WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult metachronous soft

  1. Adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as metachronous colonic polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Felipe-Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of Langerhans-type cells that express CD1a, Langerin (CD207 and S100 protein. Birbeck granules are a hallmark by ultrastructural examination. LCH presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from solitary lesions of a single site (usually bone or skin to multiple or disseminated multisystemic lesions, which can lead to severe organ dysfunction. Most cases occur in children. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is rare and has been associated with systemic illness and poor prognosis especially in children under the age of 2 years. Adult gastrointestinal LCH is very rare. We report a case of a previously healthy, nonsmoking 48-year-old male who was referred for routine screening colonoscopy. Two sessile, smooth, firm and yellowish LCH polyps measuring 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm were detected in the sigmoid colon. Fifteen months later a second colonoscopy found two histologically confirmed hyperplastic polyps at the sigmoid colon. No other LCH lesions were seen. A third colonoscopy after 28 months of follow-up found a submucosal 0.5 cm infiltrated and ulcerated LCH polyp in the cecum, close to the ostium of the appendix. The patient had been asymptomatic for all this period. Imaging investigation for systemic or multiorgan disease did not find any sign of extracolonic involvement. On histology all lesions showed typical LCH features and immunohistochemical analysis showed strong and diffuse staining for CD1a and CD207. This case illustrates two distinct clinicopathologic features not previously reported in this particular clinical setting: metachronous colonic involvement and positivity for CD207.

  2. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gok Durnali

    Full Text Available Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9% were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14-74. Thirty-nine patients (41.9% had synchronous lung metastases (Group A and 54 patients (58.1% had metachronous lung metastases (Group B. The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010, number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020, presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007 and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001 were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  4. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  5. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....

  6. Flexible adult flatfoot: soft tissue procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Classically, adult posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) was considered primarily a tendon rupture and was treated as such with soft tissue repair alone. The understanding that PTTD involves more than simply an inflammatory condition or tendon rupture but also a muscle imbalance, leading to a flatfoot, osteoarthritis, and peritalar subluxation, led to surgeons advocating osseous procedures as well. The advancements in knowledge of the pathomechanics of the deformity have modified the role that soft tissue repair plays in surgical treatment, but the importance of soft tissue restoration in flatfoot repair should not be overlooked.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign soft tissue neoplasms in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric A; Fenton, Michael E; Salesky, Joel S; Murphey, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews a spectrum of benign soft tissue tumors found in adults. Rather than presenting a complete review, the focus of this article is on benign tumors for which the diagnosis may be confidently made or strongly suggested on the basis of imaging. Diagnoses presented include nodular fasciitis, superficial and deep fibromatosis, elastofibroma, lipomatous lesions, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, Morton neuroma, hemangioma, and myxoma.

  8. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population

    OpenAIRE

    LANA, A.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort was established ...

  9. Metachronous Bilateral Testicular Leydig-Like Tumors Leading to the Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vukina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male with a history of left testis Leydig cell tumor (LCT, 3-month status after left radical orchiectomy, presented with a rapidly enlarging (0.6 cm to 3.7 cm right testicular mass. He underwent a right radical orchiectomy, sections interpreted as showing a similar Leydig cell-like oncocytic proliferation, with a differential diagnosis including metachronous bilateral LCT and metachronous bilateral testicular tumors associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (a.k.a. “testicular adrenal rest tumors” (TARTs and “testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome” (TTAGS. Additional workup demonstrated a markedly elevated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and elevated adrenal precursor steroid levels. He was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3BHSD type, and started on treatment. Metachronous bilateral testicular masses in adults should prompt consideration of adult presentation of CAH. Since all untreated CAH patients are expected to have elevated serum ACTH, formal exclusion of CAH prior to surgical resection of a testicular Leydig-like proliferation could be accomplished by screening for elevated serum ACTH.

  10. Prognostic factors and assessment of staging systems for head and neck soft tissue sarcomas in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, J.P.; Schmitz, S.; Machiels, J.P.; Galant, C.; Grégoire, V.; Lengelé, B.; Hamoir, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to analyse the outcome of patients diagnosed with head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTS) and to identify relevant prognostic factors. As well as this, we compared the prognostic value of two staging systems proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). Methods From 07/1988 to 01/2008, the charts of 42 adult patients w...

  11. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  12. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of soft tissue of the index finger in an adult. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, N; Bellarbi, S; El Mannouar, M; Errihani, H

    2012-12-01

    The primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) of soft tissues belong to the Ewing's tumors family and affects particularly the child. The localization of the disease at the extremities is very rare within the adult population and raises the problem of differential diagnosis with others tumors of the soft tissues. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a localized tumor, at the level of the second right finger, of six months evolution. The biopsy showed the infiltrating nature of the tumour; and the diagnosis of (PNET) was confirmed after the histological and immunohistochemical study. The extension assessment was negative and the patient had an amputation of the second and third rays of the right hand. Four years afterwards, the patient showed no recurrence or metastases.

  13. Comparison of Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms between Turkish and European-American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is the evaluation of the patient’s soft tissue profile. The main purpose of this study was to develop soft-tissue cephalometric standards for Turkish men and women and compare them with the cephalometric standards of normal European-American white people. The sample included 96 Turkish adults (48 women, 48 men, aged 20 to 27 years. Turkish subjects have increased facial convexity associated with retruded mandible, more obtuse lower face-throat angle, increased nasolabial angle and upper lip protrusion, deeper mentolabial sulcus, and smaller interlabial gap compared with European-American white people. It is appropriate to consider these differences during routine diagnosis and treatment planning of a Turkish patient or an American patient of European ancestry. Turkish males reveal more obtuse mandibular prognathism and upper lip protrusion, and smaller nasolabial angle than females.

  14. Variations of midline facial soft tissue thicknesses among three skeletal classes in Central Anatolian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa

    2015-11-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.

  15. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  16. Multicentric Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Synchronous and Metachronous Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Wirbel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man treated 2.5 years ago for synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor of bone located at the right proximal humerus and the right 5th finger presented now with complaints of pain in his right hip and wrist of two-month duration. Radiology and magnetic resonance revealed multicentric giant cell tumor lesions of the right proximal femur, the left ileum, the right distal radius, and the left distal tibia. The patient has an eighteen-year history of a healed osteosarcoma of the right tibia that was treated with chemotherapy, resection, and allograft reconstruction. A literature review establishes this as the first reported case of a patient with synchronous and metachronous multicentric giant cell tumor who also has a history of osteosarcoma.

  17. Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors is a rare known problem. However, no report of metachronus bilateralism was identified in the PubMed database published from India so far, where testicular cancer is relatively rare. We report the cases of two gentlemen. One had stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT at the age of 32 in 1990 and developed marker relapse on surveillance and had chemotherapy using cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles. He developed contralateral seminoma in the testis 13 years later. Another patient had left orchidectomy in 2003 for NSGCT, had adjuvant BEP for two cycles, and developed a contralateral testicular tumor 5 years later, which was also seminoma. As more patients with germ cell tumors are cured with chemotherapy, long-term problems become important. Contralateral testicular tumor is one of them. As it can be very late, many years of continued follow-up examination and patients′ awareness are necessary.

  18. Survival of breast cancer patients with synchronous or metachronous central nervous system metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, V.K.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Brandsma, D.; Beerepoot, L.V.; Sonke, G.S.; Loo, M. te

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a devastating complication for advanced breast cancer patients. This observational study examines the influence of patient, tumour and treatment characteristics on overall survival after synchronous or metachronous CNS metastases. METHODS

  19. Microfluidic propulsion by the metachronal beating of magnetic artificial cilia: a numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khaderi, Syed; Onck, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the effect of metachronal waves on the flow created by magnetically-driven plate-like artificial cilia in microchannels using numerical simulations. The simulations are performed using a coupled magneto-mechanical solid-fluid computational model that captures the physical interactions between the fluid flow, ciliary deformation and applied magnetic field. When a rotating magnetic field is applied to super-paramagnetic artificial cilia, they mimic the asymmetric motion of natural cilia, consisting of an effective and recovery stroke. When a phase-difference is prescribed between neighbouring cilia, metachronal waves develop. Due to the discrete nature of the cilia, the metachronal waves change direction when the phase difference becomes sufficiently large, resulting in antiplectic as well as symplectic metachrony. We show that the fluid flow created by the artificial cilia is significantly enhanced in the presence of metachronal waves and that the fluid flow becomes unidirectional. Antipl...

  20. [A Case of Metachronous Multiple Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma with FAP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Azusa; Chika, Noriyasu; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Iwama, Takeo; Akagi, Kiwamu; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, the result of a germ line mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. FAP can be associated with various extracolonic lesions, including thyroid cancer, which frequently occurs in women. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman diagnosed as having FAP with multiple metachronous thyroid papillary carcinomas. She underwent left thyroidectomy at the age of 19 years without a diagnosis of FAP. Multiple polyps in her stomach were detected by medical examination and more than 100 polyps in the colon were found by colonoscopy. She was referred to our hospital after a diagnosis of non-profuse FAP. Multiple tumors with a maximum diameter of 10mm were detected in the right lobe of the thyroid gland during the preoperative examination. Papillary carcinoma was suspected based on fine-needle aspiration cytology. We performed a right thyroidectomy after prophylactic colectomy. Pathological findings revealed a cribriform-morula variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient remains well after 2 year 6 months with no recurrence.

  1. Rheological fluid motion in tube by metachronal wave of cilia

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a theoretical study of a non-linear problem of rheological fluid transport in an axisymmetric tube by cilium. However, an attempt has been made to explain the role of cilia motion on the transport of fluid through the ductus efferentes of the male reproductive tract. Ostwald-de Waele power law viscous fluid has been considered to represent the rheological fluid to analyze pumping by means of a sequence of beat of cilia from row to row of cilia in a given row of cells and from one row of cells to the next (metachronal wave movement) under conditions for which the corresponding Reynolds number is small enough for inertial effects to be negligible and the wavelength to diameter ratio is large enough for the pressure to be considered uniform over the cross-section. Analyses and computations of the detailed fluid motions reveal that the time-averaged flow rates are directly dependent on epsilon, a non-dimensional measure involving the mean radius R of the tube and the cilia length. Thu...

  2. Helicobacter pylori Eradication for Prevention of Metachronous Recurrence after Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho; Shin, In Soo; Kim, Jin Bong; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-06-01

    Controversies persist regarding the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC for the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the core databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The rates of development of metachronous gastric cancer between the Helicobacter pylori eradication group vs. the non-eradication group were extracted and analyzed using risk ratios (RRs). A random effect model was applied. The methodological quality of the enrolled studies was assessed by the Risk of Bias table and by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was evaluated through the funnel plot with trim and fill method, Egger's test, and by the rank correlation test. Ten studies (2 randomized and 8 non-randomized/5,914 patients with EGC or dysplasia) were identified and analyzed. Overall, the Helicobacter pylori eradication group showed a RR of 0.467 (95% CI: 0.362-0.602, P < 0.001) for the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of EGC. Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. Publication bias was not detected. Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC reduces the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer.

  3. Metachronal waves in the flagellar beating of Volvox and their hydrodynamic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-07-06

    Groups of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are capable of coordinating their beating over large scales, routinely exhibiting collective dynamics in the form of metachronal waves. The origin of this behavior--possibly influenced by both mechanical interactions and direct biological regulation--is poorly understood, in large part due to a lack of quantitative experimental studies. Here we characterize in detail flagellar coordination on the surface of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, an emerging model organism for flagellar dynamics. Our studies reveal for the first time that the average metachronal coordination observed is punctuated by periodic phase defects during which synchrony is partial and limited to specific groups of cells. A minimal model of hydrodynamically coupled oscillators can reproduce semi-quantitatively the characteristics of the average metachronal dynamics, and the emergence of defects. We systematically study the model's behaviour by assessing the effect of changing intrinsic rotor characteristics, including oscillator stiffness and the nature of their internal driving force, as well as their geometric properties and spatial arrangement. Our results suggest that metachronal coordination follows from deformations in the oscillators' limit cycles induced by hydrodynamic stresses, and that defects result from sufficiently steep local biases in the oscillators' intrinsic frequencies. Additionally, we find that random variations in the intrinsic rotor frequencies increase the robustness of the average properties of the emergent metachronal waves.

  4. Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-12-01

    From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves.

  5. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT. We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for primary invasive bladder TCC from 1989 to 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The prognostic factors of UUT TCC were determined by multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazards regression model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also used to assess the variable incidence of UUT TCC according to different risk factors. Twenty-two patients (4.6%. developed metachronous UUT TCC. Multiplicity, prostatic urethral involvement by the bladder cancer and the associated carcinoma in situ (CIS were significant and independent factors affecting the occurrence of metachronous UUT TCC (P = 0.0425, 0.0082, and 0.0006, respectively. These results were supported, to some extent, by analysis of the UUT TCC disease-free rate by the Kaplan-Meier method, whereby patients with prostatic urethral involvement or with associated CIS demonstrated a significantly lower metachronous UUT TCC disease-free rate than patients without prostatic urethral involvement or without associated CIS (log-rank test, P = 0.0116 and 0.0075, respectively. Multiple tumors, prostatic urethral involvement and associated CIS were risk factors for metachronous UUT TCC, a conclusion that may be useful for designing follow-up strategies for primary invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.

  6. Case of a sigmoid colon cancer with metachronous metastases to the mesorectum and the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjimarcou Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Sigmoid colon cancer metachronous metastases commonly occur in the liver and lungs with sporadic reports also to the spleen, stomach, thyroid gland, abdominal wall and upper urinary tract. This is a rare case of metachronous metastases invading the mesorectum and the abdominal wall. Case presentation A 72-year-old female underwent sigmoidectomy for stage I (T2N0 M0 sigmoid colon cancer in May 2008. In June 2009, an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor 2 cm in size at the lower anterior mesorectum and a second mass 2 cm in size at the anterior abdominal wall midline. Total colonoscopy showed no mucosal lesion. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was normal. A biopsy of the mesorectum tumor showed similar histologic characteristics with the primary tumor. Since no other site of recurrence was identified, an abdominoperineal resection was attempted. During the operation and after the removal of the incision recurrence, sinus bradycardia and signs of myocardial ischemia were noticed. A loop transverse colostomy was immediately perfomed and the operation was terminated. Postoperative cardiologic examination revealed an acute myocardium infract. Chemo-radiation of the mesorectum tumor and re-evaluation for surgical excision was decided. Conclusion Metachronous metastasis of the mesorectum from sigmoid colon cancer is extremely rare. Although patterns of lymphatic spread from rectal cancer to sigmoid colon have recently been demonstrated, there is no evidence of metachronous mesorectum invasion from sigmoid colon cancer. This could be the issue for future trials.

  7. Effects of varying inter-limb spacing to limb length ratio in metachronal swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong Kuan; Merkel, Rachael; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp, krill and crayfish swim by rhythmic paddling of four to five pairs of closely spaced limbs. Each pair is phase-shifted in time relative to the neighboring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave that travels in the direction of animal motion. The broad goal of this study is to investigate how the mechanical design of the swimming limbs affect scalability of metachronal swimming in terms of limb-based Reynolds number (Re). A scaled robotic model of metachronal paddling was developed, consisting of four pairs of hinged acrylic plates actuated using stepper motors that were immersed in a rectangular tank containing water-glycerin fluid medium. 2D PIV measurements show that the propulsive jets transition from being primarily horizontal (thrust-producing direction) at Re of order 10 to angled vertically at Re of order 100. The ratio of inter-limb spacing to limb length among metachronal swimming organisms ranges between 0.2 to 0.65. 2D PIV will be used to examine the jets generated between adjacent limbs for varying inter-limb spacing to limb length ratios. The effect of increasing this ratio to beyond the biologically observed range will be discussed.

  8. Synchronous and metachronous occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma: A review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Hamaloglu; Serdar Topaloglu; Arif Ozdemir; Ahmet Ozenc

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of both primary gastric lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in the same patient is a rare entity. The possible causative factors of synchronous or metachronous occurrence of both malignancies and varieties in the treatment modalities are reviewed according to published cases in English language medical literature.

  9. Metachronous Ampulla of Vater Carcinoma after Curative-Intent Surgery for Klatskin Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita, D; Calita, M; Grasu, M; Dumitru, R; Gramaticu, I; Croitoru, A; Ionescu, M; Dumitrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Resection represents the single hope for long-term survival in a patient diagnosed with a hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor). However, the largest part of these patients develops a recurrent disease. Second metachronous periampullary cancers after a curative-intent surgery for a Klatskin tumor represent an exceptional pathology, and the management of these patients was poorly documented. Hereby, it is presented a 32-year-old patient with bile duct resection, left hemi-hepatectomy and loco-regional lymph nodes dissection, for a type IIIB Bismuth-Corlette Klatskin tumor, which, furthermore, 6 years later, underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy for a metachronous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The management and outcomes were discussed in the reported case, along with a literature review of the previously published patients. In conclusion, a metachronous periampullary carcinoma after resection of a Klatskin tumor should be distinguished from a loco-regional recurrent disease. While most of the patients with recurrences are suitable to only chemotherapy and or radiotherapy, a second curative-intent surgery (i.e., pancreaticoduodenectomy) is feasible in the largest part of the patients with a metachronous cancer, with good long-term outcomes.

  10. An Outer Arm Dynein Conformational Switch Is Required for Metachronal Synchrony of Motile Cilia in Planaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2010-01-01

    Motile cilia mediate the flow of mucus and other fluids across the surface of specialized epithelia in metazoans. Efficient clearance of peri-ciliary fluids depends on the precise coordination of ciliary beating to produce metachronal waves. The role of individual dynein motors and the mechanical feedback mechanisms required for this process are not well understood. Here we used the ciliated epithelium of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to dissect the role of outer arm dynein motors in the metachronal synchrony of motile cilia. We demonstrate that animals that completely lack outer dynein arms display a significant decline in beat frequency and an inability of cilia to coordinate their oscillations and form metachronal waves. Furthermore, lack of a key mechanosensitive regulatory component (LC1) yields a similar phenotype even though outer arms still assemble in the axoneme. The lack of metachrony was not due simply to a decrease in ciliary beat frequency, as reducing this parameter by altering medium viscosity did not affect ciliary coordination. In addition, we did not observe a significant temporal variability in the beat cycle of impaired cilia. We propose that this conformational switch provides a mechanical feedback system within outer arm dynein that is necessary to entrain metachronal synchrony. PMID:20844081

  11. A continuum model for flow induced by metachronal coordination between beating cilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussong, J.; Breugem, W.-P.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this numerical study we investigate the flow induced by metachronal coordination between beating cilia arranged in a densely packed layer by means of a continuum model. The continuum approach allows us to treat the problem as two-dimensional as well as stationary, in a reference frame moving with

  12. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  13. Facial soft tissue depths in French adults: variability, specificity and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Santos, Frédéric; Dutailly, Bruno; Coqueugniot, Hélène

    2013-09-10

    Facial soft tissue depths (FSTD) are used in facial approximation to render the shape of the face, and are traditionally published specifically to population, corpulence, and sex amongst other factors. This paper investigates the variability of FSTD collected at 37 landmarks on 500 CT (computed tomography) scans of French living individuals. The specificity of the sample is evaluated by comparing values with six published datasets of various populations and recording techniques. Apart from a significant influence of the corpulence, FSTD show negligible variations with age and sex. The differences between the French sample and other datasets contradict the hypothesis of major influence of population, and underline sample specificity linked with technique and methodology of data measurement. Regression equations were computed to estimate FSTD using age, sex, facial build, and craniometrics, leading to more accurate results if such factors are known. Nevertheless, application of the pooled T-table (Tallied-Facial-Soft-Tissue-Depth-Data) has been validated according to the French sample.

  14. Low Incidence of Synchronous or Metachronous Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancer with Undifferentiated Histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Hyuk Park

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer with undifferentiated histology has different clinicopathologic characteristics compared to differentiated type gastric cancer. We aimed to compare the risk of synchronous or metachronous tumors after curative resection of early gastric cancer (EGC via endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD, according to the histologic differentiation of the primary lesion.Clinicopathological data of patients with initial-onset EGC curatively resected via ESD between January 2007 and November 2014 in a single institution were reviewed. We analyzed the incidence of synchronous or metachronous tumors after ESD with special reference to the differentiation status of the primary lesion.Of 1,560 patients with EGC who underwent curative resection via ESD, 1,447 had differentiated type cancers, and 113 had undifferentiated type cancers. The cumulative incidence of metachronous or synchronous tumor after ESD was higher in the differentiated cancer group than in the undifferentiated cancer group (P = 0.008. Incidence of metachronous or synchronous tumor was 4.8% and 1.2% per person-year in the differentiated and undifferentiated cancer groups, respectively. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that undifferentiated cancers were associated with a low risk of synchronous or metachronous tumors after adjusting for confounding variables (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.287 [0.090-0.918].The rate of synchronous or metachronous tumors after curative ESD was significantly lower for undifferentiated cancers compare to differentiated cancers. These findings suggest that ESD should be actively considered as a possible treatment for undifferentiated type EGCs.

  15. Characterisation of metachronal waves on the surface of the spherical colonial alga Volvox carteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Morez, Constant; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Volvox carteri is a spherical colonial alga, consisting of thousands of biflagellate cells. The somatic cells embedded on the surface of the colony beat their flagella in a coordinated fashion, producing a net fluid motion. Using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) we have been able to accurately analyse the time-dependent flow fields around such colonies. The somatic cells on the colony surface may beat their flagella in a perfectly synchronised fashion, or may exhibit metachronal waves travelling on the surface. We analyse the dependence of this synchronisation on fundamental parameters in the system such as colony radius, characterise the speed and wavelength of the observed metachronal waves, and investigate possible models to account for the exhibited behaviour.

  16. Metachronous Primary Adenocarcinoma of Distal and Proximal Ureter within Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the upper urinary tract, particularly of the ureter, is an extremely rare entity. We are reporting on the first case of metachronous appearance in one patient. The 71-year-old man underwent partial ureterectomy (R0 resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the left distal ureter. 3 years later, nephroureterectomy had to be performed because of metachronous primary adenocarcinoma of the left proximal ureter. Extensive examinations revealed no evidence for further malignancies at both times. Primary adenocarcinoma of the upper urinary tract is rare but should be kept in mind, especially in patients with chronic inflammation and urinary tract obstruction. Due to the low incidence, there is a lack of data regarding its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and optimal treatment.

  17. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  18. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Ifosfamide, Cisplatin, Adriamycin and Mitomycin (IMAP for High risk Adult Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi Mohammad Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To define efficacy of pre-operative chemotherapy in down staging of advanced non-round cell soft tissue sarcomas. From Sep 2002 to Dec 2005, 70 patients were treated by Ifosfamid, MESNA, cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin and subsequent surgery. Postoperatively, patients received radiotherapy in cases of microscopically incomplete resection or local recurrence. The median age of the patients was 34 years and the median tumor size was 14 cm. According to AJCC classification 46 patients had stage 3 and 24 had stage 4 diseases. The most common subtypes were MFH and leiomyosarcoma. The most common sites of tumors were lower extremity and trunk. Toxicity grades three or higher consisted of nausea, Leucopenia and infection. About 50% of the patients received G-CSF. Response to chemotherapy was assessable in 63 patients; 9 patients achieved complete response and 16 showed partial response. Disease progressed in 8 and did not change in 37. The best response was seen with MFH, fibrosarcoma and synovial sarcoma. After chemotherapy seventy percent of patients underwent complete surgery. Disease relapsed in 41 patients and twenty two patients died of metastasis. Median survival of patients was 30 months. IMAP plus G-CSF is safe and effective as preoperative chemotherapy in some subtypes of sarcomas, although the metastasis problem has not been eliminated

  19. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  20. Analyzing the "CareGap": assessing gaps in adherence to clinical guidelines in adult soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Zeev; Goldbraich, Esther; Farkash, Ariel; Torresani, Michele; Bertulli, Rossella; Restifo, Nicola; Locatelli, Paolo; Casali, Paolo; Carmeli, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are gaining popularity as tools that assist physicians in optimizing medical care. These systems typically comply with evidence-based medicine and are designed with input from domain experts. Nonetheless, deviations from CDSS recommendations are abundant across a broad spectrum of disorders, raising the question as to why this phenomenon exists. Here, we analyze this gap in adherence to a clinical guidelines-based CDSS by examining the physician treatment decisions for 1329 adult soft tissue sarcoma patients in northern Italy using patient-specific parameters. Dubbing this analysis "CareGap", we find that deviations correlate strongly with certain disease features such as local versus metastatic clinical presentation. We also notice that deviations from the guideline-based CDSS suggestions occur more frequently for patients with shorter survival time. Such observations can direct physicians' attention to distinct patient cohorts that are prone to higher deviation levels from clinical practice guidelines. This illustrates the value of CareGap analysis in assessing quality of care for subsets of patients within a larger pathology.

  1. Metachronous adenocarcinoma of the remnant oesophagus 15 years following multimodal therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Croghan, S

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man underwent neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and a 2 stage oesophagectomy for a junctional oesophageal tumour in 1996. In March 2012, a metachronous oesophageal tumour was identified, 7cm above the anastomotic margin, on a background of non-inflamed squamous mucosa. He is currently being managed with chemo-radiotherapy. Oesophageal cancer is associated with a historically poor survival rate, with primary concerns being local recurrence or death from disseminated disease. This case highlights the challenges which must be faced, as treatment strategies improve and consequently survival rates increase.

  2. Multiple nephron-sparing procedures in solitary kidney with recurrent, metachronous, nonfamilial renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosnik, Israel P; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Nelson, Rendon; Polascik, Thomas J

    2006-12-01

    Patients with metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma pose a significant challenge given the high mortality of renal cell carcinoma and the poor quality of life should dialysis become necessary. In addition, patients may be subject to morbidity due to potential multiple treatments of the multifocal renal tumors. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with multifocal, bilateral clear cell carcinoma who maintained a minimal change in serum creatinine after undergoing unilateral radical nephrectomy, subsequent percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous cryoablation, laparoscopic cryoablation, and open partial nephrectomy for recurrent renal cell carcinoma in a solitary kidney.

  3. Unusual clinical course of metachronous melanomas of the upper digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Dabrowski; Krzysztof Zinkiewicz; Justyna Szumilo; Witold Zgodzinski; Grzegorz Cwik; Tomasz Skoczylas; Grzegorz Wallner

    2005-01-01

    Melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare, highly malignant neoplasm of poor prognosis. This is description of an unusual case of surgically treated patient with two metachronous malignant melanomas of the stomach and the esophagus. The former lesion was located in the cardia and effectively treated with R0 total gastrectomy. The latter was recognized after 67 mo and appeared as irregular, flat, pigmented areas located in the mid esophagus. Subtotal esophagectomy via right-sided thoracotomy, laparotomy and left-sided cervicotomy was performed, but neoplastic cells were found in distal margin (R1). Fourteen months after esophagectomy multiple lung metastases were detected. Patient died 2 mo later.

  4. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvadip Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words - Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary, we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient.

  5. Metachronous Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Acute Leukemia after Liver Transplantation for Cholangiocellular Carcinoma: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzljak, Anna; Košuta, Iva; Škrtićl, Anita; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    The synchronous or metachronous coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with solid and hematologic neoplasms has been addressed in a non-transplant population. However, the association with primary hepatic neoplasms and leukemias is uncommon. Scarce data exist considering association of GISTs and other neoplasms in a transplant population where long-term immunosuppression carries the additional burden of de novo malignancy. We present a case of posttransplant metachronous GIST and acute biphenotypic leukemia in a patient transplanted for intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma, emphasizing the possible link between mechanisms of carcinogenesis and influence of other factors upon their development. PMID:23626555

  6. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Bauer, S;

    2007-01-01

    No standard treatment is established for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy with anthracyclines and ifosfamide, given either in combination or sequentially. Exatecan (DX-8951f) is a totally synthetic analogue of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor camptothecin, which...... modification. The main toxicity was haematotoxicity with grade 3/4 neutropenia in 49%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 23%, and grade 3/4 anaemia in 15% of patients, respectively. Non-haematological toxicity consisted mainly of grade 2/3 dyspnoea in 36% of patients and grade 2/3 fatigue in 28%. One treatment...

  7. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  8. Regional placement of bone mineral mass, fat mass, and lean soft tissue mass in young adult rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W; Evans, W D; Cobner, D M; Eston, R G

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether differences existed in the regional placement of bone mineral mass (BMM), fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) between playing units in Rugby Union Football and between players and control subjects. Thirty young adult rugby players and 21 controls participated in the study. Players were assigned to groups as either forwards (n = 15) or backs (n = 15). Control subjects were matched (n = 15) to rugby players using the mean BMI of forwards and backs. BMM, FM and LSTM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each subject was partitioned into regional anatomical segments comprising the head, right and left arms, trunk, and right and left legs. Measurements were summed for the arms and legs respectively. One-way ANOVA was used to differentiate between- and within-groups; Tukey's post-hoc test was applied to identify pairwise differences. The alpha level was set throughout at p = 0.01. Principal components analysis was utilized to contrast the regional segments of each tissue in each of the groups. Forwards exhibited larger absolute (kg) amounts of BMM, FM and LSTM than backs or controls. In relative terms (%) there were no significant differences in BMM(%) between forwards, backs and controls in the arms and legs, but differences did occur between backs and controls at the trunk (2.9 vs. 2.5%). Backs had a significantly larger LSTM(%) than forwards at the arms (84.4 vs. 76.5%), legs (80.0 vs. 71.9%) and trunk (89.2 vs. 79.0%), whereas forwards had a greater FM(%) than backs at the arms (18.7 vs. 10.6%), legs (23.1 vs. 14.7%), and trunk (18.4 vs. 8.0%). The distribution of BMM showed a lower body-upper body contrast in forwards, a trunk-extremity contrast in backs and an arm-lower body contrast in controls. FM exhibited a trunk-extremity contrast in all three groups, while LSTM displayed an arm-lower body contrast in all three groups. It is concluded that there are

  9. Soft calender; Soft calender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This facility is a soft nip calender with both hot roll and soft roll. Since a multi-zone controlled shim CD roll is used as the soft roll, profile control of a caliper is possible only by deflection control of the roll without any peripheral facility. Main specifications: (1) Kinds of paper: newspaper paper, medium-quality paper, (2) Designed processing speed: 1,100m/min, (3) Paper width: 8,300mm. Features: (1) Possible of keeping paper strength by soft nip, (2) Soft paper surface, high smoothness and excellent gloss by using the hot roll, (3) Uniform ink absorbing by a constant paper bulk density, (4) Large mass even in kinds of paper including much DIP by possible low-linear pressure operation. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  11. Synchronous lung tumours in a patient with metachronous colorectal carcinoma and a germline MSH2 mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canney, A

    2012-02-01

    Mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes are characterised by microsatellite instability and are implicated in carcinogenesis. This mutation susceptible phenotype has been extensively studied in patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon carcinoma, but little is known of the contribution of such mutations in other tumour types, particularly non-small-cell lung carcinoma. This report describes the occurrence of two synchronous lung tumours, one mimicking a metastatic colon carcinoma, in a male patient with a history of metachronous colonic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry supported a pulmonary origin for both lesions. Mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry showed loss of MSH2 and MSH6 expression in both colonic tumours and in one lung tumour showing enteric differentiation. Subsequent mutational analysis demonstrated a deleterious germline mutation of the MSH2 mismatch repair gene. The significance of these findings and the practical diagnostic difficulties encountered in this case are discussed.

  12. Metachronous multifocal desmoid-type fibromatoses along the neuraxis with adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K H Carlos; Charlton, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Chaseling, Raymond; Owler, Brian K

    2010-10-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis, aggressive fibromatosis, or desmoid tumor is an uncommon benign but locally aggressive fibroblastic lesion. Although intraabdominal desmoid-type fibromatoses are well described in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome, their occurrence along the neuraxis is extremely rare. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with metachronous intracranial and spinal desmoid-type fibromatoses with preceding medulloblastoma. He was ultimately diagnosed with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. This is the first reported case of spinal desmoid-type fibromatosis in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. The identification of an underlying genetic instability allows for screening to detect lesions and institute measures to avoid preventable mortality from nonneurological tumors.

  13. Surgical resection of synchronous and metachronous lung and liver metastases of colorectal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinseok; Park, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Surgical resection of isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer is an established procedure, with a 5-year survival rate of about 50%. However, the role of surgical resections in patients with both hepatic and pulmonary metastases is not well established. We aimed to analyze overall survival of these patients and associated factors. Methods Data retrospectively collected from 66 patients who underwent both hepatic and pulmonary metastasectomy after colorectal cancer surgery from August 2002 through August 2013 were analyzed. In univariate analysis, the log-rank test compared patient survival between groups. P < 0.1 was considered indicative of significance. Multivariate analysis of the significance data using a Cox proportional hazard model identified factors associated with overall survival. The synchronous group (n = 57) was defined as patients who had metastasectomy within 3 months from primary colorectal cancer surgery. The remaining nine patients constituted the metachronous group. Results Median follow-up was 126 months from the primary colorectal cancer surgery. The 5-year survival was 73.4%. There was no difference in overall survival between the synchronous and metachronous groups, consistent with previous studies. Distribution (involving one hemiliver or both, P = 0.010 in multivariate analysis) of liver metastases and multiplicity of the pulmonary metastasis (P = 0.039) were predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusion Sequential or simultaneous resection of both hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer resulted in good long-term survival in selected patients. Thus, an aggressive surgical approach and multidisciplinary decision making with surgeons seems to be justified. PMID:28203555

  14. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  15. CNS Metastases from Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: Are They Really So Rare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To check whether primary involvement of brain/spinal cord by bone/soft tissue sarcomas’ metastases in children is as rare as described and to present various morphological forms of bone/soft tissue sarcomas’ CNS metastases. Methods. Patients with first diagnosis in 1999–2014 treated at single center were included with whole course of disease evaluation. Brain/spinal canal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography were performed in cases suspicious for CNS metastases. Extension from skull/vertebral column metastases was excluded. Results. 550 patients were included. MRI revealed CNS metastases in 19 patients (incidence 3.45%, 14 boys, aged 5–22 years. There were 12/250 osteosarcoma cases, 2/200 Ewing’s sarcoma, 1/50 chondrosarcoma, 3/49 rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS, and 1/1 malignant mesenchymoma. There were 10 single metastases and 7 cases of multiple ones; in 2 RMS cases only leptomeningeal spread in brain and spinal cord was found. Calcified metastases were found in 3 patients and hemorrhagic in 4. In one RMS patient there were numerous solid, cystic, hemorrhagic lesions and leptomeningeal spread. Conclusions. CNS metastases are rare and late in children with bone/soft tissue sarcomas, although in our material more frequent (3.45% than in other reports (0.7%. Hematogenous spread to brain and hemorrhagic and calcified lesions dominated in osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma tended to metastasize to skull bones. Soft tissue sarcomas presented various morphological forms.

  16. CNS Metastases from Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: Are They Really So Rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Duczkowski, Marek; Bragoszewska, Hanna; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Iwanowska, Beata; Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Madzik, Jaroslaw; Bilska, Katarzyna; Raciborska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To check whether primary involvement of brain/spinal cord by bone/soft tissue sarcomas' metastases in children is as rare as described and to present various morphological forms of bone/soft tissue sarcomas' CNS metastases. Methods. Patients with first diagnosis in 1999–2014 treated at single center were included with whole course of disease evaluation. Brain/spinal canal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography were performed in cases suspicious for CNS metastases. Extension from skull/vertebral column metastases was excluded. Results. 550 patients were included. MRI revealed CNS metastases in 19 patients (incidence 3.45%), 14 boys, aged 5–22 years. There were 12/250 osteosarcoma cases, 2/200 Ewing's sarcoma, 1/50 chondrosarcoma, 3/49 rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and 1/1 malignant mesenchymoma. There were 10 single metastases and 7 cases of multiple ones; in 2 RMS cases only leptomeningeal spread in brain and spinal cord was found. Calcified metastases were found in 3 patients and hemorrhagic in 4. In one RMS patient there were numerous solid, cystic, hemorrhagic lesions and leptomeningeal spread. Conclusions. CNS metastases are rare and late in children with bone/soft tissue sarcomas, although in our material more frequent (3.45%) than in other reports (0.7%). Hematogenous spread to brain and hemorrhagic and calcified lesions dominated in osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma tended to metastasize to skull bones. Soft tissue sarcomas presented various morphological forms.

  17. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas (Extremity Sarcoma Closed to Entry as of 5/30/07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  19. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy for metachronic metastases of small intestine adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais-Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatectomy has been the standard treatment for metachronic metastases of non-colorectal (NCR origin, mainly when the disease-free interval is more than two years. Laparoscopic hepatectomy has become the golden standard mainly for left side resections, due to lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, early recovery and good cosmetic outcome. The authors report the case of a female patient with two metachronic metastases (ten years of disease-free survival, of non-colorectal origin (adenocarcinoma of small intestine, treated by laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy (left hepatic lobectomy with success. The postoperative progress was satisfactory. To date, the patient has presented no tumoral recurrence (six months of follow-up period. Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy can be satisfactorily performed in selected cases of hepatic metastasis. This approach presents low morbidity and good cosmetic result. The lack of alternative treatments and the poor prognosis of untreated cases have justified surgical resection in order to increase overall survival. Nevertheless, this approach should be performed by hepatic surgery expertise teams trained on advanced laparoscopic procedures.A hepatectomia tem sido o tratamento padrão para metástase de origem não colorretal (NCR metacrônica, principalmente quando o intervalo livre de doença é maior do que dois anos. A hepatectomia por laparoscopia tem se tornado padrão principalmente para as ressecções à esquerda, haja vista a menor morbidade, menor tempo de internação, reabilitação precoce e melhor resultado estético. Os autores relatam um caso de paciente com duas metástases metacrônicas (10 anos de sobrevida livre de doença, de etiologia não colorretal (adenocarcinoma de intestino delgado, tratada com segmentectomia lateral esquerda (lobectomia hepática esquerda laparoscópica. Paciente apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória sem recidiva (seis meses de seguimento. Segmentectomia

  20. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy Improves the Prognosis of Unresectable Adult Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko, E-mail: tsujii@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Bessho, Hiroki; Takagi, Ryo; Morikawa, Takamichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Tonogi, Morio [Department of Oral Medicine, Tokyo Dental College, Ichihara (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with 70.4 GyE for unresectable bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 46.2 years) were enrolled in this prospective study on C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fractions (fr) between April 2001 and February 2008. The primary end points were acute and late reactions of normal tissues, local control rate, and overall survival rate. The secondary end point was efficacy of the treatment in comparison to historical results with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate for all patients were 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.0-100%) and 74.1% (95% CI = 57.5-90.6%), respectively. Acute reaction of Grade 3 or more was observed in only 1 patient. With regard to late reactions, visual loss was observed in 1 patient and a Grade 3 reaction of the maxillary bone was observed in 4 patients. A comparison with historical results revealed that the local control rate with 70.4 GyE was significantly higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 91.8% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the overall survival with 70.4 GyE tended to be higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 74.1% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.09). Conclusion: C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fr for bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck appears to be effective with acceptable toxicities in comparison to conventional RT and C-ion RT with lower doses.

  1. [A Case of Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome Associated with Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis from Ascending Colon Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Tokura, Tomohisa; Iwama, Masahiro; Akaishi, Takanobu; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome associated with metachronous metastasis to the ovary from ascending colon cancer. A 65-year-old woman underwent curative surgery for ascending colon cancer at another hospital. A follow-up CT carried out 3 months after the surgery revealed a right ovarian tumor and a large amount of ascites. The patient was diagnosed with ovarian metastasis from ascending colon cancer with carcinomatous peritonitis. Palliative care was recommended, and she presented at our department for a second opinion. In spite of a large amount of ascites and pleural effusion, no disseminating tumor was detected on contrast-enhanced CT at our hospital, and we recommended that she undergo a diagnostic laparotomy. The laparotomy was negative for carcinomatous peritonitis and a right oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological findings indicated that the ovarian tumor was consistent with metastasis from ascending colon cancer. After the surgery, we initiated chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab and the symptoms were well controlled. A follow-up CT carried out 11 months after the surgery revealed a left ovarian tumor and increased ascites, and the patient underwent a left oophorectomy. Then, chemotherapy with the same regimen was administered for 12 months, and she did not develop any signs of recurrence for 27 months after the surgery. Ovarian metastasis from colon cancer may occasionally cause pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and it is important to be aware of the usefulness of oophorectomy for the control of ascites and pleural effusion.

  2. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish ...... contribute to further treatment individualisation of advanced STS patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  3. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcomas in children, adolescents, and young adults: single institution experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Ossama M; Khatua, Soumen; Mukherjee, Devashis; Olar, Adriana; Lazar, Alexander; Luthra, Raja; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Ketonen, Leena; Zaky, Wafik

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature reporting the outcome of intracranial sarcomas (IS) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA). A multimodal therapeutic approach is commonly used, with no well-established treatment consensus. We conducted a retrospective review of CAYA with IS, treated at our institution, to determine their clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes. Immunohistochemistry (PDGFRA and EGFR) and DNA sequencing were performed on 5 tumor samples. A literature review of IS was also conducted. We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 7 years) with a primary diagnosis of IS between 1990 and 2015. Diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma (n = 9), chondrosarcoma (n = 2), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2). Five patients underwent upfront gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor. The 5-drug regimen (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and ifosfamide) was the most common treatment used. Nine patients died due to progression or recurrence (n = 8) or secondary malignancy (n = 1). The median follow-up period of the 4 surviving patients was 1.69 years (range 1.44-5.17 years). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 21 and 44 %, respectively. BRAF, TP53, KRAS, KIT, ERBB2, MET, RET, ATM, and EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 tissue samples. All 5 samples were immunopositive for PDGFRA, and only 2 were positive for EGFR. IS remain a therapeutic challenge due to high progression and recurrence rates. Collaborative multi-institutional studies are warranted to delineate a treatment consensus and investigate tumor biology to improve the disease outcome.

  4. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish...... prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based therapy. Methods: A retrospective, exploratory analysis was performed on data from 1337 advanced STS patients who received first-time ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy. For predictive factor analysis, 660 patients treated with doxorubicin...

  5. Metachronous cardiac and cerebral sarcomas: case report with focus on molecular findings and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Angela; Giovenali, Paolo; La Starza, Roberta; Mecucci, Cristina; Montesi, Giampaolo; Pasquino, Stefano; Pierini, Tiziana; Ragni, Temistocle; Sidoni, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Although multiple primary malignancies are relatively rare, they have increased in frequency over the last decades, partly because of advances in diagnosis and therapy. This report describes for the first time the case of a patient with past occupational exposure to asbestos and no family history of cancer who developed 2 rare primary malignancies: a cardiac sarcoma and a gliosarcoma 11 months later. Molecular-cytogenetic studies did not identify common lesions to these 2 rare metachronous sarcomas. The gliosarcoma was associated with monosomy 10 and underlying PTEN monoallelic loss, which has been recurrently observed. In the cardiac sarcoma, MDM2 amplification and CDKN2AB/9p21 biallelic deletion suggested intimal sarcoma. No causal relationship was found between cardiac sarcoma and asbestos exposure, although MDM2 abnormalities were linked to malignant mesothelioma.

  6. Metachronous Anal Canal and Prostate Cancers with Simultaneous Definitive Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Miles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal canal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1.3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Prostate cancer incidence is much higher and accounts for 27.6% of all malignancies in men. Treatment guidelines for anal cancer involve radiotherapy to the primary site and draining lymphatics while treatment for prostate cancer can also include pelvic radiotherapy. The literature is silent on the optimum course of action when these two malignancies are found synchronously or metachronously. Herein, we report a case of a patient diagnosed with intermediate risk prostate cancer who, prior to definitive therapy for this first malignancy, was also diagnosed with anal canal cancer. We conclude that a simultaneous approach with radiation therapy and chemotherapy with subsequent boost to the prostate is recommended. Screening for synchronous prostate cancer in male anal canal cancer patients is probably indicated and may preclude suboptimal treatment for a second occult primary.

  7. Soft Drop

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic r...

  8. Metastatic Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma 6 Years After Curative Resection for Ampullary Adenocarcinoma. Metastatic Disease from Initial Primary or Metachronous Tumour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Giakoustidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context With patients surviving longer after pancreatic resection, the challenges now is the management of the unresolved longerterm issues. Case report A 53-year-old woman with painless obstructive jaundice, underwent a pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a pT3N0M0 ampullary adenocarcinoma in 2001 (patchy chronic pancreatitis with mucinous metaplasia of background pancreatic duct epithelium and acinar atrophy were noted. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, at month 54 she required a pulmonary wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma, followed by a pulmonary relapse at 76 months when she underwent 6 neoadjuvant cycles of gemcitabine/capecitabine and a left pneumonectomy. Finally 7 years after the initial Whipple’s, a single 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG avid pancreatic tail lesion led to completion pancreatectomy for a well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with clear resection margins albeit peripancreatic adipose tissue infiltration. On review all resected tumour cells had identical immunophenotype (CK7+/CK20-/MUC1+/MUC2- as that of the primary. She is currently asymptomatic on follow-up. Conclusions These findings suggest that in selected cases even in the presence of pulmonary metastasis, repeat resections could result in long-term survival of patients with metachronous ampullary cancer. Second, even ampullary tumours maybe should be regarded as index tumors in the presence of ductal precursor lesions in the resection specimen. Three distant metastases, particularly if long after the initial tumour, should instigate a search for metachronous tumour, especially in the presence of field change in the initial specimen. Risk-adapted follow-up protocols with recognition of such factors could result in cost-effective surveillance and potentially improved outcomes.

  9. Genetic features of metachronous esophageal cancer developed in Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast cancer long-term survivors: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Boldrin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of novel therapeutic drugs and regimens for cancer treatment has led to improvements in patient long-term survival. This success has, however, been accompanied by the increased occurrence of second primary cancers. Indeed, patients who received regional radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL or breast cancer may develop, many years later, a solid metachronous tumor in the irradiated field. Despite extensive epidemiological studies, little information is available on the genetic changes involved in the pathogenesis of these solid therapy-related neoplasms. METHODS: Using microsatellite markers located in 7 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in sporadic esophageal cancer, we investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH and microsatellite instability (MSI in 46 paired (normal and tumor samples. Twenty samples were of esophageal carcinoma developed in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors: 14 squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC and 6 adenocarcinomas (EADC, while 26 samples, used as control, were of sporadic esophageal cancer (15 ESCC and 11 EADC. RESULTS: We found that, though the overall LOH frequency at the studied chromosomal regions was similar among metachronous and sporadic tumors, the latter exhibited a statistically different higher LOH frequency at 17q21.31 (p = 0.018. By stratifying for tumor histotype we observed that LOH at 3p24.1, 5q11.2 and 9p21.3 were more frequent in ESCC than in EADC suggesting a different role of the genetic determinants located nearby these regions in the development of the two esophageal cancer histotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results strengthen the genetic diversity among ESCC and EADC whether they occurred spontaneously or after therapeutic treatments. The presence of histotype-specific alterations in esophageal carcinoma arisen in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors suggests that their transformation process, though the putative different etiological origin, may retrace

  10. Anatomic Tumor Location Influences the Success of Contemporary Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Among Adults With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korah, Mariam P., E-mail: mariam.philip@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Deyrup, Andrea T. [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Monson, David K.; Oskouei, Shervin V. [Department of Orthopedics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Weiss, Sharon W. [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Landry, Jerome; Godette, Karen D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of anatomic location in the upper extremity (UE) vs. lower extremity (LE) on the presentation and outcomes of adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2008, 118 patients underwent limb-sparing surgery (LSS) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent for nonrecurrent extremity STS. RT was delivered preoperatively in 96 and postoperatively in 22 patients. Lesions arose in the UE in 28 and in the LE in 90 patients. Patients with UE lesions had smaller tumors (4.5 vs. 9.0 cm, p < 0.01), were more likely to undergo a prior excision (43 vs. 22%, p = 0.03), to have close or positive margins after resection (71 vs. 49%, p = 0.04), and to undergo postoperative RT (32 vs. 14%, p = 0.04). Results: Five-year actuarial local recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates for the entire group were 85 and 74%, with no difference observed between the UE and LE cohorts. Five-year actuarial probability of wound reoperation rates were 4 vs. 29% (p < 0.01) in the UE and LE respectively. Thigh lesions accounted for 84% of the required wound reoperations. The distribution of tumors within the anterior, medial, and posterior thigh compartments was 51%, 26%, and 23%. Subset analysis by compartment showed no difference in the probability of wound reoperation between the anterior and medial/posterior compartments (29 vs. 30%, p = 0.68). Neurolysis was performed during resection in (15%, 5%, and 67%, p < 0.01) of tumors in the anterior, medial, and posterior compartments. Conclusions: Tumors in the UE and LE differ significantly with respect to size and management details. The anatomy of the UE poses technical impediments to an R0 resection. Thigh tumors are associated with higher wound reoperation rates. Tumor resection in the posterior thigh compartment is more likely to result in nerve injury. A better understanding of the inherent differences between tumors in various extremity sites will assist in

  11. Drawing up an individual risk index for development of metachronous neoplastic lesions in resected colorectal cancer Elaboración de un índice individual del riesgo para el desarrollo de lesiones neoplásicas metacrónicas en el cáncer colorrectal resecado

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Borda; José María Martínez-Peñuela; Fernando Borda; Miguel Muñoz-Navas; Francisco Javier Jiménez; Cristina Carretero

    2012-01-01

    Aim: to identify possible risk factors for the development of metachronous lesions in colorectal cancer (CRC) which would allow to establish a post-surgical individual prognostic index. Patients and methods: three hundred eighty-two surgically treated CRC were reviewed. We compared the incidence of metachronous lesions in 40 variables concerning patient clinical data and initial neoplastic findings. An individual risk index for metachronicity was drawn up including those variables which prese...

  12. Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks is associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis in U.S. Adults, ages 20–55 y

    OpenAIRE

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; Uribarri, Jaime; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink intake has been linked with asthma in US high-schoolers. Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. One hypothesis for this association is that underlying fructose malabsorption and fructose reactivity in the GI may contribute to in situ formation of enFruAGEs. EnFruAGEs may be an overlooked source of adv...

  13. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...

  14. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  15. Measurement and analysis of the facial soft tissue in adults laterognathism%成人偏突颌畸形颜面软组织形态测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰成; 侯敏; 张锡忠; 宋大立; 杜清香

    2011-01-01

    目的 对偏突颌畸形患者面部软组织形态进行测量分析,以便为正颌手术及畸形整复提供参考.方法 对实验组42例偏突颌畸形成人患者,对照组48例颜面对称、咬牙合关系正常的成人,进行颜面软组织相关的线距及角度测量,并对测量值进行统计分析.结果 偏突颌畸形的患者,上、下唇部都有移位,最突出表现在口角区、下唇与颏部.结论正颌手术应充分考虑偏突颌畸形患者的口唇及颜面软组织的位置形态.%Objective To study the morphological characters of facial soft tissue in adults with laterogn-athism of the mandible. Methods Forty-two patients with laterognathism of the mandible and 48 adults with symmetrical face and normal dental articulation were collected. The line distance and angles related with facial soft tissue were measured and the results was analyzed statistically. Results Patients with laterognathism of the mandible showed that there was malposition on both the upper and lower lips, especially in cheilion, lower lip and chin. Conclusion The morphological characters of oral lip and the facial soft tissue should be considered in patients with laterognathism of the mandible undergoing orthognathic surgery.

  16. Metachronous occurrence of nonradiation-induced brain cavernous hemangioma and medulloblastoma in a child with neurofibromatosis type I phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano L Furlanetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma (CH is a sporadic vascular malformation occurring either as an autosomal dominant condition or as a well-known complication of radiation exposure. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor common in children and currently treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Neurofibromatosis is the most common single-gene disorder of the central nervous system. Posterior fossa malignant tumors in the context of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1 are very infrequent. This is the first documented case of an unusual metachronous occurrence of non-radiation-induced CH and medulloblastoma in a child with NF1 phenotype. We report the case of a 13-month-old boy with cafι-au-lait skin lesions associated with NF1-like phenotype who underwent surgical resection of a single CH in the temporal lobe due to recurrent seizures. Four years later he presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure associated with a posterior fossa tumor and hydrocephalus, thus requiring gross total resection of the lesion. Histological analysis revealed a medulloblastoma. After being treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, he achieved total remission. Six years later a massive recurrence of the tumor was observed and the child eventually died. The interest in this case lies in the rarity of NF1-like phenotype associated with a non-radiation-induced brain CH and medulloblastoma in a child.

  17. Metachronous multicentric giant-cell tumor of the bone in the lower limb. Case report and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Handra-Luca, Adriana; Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Catonné, Yves; Saillant, Gérard

    2004-07-01

    Multicentric giant-cell tumors of the bone (GCTs) are rare. Little is known about the mechanisms by which these tumors spread and how 1% of GCT turn out to be multicentric. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman with metachronous multiple and recurrent GCTs that were unusual in their pattern of progression along the right lower limb over a 23-year period. Histology showed no evidence of malignant transformation. The treatment was repeated curettage and packing with cement. This did not permit a wide surgical margin, but avoided amputation and preserved full limb function. We tested the proliferation index marker Ki-67 in the tumor specimens. Ki-67 expression was limited to the mononuclear cell component of the tumors. The proliferation index was similar in each new tumor and higher in recurrences for each location. In this case, proliferation was initially low in the new tumor location, despite the time difference and independent from the initial clone evolution. Proliferation index increased in recurrent GCTs after marginal margin resection.

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and other primary metachronous or synchronous neoplasms as a suspicion criterion for syndromic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Luppi, Gabriele; Martorana, Davide; Rossi, Giulio; Losi, Lorena; Bertolini, Federica; Sartori, Giuliana; Pellacani, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania; Boni, Elisa; Neri, Tauro Maria; Silini, Enrico; Tamburini, Elisa; Maiorana, Antonio; Conte, Pier Franco

    2010-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be sporadic or inherited. Although KIT and PDGFRA activating mutations are the oncogenic mechanisms in most sporadic and inherited GISTs, a small subset of GISTs are negative for both. Besides the classical Familial GIST Syndrome, GIST can occur as part of multi-neoplastic disease. The present study was designed to analyze the synchronous and metachronous tumors developed among GIST patients assessed by our institution for GIST Syndrome setting recognition. Patients (n=141) with primary GIST (77 men and 64 women) were recruited between 1988 and 2007 and their clinical and pathological records were reviewed. Mutation analysis of KIT, PDGFRA, NF1 and MMR genes was performed on somatic and peripheral blood DNA. GISTs occurred associated with other primary malignancies in 46 of 141 (32.6%) patients. The most common neoplasms were gastrointestinal and genitourinary. A novel exon 6 germline large deletion of NF1 was identified in the NF1/GIST kindred. The development of GIST associated with other neoplasms is common and diagnosis of peculiar benign associated-neoplasms warrants the search for familial cancer susceptibility. In particular, syndromic or familial settings have to be suspected in the presence of neurofibroma or lung chordoma in C-KIT and PDGFRA negative GIST patients.

  19. Two Metachronous Neoplasms in the Radiotherapy Fields of a Young Man With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Williams BS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is recognized that various radiation-induced malignancies often follow childhood radiotherapy. Radiation-induced neoplasms have been shown to occur with increased frequency in syndromes due to mutated tumor suppressor genes. There exist no recommendations for the management of cancer patients with germline APC gene mutations. Preclinical data suggest that APC gene mutations cause enhanced radiosensitivity, but no clinical observations exist that show that patients with this mutation are at higher risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a genetic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP who initially presented at age 10 with a medulloblastoma treated with radiotherapy and surgery. Radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma followed 13 years later. Finally, radiation-induced soft tissue osteosarcoma occurred with widespread metastasis 20 years thereafter. Conclusions: This is the first report of 2 malignancies in the prior radiotherapy fields of a patient with a genetic diagnosis of FAP. More important, this suggests that APC-defective cells are at an enhanced sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy compared with APC-proficient cells. This could argue for genetic screening in affected members of these families and for creation of treatment recommendations to more seriously consider the risks of radiation therapy.

  20. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  1. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  2. Effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depression: a systematic review (METACHRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wolff Alessa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic depressions represent a substantial part of depressive disorders and are associated with severe consequences. Several studies were performed addressing the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments for chronic depressions. Yet, a systematic review comparing the effectiveness of multiple treatment options and considering all subtypes of chronic depressions is still missing. Methods/Design Aim of this project is to summarize empirical evidence on efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for chronic depression by means of a systematic review. The primary objectives of the study are to examine, which interventions are effective; to examine, if any differences in effectiveness between active treatment options exist; and to find possible treatment effect modifiers. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and combined treatments will be considered as experimental interventions and no treatment, wait-list, psychological/pharmacological placebo, treatment as usual, and other active treatments will be seen as comparators. The population of patients will include adults with chronic major depression, dysthymia, double depression, or recurrent depression without complete remission between episodes. Outcomes of the analyses are depressive symptoms, associated consequences, adverse events, and study discontinuation. Only randomized controlled trials will be considered. Discussion Given the high prevalence and serious consequences of chronic depression and a considerable amount of existing primary studies addressing the effectiveness of different treatments the present systematic review may be of high relevance. Special attention will be given to the use of current methodological standards. Findings are likely to provide crucial information that may help clinicians to choose the appropriate treatment for chronically depressed patients.

  3. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dre...

  4. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL), short version. Diagnosis of local recurrence and metachronous locations in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, C; Barry, B; De Raucourt, D; Choussy, O; Dessard-Diana, B; Hans, S; Lafarge, D

    2015-11-01

    Surveillance is fundamental to the management of head and neck cancer. The present guidelines of the French ENT society (SFORL) were drawn up by a group of experts in the field, and are intended to specify the modalities of management, based on a review of the literature and, where data are lacking, to provide expert opinion. The present paper deals with guidelines for the diagnosis of local and regional recurrence and metachronous head and neck locations. Locoregional recurrence usually occurs within 3 years of primary treatment and is mainly related to the characteristics of the primary tumor and the treatment measures taken. Laryngeal location, safe primary resection margins, low level of lymph node invasion, unimodal primary treatment and early diagnosis of recurrence are factors of good prognosis. Systematic imaging surveillance may be considered for patients for whom a curative technique exists and when surveillance is difficult. The role of PET-scanning remains to be determined. Metachronous locations are frequent, even in the late course; prolonged surveillance is appropriate. The best preventive measure is cessation of alcohol abuse and smoking. Patient education is primordial.

  5. Successful treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with gastric and rectal lesions with metachronous and ectopic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Umezu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma suspected. The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, however, in response to the patient’s wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1-5 were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma de

  6. Generalization of Soft Neutrosophic Rings and Soft Neutrosophic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields to soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic bifields and soft neutrosophic N-fields. We also extend soft neutrosophic ideal theory to form soft neutrosophic biideal and soft neutrosophic N-ideals over a neutrosophic biring and soft neutrosophic N-ring. We have given examples to illustrate the theory of soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic fields and soft neutrosophic N-fields and display many properties of these.

  7. On soft topological space via semiopen and semiclosed soft sets

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces semiopen and semiclosed soft sets in soft topological spaces. The notions of interior and closure are generalized using these sets. A detail study is carried out on properties of semiopen, semiclosed soft sets, semi interior and semi closure of a soft set in a soft topological space. Various forms of soft functions, like semicontinuous, irresolute, semiopen soft functions are introduced and characterized. Further soft semicompactness,soft semiconnectedness and soft semiseparation axioms are introduced and studied.

  8. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  9. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other body structures. The soft tissues include muscle, fat, blood vessels, nerves, tendons and the lining of your joints. Many types of soft tissue sarcoma exist. Some types are more likely to ...

  11. Analysing soft matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McLeish

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new volume on soft materials ranges broadly across systems and techniques, experiment, and theory. Despite a lack of coherence, there is much of interest, which conveys the energy within soft-matter science, says

  12. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... 2014:chap 137. Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and subcutaneous tissue infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  13. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  14. Soft congruence relations over rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  15. Estudio de las lesiones neoplásicas metacrónicas en el carcinoma colorrectal Study of colorectal metachronous neoplastic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Analizar la frecuencia y las características de las lesiones neoplásicas metacrónicas, carcinomas y adenomas, tras la resección de un cáncer colo-rectal (CCR. Pacientes y métodos. Revisamos 382 CCR operados y seguidos mediante colonoscopias completas en dos hospitales de nuestra comunidad. Analizamos las lesiones metacrónicas registradas valorando su localización, momento del diagnóstico, histología, número y tamaño. Estudiamos la frecuencia de adenomas de aparición precoz (12 meses, comparando su tamaño con respecto al resto de lesiones. Resultados. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 48 meses (12-112, con 2,74±1,47 colonoscopias/caso. Diagnosticamos 7 cánceres metacrónicos (1,8%, 4 de ellos en estadio I. La mediana de tiempo hasta su diagnóstico fue de 24 meses (13-54. Registramos adenomas metacrónicos en 162 casos (42,4%, sin diferencias entre los dos hospitales: 42,1% vs. 43,8% (p=0,88. Un 6,3% de los pacientes presentaron adenomas avanzados. En 164 casos en que el primer control se efectuó a los 12 meses, la incidencia de adenomas fue del 24%. Los adenomas fueron mayoritariamente únicos (60,8% y menores de 5 mm (68,5%. En un 55,5% de los casos con pólipos, alguno tenía una localización proximal. El diagnóstico se realizó en la 1ª exploración (56,2%, 2ª (27,8% ó 3ª (9%. La mediana de tiempo hasta el diagnóstico fue de 21 meses (12-112 para el adenoma simple y de 35 (12-112 para el avanzado. Conclusiones. Nuestro seguimiento permitió aplicar un tratamiento teóricamente curativo en la mayoría de los carcinomas metacrónicos diagnosticados. La alta incidencia de adenomas y su frecuente localización proximal hacen necesario un seguimiento con colonoscopias completas, que debería iniciarse al año de la operación y podría pasar a ser menos estricto tras tres exploraciones consecutivas sin pólipos.Background. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of metachronous neoplastic lesions, carcinomas

  16. Soft measures - soft options or smart choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Anable, J.; Kirkbride, A.; Sloman, L.; Newson, C; Cairns, S.; Goodwin, P

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in a range of transport policy initiatives which are now widely described as ‘soft measures’. Soft measures usually seek to give better information and opportunities which affect the free choices made by individuals, mostly by facilitating attractive, relatively uncontroversial, and relatively cheap alternatives. They include initiatives such as school and workplace travel plans, personalised journey planning, car clubs, public tran...

  17. Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun; Muhiuddin, G

    2014-01-01

    The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  18. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  19. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in the chromosomes . FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) : A laboratory test used to look at genes ... a picture of areas inside the body. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  20. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in the chromosomes . FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) : A laboratory test used to look at genes ... a picture of areas inside the body. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  1. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  2. Flavoured Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Chee Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total $B-L$ asymmetry can be up to a factor ${\\cal O}(30)$ larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.

  3. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  4. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dre...

  5. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  6. Robotics: Generation soft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-08-01

    Meet the octobot, the first robot to be made entirely from soft materials. Powered by a chemical reaction and controlled by a fluidic logic circuit, it heralds a generation of soft robots that might surpass conventional machines. See Letter p.451

  7. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  8. 成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型软组织侧貌特征比较%Comparison of characteristics among facial soft tissue profile in adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 丁寅; 叶艳艳; 惠雯婷; 黄曼

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型软组织侧貌特征的差异,为临床诊断和治疗提供参考.方法 选择未治疗的成年骨性Ⅲ类男性患者60例,根据下颌平面角(SN-MP)分为高、中、低角3组,每组各20例,进行X线头颅侧位片的头影测量,进行单因素方差分析,比较各组间的差异性.结果 在成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型间,有10项指标具有统计学差异(P<0.05),且差异主要存在于高角组.与低角和均角组相比,高角组面下1/3的比例明显增大(Gl' - Sn/Sn-Me'、Sn-sto/sto-Me',P<0.01),面型凹陷程度加重(Gl'SnPog'、FH-N'Pog',P<0.05),上唇相对后缩(CotgSnLs、Sn-H line,P<0.01),下唇前突(Li-H line、Li-NsPog',P<0.05),颏唇沟变浅(Sm-H line、LiB'Pog',P<0.01).结论 成人骨性Ⅲ类患者不同垂直骨面型侧貌特征不同,在临床中要注意骨面型垂直向的差异,制定出更加合理的治疗方案.%Objective To study the differences of the facial soft tissue profile characteristics in adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types. Methods Sixty males patients with skeleton class Ⅲ malocclusion were selected. They were divided into three groups:low angle,medium angle,and high angle group based on their SN - MP angle with 20 ones in each group. The cephalometry was carried out by X ray skull lateral projection. One - factor analysis of variance was carried out, and the differences were compared among the groups. Results There were significant differences in 10 indexes among the adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types ( P<0. 05 ). And the main differences existed in the high angle group. The proportion of anterior lower 1/3 face in the high angle increased significantly compared with that in the low angle and the medium angle group( Gl'- Sn/Sn - Me', Sn - sto/sto - Me', P< 0.01 );its degree of the facial profile introcession increased significantly( Gl'SnPog', FH - NPog', P <0. 05 );the upper lip

  9. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  10. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  11. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. III. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichetto, Michela; Arrighi, Silvana; Gobbetti, Matteo; Romussi, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    A thickened and abnormally long soft palate is mostly involved in the pathogenesis of both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal narrowing, affecting the respiratory activity in virtually all of the brachycephalic dogs suffering from Brachycephalic Airway Obstructive Syndrome (BAOS). The morphology of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs has been previously described. In this article specimens from brachycephalic dog neonates (N=10) dead from one to 3 hr after birth of unrelated conditions were collected and histologically evaluated at three transverse levels to describe the microscopic aspect of the caudal part of the soft palate. The soft palate of neonate brachycephalic dogs was histologically characterized by a musculo-connective axis containing salivary glands and coated by a mucosal layer on both the nasopharyngeal and the oral side. Quali-quantitative features, such as thickened superficial epithelium, broad oedema of the lamina propria, mucous gland hyperplasia and diverse muscular modifications described in adult brachycephalic dogs, were not observed in the soft palate of brachycephalic neonate dogs. The lack of tissue lesions in the soft palate of newborn brachycephalic dogs further supports the hypothesis that inspiratory depression during the inspiratory phase causes chronic vibration and microtrauma, which lead to soft palate alterations in adult brachycephalic dogs starting from the earliest grade of the respiratory syndrome. Overall, this study provides baseline information for the comprehension of the pathogenesis of BAOS.

  12. Perineurial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the setting of multiple soft tissue perineuriomas: A rare presentation of an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineurioma is an uncommon soft tissue tumor with characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features. Herein, this tumor is presented within a rare clinical setting, in a 45-year-old gentleman, with multiple soft tissue swellings and a previous history of surgical excision of a thigh mass. Four years back, he developed multiple soft tissue tumor swellings for which he lately underwent multiple wide excisions, elsewhere that were reported as multiple dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSPs. Histopathological review of the thigh and axillary tumor showed a perineurioma (EMA+, S100-P-ve, CD34-ve, low MIB1, whereas the recurrent leg mass disclosed a high-grade perineurial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST (EMA+, CD56+, S100-P-, high MIB1, CD34-ve, p53+ve. Within four months of post-excision, he developed additional swellings, and died of respiratory insufficiency. This case forms the first documented case of perineurial MPNST with multiple, metachronous soft tissue perineuriomas. Available literature review of perineurial MPNSTs and diagnostic implications are discussed herewith

  13. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  14. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  15. Clinical characteristics of metachronous repeat cancer%异时性重复癌患者的临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中瑜; 王志新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the repeat cancer etiology,clinical features,treatment and interval time.Methods From January 2009 to January 2012,18 cases admitted to our hospital of metachronous cancer were collected and to analyse the clinical data,pathological diagnosis and the interval of the primary cancer and the prognosis of the situation.Results 18 patients at the same time repeat carcinoma in 2 cases (11.1%),metachronous repeated cancer in 16 cases (88.9%) ; first primary cancer and second primary cancer interval from 0 to 28 years,the average interval was(7.8 ± 2.5) years ; average interval of male patients was (7.2 ± 1.8) years,the average interval of female patients was (9.8 ± 2.2) years,the interval between the two have differences (P < 0.05).Starting cancer patients undergoing surgery repeat cancer than did not accept surgery patients with a long interval,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions The analysis of clinical data on repeated cancer,learn more about the characteristics of the repeat cancer clinical,provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment; take the primary cancer surgery can effectively extend the repeat interval cancer.%目的 探讨异时性重复癌的发病原因、临床特点、治疗方法及间隔时间.方法 选取2009年1月至2012年1月收治的18例重复癌患者为研究对象,对患者的临床资料、病理诊断以及原发癌间隔时间及预后情况进行分析.结果 18例患者中,同时重复癌2例(11.1%),异时性重复癌16例(88.9%).第一原发癌与第二原发癌间隔时间为0~28年,平均间隔时间为(7.8±2.5)年.其中男性患者平均间隔时间为(7.2±1.8)年,女性患者平均间隔时间为(9.8±2.2)年,两者间隔时间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).首发癌症接受手术的患者发生重复癌较未接受过手术的患者间隔时间长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 通过对重复癌患者的临床资料进行分

  16. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P

    2014-11-01

    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  17. MHD dissipative flow and heat transfer of Casson fluids due to metachronal wave propulsion of beating cilia with thermal and velocity slip effects under an oblique magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, D.; Bég, O. Anwar; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of electrically-conducting viscoplastic fluids through a channel is conducted. The robust Casson model is implemented to simulate viscoplastic behavior of fluids. The external magnetic field is oblique to the fluid flow direction. Viscous dissipation effects are included. The flow is controlled by the metachronal wave propagation generated by cilia beating on the inner walls of the channel. The mathematical formulation is based on deformation in longitudinal and transverse velocity components induced by the ciliary beating phenomenon with cilia assumed to follow elliptic trajectories. The model also features velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions to the non-dimensional boundary value problem are obtained under physiological limitations of low Reynolds number and large wavelength. The influence of key hydrodynamic and thermo-physical parameters i.e. Hartmann (magnetic) number, Casson (viscoplastic) fluid parameter, thermal slip parameter and velocity slip parameter on flow characteristics are investigated. A comparative study is also made with Newtonian fluids (corresponding to massive values of plastic viscosity). Stream lines are plotted to visualize trapping phenomenon. The computations reveal that velocity increases with increasing the magnitude of Hartmann number near the channel walls whereas in the core flow region (center of the channel) significant deceleration is observed. Temperature is elevated with greater Casson parameter, Hartmann number, velocity slip, eccentricity parameter, thermal slip and also Brinkmann (dissipation) number. Furthermore greater Casson parameter is found to elevate the quantity and size of the trapped bolus. In the pumping region, the pressure rise is reduced with greater Hartmann number, velocity slip, and wave number whereas it is enhanced with greater cilia length.

  18. Prognostic factors for metachronous contralateral breast cancer: a comparison of the linear Cox regression model and its artificial neural network extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, L; Coradini, D; Biganzoli, E; Boracchi, P; Marubini, E; Pilotti, S; Salvadori, B; Silvestrini, R; Veronesi, U; Zucali, R; Rilke, F

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess prognostic factor for metachronous contralateral recurrence of breast cancer (CBC). Two factors were of particular interest, namely estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors assayed with the biochemical method in primary tumor tissue. Information was obtained from a prospective clinical database for 1763 axillary node-negative women who had received curative surgery, mostly of the conservative type, and followed-up for a median of 82 months. The analysis was performed based on both a standard (linear) Cox model and an artificial neural network (ANN) extension of this model proposed by Faraggi and Simon. Furthermore, to assess the prognostic importance of the factors considered, model predictive ability was computed. In agreement with already published studies, the results of our analysis confirmed the prognostic role of age at surgery, histology, and primary tumor site, in that young patients (< or = 45 years) with tumors of lobular histology or located at inner/central mammary quadrants were at greater risk of developing CBC. ER and PgR were also shown to have a prognostic role. Their effect, however, was not simple in relation to the presence of interactions between ER and age, and between PgR and histology. In fact, ER appeared to play a protective role in young patients, whereas the opposite was true in older women. Higher levels of PgR implied a greater hazard of CBC occurrence in infiltrating duct carcinoma or tumors with an associated extensive intraductal component, and a lower hazard in infiltrating lobular carcinoma or other histotypes. In spite of the above findings, the predictive value of both the standard and ANN Cox models was relatively low, thus suggesting an intrinsic limitation of the prognostic variables considered, rather than their suboptimal modeling. Research for better prognostic variables should therefore continue.

  19. Soft bioelectronics using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, soft bioelectronics has attracted significant attention because of its potential applications in biointegrated healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools. Mechanical mismatch between conventional electronic/optoelectronic devices and soft human tissues/organs, however, causes many challenges in materials and device designs of bio-integrated devices. Intrinsically soft hybrid materials comprising twodimensional nanomaterials are utilized to solve these issues. In this paper, we describe soft bioelectronic devices based on graphene synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process. These devices have unique advantages over rigid electronics, particularly in biomedical applications. The functionalized graphene is hybridized with other nanomaterials and fabricated into high-performance sensors and actuators toward wearable and minimally invasive healthcare devices. Integrated bioelectronic systems constructed using these devices solve pending issues in clinical medicine while providing new opportunities in personalized healthcare.

  20. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  1. Hard and Soft

    OpenAIRE

    Claes H. de Vreese; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Support for European integration is a function no longer only of `hard' economic and utilitarian predictors but also of `soft' predictors such as feelings of identity and attitudes towards immigrants. Focusing on the issue of the potential membership of Turkey in the European Union (EU), this study demonstrates that the importance of `soft' predictors outweighs the role of `hard' predictors in understanding public opinion about Turkish membership. The study draws on survey...

  2. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  3. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  4. Taxing Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the practice of levying an excise tax on soft drinks in sub-saharan African countries, and evaluates this practice against theoretical norms for levying an excise tax. The question is whether such taxes are justified or whether they are discriminatory and impose a welfare cost on the country. The paper concludes that the sin tax justification does not hold for soft drinks, nor do income distribution justifications. Arguably the best reason for such a levy is revenue, but th...

  5. Soft and Ultra-soft Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, William; Burdynska, Joanna; Kirby, Sam; Zhou, Yang; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei; UNC-MIRT Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric networks are attractive engineering materials utilized for various mechanically demanding applications. As such, much attention has been paid to reinforcement of polymer mechanical properties with little interest in how to make softer elastomers to address numerous biomedical applications including implants and cell differentiation. Without swelling in a solvent, it is challenging to obtain materials with a modulus below ca.105 Pa, which is dictated by chain entanglements. Here we present two methodologies for the creation of soft and ultra-soft dry elastomeric compounds. The first method utilizes polymer capsules as temperature responsive filler. Depending on volume fraction of microcapsules this method is capable of fine tuning modulus within an order of magnitude. The second technique uses the densely grafted molecular brush architecture to create solvent-free polymer melts and elastomers with plateau moduli in the range one hundred to ten hundred Pa. Such compounds may find uses in biomedical applications including reconstructive surgery and cell differentiation. National Science Foundation DMR-1122483.

  6. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse...... of the few products worn much of the time, close to the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: a particular sensitivity for material details; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies...... with perhaps diverse and idiosyncratic movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; and consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges of designing and using soft wearables, applying notions...

  7. Introductory physics going soft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Livne, Shelly; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2012-01-01

    We describe an elective course on soft matter at the level of introductory physics. Soft matter physics serves as a context that motivates the presentation of basic ideas in statistical thermodynamics and their applications. It also is an example of a contemporary field that is interdisciplinary and touches on chemistry, biology, and physics. We outline a curriculum that uses the lattice gas model as a quantitative and visual tool, initially to introduce entropy, and later to facilitate the calculation of interactions. We demonstrate how free energy minimization can be used to teach students to understand the properties of soft matter systems such as the phases of fluid mixtures, wetting of interfaces, self-assembly of surfactants, and polymers. We discuss several suggested activities in the form of inquiry projects which allow students to apply the concepts they have learned to experimental systems.

  8. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  9. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  10. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  11. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  12. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  13. Nanobiotechnology: soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Elisa; Pisignano, Dario

    2009-01-01

    An entirely new scientific and technological area has been born from the combination of nanotechnology and biology: nanobiotechnology. Such a field is primed especially by the strong potential synergy enabled by the integration of technologies, protocols, and investigation methods, since, while biomolecules represent functional nanosystems interesting for nanotechnology, micro- and nano-devices can be very useful instruments for studying biological materials. In particular, the research of new approaches for manipulating matter and fabricating structures with micrometre- and sub-micrometre resolution has determined the development of soft lithography, a new set of non-photolithographic patterning techniques applied to the realization of selective proteins and cells attachment, microfluidic circuits for protein and DNA chips, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering. Today, soft lithographies have become an asset of nanobiotechnology. This Chapter examines the biological applications of various soft lithographic techniques, with particular attention to the main general features of soft lithography and of materials commonly employed with these methods. We present approaches particularly suitable for biological materials, such as microcontact printing (muCP) and microfluidic lithography, and some key micro- and nanobiotechnology applications, such as the patterning of protein and DNA microarrays and the realization of microfluidic-based analytical devices.

  14. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  15. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  16. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  18. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  19. Soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Arzu Erdem; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Cakalli, Huseyin; Sonmez, Ayse

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  20. Soft-tissue and hard-tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion in adults with teeth extraction%成人双颌前突错(牙合)畸形患者拔牙正畸治疗后颅面软硬组织的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林铭; 王大为

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of soft and hard-tissue profile following orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion in adults with teeth extraction. Methods 16 adult bimaxillary protrusion cases were selected to be treated with straight wire technique consisting of teeth extraction. Cephalometrics were taken before and after treatment. The changes of soft and hard-tissue profile were studied with computer-aided X-ray cephalometric analysis. Results (1)The relationship between the maxillary and the mandible did not change significantly [SNA, SNB, ANB had no significant difference in cephalometric measurement (P > 0.05)]. (2)L1-MP, U1-L1, U1-NA, L1-NB, U1-L1 angle changes in hard tissue had significant difference in cephalometric measurement (P < 0.01). The upper and lower anterior teeth were more retrusive, and the tripping of incisor decreased significantly. (3)Analysis of related projects cephalometric showed that lateral appearance improved significantly, Soft tissue Cephalometric related Cm-Sn-Ls、UL-UI、LL-LI、Pos-Po、A′UL-B′LL measurements increased significantly; Ns-Sn-Pog and other indicators in soft tissue also improved. Conclusion Soft and hard-tissue profile improve significantly after orthodontic treatment with teeth extraction in bimaxillary protrusive adults, however, the relationship between the maxillary and the mandible do not change significantly.%目的 探讨双颌前突错(牙合)畸形成人患者拔牙矫治后软硬组织的变化.方法 选取16例双颌前突错畸形成人患者,均于拔牙后应用直丝弓或方丝弓技术进行矫治,并做治疗前后X线头颅侧位定位片测量,以分析治疗前后软硬组织的变化.结果 (1)上下颌骨间关系无明显变化[SNA、SNB、ANB变化无统计学意义(P > 0.05)];(2)L1-MP、U1-L1、U1-NA、L1-NB前后差异均有统计学意义﹙P < 0.01﹚,上下前牙突度和倾斜度明显减小;(3)颏厚(Pos-Po)、鼻唇角(Cm-Sn-Ls)、面凸角(N′-Sn-Pg′)

  1. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  2. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  3. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  4. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  5. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs.

  6. Multimodality Treatment in Adult Patients with High-risk Soft-tissue Sarcomas%成人高风险性软组织肉瘤的多形性治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We enrolled retrospective data to determine the efficacy of combined chemotherapy and surgery for local tumour control and survival in patients with high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods: We collected data from 25 patients with high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas treated with four cycles of etoposide, ifosfamide and doxorubicin (EIA) followed by definitive surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. 21 patients received chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant/adjuvant clinical setting;eighteen of them completed adjuvant chemotherapy. Four patients received chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting only. Results: The objective response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy assessable in 21 patients was 43%. Including NED (n=7) and partial remissions (n=3), the radiographic response rate was 47.6% with additional 42.9% stable diseases (n=9). Surgery was performed in two patients before completing four neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles because of disease progression. Median overall survival for all patients was 21.6+ months. After completion of chemotherapy, in 62% of patients R0-resection could be performed. Conclusion: High proportion of R0-resections supports the idea of tumour down-staging after neoadjuvant treatment. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is predictive for improved local tumour control resulting in long-term survival benefit.

  7. Comparative study of psychologtcal health conditions between elderly and young adult patients with facial soft tissue injury and analysis of the mode for the diagnosis and treatment%中青年与老年面部创伤患者心理状态比较及诊疗模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 亓发芝; 顾建英; 曹小曼

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of psychological health conditions between eldedy and young adult patients with facial soft tissue injury.Methods The SDS,SAS and UCLA loneliness scale were applied to 88 patients with facial soft tissue injury.Results The score of anxiety and depression index in young adult patients were significantly higher than that in elderly adult patients[(50.96±6.21)vs(40.45±5.29),P<0.01;(0.58±0.06)vs(0.44±0.04),P<0.01].However,the loneliness score was notably lower than that in elderly adult patients[(60.62±5.43)vs(38.22±6.64)](P<0.01).Conclusion The facial injury patients of different ages suffered from different psychological symptoms and they should be treated differently.%目的 比较中青年与老年面部创伤患者心理状态.方法 采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、UCLA孤独量表等心理学量表对88例面部创伤患者的心理健康状况进行测量.结果 中青年患者焦虑评分[(50.96±6.21)分]、抑郁指数[(0.58±0.06)]明显高于老年患者[(40.45±5.29)分,(0.44±0.04)](P<0.01),老年患者的孤独评分[(60.62±5.43)分]明显高于中青年患者[(38.22±6.64)分](P<0.01).结论 不同年龄层次的面部创伤患者心理障碍情况有很大不同,在临床处理上应区别对待.

  8. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  9. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  10. Soft-Collinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...

  11. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  12. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  13. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  14. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  15. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

  16. Self Assembly in Soft Matter

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not atomic or molecular in nature. They are instead macromolecular aggregates, whose spatial extent lies in the domain 1 nm to 1 micron. Some of the most important examples of soft matter are polymers, which exhibit intriguing and useful physical properties. In this...

  17. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  18. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  19. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  20. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  1. 两种不同拔牙方式矫治成人骨性反牙合的硬软组织改变的对比研究%Study on two different extraction methods for adult skeletal Class III malocclusion of the hard and soft tissue contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁芳; 段银钟; 袁东辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hard and soft tissue changes of single mandibular extraction with bimaxillary extraction orthodontic treatment of adult skeletal Class III malocclusion. Method:adult skeletal Class III malocclusion pa-tients with 31 cases,the extraction of four premolars in 13 cases(group A),single extraction of mandibular two premolars in 18 cases (group B). Application of X-ray cephalometric technique on the hard and soft tissue changes before and after treatment was measured,the measurement results were analysis. Result:there was no significant difference on SNA,SNB and ANB in two groups before and after treatment. Changes of lower anterior teeth and lip retraction in group A were more prominent,also the facial profile changes were significantly more than group B. Conclusion:single lower extraction mode for mild to moderate skeletal Class III cases with no crowd or mild crowd in the maxillary;bimaxillary extraction model suitable for maxillary with moderate or severe congestion in skeletal Class III malocclusion patients.%目的:探讨下颌单颌拔牙与双颌拔牙矫治成人骨性反牙合的硬软组织改变的差异。方法:选取成人骨性反牙合患者31例,其中拔除4个前磨牙矫治(甲组)13例,下颌单颌拔除2个前磨牙矫治(乙组)18例。应用X线头影测量对矫治前后的硬软组织变化进行测量。结果:两组SNA、SNB、ANB矫治前后的变化无明显差异。甲组下切牙内收与下唇的变化更为显著,下唇凸度明显减小,甲组面型侧貌改变较乙组更为显著。结论:单颌拔牙模式适用于上颌无拥挤或轻度拥挤的轻中度骨性反牙合患者;双颌拔牙模式适用于上颌伴中重度拥挤的中度骨性反牙合患者。

  2. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  3. Soft tissue lipoleiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, J P; Carey, M P; Targett, C S; Dowling, J P

    1991-10-01

    A primary tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle occurring in the anterior abdominal wall of a 46 yr old Filipino woman is described. The tumor was not attached to the uterus, but had an appearance similar to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. It appeared as a soft, rubbery, encapsulated 11 cm ovoid mass with a uniform, white cut surface. Histologically, there were long intersecting bundles of bland smooth muscle mixed with nests of mature fat cells. The presence of differentiated smooth muscle was confirmed by fuchsinophilia, desmin positivity and electron microscopy. The patient also had 6 intramural leiomyomas, an area of adenomyosis, a subcutaneous lipoma of the subscapular region and chronic schistosomiasis of the appendix and left adnexa.

  4. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  5. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  6. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mukhta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. With a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, the tumor with the surrounding tissue was resected in segments at surgery. Histomorphology revealed nests, sheets and cords of round to spindled cells with extensive squamous metaplasia in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These cells extensively infiltrated muscle and bone. The tumor cells expressed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and S-100.

  7. Electrostatic interaction of soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Theories of the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles (i.e., particles covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes) in an electrolyte solution are reviewed. Interactions of soft particles after contact of their surface layers are particularly discussed. Interaction in a salt-free medium and the discrete-charge effect are also treated.

  8. Fuzzy Soft Compact Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied compactness in fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the corresponding concept by R. Lowen in the case of fuzzy topological spaces. Several basic desirable results have been established. In particular, we have proved the counterparts of Alexander’s subbase lemma and Tychonoff theorem for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  10. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  11. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  12. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  13. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    OpenAIRE

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh; Abdul Razak Salleh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzz...

  14. Cirurgia conservadora, radioterapia externa e reforço de dose com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose: uma nova perspectiva no tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles do adulto Limb-sparing surgery, external beam radiotherapy and boost with high-dose rate brachytherapy: a new perspective for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cássio Assis Pellizzon

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência no controle local de pacientes adultos e portadores de sarcoma de partes moles em extremidades e submetidos a cirurgia conservadora do membro, com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose (BATD como reforço para a radioterapia externa (RT. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 16 pacientes tratados, de 1993 até 1999. A RT foi utilizada com finalidade pré ou pós-operatória (30--55 Gy e BATD com dose de 18--36 Gy (fx 3--6 Gy BID. Com base no modelo linear quadrático calculou-se a dose efetiva biológica ("biological effective dose" - BED para o tumor e comparou-se seu valor a dados da literatura internacional, que utiliza tratamentos com RT e braquiterapia de baixa taxa de dose (BBTD. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios e medianos da BED para os sarcomas de partes moles foram de 78,5 Gy7 e 80 Gy7. A análise univariada mostrou que a BED para o tumor, quando utilizada BATD, era semelhante ao valor de 83 Gy7 quando utilizada BBTD (p = 0,008. As taxas de controle local, sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida global atuarial em cinco anos foram de 83,2%, 75% e 93,7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A BATD, quando utilizada como método complementar no reforço de dose da RT no tratamento conservador dos sarcomas de partes moles, apresenta taxas de controle local equiparáveis às da literatura internacional; no entanto, estudos com número maior de pacientes e período maior de seguimento são ainda necessários para determinar o verdadeiro potencial da BATD em substituir a BBTD.PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence on local control in adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs that underwent limb-sparing surgery and high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB in association with teletherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen patients treated from 1993 to 1999 were reviewed. Teletherapy was used pre- or postoperatively (30--55 Gy in association with HDRB in a dose range of 18--36 Gy (fx 3--6 Gy BID. The linear quadratic model was

  15. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2012-01-01

    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  16. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  17. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  18. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  19. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  20. Isolating stem cells from soft musculoskeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Pan, Haiying; Huard, Johnny

    2010-07-05

    Adult stem cells have long been discussed in regards to their application in regenerative medicine. Adult stem cells have generated a great deal of excitement for treating injured and diseased tissues due to their impressive capabilities to undergo multi-lineage cell differentiation and their self-renewal ability. Most importantly, these qualities have made them advantageous for use in autologous cell transplantation therapies. The current protocol will introduce the readers to the modified preplate technique where soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system, e.g. tendon and muscle, are 1(st) enzymatically dissociated and then placed in collagen coated flasks with medium. The supernatant, which is composed of medium and the remaining floating cells, is serially transferred daily to new flasks. The stem cells are the slowest to adhere to the flasks which is usually takes 5-7 days (serial transfers or preplates). By using this technique, adult stem cells present in these tissues can be easily harvested through fairly non-invasive procedures.

  1. Soft Matter under Exogenic Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2007-01-01

    Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts’ is fairly unique in supplying a comprehensive presentation of high pressures, negative pressures, random constraints and strong electric field exogenic (external) impacts on various soft matter systems. These are: (i) critical liquids, (ii) glass formers, such as supercooled liquids including water, polymers and resins, (iii) liquid crystals and (iv) bio-liquids. It is, because of this, an excellent guide in this novel and still puzzling research area. Besides new results, the identification of new types of physical behavior, new technological materials, ultimate verification of condensed and soft matter physics models, new applications in geophysics, biophysics, biotechnology, are all discussed in this book.

  2. Soft tissues store and return mechanical energy in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, R C; Kuo, A D

    2016-02-08

    During human running, softer parts of the body may deform under load and dissipate mechanical energy. Although tissues such as the heel pad have been characterized individually, the aggregate work performed by all soft tissues during running is unknown. We therefore estimated the work performed by soft tissues (N=8 healthy adults) at running speeds ranging 2-5 m s(-1), computed as the difference between joint work performed on rigid segments, and whole-body estimates of work performed on the (non-rigid) body center of mass (COM) and peripheral to the COM. Soft tissues performed aggregate negative work, with magnitude increasing linearly with speed. The amount was about -19 J per stance phase at a nominal 3 m s(-1), accounting for more than 25% of stance phase negative work performed by the entire body. Fluctuations in soft tissue mechanical power over time resembled a damped oscillation starting at ground contact, with peak negative power comparable to that for the knee joint (about -500 W). Even the positive work from soft tissue rebound was significant, about 13 J per stance phase (about 17% of the positive work of the entire body). Assuming that the net dissipative work is offset by an equal amount of active, positive muscle work performed at 25% efficiency, soft tissue dissipation could account for about 29% of the net metabolic expenditure for running at 5 m s(-1). During running, soft tissue deformations dissipate mechanical energy that must be offset by active muscle work at non-negligible metabolic cost.

  3. 山东地区成人正常殆软组织侧貌唇突度6种分析法的X线头影测量研究%Cephalometric study of the horizontal lip position in Shandong adults with normal occlusion by the six different soft tissue analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇波; 李爱群; 李民; 王春玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain the norms of lip position in six different soft tissue analyses in Shandong adults with normal occlusion. Methods 123 subjects (male 60, female 63), age range 19~26 years old, were chosen from 3700 students in Shandong University. Lateral cephalogramsof each patient was taken by the same operator. Distance of S1UL, S1LL, EUL, ELL, BUL, BLL, S2UL,S2LL, HLL, H angle and Z angle from Steiner(S1), Ricketts (E), Burstone(B), Sushner(S2),Holdaway(H), Merrifield(Z) analysis, were measured. Results The norms on lip position of six different soft tissue analyses in Shandong adults with normal occlusion were obtained. There was no significant difference between male and female in each measurement except S2UL and H angle,Conclusions There are some regional characteristics on lip position in Shandong adults with normal occlusion, and significant differences between male and female are noted in several measurements.%目的 建立山东地区成人正常(牙合)软组织侧貌唇突度6种分析法的X线头影测量正常值范围.方法 按照同一标准严格筛选出山东地区成人正常骀123名,男性60名,女性63名,年龄19~26岁.拍摄X线头颅定位侧位片.测量包括Steiner(S1),Ricketts(E),Burstone(B),Sushner(S2),Holdaway(H),Merrifield(Z)6种分析法的11项测量指标-S1UL,S1LL;EUL,ELL;BUL,BLL;S2UL,S2LL;HLL,H角;Z角.计算各测量指标的均数与标准差,对男性与女性样本间进行t检验.所有数据采用SPSS10.0统计软件包进行统计学分析.结果 建立了山东地区成人正常(牙合)软组织侧貌唇突度6种分析法的X线头影测量正常值范围;男性与女性相比,仅在S2UL和H角两项指标上存在显著性差异,且男性大于女性.结论 山东地区成人正常胎软组织侧貌唇突度具有其地域性特点,部分测量指标具有男女性别间差异.

  4. Multidisciplinary Management of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas M. Nystrom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare malignancy, with approximately 11,000 cases per year encountered in the United States. It is primarily encountered in adults but can affect patients of any age. There are many histologic subtypes and the malignancy can be low or high grade. Appropriate staging work up includes a physical exam, advanced imaging, and a carefully planned biopsy. This information is then used to guide the discussion of definitive treatment of the tumor which typically involves surgical resection with a negative margin in addition to neoadjuvant or adjuvant external beam radiation. Advances in imaging and radiation therapy have made limb salvage surgery the standard of care, with local control rates greater than 90% in most modern series. Currently, the role of chemotherapy is not well defined and this treatment is typically reserved for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease and for certain histologic subtypes. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in multidisciplinary management of soft tissue sarcoma.

  5. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion.......Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  6. On exponentiable soft topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Mirhosseinkhani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An object $X$ of a category $mathbf{C}$ with finite limits is called exponentiable if the functor $-times X:mathbf{C}rightarrow mathbf{C}$ has a right adjoint. There are many characterizations of the exponentiable  spaces in the category $mathbf{Top}$ of topological spaces. Here, we study the exponentiable objects in the category $mathbf{STop}$ of soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the category  $mathbf{Top}$. We investigate  the exponentiability problem and give a characterization of exponentiable soft spaces. Also wegive the definition of exponential topology on the lattice of soft open sets of a soft space and present some characterizations of it.

  7. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shiva Shanker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO. The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorganisms are found in soft drinks as environmental or raw materials contaminants, but relatively can grow within the acidic and low oxygen environment. It is crucial for soft drink manufacturers to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients. Concern with consumer health, safety and the environment will continue to have a positive impact on trend in the soft drink industry.

  8. Soft particles feel the squeeze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2009-01-01

    It's hard to fit in when you're different — especially if you're a large particle trying to squeeze into an array of smaller ones. But some soft, polymeric particles simply shrink to fit the space available.

  9. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  10. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  11. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  12. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China.

  13. Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft topological space together with interval valued neutrosophic soft finer and interval valued neutrosophic soft coarser topology. We also define interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of an interval valued neutrosophic soft set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Interval valued neutrosophic soft subspace topology are studied. Some examples and theorems regarding this concept are presented.

  14. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  15. Primary alveolar soft part sarcoma of fibula demonstrating ASPL-TFE3 fusion: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisner, Seena C.; Mirani, Neena; Hameed, Meera [University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Newark, NJ (United States); New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States); Beebe, Kathleen [University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Newark, NJ (United States); New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States); Blacksin, Marcia [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor typically affecting young adults. These tumors are most often seen in the deep soft tissues of the extremities and patients generally present with advanced disease. Primary bone involvement is extremely rare and has only been reported in seven cases. This is the first case of alveolar soft part sarcoma in bone documenting the ASPL-TFE3 gene product. Herein, we report a rare presentation of alveolar soft part sarcoma presenting as a primary bone neoplasm involving the proximal fibula in a 41-year-old woman. (orig.)

  16. 拔牙矫治对 AngleⅡ1错牙合成年女性面部软组织正貌的影响%Impacts of orthodontic treatment with tooth extraction on the frontal view of facial soft tissue in adult fe-males with class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢妹洪; 劳柯杰; 覃昌焘; 马琴琴; 莫水学

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨 AngleⅡ1错成年女性拔牙矫治后面部软组织正貌的改变。方法:采用直接活体测量法,测量51例成年女性 AngleⅡ1错患者矫治前后面部软组织正貌美学指标的改变,其中拔牙组30例,非拔牙对照组21例,并对矫治前后的变化量进行统计学分析。结果:拔牙组矫治后 N-Me、Sn-Me、Sn-UL、LL-Sm、Sto-M、Ch-Ch 增大(P <0.05),UL-LL 减小(P<0.05),Zy-Zy、Go-Go 无明显变化(P >0.05)。非拔牙组矫治后各指标均无明显变化(P >0.05)。组间比较中 Sn-UL、LL-Sm、UL-LL 差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),其余各项无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:成年女性 AngleⅡ1错患者通过拔牙矫治,主要表现为口周软组织的变化,开唇露齿明显改善,上下唇形态更趋协调;对面高及面宽无明显影响。%Objective:To explore the changes of orthodontic therapy with tooth extraction on frontal view of facial soft tissue in adult females with Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion.Methods:Frontal view of facial soft tissue aesthetic charaeteristics of 30 with and 21 without tooth extraction adult females with Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion were measured with direct anthropometry before and after orthodontic treatment.Results:After the extraction treatment,the distance of N-Me,Sn-Me,Sn-UL,LL-Sm,Sto-Me,Ch-Ch in-creased(P 0.05).There was no sig-nificant change in each parameter in nonextraction group(P >0.05).Between the 2 groups Sn-UL,LL-Sm and UL-LL showed differ-ence(P 0.05).Conclusion:Orthodontic treatment with tooth for the fe-males with Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion can improve the incompetent lips,and recover the coordination between the upper and lower lips.There is little change on facial height and width.

  17. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  18. A rat model for muscle regeneration in the soft palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola L Carvajal Monroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. Despite successful surgical repositioning of the muscles, optimal function is often not achieved. Scar formation and defective regeneration may hamper the functional recovery of the muscles after cleft palate repair. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate in rats, and to establish an in vivo model for muscle regeneration after surgical injury. METHODS: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 (n = 4 and 2 (n = 2 were used to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate, respectively. Group 3 (n = 6 was used for surgical wounding of the soft palate, and group 4 (n = 2 was used as unwounded control group. The wounds (1 mm were evaluated by (immunohistochemistry (AZAN staining, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG, MyHC, and ASMA after 7 days. RESULTS: The present study shows that the anatomy and histology of the soft palate muscles of the rat is largely comparable with that in humans. All wounds showed clinical evidence of healing after 7 days. AZAN staining demonstrated extensive collagen deposition in the wound area, and initial regeneration of muscle fibers and salivary glands. Proliferating and differentiating satellite cells were identified in the wound area by antibody staining. CONCLUSIONS: This model is the first, suitable for studying muscle regeneration in the rat soft palate, and allows the development of novel adjuvant strategies to promote muscle regeneration after cleft palate surgery.

  19. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  20. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  1. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  2. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  3. Soft theorems from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    Soft behaviour of closed string amplitudes involving dilatons, gravitons and anti-symmetric tensors, is studied in the framework of bosonic string theory. The leading double soft limit of gluons is analysed as well, starting from scattering amplitudes computed in the open bosonic string. Field theory expressions are then obtained by sending the string tension to infinity. The presented results have been derived in the papers of Ref [1]. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾衍钧; 许传青; 杨坚; 徐小虎

    2003-01-01

    Viscoelasticity is the primary mechanical property of bio-soft tissues. It has been widely applied in basic research of biological tissues including cornea, lung, heart and blood vessels. Along with the development of tissue engineering research, the evaluation of soft tissue viscoelasticity is becoming more and more important. In this paper, using the Whittaker function, we give an approximate power series of the exponential integral E1(x) and the parameters c, ?1 and ?2 of the generalized relaxation function G(t) and generalized creep function J(t). With expanded skin as an example, the relationship between stress relaxation, creep and stress-strain finite deformation are studied.

  5. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  6. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement.

  7. Soft radiation in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of soft radiation in QCD to all orders in perturbation theory. The eikonal approximation is generalised to next-to-leading order, and factorises in the sum over all Feynman diagrams. This results in an exponential form for the cross-section at next-to-eikonal order.

  8. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...... and other elements have some naturalness to them....

  9. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  10. Soft Matter: Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon

    2004-01-01

    "Soft matter" is a lively current field of research, looking at fundamental theoretical questions about the structure and behaviour of complex forms of matter, and at very practical problems of, for example, improving the performance of glues or the texture of ice cream. Foodstuffs provide an excellent way in to this modern topic, which lies on…

  11. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  12. Soft tick sampling and collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in nature, or known to be susceptible to infection. African swine fever (ASF) caused by ASFV is considered one of the most serious transboundary swine diseases because of its high lethality for pigs, ...

  13. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.;

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  14. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  15. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  16. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  17. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  18. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  19. NIH researchers use gene therapy to treat a soft tissue tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of an intermediate stage clinical trial of several dozen people provides evidence that a method that has worked for treating patients with metastatic melanoma can also work for patients with metastatic synovial cell sarcoma, one of the most common soft tissue tumors in adolescents and young adults.

  20. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of soft matter interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2009-07-13

    Soft matter consists of complex molecules that can undergo drastic structural transformations under mild changes of chemical and physical conditions. Since a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological processes occur at soft matter interfaces, they can exhibit complex behavior. This is even more so for interfaces of colloidal soft matter since the relative amount of interface material increases by orders of magnitude. Herein, we focus on new developments that enable us to obtain detailed molecular structural changes in the topmost molecular layers of soft matter interfaces composed of complex bio-molecules. In particular, the possibilities to probe interfaces of colloidal soft matter systems are discussed.

  1. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  2. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  3. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Anupam; Venner, Kees; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin-Voigt-, Standard Linear-, and Power Law-rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the timescale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological timescale. We derive asymptotic relations between lift force and sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.

  4. Soft lithography contacts to organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W.P. Hsu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials play an increasingly important role in (optoelectronics, particularly in low-cost or flexible devices. A major challenge is the contact between the electrodes and the organic material. Processes developed for inorganic semiconductors are inapplicable because of the sensitivity of organic materials to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Deposition of metal(s through shadow masks onto organic materials is commonly used, despite problems with ill-controlled interfaces and material damage. In addition, conventional approaches restrict device size to >1 μm. Clearly, a better technique is needed. In this article, two soft lithography methods for making contacts to organic materials are reviewed: nanotransfer printing (nTP and soft-contact lamination (ScL. These new approaches produce devices that outperform those made by conventional methods. The link between better device performance and better interfacial control is explained, and nanoscale devices are described.

  5. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Belforte; Gabriella Eula; Alexandre Ivanov; Silvia Sirolli

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM) in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteri...

  6. Soft photon registration at Nuclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, Elena; Golovkin, V; Golovnya, S; Gorokhov, S; Kholodenko, A; Kiryakov, A; Lobanov, I; Polkovnikov, M; Ronzhin, V; Ryadovikov, V; Tsyupa, Yu; Vorobiev, A; Avdeichikov, V; Balandin, V; Dunin, V; Gavrishchuk, O; Isupov, A; Kuzmin, N; Nikitin, V; Petukhov, Yu; Reznikov, S; Rogov, V; Rufanov, I; Zhidkov, N; Zolin, L; Bogdanova, G; Popov, V; Volkov, V; Kutov, A; Kazakov, A; Pokatashkin, G; Salyanko, R

    2015-01-01

    First results of a soft photon yield in nucleus-nuclear interactions at 3.5 GeV per nucleon are presented. These photons have been registered at Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) by an electromagnetic calorimeter built in the SVD Collaboration. The obtained spectra confirm the excess yield in the energy region less than 50 MeV in comparison with theoretical predictions and agree with previous experiments at high-energy interactions.

  7. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  8. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  9. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  10. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  11. Drawing up an individual risk index for development of metachronous neoplastic lesions in resected colorectal cancer Elaboración de un índice individual del riesgo para el desarrollo de lesiones neoplásicas metacrónicas en el cáncer colorrectal resecado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Borda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify possible risk factors for the development of metachronous lesions in colorectal cancer (CRC which would allow to establish a post-surgical individual prognostic index. Patients and methods: three hundred eighty-two surgically treated CRC were reviewed. We compared the incidence of metachronous lesions in 40 variables concerning patient clinical data and initial neoplastic findings. An individual risk index for metachronicity was drawn up including those variables which presented significant differences in multivariate logistic regression, dividing patients into three groups. Results: variables with prognostic value for metachronicity were distal cancer location: OR= 2.30 (1.03-5.13, alcohol intake: OR = 2.20 (1.08-4.48, presence of synchronous adenomas: isolated: OR = 2.47 (1.03-4.48, multiple: OR = 4.26 (1.78-10.17, and presence of synchronous advanced adenoma: OR= 2.91 (1.52-12.60. Tumor MUC-5 expression proved to have a protective role: OR = 0.23 (0.08-0.66. An individual risk score was established considering these variables and patients could be classified into three groups, with a discrimination power for metachronicity of pObjetivo: identificar posibles factores de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones metacrónicas en el cáncer colorrectal, elaborando un índice pronóstico individual del riesgo. Material y métodos: revisamos 382 cánceres colorrectales resecados. Comparamos la diferente incidencia de lesiones metacrónicas en 40 variables referentes al paciente y a las lesiones neoplásicas iniciales. Con aquellas que mostraron diferencias significativas en el análisis estadístico multivariable, elaboramos un índice individual de riesgo, clasificando los pacientes en 3 grupos de riesgo de metacronicidad. Resultados: las variables con valor pronóstico para la metacronicidad fueron: localización distal del cáncer: OR = 2,30 IC 95% (1,03-5,13; consumo de alcohol: OR = 2,20 IC 95% (1,08-4,48; presencia de adenoma sincr

  12. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  13. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  14. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  15. Soft computing application in bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MITRA Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an outline on a recent application of soft computing for the mining of microarray gene expres-sions. We describe investigations with an evolutionary-rough feature selection algorithm for feature selection and classifica-tion on cancer data. Rough set theory is employed to generate reducts, which represent the minimal sets of non-redundant eatures capable of discerning between all objects, in a multi-objective framework. The experimental results demonstrate the ffectiveness of the methodology on three cancer datasets.

  16. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  17. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  18. Ordering multiple soft gluon emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Ángeles-Martínez, René; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full colour structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  19. The mathematics of Soft logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Moshe; Maimon, Oded

    2016-11-01

    We strive to understand, by using mathematical tools, the phenomena where the observer can interpret simultaneously opposite situations, such as the distinct interpretations of the Necker cube. In this study we present a new coordinate system that draws a distinction between -0 and +0. The central theorem presented here postulates that when divisions and multiplications of 0 are combined with real numbers, the Mobius strip provides a model for non-standard analysis. We also suggest that the axis 0 is the fifth dimension extension of the quaternions. We also propose to add the soft logic capability to humanoid type robots, as a way to overcome the Turing test.

  20. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  1. Multiple Soft Limits of Cosmological Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Simonović, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q^2) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  2. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: ajoy@uchicago.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q{sup 2}) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  3. Hybrid tractability of soft constraint problems

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Martin C

    2010-01-01

    The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) is a central generic problem in computer science and artificial intelligence: it provides a common framework for many theoretical problems as well as for many real-life applications. Soft constraint problems are a generalisation of the CSP which allow the user to model optimisation problems. Considerable effort has been made in identifying properties which ensure tractability in such problems. In this work, we initiate the study of hybrid tractability of soft constraint problems; that is, properties which guarantee tractability of the given soft constraint problem, but which do not depend only on the underlying structure of the instance (such as being tree-structured) or only on the types of soft constraints in the instance (such as submodularity). We present several novel hybrid classes of soft constraint problems, which include a machine scheduling problem, constraint problems of arbitrary arities with no overlapping nogoods, and the SoftAllDiff constraint with arbi...

  4. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxian Xin; Tian Jian Lu

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by com-bining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momen-tum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and ana-lyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  5. Subleading Soft Factor for String Disk Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Burkhard U W

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no $\\alpha'$-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor $S^{(1)}$. At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  6. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaidis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

  7. Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2008-03-01

    Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (Psoft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

  8. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  9. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  10. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  11. Deformed soft matter under constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Martin

    In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

  12. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM); (Texas)

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  13. Liquid drops on soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Das, Siddhartha; Botto, Lorenzo; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2014-03-01

    A sessile drop can elastically deform a substrate by the action of capillary forces. The typical size of the deformation is given by the ratio of surface tension and the elastic modulus, γ / E , which can reach up to 10-100 microns for soft elastomers. In this talk we theoretically show that the contact angles of drops on such a surface exhibit two transitions when increasing γ / E : (i) the microsocopic geometry of the contact line first develops a Neumann-like cusp when γ / E is of the order of few nanometers, (ii) the macroscopic angle of the drop is altered only when γ / E reaches the size of the drop. Using the same framework we then show that two neighboring drops exhibit an effective interaction, mediated by the deformation of the elastic medium. This is in analogy to the well-known Cheerios effect, where small particles at a liquid interface attract each other due to the meniscus deformations. Here we reveal the nature of drop-drop interactions on a soft substrate by combining numerical and analytical calculations.

  14. Puncture mechanics of soft solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, Sami; Hutchens, Shelby B; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-06-21

    Gels and other soft elastic networks are a ubiquitous and important class of materials whose unique properties enable special behavior, but generally elude characterization due to the inherent difficulty in manipulating them. An example of such behavior is the stability of gels to large local deformations on their surface. This paper analyzes puncture of model soft materials with particular focus on the force response to deep indentation and the critical load for material failure. Large-strain behavior during deep indentation is described with a neo-hookean contact model. A fracture process zone model is applied to the critical load for puncture. It is found that the indenter geometry influences the size of the fracture process zone, resulting in two distinct failure regimes: stress-limited and energy-limited. The methods outlined in this paper provide a simple means for measuring Young's modulus, E, as well as the material's maximum cohesive stress, σ0, fracture energy, Γ0, and the intrinsic length scale linking the two, l0, all without requiring specialized sample preparation.

  15. Double large Barkhausen jump in soft/soft composite microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, G; Badini-Confalonieri, G A; Real, R P del; Vazquez, M, E-mail: mvazquez@icmm.csic.e [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    The magnetic properties of double layer microwires consisting of a soft FeSiBP amorphous core, an intermediate non-magnetic glass spacer and a softer FeNi outer shell have been investigated. As in the case of other magnetostatically coupled two-phase systems, the hysteresis loops are characterized by two well-defined Barkhausen jumps corresponding each to the magnetization reversal of the individual phases, separated by a plateau. The strong dipolar interaction that leads to the appearance of the plateau is investigated in terms of the microwire geometry. It is shown that this source of coupling is capable of increasing up to one order of magnitude the switching field of the Fe-rich core. Thus, magnetic bistability can be effectively controlled in these kinds of composite wires.

  16. TOPSIS Evaluation Method on "Have Both Hard and Soft" Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-lian

    2001-01-01

    In "Have Both Hard and Soft" systems, the soft targets and hard targets are divided into twodistinct target system. The measured results of soft target system are regarded as a matrix with intervalnumbers. On the basis of Topsis method, we discuss a new Topsis evaluation method on "Have Both Hardand Soft" systems, which combined soft targets with hard targets.

  17. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  18. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  19. Rehabilitative Soft Exoskeleton for Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Juan Manuel; Shah, Manan; Martin Moraud, Eduardo; Wurth, Sophie; Baud, Laetitia; von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Van Den Brand, Rubia; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Gregoire; Paik, Jamie

    2016-03-18

    Robotic exoskeletons provide programmable, consistent and controllable active therapeutic assistance to patients with neurological disorders. Here we introduce a prototype and preliminary experimental evaluation of a rehabilitative gait exoskeleton that enables compliant yet effective manipulation of the fragile limbs of rats. To assist the displacements of the lower limbs without impeding natural gait movements, we designed and fabricated soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs). The exoskeleton integrates two customizable SPAs that are attached to a limb. This configuration enables a 1 N force load, a range of motion exceeding 80 mm in the major axis, and speed of actuation reaching 2 gait cycles/s. Preliminary experiments in rats with spinal cord injury validated the basic features of the exoskeleton. We propose strategies to improve the performance of the robot and discuss the potential of SPAs for the design of other wearable interfaces.

  20. Soft Confinement for Polymer Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa, et al.

  1. Understanding foods as soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Schurtenberger, Peter; Burbidge, Adam; Michel, Martin

    2005-10-01

    Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with all the complications related to real systems, the experimental and theoretical approaches of SCM physics have deepened our comprehension of their nature and behaviour, but many questions remain. In this review we discuss the current understanding of food science, by considering established SCM methods as well as emerging techniques and theoretical approaches. With their complexity, heterogeneity and multitude of states, foods provide SCM physics with a challenge of remarkable importance.

  2. Exploratory Practice and Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; Smith, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), a soft systems approach developed in management studies (see Checkland, 1981), can be usefully linked with Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research for language classrooms. Some compatible SSM and EP characteristics, in tandem, could enhance continual efforts to…

  3. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,it is the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation—news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  4. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Hennes, D.; Izzo, D.; Visser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular application and requ

  5. Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the algebraic operations of neutrosophic soft sets and their basic properties associated with these opertaions. And also define the associativity and distributivity of these operations. We discusse different algebraic structures, such as monoids, semiring and lattices, of neutrosophic soft sets.

  6. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-09-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan [1], we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  7. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  8. Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R T

    1999-10-01

    My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?

  9. Soft-/rapidity- anomalous dimensions correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multi-particle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multi-parton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of a conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way provides a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multi-parton scattering soft factors (including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor as a special case). As a by-product we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop rapidity anomalous dimensions for TMD and a general multi-parton scattering are derived.

  10. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  11. Factorized soft graviton theorems at loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Broedel, Johannes; Plefka, Jan; Rosso, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the low-energy behavior of scattering amplitudes involving gravitons at loop level in four dimensions. The single-graviton soft limit is controlled by soft operators which have been argued to separate into a factorized piece and a non-factorizing infrared divergent contribution. In this note we show that the soft operators responsible for the factorized contributions are strongly constrained by gauge and Poincare invariance under the assumption of a local structure. We show that the leading and subleading orders in the soft-momentum expansion can not receive radiative corrections. The first radiative correction occurs for the sub-subleading soft graviton operator and is one-loop exact. It depends on only two undetermined coefficients which should reflect the field content of the theory under consideration.

  12. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  13. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... of critical questions about whether the normative arguments in the soft space literature are unfounded, or whether the significance of soft spaces is simply overrated in the planning literature. Furthermore, it is argued that critical attention needs to be paid to the prevalence of soft spaces in spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....

  14. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  15. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  16. Inventions on Soft Keyboards -- A TRIZ Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    The soft keyboards are onscreen representation of physical keyboard having alphanumeric characters and other controls. The user operates the soft keyboard with the mouse, a stylus or other pointing device. The soft keys dont have any mechanical component. The soft keyboards are used in many public places for informational purpose, educational systems and financial transactional systems. A soft keyboard is convenient in some cases where a hard keyboard is difficult to manage. The soft keyboard...

  17. Redescription of the red-striped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead, with a new synonymy (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad I. Abdel-Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead, 1911, is a major pest of sugarcane in Egypt. This paper provides a redescription and illustration of the adult female based on a microscopic study of the morphology of several adult female specimens and of the type series illustrated by De Lotto (1965 on citronella grass from Uganda. Two paratypes of Pulvinaria saccharia De Lotto, 1964 are also studied and the name is placed here as a junior synonym of P. tenuivalvata.

  18. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  19. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  20. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária

    2013-01-01

                  The book provides a sample of research on the innovative theory and applications of soft computing paradigms.             The idea of Soft Computing was initiated in 1981 when Professor Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis and constantly evolved ever since. Professor Zadeh defined Soft Computing as the fusion of the fields of fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory into one multidisciplinary system. As Zadeh said the essence of soft computing is that unlike the traditional, hard computing, soft computing is aimed at an accommodation with the pervasive imprecision of the real world. Thus, the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost and better rapport with reality. ...

  1. ON SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES IN VARIOUS AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft Computing refers to the science of reasoning, thinking and deduction that recognizes and uses the real world phenomena of grouping, memberships, and classification of various quantities under study. As such, it is an extension of natural heuristics and capable of dealing with complex systems because it does not require strict mathematical definitions and distinctions for the system components. It differs from hard computing in that, unlike hard computing, it is tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. In effect, the role model for soft computing is the human mind. The guiding principle of soft computing is: Exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. The main techniques in soft computing are evolutionary computing, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic and Bayesian statistics. Each technique can be used separately, but a powerful advantage of soft computing is the complementary nature of the techniques. Used together they can produce solutions to problems that are too complex or inherently noisy to tackle with conventional mathematical methods. The applications of soft computing have proved two main advantages. First, it made solving nonlinear problems, in which mathematical models are not available, possible. Second, it introduced the human knowledge such as cognition, recognition, understanding, learning, and others into the fields of computing. This resulted in the possibility of constructing intelligent systems such as autonomous self-tuning systems, and automated designed systems. This paper highlights various areas of soft computing techniques.

  2. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach based on robust statistical techniques for development of a data-driven soft sensor, which is an important component of the process analytical technology (PAT) and is essential for effective quality control. The data quality is obviously of essential...... significance for a data-driven soft sensor. Therefore, preprocessing procedures for process measurements are described in detail. First, a template is defined based on one or more key process variables to handle missing data related to severe operation interruptions. Second, a univariate, followed...... reveal the effectiveness of the systematic framework in deriving data-driven soft sensors that provide reasonably reliable one-step-ahead predictions....

  3. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T.

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  4. Shaving off Black Hole Soft Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    A recent, intriguing paper by Hawking, Perry and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this note we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S-matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S-matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  5. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  6. Novel dielectric elastomer structure of soft robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Junjie; Jin, Yongbin; Li, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01

    Inspired from the natural invertebrates like worms and starfish, we propose a novel elastomeric smart structure. The smart structure can function as a soft robot. The soft robot is made from a flexible elastomer as the body and driven by dielectric elastomer as the muscle. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the working condition of the structure, and guide the design of the smart structure. The effects of the prestretch, structural stiffness and voltage on the performance of the smart structure are investigated. This work can guide the design of soft robot.

  7. Mesoscopic Fractional Quantum in Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W

    2005-01-01

    Soft matter (e.g., biomaterials, polymers, sediments, oil, emulsions) has become an important bridge between physics and diverse disciplines. Its fundamental physical mechanism, however, is largely obscure. This study made the first attempt to connect fractional Schrodinger equation and soft matter physics under a consistent framework from empirical power scaling to phenomenological kinetics and macromechanics to mesoscopic quantum mechanics. The original contributions are the fractional quantum relationships, which show Levy statistics and fractional Brownian motion are essentially related to momentum and energy, respectively. The fractional quantum underlies fractal mesostructures and many-body interactions of macromolecules in soft matter and is experimentally testable.

  8. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-11

    A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse character of the shell is defined by a gradual distribution of the density of polymer segments in the interspatial region separating the core from the bulk electrolyte solution. The hydrodynamic impact of the polymer chains on the electrophoretic motion of the particle is accounted for by a distribution of Stokes resistance centers. The numerical treatment of the electrostatics includes the possibility of partial dissociation of the hydrodynamically immobile ionogenic groups distributed throughout the shell as well as specific interaction between those sites with ions from the background electrolyte other than charge-determining ions. Electrophoretic mobilities are computed on the basis of an original numerical scheme allowing rigorous evaluation of the governing transport and electrostatic equations derived following the strategy reported by Ohshima, albeit within the restricted context of a discontinuous chain distribution. Attention is particularly paid to the influence of the type of distribution adopted on the electrophoretic mobility of the particle as a function of its size, charge, degree of permeability, and solution composition. The results are systematically compared with those obtained with a discontinuous representation of the interface. The theory constitutes a basis for interpreting electrophoretic mobilities of heterogeneous systems such as environmental or biological colloids or swollen/deswollen microgel particles.

  9. Epidemiologic study of soft tissue rheumatism in Shantou and Taiyuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yu; ZANG Chang-hai; LIN Ling; CHEN Su-biao; LI Xiao-feng; XIAO Zheng-yu; DONG Hai-yuan; ZHANG Ai-lian; CHEN Ren

    2010-01-01

    Background Soft tissue rheumatism is a group of common rheumatic disorders reported in many countries.For investigating the prevalence rate of soft tissue rheumatism in different population in China, we carried out a population study in Shantou rural and Taiyuan urban area.Methods Samples of 3915 adults in an urban area of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and 2350 in a rural area of Shantou,Guangdong Province were surveyed.Modified International League of Association for Rheumatology (ILAR)-Asia Pacific League of Association for Rheumatology (APLAR) Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire was implemented as screening tool.The positive responders were then all examined by rheumatologists.Results Prevalence rate of soft tissue rheumatism was 2.0% in Taiyuan, and 5.3% in Shantou.Rotator cuff (shoulder)tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and digital flexor tenosynovitis (trigger finger) were the commonly seen soft tissue rheumatism in both areas.Tatarsalgia, plantar fasciitis, and De Quervain's tenosynovitis were more commonly seen in Shantou than that in Taiyuan.Only 1 case of fibromyalgia was found in Taiyuan and 2 cases in Shantou.The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism varied with age, sex and occupation.Conclusions Soft tissue rheumatism is common in Taiyuan and Shantou, China.The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism was quite different with different geographic, environmental, and socioeconomic conditions; and varying with age, sex, and occupation.The prevalence of fibromyalgia is low in the present survey.

  10. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler.Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na, subnasal (Sn point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog. The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software.Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8.Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments.

  11. Tannerella forsythia infection-induced calvarial bone and soft tissue transcriptional profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthavatchalu, V; Meka, A; Sathishkumar, S; Lopez, M C; Bhattacharyya, I; Boyce, B F; Mans, J J; Lamont, R J; Baker, H V; Ebersole, J L; Kesavalu, L

    2010-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia is associated with subgingival biofilms in adult periodontitis, although the molecular mechanisms contributing to chronic inflammation and loss of periodontal bone remain unclear. We examined changes in the host transcriptional profiles during a T. forsythia infection using a murine calvarial model of inflammation and bone resorption. Tannerella forsythia was injected into the subcutaneous soft tissue over calvariae of BALB/c mice for 3 days, after which the soft tissues and calvarial bones were excised. RNA was isolated and Murine GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) array analysis of transcript profiles showed that 3226 genes were differentially expressed in the infected soft tissues (P < 0.05) and 2586 genes were differentially transcribed in calvarial bones after infection. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcription levels of selected genes corresponded well with the microarray results. Biological pathways significantly impacted by T. forsythia infection in calvarial bone and soft tissue included leukocyte transendothelial migration, cell adhesion molecules (immune system), extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, adherens junction, and antigen processing and presentation. Histologic examination revealed intense inflammation and increased osteoclasts in calvariae compared with controls. In conclusion, localized T. forsythia infection differentially induces transcription of a broad array of host genes, and the profiles differ between inflamed soft tissues and calvarial bone.

  12. Ideal theory in semigroups based on intersectional soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Zun; Kim, Hee Sik; Jun, Young Bae

    2014-01-01

    The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Using these notions and the notion of inclusive set, characterizations of subsemigroups and left (resp., right) ideals are considered. Using the notion of int-soft products, characterizations of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are discussed. We prove that the soft intersection of int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups) is also int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups). The concept of int-soft quasi-ideals is also introduced, and characterization of a regular semigroup is discussed.

  13. Soft tissue sarcoma with metastasis to the stomach: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lemuel; Leon; Dent; Cesar; Yamil; Cardona; Michael; Clause; Buchholz; Roosevelt; Peebles; Julie; Denise; Scott; Derrick; Jerome; Beech; Billy; Ray; Ballard

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are unusual malignancies comprising 1% of cancer diagnoses in the United States. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma accounts for approximately 5% of sarcomas occurring in adults. The most common site of metastasis is the lung, with other sites being bone, the brain, and the liver. Metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract has rarely been documented. We present an unusual case of high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma with metastasis to the stomach, complicated by upper gastrointestinal bleedin...

  14. SOFT ROBOTICS. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas W; Tolley, Michael T; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Mosadegh, Bobak; Bertoldi, Katia; Whitesides, George M; Wood, Robert J

    2015-07-10

    Roboticists have begun to design biologically inspired robots with soft or partially soft bodies, which have the potential to be more robust and adaptable, and safer for human interaction, than traditional rigid robots. However, key challenges in the design and manufacture of soft robots include the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of soft and rigid components. We used multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing to manufacture a combustion-powered robot whose body transitions from a rigid core to a soft exterior. This stiffness gradient, spanning three orders of magnitude in modulus, enables reliable interfacing between rigid driving components (controller, battery, etc.) and the primarily soft body, and also enhances performance. Powered by the combustion of butane and oxygen, this robot is able to perform untethered jumping.

  15. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  16. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-02-14

    Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; Phealth perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised.

  17. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reisner, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2. Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic, making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3. Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  18. Nonthermal CP Violation in Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Rathin; Fong, Chee Sheng; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2015-01-01

    Soft leptogenesis is a mechanism which generates the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy sneutrinos in which soft supersymmetry breaking terms play two important roles: they provide the required CP violation and give rise to the mass splitting between otherwise degenerate sneutrino mass eigenstates within a single generation. This mechanism is interesting because it can be successful at lower temperature regime $T \\lesssim 10^9$ GeV in which the conflict with the overproduction of gravitinos can possibly be avoided. In earlier works the leading CP violation is found to be nonzero only if finite temperature effects are included. By considering generic soft trilinear couplings, we find two interesting consequences: 1) the leading CP violation can be nonzero even at zero temperature realizing nonthermal CP violation and 2) the CP violation is sufficient even far away from the resonant regime allowing soft supersymmetry breaking parameters to assume natural value...

  19. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  20. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  1. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid......-infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  2. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter sys

  3. The Geometry of Soft Materials: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We present an overview of the differential geometry of curves and surfaces using examples from soft matter as illustrations. The presentation requires a background only in vector calculus and is otherwise self-contained.

  4. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes ...

  5. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  6. Stabilization of Soft Soil Using Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid Hameed Majeed; Mohd Raihan Taha; Ibtehaj Taha Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the influence of using nanomaterials in the modification and stabilization of soft soil. The soft soils were collected from two sites and treated with three nanomaterial types (nano-copper, nano-clay and nano-magnesium). Nanomaterials were added in small amount (≤1.0%) by dry weight of the soil. Laboratory tests to determine the Atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics and unconfined compressive strength were performed. Results of the ...

  7. AN INTERIM REPORT ON SOFT SYSTEMS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Rupnik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As application areas rapidly grow beyond the theoretical framework of fundamental decision theory we are very often temptated to see whether or not soft systems may promise some efficient modelling of real life problems. The pioneering bust towards soft systems methodology has come from the needs of mathematical sociology. Its contemporary definition as well as its applied architecture have been dealt with as in a paper proposed.

  8. Giant Myoepithelioma of the Soft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oktay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepitheliomas are benign salivary gland tumors and account for less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors. They are usually located in the parotid gland. The soft palate is very rare affected site. The differential diagnosis of myoepitheliomas should include reactive and neoplastic lesions. The treatment of myoepitheliomas is complete removal of the tumor. Herein, we report a case with giant myoepithelioma of the soft palate, reviewing the related literature.

  9. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics...

  10. Is soft breaking of BRST symmetry consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, Peter; Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is proposed, valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The Ward identities for the generating functionals of Green's functions are derived, and their gauge dependence is investigated. We present a generalization of the Gribov-Zwanziger action to a one-parameter linear gauge. It is argued that gauge theories with a soft breaking of BRST symmetry are inconsistent.

  11. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of Soft Tissues and Gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Kaler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP is a rare plasma cell neoplasm of soft tissue without bone marrow involvement or other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. It accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumors. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumor of clonal plasma cells and such presentation has not been described earlier. We report such rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving multiple soft tissues in chest, abdomen, mandible, maxilla, and gingiva.

  12. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  13. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  14. [Soft contactlenses in general practice (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B

    1975-07-01

    In contrast to the hard lenses the soft lens has enough permeability for oxygen and water-soluble substances, whereas high molecular substances, bacteria and virus cannot penetrate the soft lenses, so long as their surfaces are intact. The two principal production methods, the spin cast method and the lathe-turned method are compared. The duration of wearing of the soft lens depends on the deposits of proteins from the tears on the surface of the lens and the desinfection method. The daily boiling of the lenses shortens their useful life, while chemical desinfection causes besides bacteriolysis, damage of the corneal cell protein. The new cleaners on the base of proteolytic plant enzymes promise good results. For the optical correction of astigmatism with more than 1 cyl, soft lenses with conic outer surface are used or combinations of a soft and a hard lens (Duosystem). The therapeutic use of soft lenses has as aim: protection of the cornea against mechanical irritation, release of pain, protracted administration output of medicaments. Further indications for use: aseptic corneal inflammation and corneal defects.

  15. Soft leptogenesis in the inverse seesaw model

    CERN Document Server

    Garayoa, J; Rius, N

    2007-01-01

    We consider leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms ("soft leptogenesis"), in the context of the inverse seesaw mechanism. In this model there are lepton number (L) conserving and L-violating soft supersymmetry-breaking B-terms involving the singlet sneutrinos which, together with the -- generically small-- L-violating parameter responsible of the neutrino mass, give a small mass splitting between the four singlet sneutrino states of a single generation. In combination with the trilinear soft supersymmetry breaking terms they also provide new CP violating phases needed to generate a lepton asymmetry in the singlet sneutrino decays. We obtain that in this scenario the lepton asymmetry is proportional to the L-conserving soft supersymmetry-breaking B-term, and it is not suppressed by the L-violating parameters. Consequently we find that, as in the standard see-saw case, this mechanism can lead to sucessful leptogenesis only for relatively small value of the relevant soft bilinear coupling. The...

  16. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-07-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets.

  17. Int-Soft (Generalized) Bi-Ideals of Semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok-Zun

    2015-01-01

    The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals in semigroups are studied in the paper by Song et al. (2014). In this paper, further properties and characterizations of int-soft left (right) ideals are studied, and the notion of int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals is introduced. Relations between int-soft generalized bi-ideals and int-soft semigroups are discussed, and characterizations of (int-soft) generalized bi-ideals and int-soft bi-ideals are considered. Given a soft set (α;S) over U, int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals generated by (α;S) are established. PMID:25710051

  18. Soft tissue growth of the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hans, M G; Strohl, K P; Nelson, S; Broadbent, B H

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of bony and soft tissue growth of the oropharynx in a sample of healthy, orthodontically untreated children. The sample consisted of 16 males and 16 females with lateral cephalograms at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years of age, for a total of 160 lateral cephalometric radiographs. All subjects were enrolled in the Broadbent Bolton Study and their radiographs were used to produce the Bolton Standard Templates. Each radiograph was traced by hand and the tracings were paired and averaged to create a standard template for pharyngeal tissues at each age. In addition, all 160 tracings were digitized and means and standard deviations were calculated for 29 hard and 7 soft tissue measurements. Four linear (Ar-H,S-H,Go-H, Gn-H) and three angular (N-S-H, SN-ArH,GoGn-H) measurements demonstrated that the hyoid bone descends and moves slightly anteriorly up to age 18. The soft palate (PNS-P) increased 1 mm in length and 0.5 mm in thickness every 3 years after age 9. The distance between the anterior border of the atlas (ATA) and PNS did not change after age 12, while two soft tissue measurements (PNS-pharyngeal wall [PhW2] and posterior soft palate to pharyngeal wall [psp-PhW3]) increased. In general, two periods of accelerated change (6-9 years and 12-15 years) and two periods of quiescence (9-12 years and 15-18 years) were identified for the pharyngeal soft tissues. Further studies are needed to determine in soft tissues in the oropharynx continue to change after age 18.

  19. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  1. Conservative Soft Power: Liberal soft power bias and the ‘hidden’ attraction of Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Kaczmarska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The study of soft power in international relations suffers from a liberal democratic bias. Throughout the literature, liberal concepts and values are assumed to be universal in their appeal. This bias has led scholars to underestimate Russian soft power by instrumentalizing it, that is, to see it...

  2. 综合治疗方案对肠癌术后异时性肝转移的临床效果观察%Clinical Effects of Comprehensive Program on the Treatmemt of Metachronous Metastases for the Colorectal Cancer Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝建勇; 邱宝安; 郭晓东; 夏念信; 杨英祥; 刘鹏; 安阳; 吴印涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effects of different methods for the patients with meta-chronous colorectal liver metastases and analyze the advantages of the integrated surgical methods so as to provide a basis for clinical research and practice.Method:A retrospective analysis was performed about the clinical data of 128 patients with metachronous metastases after the surgery of colorectal cancer who were treated in our hospital from Dec.2008 to Dec.2010 .All the selected cases were divided into group A and group B according to the treatment methods.The patients in group A were treated by the resection combined with chemotherapy , while the patients in group B were treated by the RFA combined with chemotherapy . Then the rate of clinical effects, the disease control and the further survival of patients in the two groups were compared and analyzed.Result: After the implementation of different clinical treatment options, the total rate of clinical efficiency and disease control of all the patients in two groups were better than before, and the indexes of the patients in group A were significantly higher than those of the patients in group B.There's sta-tistically significant differences(P<0.05).The survival rate of patients in group A was significantly higher than that of the patients in group B after the treatment for 6 months, 12 months, 24 months and 36 months. Theres'statistically significant difference between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:It is indicates that the comprehensive methods should be a better choice for the treatment of the metachronous colorectal liver metas-tases with the advantage of higher clinical efficacy rate.%目的:探讨不同的手术治疗方法对肠癌术后异时性肝转移的临床效果,分析综合手术疗法的优势,为后续临床研究提供依据。方法:采用回顾性分析的方法对我院2008年12月至2010年12月收治的128例发生肠癌术后异时性肝转移患者的临床资料进行分析。根

  3. NEW THEORY IN TUNNEL STABLILITY CONTROL OF SOFT ROCK ——MECHANICS OF SOFT ROCK ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满朝

    1996-01-01

    Tunnel stability control is a world-wide difficult problem. For the sake of solving it,the new theory of soft rock engineering mechanics has been estabilished. Some key points,such as the definition and classification of soft rock, mechanical deformation mechanism of a soft rock tunnel, the critical support technique of soft rock tunnel and the new theory of the soft rock tunnel stability control are proposed in this paper.

  4. Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    González, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences is at a turning point. The strong distinction between “science” and “humanities” has been criticized from many fronts and, at the same time, an increasing cooperation between the so-called “hard sciences” and “soft sciences” is taking place in a wide range of scientific projects dealing with very complex and interdisciplinary topics. In the last fifteen years the area of Soft Computing has also experienced a gradual rapprochement to disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and also in the field of Medicine, Biology and even the Arts, a phenomenon that did not occur much in the previous years.   The collection of this book presents a generous sampling of the new and burgeoning field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences, bringing together a wide array of authors and subject matters from different disciplines. Some of the contributors of the book belong to the scientific and technical areas of Soft Computing w...

  5. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Malhotra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  6. The mechanics of soft biological composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thao D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Grazier, John Mark; Boyce, Brad Lee; Jones, Reese E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-01

    Biological tissues are uniquely structured materials with technologically appealing properties. Soft tissues such as skin, are constructed from a composite of strong fibrils and fluid-like matrix components. This was the first coordinated experimental/modeling project at Sandia or in the open literature to consider the mechanics of micromechanically-based anisotropy and viscoelasticity of soft biological tissues. We have exploited and applied Sandia's expertise in experimentation and mechanics modeling to better elucidate the behavior of collagen fibril-reinforced soft tissues. The purpose of this project was to provide a detailed understanding of the deformation of ocular tissues, specifically the highly structured skin-like tissue in the cornea. This discovery improved our knowledge of soft/complex materials testing and modeling. It also provided insight into the way that cornea tissue is bio-engineered such that under physiologically-relevant conditions it has a unique set of properties which enhance functionality. These results also provide insight into how non-physiologic loading conditions, such as corrective surgeries, may push the cornea outside of its natural design window, resulting in unexpected non-linear responses. Furthermore, this project created a clearer understanding of the mechanics of soft tissues that could lead to bio-inspired materials, such as highly supple and impact resistant body armor, and improve our design of human-machine interfaces, such as micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS) based prosthetics.

  7. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  8. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  9. Unusual case of Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as soft tissue mass with intracranial metastasis and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Singh Kushwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin lymphoma (HL primarily presents as nodal disease and may involve extranodal sites during the progression of the disease. Extra nodal involvement of lung, gastrointestinal tract, testis and thyroid etc., is well-recognized in non-HL but clinically detectable soft tissue involvement is rare and quite exceptional with HL. We report here an unusual case of a young adult male, who presented with a frontal soft tissue mass associated with cervical lymph node. Histopathology supplemented with immunohistochemistry revealed classical HL. Patient did not respond to treatment adequately, and he developed intracranial metastasis during the course of treatment.

  10. The Evolution of Soft Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is an effective field theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for processes where there are energetic, nearly lightlike degrees of freedom interacting with one another via soft radiation. SCET has found many applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, especially in recent years the physics of hadronic jets in $e^+e^-$, lepton-hadron, hadron-hadron, and heavy-ion collisions. SCET can be used to factorize multi-scale cross sections in these processes into single-scale hard, collinear, and soft functions, and to evolve these through the renormalization group to resum large logarithms of ratios of the scales that appear in the QCD perturbative expansion, as well as to study properties of nonperturbative effects. We overview the elementary concepts of SCET and describe how they can be applied in high-energy and nuclear physics.

  11. Microscale soft robotics motivations, progress, and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaeyoun (Jay)

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the technological basics and applications of small-scale (mm to sub-mm in length-scales) soft robots and devices, written for researchers in both academia and industry. Author Jaeyoun Kim presents technological motivations, enabling factors, and examples in an inter-linked fashion, making it easy for readers to understand and explore how microscale soft robots are a solution to researchers in search of technological platforms for safe, human-friendly biomedical devices. A compact and timely introduction, this book summarizes not only the enabling factors for soft robots and MEMS devices, but also provides a survey of progress in the field and looks to the future in terms of the material, design, and application aspects this new technology demonstrates.

  12. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  13. Understanding rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rangarajan; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies of rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials, we study numerically strain rate sweeps in simple yield stress fluids and viscosity bifurcating yield stress fluids. Our simulations of downward followed by upward strain rate sweeps, performed within fluidity models and the soft glassy rheology model, successfully capture the experimentally observed monotonic decrease of the area of the rheological hysteresis loop with sweep time in simple yield stress fluids, and the bell shaped dependence of hysteresis loop area on sweep time in viscosity bifurcating fluids. We provide arguments explaining these two different functional forms in terms of differing tendencies of simple and viscosity bifurcating fluids to form shear bands during the sweeps, and show that the banding behaviour captured by our simulations indeed agrees with that reported experimentally. We also discuss the difference in hysteresis behaviour between inelastic and viscoelastic fluids. Our simulations qualitatively agree with the experimental data discussed here for four different soft glassy materials.

  14. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Hwang, M.; Rau, C.; Fishman, A.; Lee, W.; Richter, C. (X-Ray Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.); (Diamond Light Source, Ltd.)

    2011-01-01

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.

  15. A compliant soft-actuator laterotactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Espen; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Humans are extremely adept at eliciting useful information through touch, and the tactile domain has huge potential for handheld and wearable electronic devices. Smart materials may be central to exploiting this potential. The skin is highly sensitive to laterotactile stimulation, where tactile elements move laterally against the skin, and this modality is well suited for wearable devices. Wearable devices should be soft and compliant, in order to move with the user and be comfortable. We present and characterize a laterotactile display using soft and compliant dielectric elastomer actuators. We carry out an initial psychophysical study to determine the absolute sensitivity threshold of laterotactile stimulation, and find that at low frequencies sensitivity is higher than for normal tactile stimulation. Our results suggest that the mechanoreceptors close to the skin surface (SA1, FA1) have improved sensitivity to laterotactile stimulation. We believe our results lay the foundation for a range of new soft robotic human interface devices using smart materials.

  16. The Double Copy Structure of Soft Gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Agustin Sabio

    2014-01-01

    The subleading corrections to factorization theorems for soft bremsstrahlung in nonabelian gauge theories and gravity are investigated. Building on recent results, we write the action of the angular momentum operators on scattering amplitudes as derivatives with respect to the Mandelstam invariants to uncover a double copy structure in the contribution of the soft graviton to the amplitude, both in the leading term and the first correction. Using our approach, we study Gribov's theorem as extended to nonabelian gauge theories and gravity by Lipatov, and find that subleading corrections can be obtained from those to Low's theorem by dropping the terms with derivatives with respect to the center-of-mass energy, which are suppressed at high energies. In this case, the emitted gravitons are not necessarily soft.

  17. Soft hairy horizons in three spacetime dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Afshar, Hamid; Merbis, Wout; Perez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of soft hairy black holes and a new kind of "soft hairy cosmologies", including a detailed derivation of the metric formulation, results on flat space, and novel observations concerning the entropy. Remarkably, like in the case with negative cosmological constant, we find that the asymptotic symmetries for locally flat spacetimes with a horizon are governed by infinite copies of the Heisenberg algebra that generate soft hair descendants. It is also shown that the generators of the three-dimensional Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra arise from composite operators of the affine u(1) currents through a twisted Sugawara-like construction. We then discuss entropy macroscopically, thermodynamically and microscopically and discover that a microscopic formula derived recently for boundary conditions associated to the Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy fits perfectly our results for entropy and ground state energy. We conclude with a comparison to related approaches.

  18. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  19. Exactly isochoric deformations of soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Many materials of contemporary interest, such as gels, biological tissues and elastomers, are easily deformed but essentially incompressible. Traditional linear theory of elasticity implements incompressibility only to first order and thus permits some volume changes, which become problematically large even at very small strains. Using a mixed coordinate transformation originally due to Gauss, we enforce the constraint of isochoric deformations exactly to develop a linear theory with perfect volume conservation that remains valid until strains become geometrically large. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by calculating the response of an infinite soft isochoric solid to a point force that leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Kelvin solution. Our approach naturally generalizes to a range of problems involving deformations of soft solids and interfaces in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries, which we exemplify by determining the solution to a distributed load that mimics muscular contraction within the bulk of a soft solid.

  20. Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC

  1. Soft-wall modelling of meson spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, S S

    2016-01-01

    The holographic methods inspired by the gauge/gravity correspondence from string theory have been actively applied to the hadron spectroscopy in the last eleven years. Within the phenomenological bottom-up approach, the linear Regge-like trajectories for light mesons are naturally reproduced in the so-called "Soft-wall" holographic models. I will give a very short review of the underlying ideas and technical aspects related to the meson spectroscopy. A generalization of soft-wall description of Regge trajectories to arbitrary intercept is proposed. The problem of incorporation of the chiral symmetry breaking is discussed.

  2. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  3. International Conference on Soft Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in International Conference on Soft Computing Systems (ICSCS 2015) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the emerging areas of Soft Computing in Engineering and Technology. The book is organized in two volumes and discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  4. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  5. Soft X-Ray Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    AND SUBTrI 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Soft X-ray Laser Development 61102F/2301/A8 L AUTHOR(S) ( Szymon Suckewer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS...REPORT Report of Progress on Soft X-ray Laser Development submitted to Air Force Office of Scientific Research by Acession For DT!C T.IB Princeton...x-ray laser development by Jaegl6 and coworkers 6, however the present work on aluminium plasmas pumped with a low energy Nd laser was primarily

  6. Magnetism and metallurgy of soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials are economically and technologically the most important of all magnetic materials. In particular, the development of new materials and novel applications for the computer and telecommunications industries during the past few decades has immensely broadened the scope and altered the nature of soft magnetic materials. In addition to metallic substances, nonmetallic compounds and amorphous thin films are coming increasingly important. This thorough, well-organized volume - on of the most comprehensive treatments available - offers a coherent, logical presentation of the p

  7. Printing soft matter in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Ryan L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-12-01

    Light- and ink-based three-dimensional (3D) printing methods allow the rapid design and fabrication of materials without the need for expensive tooling, dies or lithographic masks. They have led to an era of manufacturing in which computers can control the fabrication of soft matter that has tunable mechanical, electrical and other functional properties. The expanding range of printable materials, coupled with the ability to programmably control their composition and architecture across various length scales, is driving innovation in myriad applications. This is illustrated by examples of biologically inspired composites, shape-morphing systems, soft sensors and robotics that only additive manufacturing can produce.

  8. Preliminary Findings of Soft Yaw Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work previous done on this subject...... with foucus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine studies shows that a significant reduction in fatigue loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft is possible by the soft yaw drive concept....

  9. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. Soft sensor modeling based on Gaussian processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhi-hua; HUANG Guo-hong; SHAO Hui-he

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of online optimal running, a novel soft sensor modeling approach based on Gaussian processes was proposed. The approach is moderately simple to implement and use without loss of performance. It is trained by optimizing the hyperparameters using the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm with the squared exponential covariance function employed. Experimental simulations show that the soft sensor modeling approach has the advantage via a real-world example in a refinery. Meanwhile, the method opens new possibilities for application of kernel methods to potential fields.

  11. Soft-collinear factorization in B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of collinear factorization with effective field theory originally developed for soft interactions of heavy quarks provides the foundations of the theory of exclusive and semi-inclusive B decays. In this article I summarize some of the later conceptual developments of the so-called QCD factorization approach that make use of soft-collinear effective theory. Then I discuss the status and results of the calculation of the hard-scattering functions at the next order, and review very briefly some of the phenomenology, covering aspects of charmless, electroweak penguin and radiative (semi-leptonic) decays.

  12. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  13. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, T M

    2012-02-03

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken.

  14. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with soft tissue involvement in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao KH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kehai Gao, Hongtao Li, Caihong Huang, Huazhuang Li, Jun Fang, Chen Tian Department of Orthopaedics, Yidu Central Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has strong expression of CD30. ALCL can sometimes involve the bone marrow, and in advanced stages, it can produce destructive extranodal lesions. But anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK+ ALCL with soft tissue involvement is very rare.Case report: A 35-year-old woman presented with waist pain for over 1 month. The biopsy of soft tissue lesions showed that these cells were positive for ALK-1, CD30, TIA-1, GranzymeB, CD4, CD8, and Ki67 (90%+ and negative for CD3, CD5, CD20, CD10, cytokeratin (CK, TdT, HMB-45, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and pan-CK, which identified ALCL. After six cycles of Hyper-CVAD/MA regimen, she achieved partial remission. Three months later, she died due to disease progression.Conclusion: This case illustrates the unusual presentation of ALCL in soft tissue with a bad response to chemotherapy. Because of the tendency for rapid progression, ALCL in young adults with extranodal lesions are often treated with high-grade chemotherapy, such as Hyper-CVAD/MA. Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK+, soft tissue involvement, Hyper-CVAD/MA

  15. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  16. From soft photon study at Nuclotron and U-70 to NICA. Soft photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardashev, E.; Golovkin, V.; Golovnya, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Kholodenko, A.; Kiryakov, A.; Lobanov, I.; Polkovnikov, M.; Ronzhin, V.; Ryadovikov, V.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Vorobiev, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Avdeichikov, V.; Balandin, V.; Dunin, V.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Isupov, A.; Kokoulina, E.; Kuzmin, N.; Nikitin, V.; Petukhov, Yu.; Reznikov, S.; Rogov, V.; Rufanov, I.A.; Zhidkov, N.; Zolin, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bogdanova, G.; Popov, V.; Volkov, V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazakov, A. [Smolensk State University, Smolensk (Russian Federation); Kutov, A. [DM Komi SC UrD RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Pokatashkin, G. [Gomel State University, Gomel (Belarus)

    2016-08-15

    Experimental and theoretical studies of direct photon production in hadronic collisions essentially expand our insights in multiparticle production mechanisms. These photons are useful probes to investigate nuclear matter at all stages of the interaction. Soft photons play a particular role in these studies. Until now we have no explanation for the experimentally observed excess of soft photons. These photons have low transverse momenta p{sub T} < 0.1 GeV/c, vertical stroke x vertical stroke < 0.01. In this domain their yield exceeds the theoretical estimates by 5-8 times. The registration of soft photons at Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) has been carried out by the electromagnetic calorimeter built by the SVD-2 Collaboration. Soft photon electromagnetic calorimeter was tested at U-70, IHEP (Protvino). For the first time the soft photon yield at interactions of 3.5 A GeV/c per nucleon deuterium and lithium beams has been measured. The obtained energy spectra confirm the increased yield of soft photons with their energy less than 50 MeV (in the laboratory system) in comparison with theoretical predictions and agree with previous experiments at high-energy interactions. It is planned to continue soft photon study at the future accelerator complex NICA with heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  17. Conservative Soft Power: Liberal soft power bias and the ‘hidden’ attraction of Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Kaczmarska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    it purely as the effect of government-sponsored programs, and to focus primarily on the cultural pillar of soft power. This paper argues, alternatively, that Russia’s conservative values and illiberal governance models generate admiration and followership, even outside of what Russia claims to be its post......-Soviet sphere of influence. Crucially, this admiration and followership perform the traditional function of soft power: generating support for controversial Russian foreign policy decisions. Admitting that soft power can be based on conservative values is necessary not only to understand Russia’s foreign policy...

  18. Gamma-soft Analog of the Confined Beta-soft Rotor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, D; Pietralla, N; Terziev, P A

    2006-01-01

    A gamma-soft analog of the confined beta-soft (CBS) rotor model is developed, by using a gamma-independent displaced infinite well beta-potential in the Bohr Hamiltonian, for which exact separation of variables is possible. Level schemes interpolating between the E(5) critical point symmetry (with R(4/2)=E(4)/E(2)= 2.20) and the O(5) gamma-soft rotor (with R(4/2)=2.50) are obtained, exhibiting a crossover of excited 0+ bandheads which leads to agreement with the general trends of first excited 0+ states in this region and is observed experimentally in 128-Xe and 130-Xe.

  19. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality of the soft behavior of the dilaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string....... Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory....

  20. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  1. A decision tree for soft tissue grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Daylene Jack-Min; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    Periodontal plastic surgery is commonly performed for esthetic and physiologic reasons, such as alleviating root sensitivity, root caries, and cervical abrasion and facilitating plaque control at the affected site. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the most appropriate treatment method for the various clinical situations encountered. The aims of this paper are to review and discuss the various clinical situations that require soft tissue grafting and to attempt to provide recommendations for the most predictable technique. Using MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library, a review of all available literature was performed. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals written in English were chosen and reviewed to validate the decision-making process when planning for soft tissue grafting. A decision tree was subsequently developed to guide clinicians to choose the most appropriate soft tissue grafting procedure by taking into consideration the following clinical parameters: etiology, purpose of the procedure, adjacent interproximal bone level, and overlying tissue thickness. The decision tree proposed serves as a guide for clinicians to select the most appropriate and predictable soft tissue grafting procedure to minimize unnecessary mistakes while providing the ultimate desired treatment outcome.

  2. Teamwork, Soft Skills, and Research Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark

    2017-02-01

    We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.

  3. SOFT TISSUE BALANCING IN TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kosev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with the soft tissue balancing in total hip arthroplasty. Detailed indications, planning and surgical technique are presented. The described procedures are performed on 278 hips for a period of 6 years (2008-2014. We conclude that the outcome of a THA can be improved by balancing the stability, ROM, muscle strength and limb length equality.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  5. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  6. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  7. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  8. Resistance and perspectives in soft tissue sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignancies originating from mesenchymal origin. They may occur at any age, but the incidence increases with age: about 50% of the patients are over 60 years of age. A distinct peak incidence is made up by embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas that mostly afflict children at age

  9. Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjini Bandyopadhyan

    2013-07-01

    Soft materials such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions and liquid crystals are constituted by mesoscopic entities held together by weak forces. Their mechanical moduli are several orders of magnitude lower than those of atomic solids. The application of small to moderate stresses to these materials results in the disruption of their microstructures. The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, such as turbulent drag reduction, elastic turbulence, the formation of shear bands and the existence of rheological chaos, flow-induced birefringence and the unusual rheology of soft glassy materials, are reviewed. The focus then shifts to observations of the liquid-like response of granular media that have been subjected to external forces. The article concludes with examples of the patterns that emerge when certain soft materials are vibrated, or when they are displaced with Newtonian fluids of lower viscosities.

  10. Soft Governance Instruments in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    Following recent theoretical and conceptual developments this paper examines the extent to which the gradual introduction and unfolding of new soft instruments in the European Union is in fact changing the EUs system of governance and the nature of the European integration process. The paper...... of assumptions about the different types of instruments. These assumptions will be tested empirically in the future....

  11. Real Life Applications of Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    The application of soft computing techniques in industrial control, security, data mining, software world, robotics, can be easily seen. This book uncovers such applications, explaining the underlying technology and its implementation. It demonstrates how they can be modeled, designed, and implemented.

  12. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable...

  13. On the cytoskeleton and soft glassy rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Govindjee, Sanjay; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2008-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex structure within the cellular corpus that is responsible for the main structural properties and motilities of cells. A wide range of models have been utilized to understand cytoskeletal rheology and mechanics (see e.g. [Mofrad, M., Kamm, R., 2006. Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]). From this large collection of proposed models, the soft glassy rheological model (originally developed for inert soft glassy materials) has gained a certain traction in the literature due to the close resemblance of its predictions to certain mechanical data measured on cell cultures [Fabry, B., Maksym, G., Butler, J., Glogauer, M., Navajas, D., Fredberg, J., 2001. Scaling the microrheology of living cells. Physical Review Letters 87, 14102]. We first review classical linear rheological theory in a concise fashion followed by an examination of the soft glassy rheological theory. With this background we discuss the observed behavior of the cytoskeleton and the inherent limitations of classical rheological models for the cytoskeleton. This then leads into a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages presented to us by the soft glassy rheological model. We close with some comments of caution and recommendations on future avenues of exploration.

  14. Soft thrombus formation in radiofrequency catheter ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demolin, JM; Eick, OJ; Munch, K; Koullick, E; Nakagawa, H; Wittkampf, FHM

    2002-01-01

    During RF catheter ablation, local temperature elevation can result in coagulum formation on the ablation electrode, resulting in impedance rise. A recent study has also demonstrated the formation of a so-called soft thrombus during experimental ablations. This deposit poorly adhered to the catheter

  15. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...

  16. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pego, Ana Paula; Poot, André A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more r

  17. Flexidrive: a soft artificial muscle motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony C. H.; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-04-01

    We use our thumbs and forefingers to rotate an object such as a control knob on a stereo system by moving our finger relative to our thumb. Motion is imparted without sliding and in a precise manner. In this paper we demonstrate how an artificial muscle membrane can be used to mimic this action. This is achieved by embedding a soft gear within the membrane. Deformation of the membrane results in deformation of the polymer gear and this can be used for motor actuation by rotating the shaft. The soft motors were fabricated from 3M VHB4905 membranes 0.5mm thick that were pre-stretched equibiaxially to a final thickness of 31 μm. Each membrane had polymer acrylic soft gears inserted at the center. Sectors of each membrane (60° sector) were painted on both sides with conducting carbon grease leaving gaps between adjoining sectors to avoid arcing between them. Each sector was electrically connected to a power supply electrode on the rigid acrylic frame via narrow avenues of carbon-grease. The motors were supported in rigid acrylic frames aligned concentrically. A flexible shaft was inserted through both gears. Membranes were charged using a step wave PWM voltage signal delivered using a Biomimetics Lab EAP Control unit. Both membrane viscoelasticity and the resisting torque on the shaft influence motor speed by changing the effective circumference of the flexible gear. This new soft motor opens the door to artificial muscle machines molded as a single part.

  18. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2015-01-20

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling motion to out-of-cage relaxations over a broad frequency range 10-13 rad/s < ω < 101 rad/s. Progressive dilution of a suspension of hairy nanoparticles leading to increased intercenter distances is demonstrated to enable continuous mapping of the structural relaxation for colloidal glasses. In contrast to existing empirical approaches proposed to extend the rheological map of soft glassy materials, i.e., time-strain superposition (TSS) and strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS), TCS yields a LVE master curve that satis fies the Kramers-Kronig relations which interrelate the dynamic moduli for materials at equilibrium. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model and literature data further support the general validity of the TCS concept for soft glassy materials.

  19. Soft matter approaches to food structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We give an overview of the many opportunities that arise from approaching food structuring from the perspective of soft matter physics. This branch of physics employs concepts that build upon the seminal work of van der Waals, such as free volume, the mean field, and effective temperatures. All thes

  20. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  1. Instabilities of soft films on compliant substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. A.; Li, B.; Feng, X. Q.; Kuhl, E.

    2017-01-01

    Instabilities in bilayered systems can generate a wide variety of patterns ranging from simple folds, wrinkles, and creases to complex checkerboards, hexagons, and herringbones. Physics-based theories traditionally model these systems as a thin film on a thick substrate under confined compression and assume that the film is orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate. However, instability phenomena in soft films on soft substrates remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that soft bilayered systems are highly sensitive to the stiffness ratio, boundary conditions, and mode of compression. In a systematic analysis over a wide range of stiffness ratios, from 0.1 domain compression, substrate prestretch, and film growth, we observe significantly different instability characteristics in the low-stiffness-contrast regime, for β domain compression are unstable for a wide range of wrinkling modes, under film-only compression, the same systems display distinct wrinkling modes.Strikingly, these discrepancies disappear when using measures of effective strain, effective stiffness, and effective wavelength. Our study suggests that future instability studies should use these effective measures to standardize their findings. Our results have important applications in soft matter and living matter physics, where stiffness contrasts are low and small environmental changes can have large effects on morphogenesis, pattern tabselection, and the evolution of shape.

  2. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Robert Kagan asserts, France, Germany, and the rest of Europe have been gravitating to the United States of late not simply due to soft power, but in...Africa and the World World public opinion numbers for the United States have suffered over the past several years, and even a political neophyte would

  3. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  4. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects o

  5. Reversed planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of this new fixture is to elongate an annulus, by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation...

  6. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant...

  7. Economic Soft Landing:A Common Desir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    An economic soft landing refers to steady deceleration of an overheated economy to a mole moderate rate of growth. As such, it may appear to relate to government macro,adjustmentrrather than the desire of the common people. But its effect is one of cooling down fleree economic growth that exerts high pressure on daily life and is, therefore, of social benefif.

  8. Soft sensing for gas-lift wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.H.J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Sturm, W.L.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the use of extended Kalman filtering as a soft-sensing technique for gas lift wells. This technique is deployed for the estimation of dynamic variables that are not directly measured. Possible applications are the estimation of flow rates from surface and downhole pressure measu

  9. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at hi...

  10. Evaluation of a Soft Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensap-Kelly, Piyawan; Broussard, Lauren; Lindsly, Mallory; Troy, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a soft skills employee training program. We examined willingness to learn and delivery methods (face-to-face vs. online) and their associations with the training outcomes in terms of learning and behavioral change. Results showed that neither participants' willingness to learn nor delivery…

  11. Dependencies between soft proofing and prepress production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In order to save time and money, more and more printing organizations are investing in on-line customer portals to allow uploading content and giving formal approvals based on soft proofs before the final production process (plate making and printing) can be initiated. The approvals are typically made on soft proofs of pages whereas, obviously, the images used for plate making are so-called imposed flats (a combination of pages rotated in such a way that the printed matter can be obtained after folding and cutting). The main goal of a soft proof of a page is to simulate accurately on a display device how the page will be finally printed. The quality expectations of a soft proof are very high since a formal approval implies contractual obligations from the printing organization. This quality, however, can be influenced by many parameters. By definition, soft proofs will be displayed on a monitor (being a light emitting device), whereas a print on paper can only be seen as the reflection of a light source. As a consequence, monitors can be described by an additive color model whereas printers or presses will be modeled by a subtractive color model. Other differences relate to how the image is generated: presses can only output binary information (ink or no ink) and continuous tones are simulated by using screening techniques whereas, on a monitor, a multi-level signal can generate different shades of a specific color. The differences described above are addressed by many color management systems available on the market today. An upcoming requirement in this area is that people do not only expect the color management software to behave well but also expect this software to validate its behavior. Another range of problems with soft proofs relates to the rendering (converting vector-based page data into bitmaps) and separation process. These can be divided in two classes: spatial issues (related to resolution differences, high-frequency patterns, aliasing problems etc

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  13. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2008-01-19

    Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

  14. Curvature-driven assembly in soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iris B; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2016-07-28

    Control over the spatial arrangement of colloids in soft matter hosts implies control over a wide variety of properties, ranging from the system's rheology, optics, and catalytic activity. In directed assembly, colloids are typically manipulated using external fields to form well-defined structures at given locations. We have been developing alternative strategies based on fields that arise when a colloid is placed within soft matter to form an inclusion that generates a potential field. Such potential fields allow particles to interact with each other. If the soft matter host is deformed in some way, the potential allows the particles to interact with the global system distortion. One important example is capillary assembly of colloids on curved fluid interfaces. Upon attaching, the particle distorts that interface, with an associated energy field, given by the product of its interfacial area and the surface tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. We explore this coupling in experiment and theory. There are important analogies in liquid crystals. Colloids in liquid crystals elicit an elastic energy response. When director fields are moulded by confinement, the imposed elastic energy field can couple to that of the colloid to define particle paths and sites for assembly. By improving our understanding of these and related systems, we seek to develop new, parallelizable routes for particle assembly to form reconfigurable systems in soft matter that go far beyond the usual close-packed colloidal structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  15. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  16. Imaging of the pediatric hand: Soft tissue abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, R. Mauricio [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: jaramillo@email.chop.edu; Connolly, Susan A. [Children' s Hospital Boston (United States)

    2005-12-15

    This review attempts to demonstrate the spectrum of soft tissue masses encountered in the child's hand. The diagnosis may be suggested by the combination of physical exam and radiographs. Frequently the etiology of a soft tissue mass cannot be established by conventional radiographs and further imaging is necessary. MRI by virtue of its ability to provide detailed soft tissue characterization is the preferred method of imaging the problematic soft tissue mass.

  17. Lung Cancer Presenting as a Soft-Tissue Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Baldeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft-tissue metastasis refers to the growth of cancer cells, originating from internal cancer, in soft tissues. In most cases, soft-tissue metastases develop after initial diagnosis of the primary internal malignancy and late in the course of the disease. In very rare cases, they may occur at the same time or before the primary cancer has been detected. In our cases, the soft-tissue metastases and the primary lung cancer were diagnosed at the same time.

  18. Perspectives on opportunities in experimental soft-matter science

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, ...

  19. From soft photon study at Nuclotron and U-70 to NICA. Soft photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardashev, E.; Avdeichikov, V.; Balandin, V.; Bogdanova, G.; Dunin, V.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Golovkin, V.; Golovnya, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Isupov, A.; Kazakov, A.; Kholodenko, A.; Kiryakov, A.; Kokoulina, E.; Kutov, A.; Kuzmin, N.; Lobanov, I.; Nikitin, V.; Petukhov, Yu.; Pokatashkin, G.; Polkovnikov, M.; Popov, V.; Reznikov, S.; Rogov, V.; Ronzhin, V.; Rufanov, I. A.; Ryadovikov, V.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Volkov, V.; Vorobiev, A.; Zhidkov, N.; Zolin, L.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of direct photon production in hadronic collisions essentially expand our insights in multiparticle production mechanisms. These photons are useful probes to investigate nuclear matter at all stages of the interaction. Soft photons play a particular role in these studies. Until now we have no explanation for the experimentally observed excess of soft photons. These photons have low transverse momenta pT SVD-2 Collaboration. Soft photon electromagnetic calorimeter was tested at U-70, IHEP (Protvino). For the first time the soft photon yield at interactions of 3.5 A GeV/ c per nucleon deuterium and lithium beams has been measured. The obtained energy spectra confirm the increased yield of soft photons with their energy less than 50MeV (in the laboratory system) in comparison with theoretical predictions and agree with previous experiments at high-energy interactions. It is planned to continue soft photon study at the future accelerator complex NICA with heavy-ion beams.

  20. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  1. Terpenoids of Sinularia soft corals: chemistry and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ting Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are one of the most widespread soft corals. They are a rich source of bioactive substances with intriguing and unique structural features. The present paper reviews the latest progress in the chemistry and pharmacological activities of terpenoids from Sinularia soft corals and provides a perspective on future areas of research interest.

  2. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate concentratio

  3. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  4. Chronic septic arthritis of the adult hip: Computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, C.S.; Ammann, A.M.; Walsh, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    Abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) are described in 12 adults in whom septic arthritis of the hip was diagnosed. Presenting symptoms varied, as did CT findings. Soft tissue abnormalities ranged from intra-articular effusion to large abscess formation, and bone changes ranged from minimal erosion of articular surfaces to gross destruction of the proximal femur and acetabulum. CT can be helpful in the evaluation of septic arthritis of the hip because of its superior demonstration of soft tissue detail. An accurate diagnosis can be established in unsuspected cases and can be confirmed when clinical indicators are vague.

  5. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy alone or with regional hyperthermia for localised high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised phase 3 multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issels, Rolf D; Lindner, Lars H; Verweij, Jaap;

    2010-01-01

    The optimum treatment for high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults is unclear. Regional hyperthermia concentrates the action of chemotherapy within the heated tumour region. Phase 2 studies have shown that chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia improves local control compared with chemother...

  6. Management of health care expenditure by soft computing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Goran; Jović, Srđan; Jovanović, Radomir; Aničić, Obrad

    2017-01-01

    In this study was managed the health care expenditure by soft computing methodology. The main goal was to predict the gross domestic product (GDP) according to several factors of health care expenditure. Soft computing methodologies were applied since GDP prediction is very complex task. The performances of the proposed predictors were confirmed with the simulation results. According to the results, support vector regression (SVR) has better prediction accuracy compared to other soft computing methodologies. The soft computing methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization in order to avoid local minimum issues.

  7. Complications of orthodontic treatment: are soft drinks a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hilings H Y; Wong, Ricky W K; Hägg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has steadily increased in recent decades in both western and developing countries. The trend is most apparent among children and adolescents. This rise in soft drink consumption has raised concerns among health care professionals, including dental practitioners. Accordingly, the effects of soft drinks on dental health have been investigated. Several studies have shown that dental problems, such as caries, enamel erosion, and corrosion of dental materials, may be associated with soft drink consumption. Because orthodontic appliances restrict toothbrush access, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment need special oral care and advice. This article reviews the risks and implications of soft drink consumption for orthodontic patients.

  8. Stabilization of Soft Soil Using Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Hameed Majeed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tests were conducted to investigate the influence of using nanomaterials in the modification and stabilization of soft soil. The soft soils were collected from two sites and treated with three nanomaterial types (nano-copper, nano-clay and nano-magnesium. Nanomaterials were added in small amount (≤1.0% by dry weight of the soil. Laboratory tests to determine the Atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics and unconfined compressive strength were performed. Results of the investigation showed significant improvement in maximum dry density, plasticity index, linear shrinkage and unconfined compressive strength. The improvement is dependent on the type of nanomaterials. The unconfined compressive strength and maximum dry density increased as the nanomaterials content increased until reach a percentage after which the strength will be decrease. Thus, the addition of finer particles such as nanomaterials, even at low doses, could enhance the properties of soil.

  9. Soft and hard product attributes in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2003-01-01

    , business and engineering) showed consensus on assigning certain words to specific products in order to express the sensory and perceived experiences (Johnson et al. 2003). An initial vocabulary was formulated based on input from the design literature. The study showed that a significant amount of the test......Products are to a growing extend being sold based on their soft values such as design and styling and the image they can bring the owner. This makes it more important that people involved in product development can communicate these more soft or intangible values. Works within this area is pursued...... a number of places (Lopez 2003, Pascalle 2000, Goovers 2003, Warell 2001). The authors have experienced the need when searching for materials that can give the product a certain expression (www.designinsite.dk). In a previous study an interdisciplinary group of 14 students (coming from industrial design...

  10. Soft tissue biotype affects implant success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angie; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    The influence of tissue biotype in natural dentition is already well demonstrated in the literature, with numerous articles showing that thicker tissue is a preferred biotype for optimal surgical and prosthetic outcomes. In this same line of thought, current studies are directed to explore whether mucosal thickness would have similar implications around dental implants. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of soft tissue biotype in relation to success of implant therapy. The influence of tissue biotype was divided into 3 main categories: its relationship with periimplant mucosa and the underlying bone, immediate implant placement, and restorative outcomes. Soft tissue biotype is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration, improving immediate implant success, and preventing future mucosal recession.

  11. Model validation in soft systems practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checkland, P. [Univ. of Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    The concept of `a model` usually evokes the connotation `model of part of the real world`. That is an almost automatic response. It makes sense especially in relation to the way the concept has been developed and used in natural science. Classical operational research (OR), with its scientific aspirations, and systems engineering, use the concept in the same way and in addition use models as surrogates for the real world, on which experimentation is cheap. In these fields the key feature of a model is representativeness. In soft systems methodology (SSM) models are not of part of the world; they are only relevant to debate about the real world and are used in a cyclic learning process. The paper shows how the different concepts of validation in classical OR and SSM lead to a way of sharply defining the nature of `soft OR`. 21 refs.

  12. Distance and Similarity Measures for Soft Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Kharal, Athar

    2010-01-01

    In [P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta, Similarity measure of soft sets, New Mathematics and Natural Computation 4(1)(2008) 1-12], the authors use matrix representation based distances of soft sets to introduce matching function and distance based similarity measures. We first give counterexamples to show that their Definition 2.7 and Lemma 3.5(3) contain errors, then improve their Lemma 4.4 making it a corllary of our result. The fundamental assumption of Majumdar et al has been shown to be flawed. This motivates us to introduce set operations based measures. We present a case (Example 28) where Majumdar-Samanta similarity measure produces an erroneous result but the measure proposed herein decides correctly. Several properties of the new measures have been presented and finally the new similarity measures have been applied to the problem of financial diagnosis of firms.

  13. Effective Action of Softly Broken Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nibbelink, S G; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Nyawelo, Tino S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the renormalization of (softly) broken supersymmetric theories at the one loop level in detail. We perform this analysis in a superspace approach in which the supersymmetry breaking interactions are parameterized using spurion insertions. We comment on the uniqueness of this parameterization. We compute the one loop renormalization of such theories by calculating superspace vacuum graphs with multiple spurion insertions. To preform this computation efficiently we develop algebraic properties of spurion operators, that naturally arise because the spurions are often surrounded by superspace projection operators. Our results are general apart from the restrictions that higher super covariant derivative terms and some finite effects due to non-commutativity of superfield dependent mass matrices are ignored. One of the soft potentials induces renormalization of the Kaehler potential.

  14. Soft matter perspective on protein crystal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Crystallography may be the gold standard of protein structure determination, but obtaining the necessary high-quality crystals is also in some ways akin to prospecting for the precious metal. The tools and models developed in soft matter physics to understand colloidal assembly offer some insights into the problem of crystallizing proteins. This topical review describes the various analogies that have been made between proteins and colloids in that context. We highlight the explanatory power of patchy particle models, but also the challenges of providing guidance for crystallizing specific proteins. We conclude with a presentation of possible future research directions. This review is intended for soft matter scientists interested in protein crystallization as a self-assembly problem, and as an introduction to the pertinent physics literature for protein scientists more generally.

  15. Revealing hidden dynamics within living soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dino; Bendix, Poul M; Oddershede, Lene B

    2013-10-22

    In the study of living soft matter, we often seek to understand the mechanisms underlying the motion of a single molecule, an organelle, or some other tracer. The experimentally observed signature of the tracer is masked by its thermal fluctuations, inherent drift of the system, and instrument noise. In addition, the timing or length scales of the events of interest are often unknown. In the current issue of ACS Nano, Chen et al. present a general method for extracting the underlying dynamics from time series. Here, we provide an easily accessible introduction to the method, put it into perspective with the field, and exemplify how it can be used to answer important out-standing questions within soft matter and living systems.

  16. It's harder to splash on soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howison, Sam; Howland, Christopher; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Castrejon-Pita, Rafael; Oliver, James; Style, Robert; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. By imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses we show that substrate stiffness also affects the splashing thresh- old. Splashing is reduced or even eliminated: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that this is due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Young's moduli prevention. Soft substrates also serve as a useful system for testing splash-formation theories and sheet-ejection mechanisms, as they allow the characteristics of ejection sheets to be controlled independently of the bulk impact dynamics of droplets. EPSRC (CJH), John Fell Oxford University Press (OUP) Research Fund (AACP and RWS), The Royal Society (AAC-P).

  17. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon

    2016-11-01

    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  18. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  19. Adult onset segmental cavernous hemangioma, varicose veins and limb atrophy (klippel-trenaunay-Weber syndrome variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney MPS

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year-old woman presented with multiple soft, compressible, protuberant, bluish cutaneous lesions as well as firm, non-compressible, subcutaneous masses and varicose veins affecting the right upper limb of three years duration. There was atrophy of soft tissue of forearm by 2.5 cm. X-ray showed soft tissue densities, multiple phleboliths and hypoplastic forearm bones. Histopathological examination from cutaneous lesions revealed cavernous hemangioma. Adult onset cavernous hemangioma involving one upper limb and breast with multiple phleboliths and limb atrophy is a very unusual presentation of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

  20. CMS results on soft and hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Obertino, Margherita Maria

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the soft diffractive cross sections in single- and double-diffractive final states is presented at 7 TeV. Furthermore, also the production of jet-gap-get final states is discussed and the results are interpreted in terms of a hard color singlet exchange. Finally, general features of particle production in single-diffractive enhanced events are shown at 13 TeV.

  1. Soft tissue augmentation in dermatology - 2009 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Gold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of products available to dermatologists for soft tissue augmentation has grown significantly over the past several years in the US. This manuscript will review the various hyaluronic acid fillers and other Food and Drug Administration -approved products we are utilizing for our patients in the rejuvenation process. It is hoped that through this article clinicians will feel more comfortable using these products in their everyday practice of dermatology.

  2. Soft Spin Physics at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffaella De Vita

    2004-10-01

    An extensive experimental program to study spin physics at low and moderate four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, is in progress at Jefferson Lab. In this regime, soft processes as resonance excitation and higher twist contribution play a dominant role and the measurement of spin observables is a fundamental tool to understand such phenomena and identify the relevant degrees of freedom. In these proceedings I will describe the ongoing experimental program and I will discuss preliminary and final results.

  3. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  4. Solving Integer Programming by Evolutionary Soft Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jian

    2003-01-01

    Many practical problems in commerce and industry involve finding the best way to allocate scarce resources a mong competing activities. This paper focuses on the problem of integer programming, and describes an evolutionary soft agent model to solve it. In proposed model, agent is composed of three components: goal, environment and behavior. Experirnental shows thne model has the characters of parallel computing and goal driving.

  5. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  6. Statistical Mechanics of Soft Margin Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastian; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2001-01-01

    We study the typical learning properties of the recently introduced Soft Margin Classifiers (SMCs), learning realizable and unrealizable tasks, with the tools of Statistical Mechanics. We derive analytically the behaviour of the learning curves in the regime of very large training sets. We obtain exponential and power laws for the decay of the generalization error towards the asymptotic value, depending on the task and on general characteristics of the distribution of stabilities of the patte...

  7. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M. [Neuroimaging Inst., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  8. Soft photon yield in nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, E

    2015-01-01

    First results of study of a soft photon yield at Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV per nucleon are presented. These photons are registered by an BGO electromagnetic calorimeter built by SVD-2 Collaboration. The obtained spectra confirm the excessive yield in the energy region less than 50 MeV in comparison with theoretical estimations and agree with previous experiments at high-energy interactions.

  9. Heavy flavor, QCD and soft physics

    CERN Document Server

    Viegas Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements in QCD, soft physics, and heavy flavor made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. A selection of first results at the new frontier collision energy of 13 TeV at LHC Run2 is shown. The collision environment is characterized by studying charged particle distributions and correlations. Inclusive jet, exclusive dimuon and b-hadron production cross-section measurements are reported.

  10. Soft-sphere model for liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.

    1977-11-08

    A semi-empirical soft-sphere model of fluids is modified for application to the thermodynamic properties of liquid metals. Enthalpy, volume, and sound speed are computed as functions of temperature for 13 metals and compared with experimental data. Critical points and coexistence curves are also computed and compared with experimental data, where these have been measured. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed.

  11. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S.S.; Pusenkov, I.V. [Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the soft wall holographic approach for description of the high-T{sub c} superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological and does not describe the superconducting phase transition. On the other hand, technically it is simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-T{sub c} materials in the superconducting phase. Some examples of emerging models are analyzed. (orig.)

  12. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, S S

    2015-01-01

    We apply the soft wall holographic model from hadron physics to a description of the high-$T_c$ superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological. On the other hand, it is much simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-$T_c$ materials. We demonstrate some examples of emerging models and discuss a possible origin of the approach.

  13. Residual Local Supersymmetry and the Soft Gravitino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2016-04-01

    We show that there exists an infinite tower of fermionic symmetries in pure d =4 , N =1 supergravity on an asymptotically flat background. The Ward identities associated with these symmetries are equivalent to the soft limit of the gravitino and to the statement of supersymmetry at every angle. Additionally, we show that these charges commute into charges associated with the (unextended) Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, providing a supersymmetrization of the BMS translations.

  14. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  15. A new genus and two new species of soft scale insect (Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Coccidae from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hodgson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect genus, Sterculicoccus Hodgson new genus, is introduced to take a new species, Sterculicoccus tafoensis Hodgson new species, off Triplochiton from Ghana. Sterculicoccus belongs to the Myzolecaniinae and is close to Alecanium Morrison. In addition, a new species of Hemilecanium Newstead, H. cedrelus Hodgson, new species, is also described off Cedrela toona from Zambia. H. cedrelus is close to Hemilecanium coriaceum Hall and H. uesatoi Kondo & Hardy (Saissetiinae. The adult females of these two species are described, along with the 1st-instar and the 2nd- and 3rd-instar females of H. cedrelus.

  16. SOFT MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rossoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A certain resistance on the part of the responsible controllers for the strategy exists, in using techniques and tools of modeling and simulation. Many find them excessively complicated, already others see them as rigid and mathematical for excessively for the use of strategies in uncertain and turbulent environments. However, some interpretative boarding that take care of, in part exist, the necessities of these borrowers of decision. The objective of this work is to demonstrate of a clear and simple form, some of the most powerful boarding, methodologies and interpretative tools (soft of modeling and simulation in the business-oriented area of strategy. We will define initially, what they are on models, simulation and some aspects to the modeling and simulation in the strategy area. Later we will see some boarding of modeling soft, that they see the modeling process much more of that simply a mechanical process, therefore, as seen for Simon, the human beings rationally are limited and its decisions are influenced by a series of questions of subjective character, related to the way where it is inserted. Keywords: strategy, modeling and simulation, soft systems methodology, cognitive map, systems dynamics.

  17. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo; Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler's zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT's. We explicitly test these soft theorems for $\\mathcal{N}=4$ sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order $s^{n} \\sim \\partial^{2n}$ are completely determined in terms of the $k$-point amplitudes at order $s^k$ with $k \\leq n$. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particu...

  18. An Experimental Study of Soft Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Gacka, Thomas; Nathan, Rungun; Wu, Li-Zhu; Cbmss Team

    2012-11-01

    Lift generation in soft porous media, as a planing surface glides over it, is a new topic in porous media flow with superior potential for lubrication and squeeze damping. This paper presents the first experimental study of this phenomenon. The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a soft porous sheet, and a stationary instrumented inclined planar upper board. Twelve pressure transducers mounted on the upper board captured the pore pressure generation, while a load cell was used to capture the total lifting force, arising from both the pore pressure and the compression of the solid fibers. One finds that the pore pressure distribution is consistent with theoretical predictions (Feng and Weinbaum, JFM, 2000; Wu et al., MSSE, 2006, 2011), and depends on the running belt velocity, U, the mechanical properties of the porous material, and the compression ratios of the porous layer. For a typical trial (h2/h1=5,h2/h0=1, U=3.8 m/s, where h2, h1, and h0 are the leading edge, trailing edge, and undeformed porous layer thicknesses, respectively), 68% of the lifting force was generated by the pore pressure. It conclusively demonstrates the validity of using soft porous materials for super lubrication. applications. Villanova Cellular Biomechanics and Sports Science Laboratory.

  19. Rheological characteristics of soft rock structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沅江; 吴超; 傅衣铭

    2008-01-01

    There are two mechanisms of the coarse surface asperity resistance effect and rubbing resistance effect in the course of the soft rock structural surface creep,of which the former plays a dominant role in hindering the deformation in the starting creep phase,so that the structural surface creep usually displays the strong surface roughness effect,and so does the latter when the asperities in the coarse surface were fractured by shearing.Under the low stress condition,there are only two phases of the decelerating creep and the constant creep for the soft rock structural surface,and as the stress increases and overcomes the rubbing resistance,the accelerating creep failure of the structural surface will happen suddenly.Therefore,a multiple rheological model,which combines the nonlinear NEWTON body(NN) of a certain mass and the empirical plastic body(EM) with the classical SAINT VENANT body,NEWTON body,KELVIN body and HOOKE body,could be used to comprehensively describe the creep characteristics of the soft rock structural surface.Its mechanical parameter values will vary owing to the different surface roughness of the structural surface.The parameters of GH,GK and ηL are positively linearly correlative to the surface roughness.The surface roughness and m are negative exponential function correlation.The long-term strength τS is positively correlative to the surface roughness.

  20. Turbo decoding using two soft output values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 潘申富; 梁庆林

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that turbo decoding always begins from the first component decoder and supposes that the apriori information is "0" at the first iterative decoding. To alternatively start decoding at two component decoders, we can gain two soft output values for the received observation of an input bit. It is obvious that two soft output values comprise more sufficient extrinsic information than only one output value obtained in the conventional scheme since different start points of decoding result in different combinations of the a priori information and the input codewords with different symbol orders due to the permutation of an interleaver. Summarizing two soft output values for erery bit before making hard decisions, we can correct more errors due to their complement. Consequently, turbo codes can achieve better error correcting performance than before in this way. Simulation results show that the performance of turbo codes using the novel proposed decoding scheme can get a growing improvement with the increment of SNR in general compared to the conventional scheme. When the bit error probability is 10-5, the proposed scheme can achieve 0.5 dB asymptotic coding gain or so under the given simulation conditions.

  1. Immunotherapy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have improved clinical outcomes of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas, the prognosis of patients has plateaued over these 20 years. Immunotherapies have shown the effectiveness for several types of advanced tumors. Immunotherapies, such as cytokine therapies, vaccinations, and adoptive cell transfers, have also been investigated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Cytokine therapies with interleukin-2 or interferons have limited efficacy because of their cytotoxicities. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE, an activator of the innate immune system, has been approved as adjuvant therapeutics in combination with conventional chemotherapy in Europe, which has improved the 5-year overall survival of patients. Vaccinations and transfer of T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors have shown some efficacy for sarcomas. Ipilimumab and nivolumab are monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit immune checkpoint mechanisms. These antibodies have recently been shown to be effective for patients with melanoma and also investigated for patients with sarcomas. In this review, we provide an overview of various trials of immunotherapies for bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and discuss their potential as adjuvant therapies in combination with conventional therapies.

  2. Shape-programmable magnetic soft matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan Lum, Guo; Ye, Zhou; Dong, Xiaoguang; Marvi, Hamid; Erin, Onder; Hu, Wenqi; Sitti, Metin

    2016-10-01

    Shape-programmable matter is a class of active materials whose geometry can be controlled to potentially achieve mechanical functionalities beyond those of traditional machines. Among these materials, magnetically actuated matter is particularly promising for achieving complex time-varying shapes at small scale (overall dimensions smaller than 1 cm). However, previous work can only program these materials for limited applications, as they rely solely on human intuition to approximate the required magnetization profile and actuating magnetic fields for their materials. Here, we propose a universal programming methodology that can automatically generate the required magnetization profile and actuating fields for soft matter to achieve new time-varying shapes. The universality of the proposed method can therefore inspire a vast number of miniature soft devices that are critical in robotics, smart engineering surfaces and materials, and biomedical devices. Our proposed method includes theoretical formulations, computational strategies, and fabrication procedures for programming magnetic soft matter. The presented theory and computational method are universal for programming 2D or 3D time-varying shapes, whereas the fabrication technique is generic only for creating planar beams. Based on the proposed programming method, we created a jellyfish-like robot, a spermatozoid-like undulating swimmer, and an artificial cilium that could mimic the complex beating patterns of its biological counterpart.

  3. Shape-programmable magnetic soft matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Guo Zhan; Ye, Zhou; Dong, Xiaoguang; Marvi, Hamid; Erin, Onder; Hu, Wenqi; Sitti, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Shape-programmable matter is a class of active materials whose geometry can be controlled to potentially achieve mechanical functionalities beyond those of traditional machines. Among these materials, magnetically actuated matter is particularly promising for achieving complex time-varying shapes at small scale (overall dimensions smaller than 1 cm). However, previous work can only program these materials for limited applications, as they rely solely on human intuition to approximate the required magnetization profile and actuating magnetic fields for their materials. Here, we propose a universal programming methodology that can automatically generate the required magnetization profile and actuating fields for soft matter to achieve new time-varying shapes. The universality of the proposed method can therefore inspire a vast number of miniature soft devices that are critical in robotics, smart engineering surfaces and materials, and biomedical devices. Our proposed method includes theoretical formulations, computational strategies, and fabrication procedures for programming magnetic soft matter. The presented theory and computational method are universal for programming 2D or 3D time-varying shapes, whereas the fabrication technique is generic only for creating planar beams. Based on the proposed programming method, we created a jellyfish-like robot, a spermatozoid-like undulating swimmer, and an artificial cilium that could mimic the complex beating patterns of its biological counterpart. PMID:27671658

  4. Droplet impact on soft viscoelastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar; Deng, Peigang; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate the impact of water droplets onto soft viscoelastic surfaces with a wide range of impact velocities. Several impact phenomena, which depend on the dynamic interaction between the droplets and viscoelastic surfaces, have been identified and analyzed. At low We , complete rebound is observed when the impact velocity is between a lower and an upper threshold, beyond which droplets are deposited on the surface after impact. At intermediate We , entrapment of an air bubble inside the impinging droplets is found on soft surfaces, while a bubble entrapment on the surface is observed on rigid surfaces. At high We , partial rebound is only identified on the most rigid surface at We ≳92 . Rebounding droplets behave similarly to elastic drops rebounding on superhydrophobic surfaces and the impact process is independent of surface viscoelasticity. Further, surface viscoelasticity does not influence drop spreading after impact—as the surfaces behave like rigid surfaces—but it does affect drop recoiling. Also, the postimpact drop oscillation on soft viscoelastic surfaces is influenced by dynamic wettability of these surfaces. Comparing sessile drop oscillation with a damped harmonic oscillator allows us to conclude that surface viscoelasticity affects the damping coefficient and liquid surface tension sets the spring constant of the system.

  5. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  6. Soft tissue infections and the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J; Daniels, T; Bohnen, J M

    1996-12-01

    Soft tissue infections are classified as local or spreading. Spreading soft tissue infections are potentially life-threatening conditions, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. The information presented is based on a literature review and the authors' clinical experience. Diagnosis of soft tissue infections is aimed at determining the level of infection (skin, fascia, muscle) and whether necrosis is present. The bacteriology of these infections is varied and is of secondary importance. Treatment of skin infections that have no dead tissue is with antibiotics alone. Infections at the fascial or muscle level and those with necrosis at any level require surgical debridement and adjuvant antibiotics. The feet of diabetic patients are prone to plantar forefoot ulcers associated with tissue destruction and infection. The vast majority are caused by mechanical factors. If local immune defenses are adequate, bacterial colonization occurs without infection. Most diabetic foot ulcers will respond to relief of pressure, which may require total contact casting. Antibiotics and debridement are required in infected or deep ulcers, or when the ulcer does not respond to total contact casting.

  7. 6th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Kovačević, Branko

    2016-01-01

    These volumes constitute the Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Soft Computing Applications, or SOFA 2014, held on 24-26 July 2014 in Timisoara, Romania. This edition was organized by the University of Belgrade, Serbia in conjunction with Romanian Society of Control Engineering and Technical Informatics (SRAIT) - Arad Section, The General Association of Engineers in Romania - Arad Section, Institute of Computer Science, Iasi Branch of the Romanian Academy and IEEE Romanian Section.                 The Soft Computing concept was introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1991 and serves to highlight the emergence of computing methodologies in which the accent is on exploiting the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. Soft computing facilitates the use of fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing in combination, leading to the concept of hybrid intelligent systems.        The combination of ...

  8. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  9. Soft Boolean algebra%软布尔代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫锋

    2013-01-01

    将软集理论应用到布尔代数中,提出了软布尔代数、软布尔子代数、软布尔代数的软理想、软理想布尔代数等概念,研究了它们的相关性质,并初步讨论了软布尔代数与几类布尔代数的模糊子代数的关系。%The soft set theory is applied to the Boolean algebra.The concepts of soft Boolean algebra, soft Boolean sub-algebra, soft ideal of soft Boolean algebra and idealistic soft Boolean algebra are presented and some related algebraic properties are discussed.The relations between soft Boolean algebra and several kinds of fuzzy subalgebras of Boolean algebra are preliminarily investigated.

  10. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  11. Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas treated with radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K. Vitzthum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTSs are rare and heterogeneous cancers in which radiation therapy (RT has an important role in local tumor control (LC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes and patterns of treatment failure in patients with HNSTS treated with RT. A retrospective review was performed of adult patients with HNSTS treated with RT from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2012. LC, locoregional control (LRC, disease-free survival (DFS, overall survival (OS, and predictors thereof were assessed. Forty-eight patients with HNSTS were evaluated. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 87, 73, 63, and 83%, respectively. Angiosarcomas were found to be associated with worse LC, LRC, DFS, and OS. Patients over the age of 60 had lower rates of DFS. HNSTSs comprise a diverse group of tumors that can be managed with various treatment regimens involving RT. Angiosarcomas have higher recurrence and mortality rates.

  12. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  13. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  14. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  15. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-12-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  16. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  17. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  18. Decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Fujita, Hamido; Jun, Young Bae; Khan, Madad

    2014-01-01

    The notion of fuzzy soft sets is a hybrid soft computing model that integrates both gradualness and parameterization methods in harmony to deal with uncertainty. The decomposition of fuzzy soft sets is of great importance in both theory and practical applications with regard to decision making under uncertainty. This study aims to explore decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces. Scalar uni-product and int-product operations of fuzzy soft sets are introduced and some related properties are investigated. Using t-level soft sets, we define level equivalent relations and show that the quotient structure of the unit interval induced by level equivalent relations is isomorphic to the lattice consisting of all t-level soft sets of a given fuzzy soft set. We also introduce the concepts of crucial threshold values and complete threshold sets. Finally, some decomposition theorems for fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces are established, illustrated by an example concerning the classification and rating of multimedia cell phones. The obtained results extend some classical decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets, since every fuzzy set can be viewed as a fuzzy soft set with a single parameter.

  19. Incidence of soft tissue sarcomas in an Italian area affected by illegal waste dumping sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marta; Fazzo, Lucia; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Comba, Pietro; Magnani, Corrado; Fusco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and residence in an Italian area affected by illegal practices of dumping and setting fire to both hazardous and solid urban wastes. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed separately for STS and some specific STS subtypes. The analysis was performed for the total population and for specific age groups, namely, children, adolescents, and adults. In adults, no significant increase in STS was found other than for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in males. A nonsignificant increase in incidence of STS was observed for male children and female adolescents. The results of the present study do not allow conclusions for a causal association. In the absence of previous epidemiological studies on this issue, further investigations are needed.

  20. CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN SOFT AND ENERGY DRINKS AVAILABLE ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Elena Ionică

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in many foods and drinks that we consume. Concerns exist about the potential adverse health effects of high consumption of dietary caffeine, especially in children and pregnant women. Recommended caffeine intakes corresponding to no adverse health effects have been suggested recently for healthy adults (400 – 450 mg/day, for women contemplating pregnancy (300 mg/day, and for young children age 4 – 6 years (45 mg/day. Different brands of soft and energy carbonated beverages available on the Romanian market were analysed for caffeine by HPLC with a diode array UV-VIS detector at 217 nm. The column was a reverse phase C18 and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L, pH 4.3 and acetonitrile (88:12, v/v. The caffeine contents in energy drink samples ranged from 16.82 mg/100 mL to 39.48 mg/100 mL while the carbonated soft drink group showed caffeine content in the range of 9.79 – 14.38 mg/100 mL. In addition, the concentrations of caffeine have been converted into the daily intake doses based on beverages consumption. The mean values of caffeine daily intakes were 124 mg and 49 mg through the ingestion of energy drinks and soft drinks, respectively.

  1. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  2. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas

  4. Rheology, microrheology and structure of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Felix K.

    We study the relationship between the bulk rheological properties and the micron-scale structure and rheology of different types of soft materials. The materials studied are Laponite, a colloidal clay suspension; Carbopol, a dispersion of microgel particles; hydroxyethyl cellulose, a linear polymer solution; and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose, an associative polymer. Bulk properties are measured using conventional shear rheometry. The micron-scale measurements are performed using techniques based on multiple particle tracking and dynamic light scattering. From the thermal motion of suspended tracer particles, we obtain information about the local structure and viscoelastic properties of the materials. We investigate the evolution of Laponite from a liquid to a gel and find that the process is length-scale dependent. We study the properties of Carbopol as a function of microgel concentration and find that as concentration increases, a jamming transition occurs which is related to the onset of yield stress on the bulk scale. We compare the viscoelastic properties of hydroxyethylcellulose and its associative derivative and observe that the hydrophobic interactions in the latter lead to much slower dynamics than in the unmodified polymer. A study of the stress relaxation in hydroxyethylcellulose showed that it depended on both the wait time after the application and removal of a large strain and on the type and magnitude of the deformation applied. Our work exploits the unique ability of microrheological techniques to probe both the rheology and structure of soft materials on the microscopic scale, which enables a better understanding of the relationship between bulk scale properties and microscopic structure in these systems. Keywords. Rheology, microrheology, soft materials, particle tracking, dynamic light scattering, viscoelasticity, yield stress, gelation, polymers.

  5. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits and growing debts among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, the clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the question: Why do only very few...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  6. Hopkinson Effect in Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Theμi-T curves of the alloy Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 in the amorphous state and in the nanocrys talline state have been investigated. For comparison, μi-T curves of the other two kinds of typical soft magnetic alloys also have been measured. It was found that a sharp Hopkinson peak appeared at the Curie point for each amorphous and crystalline alloy but there was no Hopkinson peak for the nanocrystalline alloy at the Curie point of the residual amorphous phase. This phenomenon has been explained in terms of the characteristic temperature dependence of the effective magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Soft computing in computer and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.

  8. Soft errors from particles to circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Autran, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    ""Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits covers all aspects of the design, use, application, performance, and testing of parts, devices, and systems and addresses every perspective from an engineering, scientific, or physical point of view. … Many good texts have been written on similar subjects, but none as thorough, as clear, and as complete as this volume. … [The authors] have mastered the past, absorbed the present, and captured the trends of the future in one of the most important technologies of our time. … An extremely useful text that has succeeded in presenting wit

  9. European XFEL: Soft X-Ray instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodtsov, S. L., E-mail: serguei.molodtsov@xfel.eu [European XFEL GmbH (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The currently constructed European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will generate new knowledge in almost all the technical and scientific disciplines that are shaping our daily life-including nanotechnology, medicine, pharmaceutics, chemistry, materials science, power engineering and electronics. On 8 January 2009, civil engineering work (tunnels, shafts, halls) has been started at all three construction sites. In this presentation status and parameters of the European XFEL facility and instrumentation as well as planned research applications particularly in the range of soft X-rays are reviewed.

  10. Cooperative Signaling with Soft Information Combining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Decode-and-Forward (DF scheme using distributed Turbo code (DTC for a three-node (source, relay, and destination wireless cooperative communication system. The relay decodes, then interleaves, and reencodes the decoded data. It then forwards the reencoded packet and its instantaneous receive SNR to the destination. The performances using both ideal and quantized SNR are studied. The destination uses a modified metric within a Turbo decoding algorithm to scale the soft information calculated for the relay code. The proposed scheme is simple to implement and performs well.

  11. Immunoglobulin for necrotising soft tissue infections (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Bruun; Lange, Theis; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are aggressive infections that can result in severe disability or death. Intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is used as supplementary treatment for patients with NSTIs. The level of evidence is very low, but suggests that IVIG may....... Secondary outcomes are: mortality; time to resolution of shock; bleeding; sequential organ failure assessment scores on days 1-7; use of renal-replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation and vasopressors; days alive and out of hospital; amputation; and severe adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: This study...

  12. Structure and Transport Anomalies in Soft Colloids

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  13. Laser induced forward transfer of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Luculescu, C.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Nagel, M.; Lippert, T.; Dinescu, M.

    2010-12-01

    A strong research effort is presently aimed at patterning methodologies for obtaining controlled defined micrometric polymeric structures for a wide range of applications, including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, medicine etc. Lasers have been identified as appropriate tools for processing of different materials, such as ceramics and metals, but also for soft, easily damageable materials (biological compounds and polymers). In this work we study the dynamics of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a gap between the donor and the receiver substrates, which is the basis for possible applications that require multilayer depositions with high spatial resolution.

  14. New soft chemical routes to ferroelectric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Babooram, Keshwaree (Vima)

    2005-01-01

    A new soft chemical route has been developed in the first part of this thesis for synthesis of relaxor ferroelec tric, (1 -~)Pb(Mg~~-,Nb~~~)O~-xPbTi0~ [(I -x)PMN-xPT] (x = 0.10, 0.35) ceramics. This polyethylene glycol-based method shows some very interesting features. It allows the sol-gel reactions to be performed at room temperature, eliminating reflux steps usually required in sol-gel processes. Moreover, it does not require excess amounts of lead starting material to compensate for lead ...

  15. Softly Broken Supersymmetric Gauge Theories through Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Takenaga, K

    1998-01-01

    Effects of boundary conditions of fields for compactified space directions on the supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. For general and possible boundary conditions the supersymmetry is explicitly broken to yield universal soft supersymmetry breaking terms, and the gauge symmetry of the theory can also be broken through the dynamics of non-integrable phases, depending on number and the representation under the gauge group of matters. The 4-dimensional supersymmetric QCD is studied as a toy model when one of the space coordinates is compactified on $S^1$.

  16. Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multimaterial macroscopic preform is drawn into a submillimeter capacitor microstructured fiber. A typical measured capacitance per unit length of our fibers is 60-100 nF/m which is about 3 orders magnitude higher than that of a coaxial cable of a comparable diameter. The fiber has a transverse resistivity of 5 kΩ m. Softness, lightweight, absence of liquid electrolyte, and ease of scalability to large production volumes make the fibers interesting for various smart textile applications.

  17. Soft budget constraint and the parastatal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of soft budget constraints (SBC) to development studies by examining the parastatal sector. The political ingredient of the SBC is discussed by focusing on two examples: 1) religious and military foundations in Iran; and 2) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. It presents two main findings. First, the SBC of the parastatal sector can be understood as the political economy of a predator state or state’s rent-seeking activity. Second, the state sector is more prone to t...

  18. Chronic urticaria treated with soft nasal filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.

  19. Design and passive analysis of a novel softness display device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Simulating the softness property of object is quite a challenge in virtual reality system. A novel softness display system was developed based on the principle of deformable length of elastic element control ( DLEEC). In the system, the equivalent stiffness of the device is adjustable, and is inversely proportional to the third power of the deformable length of elastic beam. PD position control is employed to guarantee the accurate softness display. The softness of the virtual objects in large scale can be felt with the softness display device. Compared with other haptic devices, the device is passive and exert the react force only when the operator "actively touch" the virtual objects. The stability of the softness display system was analyzed. It was theoretical proved that the system satisfied the criteria of wide impedance range"Z-width", and the performance was superior to an active system. The experimental results were presented.

  20. Soft Photon and Graviton Theorems in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Elvang, Henriette; Naculich, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Extensions of the photon and graviton soft theorems are derived in 4d local effective field theories with massless particles of arbitrary spin. We prove that effective operators can result in new terms in the soft theorems at subleading order for photons and subsubleading order for gravitons. The new soft terms are unique and we provide a complete classification of all local operators responsible for such modifications. We show that no local operators can modify the subleading soft graviton theorem. The soft limits are taken in a manifestly on-locus manner using a complex double deformation of the external momenta. In addition to the new soft theorems, the resulting master formula yields consistency conditions such as the conservation of electric charge, the Einstein equivalence principle, supergravity Ward identities, and the Weinberg-Witten theorem.

  1. An Introduction to the Theory of Imprecise Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusmanta Kumar Sut

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the theory of imprecise soft sets which is a hybrid model of soft sets and imprecise sets. It has been established that two independent laws of randomness are necessary and sufficient to define a law of fuzziness. Further, in case of fuzzy sets, the set theoretic axioms of exclusion and contradiction are not satisfied. Accordingly, the theory of imprecise sets has been developed where these mistakes arising in the literature of fuzzy sets are absent. Our work is an endeavor to combine imprecise sets with soft sets resulting in imprecise soft sets. We have put forward a matrix representation of imprecise soft sets. Finally we have studied the notion of similarity of two imprecise soft sets and put forward an application of similarity in a decision problem.

  2. Adult Intramedullary Ewing Sarcoma of the Proximal Hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Gongidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma of bone is classically a permeative lesion in the diaphysis of long bones in children. While they occur primarily in children and adolescents, they can be seen in young adults in their 20s, but these are typically seen in flat bones. The permeative nature of the lesion can elicit new bone formation creating a partially sclerotic appearance, cortical expansion presenting as a “Codman triangle,” or have an “onion-skin” type of aggressive periosteal reaction/periostitis. Ewing sarcoma is rarely seen without an associated soft-tissue mass and is even rarer to just have benign-appearing periostitis (e.g., thick, uniform, or wavy cortex. We present such a case of Ewing sarcoma in a young adult confined to just the medullary metadiaphysis without cortical erosion or soft-tissue mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the radiology literature.

  3. Soft Computing Applications : Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária; Dombi, Joszef; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

                    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2012).                                The book covers a broad spectrum of soft computing techniques, theoretical and practical applications employing knowledge and intelligence to find solutions for world industrial, economic and medical problems. The combination of such intelligent systems tools and a large number of applications introduce a need for a synergy of scientific and technological disciplines in order to show the great potential of Soft Computing in all domains.                   The conference papers included in these proceedings, published post conference, were grouped into the following area of research: ·         Soft Computing and Fusion Algorithms in Biometrics, ·         Fuzzy Theory, Control andApplications, ·         Modelling and Control Applications, ·         Steps towa...

  4. Strain-accelerated dynamics of soft colloidal glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2011-04-11

    We have investigated strain-accelerated dynamics of soft glasses theoretically and experimentally. Mechanical rheology measurements performed on a variety of systems reveal evidence for the speeding-up of relaxation at modest shear strains in both step and oscillatory shear flows. Using the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model framework, we show that the observed behavior is a fundamental, but heretofore unexplored attribute of soft glasses. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke Lucy; Wardle Jane; Sweetman Claire

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how...

  6. Sequence in intuitionistic fuzzy soft multi topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJOY DAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new type of sequence of intuitionistic fuzzy soft multi sets and their basic properties are studied. The concepts of subsequence, increasing sequence, decreasing sequence and convergence sequence of intuitionistic fuzzy soft multi sets are proposed. The concepts of cluster intuitionistic fuzzy soft multi sets of sequences are also introduced. Some basic properties regarding the above concepts are explored.

  7. Nanoparticle Controlled Soft Complex Structures with Topological Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    4) Soft Matter 9, 3956-3964 (2013); 5) Adv. Cond. Matter Phys. 2013, 505219-1-505219-10 (2013); 6) J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, Special Issue on...Curvature control of valence on nematic shells, Soft Matter 7, 670 (2011). [14] F.C. MacKintosh, T.C. Lubensky, Orientational order, topology, and...Zidansek, Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles, Soft Matter 9, 3956 (2013). [20

  8. Identifying People with Soft-Biometrics at Fleet Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Forensics , Security and Intelligence, Firenze, Italy, 2010, pp. 25-30. [7] U. Park and A. Jain, "Face matching and retrieval using soft biometrics ...Identifying People with Soft- Biometrics at Fleet Week Eric Martinson NRC Post-Doctoral Fellow US Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC...number of different features by which people can be identified. This work describes three alternative, soft biometrics (clothing, complexion, and

  9. States reducing solar's soft costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In 2012 the costs of modules will drop below the balance of system costs or 'soft costs' of solar in the US. Federal policy that nationalizes permitting processes could reduce some of the soft costs, but is unlikely. That's why states like California, Colorado, Connecticut and Vermont passed own laws to reduce soft costs by speeding solar permitting and reducing fees. (orig.)

  10. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps.

  11. Soft breaking of BRST symmetry and gauge dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M; Reshetnyak, A A

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigation of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism beyond regularizations like dimensional ones used in our previous paper. We generalize a definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The gauge dependence of generating functionals of Green's functions is investigated. It is proved that such introduction of a soft breaking of BRST symmetry into gauge theories leads to inconsistency of the conventional BV formalism.

  12. Automation of calculations in soft-collinear effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Guido [Theoretische Physik 1, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Rahn, Rudi; Talbert, Jim [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we focus on the evaluation of 2-loop dijet soft functions, which are crucial for NNLL resummation in SCET, and an algorithmic approach, suitable for automation and numerical treatment of a wide range of soft functions will be presented. We will show an implementation of this algorithm using the publicly available program SecDec, and various results for e{sup +}e{sup -} and hadron collider soft functions derived with it.

  13. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation h...

  14. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; Nseir; Fares; Nassar; Nimer; Assy

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases.Inappropriate dietary fat intake,excessive intake of soft drinks,insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver,and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver.Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks,fructose 55% and glucose 45%.Soft drinks...

  15. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang

    2011-01-01

    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  16. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions...

  17. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Giffney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  18. Supramolecular Soft Matter Applications in Materials and Organic Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pivotal text that bridges the gap between fundamentals and applications of soft matter in organic electronics Covering an expanding and highly coveted subject area, Supramolecular Soft Matter enlists the services of leading researchers to help readers understand and manipulate the electronic properties of supramolecular soft materials for use in organic opto-electronic devices, such as photovoltaics and field effect transistors, some of the most desired materials for energy conservation. Rather than offering a compilation of current trends in supramolecular soft matter, this book bridges

  19. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  20. Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory devices

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ibe, Eishi; Yahagi, Yasuo; Kameyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in semiconductor memory devices are currently a major concern in reliability issues. Understanding the mechanism and quantifying soft-error rates are primarily crucial for the design and quality assurance of semiconductor memory devices. This book covers the relevant up-to-date topics in terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors, and aims to provide succinct knowledge on neutron-induced soft errors to the readers by presenting several valuable and unique features. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (238 KB). Table A.30 mentioned in Appendix A.6 on