS was conducted between November 1999 and June 2000. An adult questionnaire was administered to 45 294 subjects 20 years of age and older. Capillary glucose levels, weight, height and blood pressure were obtained. Individual weighted factors were considered in the statistical analysis, as was the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances using SUDAAN 7.5.6. RESULTS: The national prevalence of DM in adults ages 20 years and older was 7.5% (95% CI: 7.1-7.9. The prevalence was 7.8% in women and 7.2% in men. It was higher according to age: 2.3% in adults 40 years or younger and 21.2% in those older than 60 years of age. In the urban population, prevalence was 8.1% and in the rural population it was 6.5%. The disease was more frequent in the northern region of the country (8.4% and in the Mexico City metropolitan area (8.1%. DM was more frequent in the population with the least amount of schooling (9.9%, the lowest income (8.1%, high blood pressure (13.7%, hypercholesterolemia (23.3% microalbuminuria (15.5% and renal disease (12.3%. Using multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, variables associated with DM were identified: age, little schooling, family history of DM, high blood pressure, renal disease or hypercholesterolemia in both genders. Abdominal obesity was associated

  6. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  7. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  8. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  9. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  10. Durational and generational differences in Mexican immigrant obesity: Is acculturation the explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J.; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity. PMID:22575698

  11. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  12. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  13. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  14. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  15. View of Mexican family members on the autonomy of adolescents and adults with intellectual disability Puntos de vista de familiares de adolescentes y adultos mexicanos con discapacidad intelectual acerca de su autonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the ways in which Mexican adolescents and adults with intellectual disability exercise autonomy. Two focus groups were carried out with family members who are the legal guardians of people with intellectual disability who have received independent living training at the Center for Integral Training and Development (CADI, per its abbreviation in Spansh. Focus group transcripts were analyzed with codes defined a priori, based on an existing theoretical framework on autonomy and quality of life among intellectually disabled persons. Autonomy is exercised by the intellectually disabled in the personal, social, sexual and economic spheres of life. Empowered autonomy implies that the person is taught the necessary skills and then allowed to act upon his or her own interests. Negotiated autonomy includes guidance, explanation and negotiation; it constitutes a learning process. Interpreted autonomy is the most limited type described, and implies protection, interpretation and may involve decision-making by others. These types of autonomy constitute a complex phenomenon and the divisions between them are indistinct.Este estudio busca describir las maneras en que jóvenes y adultos mexicanos con discapacidad intelectual ejercen la autonomía. Dos grupos focales se llevaron a cabo con familiares de personas con discapacidad intelectual quienes han recibido capacitación para la vida independiente en el Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo Integral, CADI. Se analizaron las transcripciones con códigos definidos a priori, basados en un marco teórico preexistente sobre autonomía y calidad de vida entre personas con discapacidad intelectual. Las personas con discapacidad intelectual ejercen autonomía en diversos ámbitos: personal, social, sexual y económico. La autonomía empoderada se da cuando se le enseña a la persona las habilidades necesarias y luego se le permite actuar con base en sus propios intereses. La autonom

  16. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers? Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, ...

  17. Program of active aging in a rural Mexican community: a qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Núñez Víctor; Correa-Muñoz Elsa; de la Luz Martínez-Maldonado María

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Education is one of the key elements in the promotion of a thorough paradigm for active aging. The aim of this study is to analyze factors that contribute the empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community and, thus, promote active aging. Methods The study was conducted in a rural Mexican community (Valle del Mezquital), based on an action-research paradigm. One hundred and fifty-five elderly subjects with elementary school education participated in a formal trai...

  18. Unhealthy smokers: scopes for prophylactic intervention and clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Shikha; Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Cucullo, Luca

    2017-10-04

    Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Even though there has been a marginal smoking decline of around 5% in recent years (2005 vs 2015), smokers still account for 15% of the US adult population. What is also concerning is that 41,000 out of 480,000 deaths results from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with chronic smoking. Further, we discuss prophylactic interventions and associated benefits and provide a rationale for the scope of clinical treatment. Considering these premises, it is evident that much detailed translational and clinical studies are needed. Factors such as the length of smoking cessation for ex-smokers, the level of smoke exposure in case of SHS, pre-established health conditions, genetics (and epigenetics modification caused by chronic smoking) are few of the criteria that need to be evaluated to begin assessing the prophylactic and/or therapeutic impact of treatments aimed at chronic and former smokers (especially early stage ex-smokers) including those frequently subjected to second hand tobacco smoke exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with

  19. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  2. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  3. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  4. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  5. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  6. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  7. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all Psmokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  8. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  9. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  10. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  11. A Comparison of Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Relevant Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B.; Divine, George; Alexander, Gwen; Tolsma, Dennis; Rolnick, Sharon J.; Stopponi, Melanie; Richards, Julie; Johnson, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between smoking status and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a population-based sample and examined differences in psychosocial factors that may influence diet and inform intervention efforts. The authors recruited adults (N = 2,540) from 5 US health plans to participate in a Web-based dietary intervention trial. At baseline, smokers ate fewer FV servings per day (p motivation, and intrinsic motivation for meeting daily FV recommendations. Fewer smokers expected that eating 5 FV servings a day would reduce their risk for diabetes (p = .02) or obesity (p = .008). Smokers are an important target group for dietary intervention. Intervention efforts should attempt to increase smokers' motivation and confidence in their abilities to change their eating patterns and educate them about the health benefits of eating FV. PMID:19297300

  12. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  13. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  14. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,M age =43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (O max ), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Hastrup, Janice L; Bauer, Joseph E; Bansal, Maansi A

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed smokers' beliefs about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of smoking filtered and low-tar cigarettes, and their awareness of and interest in trying so-called reduced-risk tobacco products. Results were based on a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult (aged 18 years or older) current cigarette smokers. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and use of nicotine medications, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, content of smoke and design features of cigarettes, and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. In addition, respondents were asked about their interest in and perceived ability to stop smoking and about their desire for more information about the health risks of smoking. Smokers were least knowledgeable about low-tar and filter cigarettes (65% of responses were incorrect or "don't know") and most knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking (39% of responses were incorrect or "don't know"). The smokers' characteristics most commonly associated with misinformation when all six indices were combined into a summary index were as follows: those aged 45 years or older, smokers of ultralight cigarettes, smokers who believe they will stop smoking before they experience a serious health problem caused by smoking, smokers who have never used a stop-smoking medication, and smokers with a lower education level. Those who believed they would stop smoking in the next year were more knowledgeable about smoking. Some 77% of respondents reported a desire for additional information from tobacco companies on the health dangers of smoking. The present findings demonstrate that smokers are misinformed about many aspects of the cigarettes they smoke and stop-smoking medications and that they want more information about ways to reduce their health risks.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk in Spanish smokers compared to non-smokers: RETRATOS study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Sanz de Burgoa, Verónica; Garrido Morales, Patricio; López de Sá, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in smokers seenin Primary Care clinics. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Every investigator included 4 consecutive patients (3 smokers, 1 non-smoker) aged 35-50 years, who came to the clinic for any reason. A total of 2,184 patients were included; 2,124 (1,597 smokers; 527 non-smokers) were evaluated and 60 patients were excluded because they did not meet with selection criteria. The 10-year risk of suffering from a fatal cardiovascular disease (CVDR) was calculated according to the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) model. The 10-year lethal CVR according SCORE model, was classified as: very high (> 15%), high (10-14%), slightly high (5-9%), average (3-4%), low (2%), very low (1%) and negligible (smokers (40±5.3) vs. non-smokers (1.9±2.5) (Pnon-smokers vs. 60.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. 12.6% smokers (P 5%) [10.9% non-smokers vs. 26.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. smokers had less probability of suffering myocardial infarction (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.1-0.8; P<.0001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0; P=.0180) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2; P=.0507). Smoking is related to a high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease. Active promotion in Primary Care clinics of measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of the smoking habit would lead to a lowering of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Mexican registry of pulmonary hypertension: REMEHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Zarate, Julio; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia; Zamudio, Tomas Pulido; Gutierrez-Fajardo, Pedro; Elizalde Gonzalez, Jose; Leon, Mario Seoane Garcia De; Gamez, Miguel Beltran; Abril, Francisco Moreno Hoyos; Michel, Rodolfo Parra; Aguilar, Humberto Garcia

    REMEHIP is a prospective, multicentre registry on pulmonary hypertension. The main objective will be to identify the clinical profile, medical care, therapeutic trends and outcomes in adult and pediatric Mexican patients with well-characterized pulmonary hypertension. REMEHIP a multicenter registry began in 2015 with a planned recruitment time of 12 months and a 4-year follow-up. The study population will comprise a longitudinal cohort study, collecting data on patients with prevalent and incident pulmonary hypertension. Will be included patients of age >2 years and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension by right heart catheterization within Group 1 and Group 4 of the World Health Organization classification. The structure, data collection and data analysis will be based on quality current recommendations for registries. The protocol has been approved by institutional ethics committees in all participant centers. All patients will sign an informed consent form. Currently in Mexico, there is a need of observational registries that include patients with treatment in the everyday clinical practice so the data could be validated and additional information could be obtained versus the one from the clinical trials. In this way, REMEHIP emerges as a link among randomized clinical trials developed by experts and previous Mexican experience. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Working memory in cigarette smokers: Comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Mendrek, Adrianna; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara L.; Jarvik, Murray; Brody, Arthur; Olmstead, Richard; Domier, Catherine P.; Cohen, Mark S.; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after ≥13 h abstinence; on the other day, testing began ≤1 h after smoking. Smokers inhaled one cigarette between the blocks on each test day. Results indicated that performance of smoker...

  19. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  20. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  1. Impact of periodontitis on chemokines in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytural, O; Yaman, D; Ural, E C; Kantarci, A; Demirel, Korkud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemokine expression profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and to assess the impact of smoking on local and systemic levels of chemokines. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP; 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were recruited. Clinical parameters included the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum using a multiplex immunoassay. MIP-1α levels were significantly lower (10.15 ± 1.48; p = 0.039) while MIP-1β levels were significantly higher (42.05 ± 8.21; p = 0.005) in sera from non-smoker patients with CP compared to non-smoker healthy subjects. MCP-1 concentration in sera was significantly higher in smoker periodontitis patients (8.89 ± 1.65) compared to non-smoker patients with periodontitis (8.14 ± 0.97; p = 0.004). MIP-1α and RANTES were significantly higher in GCF of the patients with CP (p = 0.001) while there were no statistically significant correlations between the GCF levels of these analytes and the smoking status. Periodontal inflammation increases the chemokine concentrations in the GCF while smoking suppresses chemokine levels in serum suggesting that different local and systemic mechanisms are involved during the response to periodontitis in smokers. Understanding the local and systemic chemokine responses in smokers will enable the development of biologically-based treatment methods for chronic periodontitis.

  2. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashidhar, K.; Monga, S.; Suri, S.; Gulati, M.; Gupta, D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures

  3. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  4. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O’Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P tax, together with an additional premium of 7–10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07–1.10, P tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30–0.83, P avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  5. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  6. Multilevel analysis of the individual and contextual factors of tobacco use among Mexican adolescents using the National Addiction Survey (NAS, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zavala Arciniega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The tobacco industry has targeted low and middle-income countries and vulnerable groups such as women and young people. In Mexico we observe a slow decrease in tobacco consumption among adults, while in adolescents the trend in tobacco use shows an increase. Previous research in Mexico do not measure determinants at neighborhood level. The aim of the study is evaluate whether the contextual and individual factors are associated with tobacco use among Mexican adolescents. Methods Data from this study came from NAS 2011 and National Census 2010. Descriptive statistics were estimated after adjusting for sampling weights. The study had two levels: individual (adolescents between 12-17 years and contextual (neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by sex was conducted. Results The final sample includes 2785 adolescents from 364 neighborhoods. Prevalence of 30 days smoking in women adolescents was 3.8% and in male adolescents was 10.3%. Female adolescents exposed to second hand smoke at home were more likely to be a current smoker (OR 2.87 CI: 1.37,6.04 and in those who have an employment (OR 4.35 CI: 1.03,18.3. School attendance was inversely associated with tobacco use (OR 0.38 CI: 0.16,0.89. In Male adolescents the likelihood of being a current smoker increase according to age (OR 4.35 CI: 1.51,12.4 for 15-17 vs 12-14 and in those exposed to second hand smoke at home (OR 5.03 CI 2.38,10.6, while school attendance decrease the likelihood of being a current smoker (OR 0.14 CI: 0.05,0.39. Conclusions This study suggest that school attendance is a protective factor for smoking. Second hand smoke at home is an important factor of tobacco use. Have an employment increase the likelihood of being a current smoker only in female adolescents. Implement a successful tobacco control policy in Mexico needs to take into account educational, economics, social and gender determinants.

  7. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  8. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  9. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension Prevalencia de obesidad y componentes del síndrome metabólico en adultos mexicanos sin diabetes tipo 2 o hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rojas-Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the number of Mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861 were excluded. Prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. RESULTS: 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. Almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. As for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. Another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. A total of 21.4 million Mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in Mexico.OBJETIVO: Estimar el número de adultos mexicanos que tienen diabetes o hipertensión arterial no diagnosticadas y el riesgo de tales condiciones asociado a la obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analiza una submuestra de 6 613 sujetos mayores de 20 años que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Los sujetos con diagnóstico previo de diabetes o hipertensión arterial fueron excluidos (n=1 861. Las prevalencias y errores estándar fueron estimados considerando el diseño complejo de la muestra. RESULTADOS: 6.4 millones de adultos tienen obesidad y glucemia anormal de ayuno. Casi dos millones más tienen una glucemia de ayuno diagnóstica de diabetes En cuanto a la presión arterial, 5.4 millones tienen prehipertensión. El mismo número de casos tienen valores diagnósticos de hipertensión. Un total de 21.4 millones de adultos con obesidad tienen al menos un componente del síndrome metab

  10. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  11. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. United States. A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7-10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07-1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30-83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30-0.83, P < 0.05). Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  14. The U.S. National "Tips from Former Smokers" Antismoking Campaign: Promoting Awareness of Smoking-Related Risks, Cessation Resources, and Cessation Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F.; Abad, Erika Nayeli; Cummings, K. Michael; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Brown, Abraham; Nagelhout, Gera E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the second flight of the U.S. "Tips From Former Smokers" (Tips) campaign. Method: Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of U.S. adult smokers before (n = 1,404) and after (n = 1,401) the 2013 Tips campaign launch. Generalized estimating equation models assessed whether the Tips advertisement recall was…

  15. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2018-02-01

    Although tobacco smoking is a major