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Sample records for adult men results

  1. Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health among adult men in the United States: results from a national probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    To provide a foundation for those who provide sexual health services and programs to men in the United States, the need for population-based data that describes men's sexual behaviors and their correlates remains. The purpose of this study was to, in a national probability survey of men ages 18-94 years, assess the occurrence and frequency of sexual behaviors and their associations with relationship status and health status. A national probability sample of 2,522 men aged 18 to 94 completed a cross-sectional survey about their sexual behaviors, relationship status, and health. Relationship status; health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse in the past year. Masturbation, oral intercourse, and vaginal intercourse are prevalent among men throughout most of their adult life, with both occurrence and frequency varying with age and as functions of relationship type and physical health status. Masturbation is prevalent and frequent across various stages of life and for both those with and without a relational partner, with fewer men with fair to poor health reporting recent masturbation. Patterns of giving oral sex to a female partner were similar to those for receiving oral sex. Vaginal intercourse in the past 90 days was more prevalent among men in their late 20s and 30s than in the other age groups, although being reported by approximately 50% of men in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Anal intercourse and sexual interactions with other men were less common than all other sexual behaviors. Contemporary men in the United States engage in diverse solo and partnered sexual activities; however, sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Herbenick

    Full Text Available In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents' identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80% reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive and 37% of women (receptive. Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men, sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men, reading erotic stories (57% of participants, public sex (≥43%, role-playing (≥22%, tying/being tied up (≥20%, spanking (≥30%, and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men. Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men and playful whipping (≥13% were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%. More Americans identified behaviors as "appealing" than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed.

  3. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Bowling, Jessamyn; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women) focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents’ identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80%) reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive) and 37% of women (receptive). Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men), sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men), reading erotic stories (57% of participants), public sex (≥43%), role-playing (≥22%), tying/being tied up (≥20%), spanking (≥30%), and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men). Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men) and playful whipping (≥13%) were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%). More Americans identified behaviors as “appealing” than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed. PMID:28727762

  4. Gynaecomastia in 786 Adult Men - Clinical and Biochemical findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Christiansen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2017-01-01

    Objective - Gynaecomastia is a benign proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast, however, it is an important clinical observation because it can be the first symptom of an underlying disease. Some controversy exists concerning the clinical importance of an in-depth investigation of men who...... develop gynaecomastia. We hypothesize that a thorough work-up is required in adult men with gynaecomastia. Design- All adult men (n=818) referred to a secondary level andrological department at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark in a four-year period (2008-2011) under the diagnosis of gynaecomastia...... (ICD-10: N62) were included. Methods - Thirty-two men did not have gynaecomastia when examined were excluded; leaving 786 men for final analyses. They went through an andrological examination, ultra sound of the testicles and analysis of endogenous serum hormones levels. Results - In 45% of men...

  5. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  6. Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...

  7. The changes of plasma adrenomedullin level in Han and tibetan health adult men in plateau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaolin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes and clinical significance of plasma adrenomedullin in Han and Tibetan health adult men at the state of chronic hypoxia. The Han health adult who migrated and lived above sea level 4200 meter for 1∼3 years and the native Tibetan were involved in this study. The plasma adrenomedullin levels in both Han and Tibetan health adult men were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma adrenomedullin levels of native Tibetan were significantly higher than that of migrated Han worker (P<0.05). The plasma adrenomedullin might play a regulatory role on the physiological function in the health adult men who live in high altitude hypoxic state. (authors)

  8. Fitness as a determinant of arterial stiffness in healthy adult men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Kim, Milyang; Jin, Youngsoo; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, Jeeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Fitness is known to influence arterial stiffness. This study aimed to assess differences in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility according to arterial stiffness, based on sex and age. We enrolled 1590 healthy adults (men: 1242, women: 348) who were free of metabolic syndrome. We measured cardiorespiratory endurance in an exercise stress test on a treadmill, muscular strength by a grip test, and flexibility by upper body forward-bends from a standing position. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity test was performed to measure arterial stiffness before the fitness test. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the patients into groups with low (Cluster 1) and high (Cluster 2) arterial stiffness. According to the k-cluster analysis results, Cluster 1 included 624 men and 180 women, and Cluster 2 included 618 men and 168 women. Men in the middle-aged group with low arterial stiffness demonstrated higher cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility than those with high arterial stiffness. Similarly, among men in the old-aged group, the cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, but not flexibility, differed significantly according to arterial stiffness. Women in both clusters showed similar cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility regardless of their arterial stiffness. Among healthy adults, arterial stiffness was inversely associated with fitness in men but not in women. Therefore, fitness seems to be a determinant for arterial stiffness in men. Additionally, regular exercise should be recommended for middle-aged men to prevent arterial stiffness.

  9. Perception of adult men on their preventive practices and health support networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to know the preventive practices adopted by adult men in daily life and to identify health support networks. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, made during the months of November and December 2012, at two emergency units, along with 32 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis with thematic modality. Results: men highlighted different preventive practices such as sanitizing hands, eating properly, having screening tests, avoiding psychoactive substance abuse, using personal protective equipment at work and condoms during sex. Most of the participants had nuclear family and its members were their primary support network regarding the health-disease process. Conclusion: it is for health team members to try to leverage the adoption of preventive practices by adult men from the support networks they consider significant.

  10. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Methanol toxicity secondary to inhalant abuse in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Erik A; Green, Adam S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of adults with methanol toxicity from inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes. Retrospective chart review of adults with positive serum volatile screen for methanol and history of carburetor cleaning fluid fume inhalation. Sixteen patients were admitted 68 times. Eleven Native American patients accounted for 90% of admissions. Sixty-five cases presented with nausea/vomiting; 27 with intoxication or altered mental status; 21 with specific visual complaints. About 93% had a pH or=10 mOsm/L, and 69% had anion gap >16. Ten had an initial serum methanol level or=50 mg/dL. Six patients had a measurable serum ethanol level. Of the 29 patients with a methanol level of 20-49 mg/dL, 20 received intravenous antidote (ethanol or fomepizole); three received an antidote and hemodialysis. All who presented with a serum methanol level >or=50 mg/dL received intravenous ethanol or fomepizole. All visual symptoms resolved before discharge and all patients survived without sequelae. Discussion. This is the largest reported number of cases of methanol toxicity from the inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes and demonstrates a problem with recurrent abuse among some older Native American men. Intentional inhalation of methanol fumes may produce toxicity. Clinicians need to question patients, especially older Native American men, regarding the possible inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes in those who present with an unexplained metabolic anion gap acidosis.

  12. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

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    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  13. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: Results from a National Survey

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    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. Methods To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N=1,502; ages 18–24) in the U.S. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Results Sexting was more frequent among sexually-active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM’s sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. PMID:24361235

  14. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese.

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    Esther Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult life as obese. METHODS: Among 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (defined as BMI≥31.0 kg/m(2, and, as controls, a random 1% sample of the others was identified. In the age range of 18-25 years, there were 1,862 obese, which encompass the men above the 99.5 percentile, and 3,476 controls. Information on morbidity was obtained via national registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative morbidity assessed as first incidence of disease, occurrence of disease in the year preceding death and prevalent disease at time of death. RESULTS: From age 18 through 80 years the obese had an increased risk of becoming diseased by or die from a broad range of diseases. Generally, the incidence of first event, occurrence in the year prior to death, and prevalence at time of death showed the same pattern. As an example, the relative hazard of type 2 diabetes was constant throughout life at 4.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.1-5.9, 5.2 (95% CI: 3.6-7.5, and 6.8 (95% CI: 4.6-10.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support the continued need to avoid beginning adult life as obese, as obese young men experience an increased morbidity, including fatal morbidity, from many diseases throughout life.

  16. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

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    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  18. Lifelong doubling of mortality in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Holst, C; Sørensen, T I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the impact of being obese in early adulthood on health throughout adult life needs elucidation. We investigated the all-cause mortality until 80 years of age in men starting adult life as obese....

  19. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult...... life as obese....

  20. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

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    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  1. A Life Course Approach to Inequality: Examining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Early Life Socioeconomic Conditions and Adult Health Among Men.

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    Hargrove, Taylor W; Brown, Tyson H

    2015-08-07

    Previous research has documented a relationship between childhood socioeconomic conditions and adult health, but less is known about racial/ethnic differences in this relationship, particularly among men. This study utilizes a life course approach to investigate racial/ethnic differences in the relationships among early and later life socioeconomic circumstances and health in adulthood among men. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are used to examine group differences in the relationships among childhood and adult socioeconomic factors and age-trajectories of self-rated health among White, Black and Mexican American men aged 51-77 years (N=4147). Multiple measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predict health in adulthood for White men, while significantly fewer measures of childhood SES predict health for Black and Mexican American men. Moreover, the health consequences of childhood SES diminish with age for Black and Mexican American men. The childhood SES-adult health relationship is largely explained by measures of adult SES for White men. The life course pathways linking childhood SES and adult health differ by race/ethnicity among men. Similar to arguments that the universality of the adult SES-health relationship should not be assumed, results from our study suggest that scholars should not assume that the significance and nature of the association between childhood SES and health in adulthood is similar across race/ethnicity among men.

  2. Osteoporosis and Prevalent Fractures among Adult Filipino Men Screened for Bone Mineral Density in a Tertiary Hospital

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    Erick S. Mendoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis in men is markedly underdiagnosed and undertreated despite higher morbidity and mortality associated with fractures. This study aimed to characterize adult Filipino men with osteopenia, osteoporosis and prevalent fractures.MethodsA cross-sectional study of 184 Filipino men ≥50 years screened for bone mineral density was performed. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI, Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA score, smoking status, family history of fracture, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, and T-score were considered.ResultsOf the 184 patients, 40.2% and 29.9% have osteopenia and osteoporosis. Sixteen (21.6% and 18 (32.1% osteopenic and osteoporotic men have fragility hip, spine, or forearm fractures. Men aged 50 to 69 years have the same risk of osteoporosis and fractures as those ≥70 years. While hip fractures are higher in osteoporotic men, vertebral fractures are increased in both osteopenic and osteoporotic men. Mere osteopenia predicts the presence of prevalent fractures. A high risk OSTA score can predict fracture. A BMI <21 kg/m2 (P<0.05 and current smoking are associated with osteoporosis.ConclusionA significant fraction of Filipino men with osteopenia and osteoporosis have prevalent fractures. Our data suggest that fractures occur in men <70 years even before osteoporosis sets in. Low BMI, high OSTA score, and smoking are significant risk factors of osteoporosis.

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Violence: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Men.

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    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Murshid, Navine

    2015-09-16

    The present study assesses the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and perpetration of marital violence as adults among a representative sample of 3,396 men in Bangladesh. We used secondary analysis of survey data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 to examine factors associated with perpetration of martial violence among 3,396 ever-married men between the ages of 16 and 50 years. Outcome measure, marital violence perpetration, was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale, and predictor variables included childhood exposure to parental violence, justification of marital violence, marital duration, religion, and demographic variables. Results indicate that marital violence perpetration is significantly associated with childhood exposure to marital violence, suggesting a cycle of violence that is maintained across generations. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  5. Cardiovascular responses in sedentary adult men, following a 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body vibration training intervention on cardiovascular performance of apparently healthy, but sedentary male adults. Fifty (50) adult males (age 18 – 40 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups to participate in a 12-week ...

  6. Health and lifestyle factors associated with sexual difficulties in menresults from a study of Australian men aged 18 to 55 years

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    Marisa Schlichthorst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual difficulties (SD are common among men of all ages and can have considerable impact on quality of life and indications for future health. SD are associated with mental and physical wellbeing and with relationship satisfaction, yet they are rarely discussed with medical professionals who are often ill equipped to assess and manage them. This paper provides an updated overview on the status of SD in Australian men from 18 to 55 years of age and will form a baseline comparison for future analyses of SD based on Ten to Men data. Methods We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. SD was measured using eight items capturing specific sexual difficulties. We examined associations of a range of health and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, obesity and new sexual partners, self-rated health status, disability, pain medication, diagnosed physical and mental health conditions with each SD using logistic regression. The sample included 12,636 adult males who had previously been sexually active. Analysis was stratified by age (18–34 years versus 35–55 years. Results This paper shows that experiencing SD is relatively common among Australian men – overall half the sample (54 %; 95 % CI: 0.53–0.55 experienced at least one SD for more than 3 months over the past 12 months. While more common in older men aged 45 to 55 years, almost half the 18 to 24 year old men (48 % also reported at least one SD highlighting that SD affects men of all ages. We found that SDs were associated with both lifestyle and health factors, although the strongest associations were observed for health factors in both age groups, in particular poor self-rated health, having a disability and at least one mental health condition. Lifestyle factors associated with SDs in men of all ages included smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and drug use in the past 12 months. Obesity was

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

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    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  8. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs

  9. Do adult men with untreated hypospadias have adverse outcomes? A pilot study using a social media advertised survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary; Baskin, Laurence; DiSandro, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p < 0.001) and IPSS scores (p = 0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p = 0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p < 0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p = 0.011) and penile curvature (p = 0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p = 0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Transgender Young Adults and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Goldenberg, Tamar; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender populations in the United States experience unique inequities in health and social well-being; however, they continue to be categorized with men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance. To illustrate the differences in the lived realities of young MSM and transgender youth, we compare psychosocial outcomes across a sample of transgender and MSM youth from Detroit. Methods: Data for this study come from a community-based cross-sectional survey of young adults (ages 18-29) living in Detroit who identify as transgender and/or as cisgender young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using participants' geographic location within the city of Detroit, we matched transgender participants ( N =26) to YMSM ( N =123) living in the same area, and compared the prevalence in risk and resilience indicators across the two groups. Results: Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to experience socioeconomic vulnerability across several indicators, including lower educational attainment and workforce participation, greater residential instability, and higher lifetime experiences of transactional sex. Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to report poorer health status, higher symptoms of depression and anxiety, and greater experiences of daily hassles and gender-related discrimination. Transgender participants did not differ from YMSM peers on health-promotive factors, including self-esteem, coping mastery, purpose in life, or social support. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of addressing the social and economic inequities experienced by transgender young adults. Local- and national-level programmatic and policy interventions are recommended to alleviate the psychosocial vulnerability experienced by transgender young adults and to improve their health and social well-being.

  11. Understanding Empathy, Self-Esteem, and Adult Attachment in Sexual Offenders and Partner-Violent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Ismael; Sánchez, Luis Miguel; Vilella, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results confirmed the low utility of nonspecific empathy, the predominance of high self-esteem, and the difficulty of identifying an insecure attachment. The implications of the use of these variables in the treatment of offenders, and the need to improve the assessment tools, are discussed.

  12. Correlates of Hypertension Among Adult Men and Women in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashani, V.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to assess the independent socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of hypertension among the adult population of Kosovo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pristina in 2012-2013 which included a large representative sample of 1793 consecutive primary

  13. Screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy among adult men with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Morten A; Erichsen, Martina M; Wolff, Anette S B; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Husebye, Eystein S; Tallaksen, Chantal M E; Skjeldal, Ola H

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an important cause of Addison's disease in boys, but less is known about its contribution to Addison's disease in adult men. After surveying all known cases of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway in a separate study, we aimed to look for any missed cases among the population of adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease. Among 153 adult men identified in a National Registry for Addison's Disease (75% of identified male cases of Addison's disease in Norway), those with negative indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies were selected. Additionally, cases with low autoantibody indices (48-200) were selected. Sera from subjects included were analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids, which are diagnostic for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in men. Eighteen subjects had negative indices and 17 had low indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies. None of those with low indices and only one of those with negative indices were found to have X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; this subject had already been diagnosed because of the neurological symptoms. Cases of Addison's disease proved to be caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy constitute 1·5% of all adult male cases in Norway; the proportion among nonautoimmune cases was 15%. We found X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy to be an uncommon cause of Addison's disease in adult men. However, this aetiological diagnosis has far-reaching consequences both for the patient and for his extended family. We therefore recommend that all adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease be analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S

    2014-05-01

    We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N = 1,502; ages 18-24 years) in the United States. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Sexting was more frequent among sexually active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM's sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  16. Elements concentrations and relationship of whole blood and urine in 40 identical adult men in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.D.; Wu, Q; Fan, T.J.; Liu, Q.F; Wang, J.Y; Wang, N.F; Liu, H.S; Wang, X.Y; Ou-Yang, L.; Liu, Y.Q.; Xie, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine elemental concentrations in whole blood and 24 hr. urine of identical adult men, relative daily urinary excretion and verify relationship between both of concentrations in the blood and urine. Methods: During the same time as sampling organ or tissue samples from autopsy, whole blood and 24 hr. urine samples of identical subjects were obtained from each of 10 healthy adult male volunteers, living in 4 areas with different dietary types in China. The concentrations of 56 elements in both the two kinds of samples were analyzed by using ICP-MS as the principal, assisted with ICP-AES as well GFAAS techniques and necessary QC measures. The concentrations of urinary creatinine in the urine samples were determined by using spectrophotometric method. Results: Concentrations of both the 56 elements in these whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and urinary creatinine and related daily urinary excretions were obtained. Conclusion: This research obtained the new data on both concentrations of these elements in whole blood and urine samples of identical subjects and their daily urinary excretions for the first time in China. These results have provided preliminary basis for understanding concentrations of these elements in the whole blood, daily urinary excretions of identical subjects as well their differences for different areas, and developing relative background values and parameters for Chinese Reference Man. Furthermore, the obtained results have been compared with both internal and external literature data and discussed. (author)

  17. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  18. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  19. Quality of life of adult men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the Netherlands : Implications for care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pangalila, Robert F.; Van Den Bos, Geertrudis A M; Bartels, Bart; Bergen, Michael P.; Kampelmacher, Mike J.; Stam, Henk J.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess quality of life of adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the Netherlands and to identify domains and major problems influencing quality of life. Design: Cross-sectional. Subjects: Seventy-nine men aged ≥ 20 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods: The Medical

  20. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  1. Hydroxyurea therapy contributes to infertility in adult men with sickle cell disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxyurea therapy, a chemotherapeutic agent, is the only US FDA approved therapy for the prevention of vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell disease (SCD). The National Institutes of Health has sponsored two Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled trials, initially in adults, and subsequently in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the overwhelming evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is beneficial to children and adults with SCA, individuals with SCA and their families express reservations about its use, in part because of the concerns about fertility, particularly in men. As adolescent boys with SCD are now expected to reach their reproductive years, a new concern is emerging about the role of hydroxyurea therapy as a barrier to their progeny. This review will systemically evaluate compromised fertility in men with SCD, and the evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is associated with further decreasing fertility in men with SCD.

  2. Transplant results in adults with Fanconi anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierings, Marc; Bonfim, Carmem M.; Peffault De Latour, Regis; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Mehta, Parinda A.; Knol, Cora; Boulad, Farid; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Esquirol, Albert; Mcquaker, Grant; Sucak, Gulsan A.; Othman, Tarek B.; Halkes, Constantijn J.M.; Carpenter, Ben; Niederwieser, Dietger; Zecca, Marco; Kro¨ger, Nicolaus; Michallet, Mauricette; Risitano, Antonio M.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Porcher, Raphael; Dufour, Carlo

    The outcomes of adult patients transplanted for Fanconi anaemia (FA) have not been well described. We retrospectively analysed 199 adult patients with FA transplanted between 1991 and 2014. Patients were a median of 16 years of age when diagnosed with FA, and underwent transplantation at a median

  3. Transitions among Health States Using 12 Measures of Successful Aging in Men and Women: Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful aging has many dimensions, which may manifest differently in men and women at different ages. Methods. We characterized one-year transitions among health states in 12 measures of successful aging among adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The measures included self-rated health, ADLs, IADLs, depression, cognition, timed walk, number of days spent in bed, number of blocks walked, extremity strength, recent hospitalizations, feelings about life as a whole, and life satisfaction. We dichotomized variables into “healthy” or “sick,” states, and estimated the prevalence of the healthy state and the probability of transitioning from one state to another, or dying, during yearly intervals. We compared men and women and three age groups (65–74, 75–84, and 85–94. Findings. Measures of successful aging showed similar results by gender. Most participants remained healthy even into advanced ages, although health declined for all measures. Recuperation, although less common with age, still occurred frequently. Men had a higher death rate than women regardless of health status, and were also more likely to remain in the healthy state. Discussion. The results suggest a qualitatively different experience of successful aging between men and women. Men did not simply “age faster” than women.

  4. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  5. Web-based sex diaries and young adult men who have sex with men: assessing feasibility, reactivity, and data agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Winer, Rachel L; Golden, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    We compared quantitative diary data with retrospective survey data collected from a cohort of young adult men who have sex with men (MSM) in Seattle, Washington. Ninety-five MSM, aged 16-30 years, completed web-based surveys every 3 months and were randomized to 4 diary submission schedules: every 2 weeks, once a week, twice a week, or never. We calculated diary completion rates and assessed agreement between daily diary data and aggregate retrospective survey data for sexual behavior measures. Over 6 months, 78 % of participants completed at least 80 % of their diary days, and the 2-week schedule had the highest and most consistent completion rate. The majority of sexual behavior and substance use measures had strong agreement between the diary and retrospective survey data (i.e., kappa >0.80 or concordance correlation coefficient ≥0.75), although we observed poorer agreement for some measures of numbers of anal sex acts. There were no significant differences in mean responses across diary schedules. We observed some evidence of reactivity (i.e., a difference in behavior associated with diary completion). Participants not assigned diaries reported significantly more unprotected anal sex acts and were more likely to be newly diagnosed with HIV or another sexually transmitted infection compared to those assigned active diary schedules. This study suggests that sexual behavior data collected from young adult MSM during 3-month retrospective survey--an interval commonly used in sexual behavior research--are likely valid. Diaries, however, may have greater utility in sexual behavioral research in which counts, timing, sequence, or within-person variation over time are of particular import.

  6. Patterns of repeated anal cytology results among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary A. Robbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk for anal cancer. In cervical cancer screening, patterns of repeated cytology results are used to identify low- and high-risk women, but little is known about these patterns for anal cytology among MSM. Methods: We analyzed Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS data for MSM who were offered anal cytology testing annually (HIV-positive or every 2 years (HIV-negative for 4 years. Results: Following an initial negative (normal cytology, the frequency of a second negative cytology was lower among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 ≥ 500 (74% or CD4 < 500 (68% than HIV-negative MSM (83% (p < 0.001. After an initial abnormal cytology, the frequency of a second abnormal cytology was highest among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 < 500 (70% compared to CD4 ≥ 500 (53% or HIV-negative MSM (46% (p = 0.003. Among HIV-positive MSM with at least three results, 37% had 3 consecutive negative results; 3 consecutive abnormal results were more frequent among CD4 < 500 (22% than CD4 ≥ 500 (10% (p = 0.008. Conclusions: More than one-third of HIV-positive MSM have consistently negative anal cytology over three years. Following abnormal anal cytology, a repeated cytology is commonly negative in HIV-negative or immunocompetent HIV-positive men, while persistent cytological abnormality is more likely among HIV-positive men with CD4 < 500. Keywords: Anal cancer, Anal cytology, HIV, MSM, Anal cancer screening

  7. Preliminary investigation of foot pressure distribution variation in men and women adults while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Mishra, A; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2011-09-01

    Women and men are anatomically and physiologically different in a number of ways. They differ in both shape and size. These differences could potentially mean foot pressure distribution variation in men and women. The purpose of this study was to analyze standing foot pressure image to obtain the foot pressure distribution parameter - power ratio variation between men and women using image processing in frequency domain. We examined 28 healthy adult subjects (14 men and 14 women) aged between 20 and 45 years was recruited for our study. Foot pressure distribution patterns while standing are obtained by using a PedoPowerGraph plantar pressure measurement system for foot image formation, a digital camera for image capturing, a TV tuner PC-add on card, a WinDvr software for still capture and Matlab software with dedicated image processing algorithms have been developed. Various PedoPowerGraphic parameters such as percentage medial impulse (PMI), fore foot to hind foot pressure distribution ratio (F/H), big toe to fore foot pressure distribution ratio (B/F) and power ratio (PR) were evaluated. In men, contact area was significantly larger in all regions of the foot compared with women. There were significant differences in plantar pressure distribution but there was no significant difference in F/H and B/F ratio. Mean PR value was significantly greater in men than women under the hind foot and fore foot. PMI value was greater in women than men. As compared to men, women have maximum PR variations in the mid foot. Hence there is significant difference at level pfeet can provide suitable guidelines to biomedical engineers and doctor for designing orthotic devices for reliving the area of excessively high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulating anti-Mullerian hormone levels in adult men are under a strong genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Rissanen, Aila; Raivio, Taneli

    2012-01-01

    The determinants of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in adult men remain unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic and environmental components in determining postpubertal AMH levels in healthy men. Serum AMH levels, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 64 healthy male (23 monozygotic and 41 dizygotic) twin pairs. Postpubertal AMH levels were highly genetically determined (broad sense heritability 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96). AMH correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.26, P = 0.030) and fat mass (r = -0.23, P = 0.048). As AMH, BMI had a high heritability (0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.83), but no genetic correlation was observed between them. AMH levels in men after puberty are under a strong genetic influence. Twin modeling suggests that AMH and BMI are influenced by different sets of genes.

  9. Neighborhood Contexts and Marijuana Use Among Urban Dwelling Emerging Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Tamara; Brown, Andre L; Kershaw, Trace

    2018-01-01

    Neighborhoods are key socio-environmental contexts for marijuana use during emerging adulthood. This study examined the relationships between neighborhood context, traditional masculine norms (status, toughness, and anti-femininity), and marijuana use among 119 majority African American emerging adult men in a small urban community. Poisson regression models were used to determine the associations between neighborhood problems, social cohesion, and marijuana use. Moderator effects were examined to determine if masculinities modified these associations. Neighborhood problems and social cohesion were positively associated with marijuana use. Men who had a lower endorsement of some traditional masculine norms had greater marijuana use compared to men with a higher endorsement of these norms. These findings have implications for intervention strategies and policies.

  10. Medulloblastoma in adults: treatment results and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Uzel, Omer; Sengoz, Meric; Turkan, Sedat; Ober, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adult medulloblastoma patients who received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 2000, 30 adult patients (17 men and 13 women, age ≥16 years, median 27, range 16-45) underwent postoperative RT. The median duration of symptoms was 2 months (range 1-9). The tumor location was lateral in 16 (53%). A desmoplastic variant was seen in 12 (40%). Tumor resection was complete in 20 (67%) and incomplete in 10 (33%). All patients received craniospinal RT. The median dose to the whole brain was 40 Gy (range 36-51), to the posterior fossa 54 Gy (range 49-56), and to the spinal axis 36 Gy (range 24-40). The median interval between surgery and the start of RT was 31 days (range 12-69), and the median duration of RT was 45 days (range 34-89). Ten patients (33%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 5-215). Results: The 5- and 8-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 65% and 51% and 63% and 50%, respectively. Twelve patients (40%) developed relapse, with a median follow-up of 51 months. The posterior fossa was the most common site of relapse (6 patients). The median time to relapse was 26 months (range 4-78). Fifty percent of the relapses occurred after 2 years, 17% after 5 years. In univariate analysis, M stage and the interval between surgery and the start of RT were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. At 5 years, 70% of M0 patients were estimated to be disease-free, but none of the 3 M3 patients reached 5 years without recurrence (p=0.0002). The 5-year disease-free survival rate for the patients whose interval between surgery and the start of RT was 6 weeks was 0%, 85%, and 75%, respectively (p=0.002). The 5-year posterior fossa control rate for patients who received ≥54 Gy or <54 Gy to the posterior fossa was 91% and 33%, respectively (p=0.05). Conclusion: The survival results

  11. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and clinical outcomes among young adults reporting high-risk sexual behavior, including men who have sex with men, in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-05-01

    African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.

  12. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  13. Sexual identity and orientation in adult men and women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Hensel, Devon J; Wiener, John S; Whittam, Benjamin; Cain, Mark P; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-12-11

    Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52.0% shunted, 48.5% community ambulators, 42.3% outside United States). Most commonly, men identified as male (96.1%), while 1.3% each described themselves as female, transgender and other. All women reporting sexual identity identified as female (99.2%), 0.8% not providing an answer. Most men reported heterosexual orientation (89.6%), followed by gay (7.8%) and bisexual (2.6%). Most women reported heterosexual orientation (84.9%), followed by bisexual (10.4%), gay/lesbian (2.5%), asexual (0.8%) and other (1.7%). As in the general population, sexual identity typically coincides with biological gender. Sexual orientation of adults with SB mirrors the general population. Due to self-selection, these findings likely do not reflect exact prevalence in the SB population.

  14. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  15. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Hsieh, Michael H; Walters, Rustin Chanc; Krasnow, Ross; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2011-05-11

    Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count). A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, pfatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  16. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  17. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  18. Is the pattern of intellectual growth and decline across the adult life span different for men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A S; Kaufman-Packer, J L; McLean, J E; Reynolds, C R

    1991-11-01

    Gender comparisons on the WAIS-R were made for 1,480 adults from the standardization sample, ages 20-74 years, to determine whether men and women differ in their age-related patterns of change on tests of fluid and crystallized abilities. Multivariate analyses of covariance and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted, covarying education, to examine the age + gender interactions. These interactions tended to be nonsignificant and trivial for the WAIS-R Verbal and Performance scales and the 11 subtests, which suggests that both men and women maintain their crystallized abilities through old age, but show early, rapid declines in fluid ability. These results were interpreted in terms of the literature on aging and intelligence, gender differences in cognitive abilities, and gender differences in V-P patterns for patients with unilateral brain damage.

  19. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  20. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Quatromoni, Paula A; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Nam, Byung-H O; Cobain, Sonia; Kozak, Waldemar; Appugliese, Danielle P; Ordovas, Jose; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2005-11-01

    To identify the dietary patterns of adult men and examine their relationships with nutrient intake and chronic disease risk over long-term follow-up. Baseline 145-item food frequency questionnaires from 1,666 Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men were used to identify comprehensive dietary patterns. Independent 3-day dietary records at baseline and 8 years later provided estimates of subjects' nutrient intake by dietary pattern. Chronic disease risk factor status was compared at baseline and 16-year follow-up across all male dietary patterns. Cluster analysis was applied to food frequency data to identify non-overlapping male dietary patterns. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to compare nutrient intake, summary nutritional risk scores, and chronic disease risk status at baseline and follow-up by male dietary pattern. Five distinct and comprehensive dietary patterns of Framingham Offspring-Spouse men were identified and ordered according to overall nutritional risk: Transition to Heart Healthy, Higher Starch, Average Male, Lower Variety, and Empty Calories. Nutritional risk was high and varied by dietary pattern; key nutrient contrasts were stable over 8-year follow-up. Chronic disease risk also varied by dietary pattern and specific subgroup differences persisted over 16 years, notably rates of overweight/obesity and smoking. Quantitative cluster analysis applied to food frequency questionnaire data identified five distinct, comprehensive, and stable dietary patterns of adult Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men. The close associations between the dietary patterns, nutritional risk, and chronic disease profiles of men emphasize the importance of targeted preventive nutrition interventions to promote health in the male population.

  1. Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Marian T.; Menz, Hylton B.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women. Methods Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3). Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders. PMID:23696165

  2. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Perkins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status.We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men.Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  3. Local Progression among Men with Conservatively Treated Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the Transatlantic Prostate Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James A.; Kattan, Michael W.; Fearn, Paul; Fisher, Gabrielle; Berney, Daniel M.; Oliver, Tim; Foster, Christopher S.; Møller, Henrik; Reuter, Victor; Cuzick, Jack; Scardino, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer treated without curative intent are at risk of complications from local tumor growth. We investigated rates of local progression and need for local therapy among such men. Methods Men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1990–1996 were identified from cancer registries throughout the United Kingdom. Inclusion criteria were age ≤76 yr at diagnosis, PSA level ≤100 ng/ml, and, within 6 mo after diagnosis, no radiation therapy, radical prostatectomy, evidence of metastatic disease, or death. Local progression was defined as increase in clinical stage from T1/2 to T3/T4 disease, T3 to T4 disease, and/or need for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to relieve symptoms >6 mo after cancer diagnosis. Results The study included 2333 men with median follow-up of 85 mo (range: 6–174). Diagnosis was by TURP in 1255 men (54%), needle biopsy in 1039 (45%), and unspecified in 39 (2%). Only 29% were treated with hormonal therapy within 6 mo of diagnosis. Local progression occurred in 335 men, including 212 undergoing TURP. Factors most predictive of local progression on multivariable analysis were PSA at diagnosis and Gleason score of the diagnostic tissue (detrimental), and early hormonal therapy (protective). We present a nomogram that predicts the likelihood of local progression within 120 mo after diagnosis. Conclusions Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent have an approximately 15% risk for local progression within 10 yr of diagnosis. Among those with progression, the need for treatment is common, even among men diagnosed by TURP. When counseling men who are candidates for management without curative intent, the likelihood of symptoms from local progression must be considered. PMID:17544572

  4. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B.; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-01-01

    Importance Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Measurement of Exposures Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. Results At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: –1.61; 95% CI, −1.74 to −1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both

  5. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  6. Recruiting Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men for HIV Research: Results From a 4-City Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; Hylton, John B.; Johnson, Lisette M.; Houston, Carmoncelia; Witt, Mallory; Jacobson, Lisa; Ostrow, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the efforts of a 4-city campaign to recruit Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men into an established HIV epidemiological study. The campaign used community organizing principles and a social marketing model that focused on personnel, location, product, costs and benefits, and promotion. The campaign was developed at the community, group, and individual levels to both increase trust and reduce barriers. The proportion of Hispanic men recruited during the 2002–2003 campaign doubled compared with the 1987 campaign, and the proportion and number of White men decreased by 20%. The proportion of Black men decreased because of the large increase in Hispanic men, although the number of Black men increased by 56%. Successful recruitment included training recruitment specialists, involving knowledgeable minority community members during planning, and having an accessible site with convenient hours. PMID:16670218

  7. Prevalence of Inguinal Hernia in Adult Men in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Beard, Jessica H; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Koranteng, Adofo; Mensah, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Inguinal hernia is thought to be common in rural Ghana, though no recent data exist on hernia prevalence in the country. This information is needed to guide policy and increase access to safe hernia repair in Ghana and other low-resource settings. Adult men randomly selected from the Barekese sub-district of Ashanti Region, Ghana were examined by surgeons for the presence of inguinal hernia. Men with hernia completed a survey on demographics, knowledge of the disease, and barriers to surgical treatment. A total of 803 participants were examined, while 105 participants completed the survey. The prevalence of inguinal hernia was 10.8 % (95 % CI 8.0, 13.6 %), and 2.2 % (95 % CI 0, 5.4 %) of participants had scars indicative of previous repair, making the overall prevalence of treated and untreated inguinal hernia 13.0 % (95 % CI 10.2, 15.7 %). Prevalence of inguinal hernia increased with age; 35.4 % (95 % CI 23.6, 47.2 %) of men aged 65 and older had inguinal hernia. Untreated inguinal hernia was associated with lower socio-economic status. Of those with inguinal hernia, 52.4 % did not know the cause of hernia. The most common reason cited for failing to seek medical care was cost (48.2 %). Although inguinal hernia is common among adult men living in rural Ghana, surgical repair rates are low. We propose a multi-faceted public health campaign aimed at increasing access to safe hernia repair in Ghana. This approach includes a training program of non-surgeons in inguinal hernia repair headed by the Ghana Hernia Society and could be adapted for use in other low-resource settings.

  8. Associations Between Personality and Drinking Motives Among Abstinent Adult Alcoholic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S

    2017-07-01

    Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. PIAAC results: need for new approaches in improving adult literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, Paula; De Greef, Maurice; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2018-01-01

    According to the results of the PIAAC study, too many adults are not able to acquire basic reading skills. This influences their individual lives, besides their economic and social well-being, negatively (OECD, 2013). In accordance with current research results and trends, adult literacy seems to

  10. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). This first look at access to HIV prevention services for trans MSM

  11. Men's use and perceptions of commercial lubricants: prevalence and characteristics in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Most research on men's use of commercial lubricants during sexual activities is in the context of condom use and often specifically among men who have sex with men. Less is known about men's use of lubricants associated with a broader range of sexual experiences. The aims of this study are to document the prevalence of commercial lubricant use among adult U.S. men (age 18+), to document men's use of lubricants across solo and partnered sexual behaviors, and to assess men's perceptions of the contributions lubricants have to the sexual experience. Data are from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Sociodemographic characteristics, recent and lifetime commercial lubricant use, lubricant use during specific sexual behaviors, frequency of lubricant use, and reasons for lubricant use. Most men in the United States (70%, N = 1,014) reported having used a commercial lubricant, with men older than 24 and those in a relationship more likely to report lubricant use. About one in four men had used a lubricant in the past 30 days. Intercourse was the most common behavior during which men used lubricant, though solo masturbation and partnered sexual play were also frequently linked to lubricant use. The most common reasons for lubricant use included "to make sex more comfortable," "for fun," "curiosity," and "my partner wanted to." Most American men have used a lubricant; lubricant use is common across all age groups, and some of the most common reasons why men report using lubricants have to do with sexual enhancement, comfort, and pleasure. Clinicians may find these data helpful to their efforts to educate patients about lubricant use, comfort during sex, and sexual enhancement. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  13. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD, a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. METHODS: A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge and penile length (PL were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count. FINDINGS: A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4 and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7 were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01. The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03 and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01. On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. CONCLUSION: A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  14. Simple urethral dilatation, endoscopic urethrotomy, and urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan S W; Aboumarzouk, Omar M; Narahari, Radhakrishna; O'Riordan, Anna; Pickard, Robert

    2012-12-12

    Strictures of the urethra are the most common cause of obstructed micturition in younger men and frequently recur after initial treatment. Standard treatment comprises internal widening of the strictured area by simple dilatation or by telescope-guided internal cutting (optical urethrotomy), but these interventions are associated with a high failure rate requiring repeated treatment. The alternative option of open urethroplasty whereby the urethral lumen is permanently widened by removal or grafting of the strictured segment is less likely to fail but requires greater expertise. Findings of Improved choice of graft material and shortened hospital stay suggest that urethroplasty may be under utilised. The extent and quality of evidence guiding treatment choice for this condition are uncertain.   To determine which is the best surgical treatment for male urethral stricture disease taking into account relative efficacy, adverse event rates and cost-effectiveness.   We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 21 June 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to week 2 June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to week 25 2012), OpenSIGLE (searched 26 June 2012), clinical trials registries and reference lists of relevant articles. We included publications reporting data from randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of dilatation, urethrotomy and urethroplasty in the treatment of adult men with urethral stricture disease. Two authors evaluated trials for appropriateness for inclusion and methodological quality. Data extraction was performed using predetermined criteria. Analyses were carried out using the Cochrane Review Manager software (RevMan 5). Two randomised trials were identified. One trial compared the outcomes of surgical urethral dilatation and optical urethrotomy in 210 adult men with urethral stricture disease. No significant difference was found in the proportion of men being

  15. Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors of overactive bladder in adult Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent condition characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Age, education, income, marital status, sleep, and emotional problems have been associated with OAB; however, conflicting results exist. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of OAB and comprehensively analyze its associated factors in a large cross-sectional, population-based study. The data of 94,554 participants aged 19-107 were analyzed from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS of 2012. Data on marital status, physical activity, education level, occupation, body mass index (BMI, income level, sleep time, and stress level were retrieved for all enrolled participants. The overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS was used to evaluate the presence and degree of OAB. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling were used for the associations between various factors and the presence of OAB. Overall, OAB was present in approximately 2.9% of the participants. The prevalence of OAB increased with age and steeply increased after 60 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each 10 years = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-1.80, P 2.16 (1.88-2.48 > 1.39 (1.23-1.57 for severe stress > moderate stress > some stress, respectively, P<0.001]. A medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and/or cerebral stroke was significantly related to OAB. Approximately 2.9% of adult Korean men experienced OAB based on the OABSS. Unmarried status; occupation; being underweight; inadequate sleep; stress; and medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or cerebral stroke were significantly correlated with OAB.

  16. Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.

  17. The prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum infection in men who have sex with men: results of a multicentre case finding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, H; Alexander, S; Carder, C; Dean, G; French, P; Ivens, D; Ling, C; Paul, J; Tong, W; White, J; Ison, C A

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and non-LGV associated serovars of urethral and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four genitourinary medicine clinics in the United Kingdom from 2006–7. Subjects: 4825 urethral and 6778 rectal samples from consecutive MSM attending for sexual health screening. Methods: Urethral swabs or urine and rectal swabs were tested for CT using standard nucleic acid amplification tests. Chlamydia-positive specimens were sent to the reference laboratory for serovar determination. Main outcome: Positivity for both LGV and non-LGV associated CT serovars; proportion of cases that were symptomatic. Results: The positivity (with 95% confidence intervals) in rectal samples was 6.06% (5.51% to 6.66%) for non-LGV CT and 0.90% (0.69% to 1.16%) for LGV; for urethral samples 3.21% (2.74% to 3.76%) for non-LGV CT and 0.04% (0.01% to 0.16%) for LGV. The majority of LGV was symptomatic (95% of rectal, one of two urethral cases); non-LGV chlamydia was mostly symptomatic in the urethra (68%) but not in the rectum (16%). Conclusions: Chlamydial infections are common in MSM attending for sexual health screening, and the majority are non-LGV associated serovars. We did not identify a large reservoir of asymptomatic LGV in the rectum or urethra. Testing for chlamydia from the rectum and urethra should be included for MSM requesting a sexual health screen, but serovar-typing is not indicated in the absence of symptoms. We have yet to identify the source of most cases of LGV in the UK. PMID:19221105

  18. Masculine norms about emotionality and social constraints in young and older adult men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.

  19. Pathways Linking Childhood SES and Adult Health Behaviors and Psychological Resources in Black and White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-03-13

    Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.

  20. Moderate Alcoholic Beer Consumption: The Effects on the Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity of Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; do Rio, Rafaela F; Lollo, Pablo C B; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-07-01

    Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. The purpose was to compare the effects of consuming alcoholic beer (AB) and nonalcoholic beer (NAB) on the biochemical blood parameters. Two beers were produced under known and controlled conditions from the same raw material, NAB (0.6%, v/v) and AB with the addition of 6% grain alcohol. Fifteen healthy adult men (aged 20 to 57 y) underwent 3 treatments (30 d per treatment). In Treatment 1 (Baseline), they followed their usual diet without drinking any alcoholic beverage; in Treatment 2, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL NAB; and in Treatment 3, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL AB. It was found that the use of AB for 30 d (16 g alcohol/d) reduced the blood insulin and fasting glucose, reducing insulin resistance. These data suggest that the daily intake of 330 mL AB could statistically change the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of adult men. The volunteers were healthy before and remained so after the intervention, with no change in their clinical status. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  2. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e.g., small and non-representative samples). Thus, the relationship of ADHD with substance use and related disorders remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ADHD and both the use of licit and illicit substances and the presence of SUD in a large, representative sample of young men. The sample included 5677 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.23 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed using the adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). The association between ADHD and substance use and SUD was assessed for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs, while controlling for socio-demographic variables and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depression (MD) and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)). Men with ADHD were more likely to report having used nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs at some time in their life, but not alcohol. ADHD was positively associated with early initiation of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use, the risky use of these substances, and the presence of alcohol use disorders, and nicotine and cannabis dependence. Additionally, our analyses revealed that these patterns are also highly associated with ASPD. After adjusting for this disorder, the association between ADHD and licit and illicit substance use and the presence of SUDs was reduced, but remained significant. Our findings

  3. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  4. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  5. Childlessness of men in Canada: Result of a waiting game in a changing family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida R. Ravanera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Childlessness was about 12–13 per cent for cohorts born in 1927 to 1941, but increased in younger cohorts, with the childlessness of men born in 1957–1961 reaching 20 per cent. Using data from the 2006 Canadian General Social Survey on families, we show that the intention to be childfree among young men has largely remained low, at 8 to 10 per cent. As men grow older, the intention to be childfree increases such that at age 45–49, 16 per cent intend not to become fathers. Rather than a deliberate choice, the increase in childlessness could be the result of a waiting game. Longer stays in school, later entry into the work force, and starting marital relations at older ages contribute to delays in becoming fathers. While for many men the delay does not necessarily end in childlessness, for others the period of waiting changes their intention to become fathers. The adjustment of intentions and the eventual childlessness are made easier because of the reduced normative pressure to have children.

  6. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (Polder adults. FFA and glycerol......We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged...... increased with reduced activity (Pphysical activity for two weeks increases blood lipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...

  7. ‘Never testing for HIV’ among Men who have Sex with Men in Viet Nam: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men in Viet Nam have been under-studied as a high-risk group for HIV infection, and this population’s percentage and determinants of HIV testing have not been comprehensively investigated. Methods A national Internet-based survey of self-reported sexual and health seeking behaviours was conducted between August and October 2011 with 2077 Vietnamese men who had sex with men in the last twelve months to identify the frequency of ‘never testing for HIV’ among Internet-using MSM living in Viet Nam, as well as the factors associated with this HIV-related high-rish behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviours predicting never testing for HIV. Results A total of 76.5% of men who have sex with men who were surveyed reported never having been voluntarily tested for HIV. Predictors of never being tested included having a monthly income less than VND 5 Million, being a student, using the Internet less than 15 hour per week, and not participating in a behavioural HIV intervention. Conclusions Never testing for HIV is common among Internet-using men who have sex with men in Viet Nam. Given the dangerously high prevalence of this high-risk behaviour, our findings underscore the urgent need for segmented and targeted HIV prevention, care and treatment strategies, focusing on drastically reducing the number of men who have sex with men never testing for HIV in Viet Nam. PMID:24373483

  8. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  9. Unique associations between young adult men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Angus, Douglas; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Research on emotional functioning, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in males is predominated by studies of negative affect and emotion regulation. Other aspects of emotional functioning, namely emotion recognition and attentional biases toward emotional stimuli, have received little empirical attention. The present study investigated the unique associations between different aspects of men's emotional functioning and their disordered eating attitudes, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction. Results from 132 male undergraduates showed that muscularity dissatisfaction was uniquely associated with both emotion regulation difficulties and an attentional bias toward rejecting faces. Body fat dissatisfaction was not uniquely associated with any aspect of emotional functioning. Disordered eating was uniquely associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Collectively, the results indicate differences in the patterns of associations between men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  11. Adolescent experiences of discrimination, harassment, connectedness to community and comfort with sexual orientation reported by adult men who have sex with men as a predictor of adult HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, H Fisher; Chen, Yea-Hung; Stall, Ron D; McFarland, Willi

    2011-04-01

    Using data from a probability based sample of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) we examined the association of negative life factors during adolescence and adult HIV status. 521 MSM reported on experiences of connectedness to community, comfort with sexuality, harassment and discrimination due to their sexual orientation at ages 12-18 years. HIV status was determined by serological testing. Overall, men reported moderate levels of being harassed, being discriminated against and high levels of feeling disconnected from gay communities while reporting high levels of being uncomfortable with their sexuality at those ages. However, in analyses of scores on these factors, higher experiences of harassment, higher levels of discrimination and more discomfort with sexuality at these ages are associated with HIV-negative status as adults. This study suggests that the relationship between negative adolescent experiences among MSM and adult HIV infection may not be straightforward, but may also dependent upon aspects of the intensity of the negative experiences, the relationship of the victim and the perpertrator(s), the sexual identity of the victim at the time and/or the number of these experiences or the length of time over which they occurred. Studies investigating specific multiple stressors in adolescent gay development and their effect on adult health outcomes are needed.

  12. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  13. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...

  14. The role of sexual expectancies of substance use as a mediator between adult attachment and drug use among gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159

  15. Enablers and barriers of men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy transitioning from an adult clinic within a pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McAdam, Laura; Mahendiran, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) live into adulthood and need specialized care. However, services for adults are fragmented. We know little about young men's experiences, their parents, and clinicians who support them as they transition to adult care. To explore the enablers and barriers of clinicians, young men, and parents as they transition from an adult DMD clinic within a pediatric hospital to an adult health facility. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 16 participants (7 clinicians, 5 parents, 4 youth). We used an open-coding, thematic approach to analyze the data. Clinicians, youth and their parents experienced several enablers and barriers in transitioning to an adult health care center. Clinicians reported that structural factors including leadership and advocacy supported the transition. Clinicians and parents found that the availability and continuity of care both enabled and hindered the transition. Parents and youth conveyed the difficulties of adjusting to the different model of adult care and also accessing resources. All participants described how relational factors (i.e., effective communication and family involvement) enabled the transition. On an individual level, clinicians, parents and youth viewed transition readiness and other life skill supports as an enabler and a barrier to transitioning. All participants reported the difficulties of maintaining mental health for youth with DMD transitioning to adult health care. Clinicians, youth, and parents experienced several enablers and barriers in transitioning to adult health care. Further work is needed to understand the complex transition needs of youth with DMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Do Youn

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty eight adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed visual feedback balance training for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Bio rescue was used for balance ability. It measured limit of stability at one minute. For ankle instability was measured using Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT). This measure was performed before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increase in the Limit of Stability and CAIT score. The control group had significant increase in CAIT score. While the Limit of Stability increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual feedback balance training can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  17. Cultural factors associated with the intent to be screened for prostate cancer among adult men in a rural Kenyan community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyao Mutua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine cultural factors associated with prostate cancer screening intent among adult Kenyan African men. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study with an analytic design was carried out in a randomly selected sample of 155 adult men aged 25–98 years living in a rural community in Kenya. Constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour were used to guide this study. A 5 -point Likert scale was used to assess fatalistic beliefs, fear, perceived benefits, and family influence. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data at the household level. Results Only 2.4% of the study participants had been screened for prostate cancer. About 2/3rd (64% of the participants felt that they were at risk of getting prostate cancer; 44% intended to be screened within the following 6 months. Mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale indicated: strong beliefs in the benefits of prostate screening (4.2 (±SD .8, men aged over 40 were not perceived to be at risk of getting prostate cancer (1.3 ± .6, relatively high fatalistic beliefs of prostate cancer screening (3.6 (±SD .8, high degree of fear or apprehension of prostate cancer screening (3.2 (±SD 1.2, and a high level of influence of family members in prostate cancer screening (3.9 (±SD 1.0. The Wald criterion demonstrated that only family influence made a significant contribution to the intent to screen for prostate cancer (p = 0.031. Age, education, marital status, fatalism, fear, and benefit of screening were not associated with the intent to screen for prostate cancer. Conclusions Strong beliefs of the benefits of prostate screening tended to be surpassed by relatively high fatalistic beliefs and fear or apprehension in prostate cancer screening. The family plays an important role in influencing decision making related to prostate cancer screening in Africans.

  18. Urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction among Italian men: The results of the #Controllati survey

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    Vincenzo Mirone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prevention may improve the quality of life and sexual and reproductive health. To improve prevention require a comprehensive research approach that examines the frequency and risk factors for urologic conditions. In June 2016 the Italian Urologic Society coordinated a preventive initiative : the 1st Week of Male Urologic Prevention ”#Controllati”. Material and methods: During the 1st Week of Male Urologic Prevention “#Controllati”, men aged 18 years or more were invited to attend participating urologic centers for a free of charge visit for counseling about urologic or andrologic conditions. Each participating man underwent a physical examination. Further he was asked about his a medical history and about his urologic symptoms, sexual activity and possible related problems. Results: Data were collected in 81 centers: 2380 men answered the questionnaire. A total of 1226 subjects participating in the study reported one or more urinary symptom [51.5% (IC 95% 48.9%-54.5%]. The risk of any urinary symptoms increased with age: in comparison with men aged < = 30 years or less the risk of any urinary symptoms was 2.31, 2.92, 5.12, 7.82 and 17.02 respectively in the class age 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and > = 71. Overweight/obese men were at increased risk of any urinary symptoms [OR1.35 (95% CI 1.12-1.64]. 27.2% (IC 95% overall 25.2% -29.3% of the subjects had at least a sexual disorder (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, hypoactive sexual desire. The erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire increased with age, but premature ejaculation tended to be higher among younger aged men aged 40 years or more. Current any urinary symptoms [OR 1.85 (CI 1.40-2.43], hypertension [OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.21-2.26 and diabetes (OR 2.37 (95% CI 1.45-3.88] increased the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusions: This large survey gives a picture of the burden of the more frequent urologic conditions offering useful information in order

  19. Health-related quality of life in young men with testicular cancer: validation of the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults (CAYA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Cano, Stefan J; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2013-12-01

    Patient-reported outcome instruments are needed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young adults with cancer. The purpose of this project was to establish a conceptual model and measurement instrument for assessment of HRQOL in young men with testicular cancer. Patient interviews and a literature review were used to develop a conceptual framework of biopsychosocial domains of cancer-related quality of life and an initial pool of questionnaire items. Items were piloted and refined. Revised items were administered to a sample (N = 171) of young (ages 18-29) men with testicular cancer and repeated 4 weeks later. Rasch measurement methods guided item reduction and scale construction. Traditional psychometric analyses were also performed to allow for comparison with existing measures. The conceptual framework included seven biopsychosocial domains: physical, sexual, intrapersonal, cognitive-emotional, social-relational, educational-vocational-avocational, and spiritual to form independent scales of the resulting questionnaire, the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults-Testicular (CAYA-T). Each scale fulfilled Rasch and traditional psychometric criteria (i.e., person separation index, 0.34-0.82; Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.91; and an expected pattern of convergent and discriminant validity correlations). The CAYA-T can be used to assess HRQOL across a comprehensive set of domains as identified by young men with cancer. It passes strict psychometric criteria and has potential as a useful research and clinical tool. The CAYA-T has potential research and clinical value for addressing inter-related aspects of HRQOL in young adult men with cancer. The measure may assist with assessing and monitoring HRQOL across a range of domains and contributing to more comprehensive assessment of biopsychosocial needs of young adults.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

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    Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of

  1. Health impact of sport and exercise in emerging adult men: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Yves; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Health benefits of sport and exercise are well documented in children, adolescents and adults, but little is known about emerging adulthood-a period of life characterized by significant demographic and developmental changes. The present study aimed to assess the health impact of changes in sport and exercise levels during that specific period of life. The analysis used baseline and 15-month follow-up data (N = 4,846) from the cohort study on substance use risk factors. Associations between baseline exercise levels or changes in exercise levels and health indicators (i.e., health-related quality of life, depression, body mass index, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis use disorder) were measured using chi-squared tests and ANOVA. Direction of effects was tested using cross-lagged analysis. At baseline, all health indicator scores were observed to be better for regular exercisers than for other exercise levels. At follow-up, participants who had maintained regular exercise over time had better scores than those who had remained irregular exercisers or had discontinued, but their scores for health-related quality of life and depression were close to those of participants who had adopted regular exercise after the baseline questionnaire. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that regular exercise at baseline was a significant predictor of health-related quality of life and substance use dependence at follow-up, but was itself predicted only by health-related quality of life. From a health promotion perspective, this study emphasizes how important it is for emerging adult men to maintain, or adopt, regular sport and exercise.

  2. Phosphorous31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy after total sleep deprivation in healthy adult men.

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    Dorsey, Cynthia M; Lukas, Scott E; Moore, Constance M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Parow, Aimee M; Villafuerte, Rosemond A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2003-08-01

    To investigate chemical changes in the brains of healthy adults after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep, using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three consecutive nights (baseline, sleep deprivation, recovery) were spent in the laboratory. Objective sleep measures were assessed on the baseline and recovery nights using polysomnography. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans took place beginning at 7 am to 8 am on the morning after each of the 3 nights. Sleep laboratory in a private psychiatric teaching hospital. Eleven healthy young men. Following a baseline night of sleep, subjects underwent a night of total sleep deprivation, which involved supervision to ensure the absence of sleep but was not polysomnographically monitored. No significant changes in any measure of brain chemistry were observed the morning after a night of total sleep deprivation. However, after the recovery night, significant increases in total and beta-nucleoside triphosphate and decreases in phospholipid catabolism, measured by an increase in the concentration of glycerylphosphorylcholine, were observed. Chemical changes paralleled some changes in objective sleep measures. Significant chemical changes in the brain were observed following recovery sleep after 1 night of total sleep deprivation. The specific process underlying these changes is unclear due to the large brain region sampled in this exploratory study, but changes may reflect sleep inertia or some aspect of the homeostatic sleep mechanism that underlies the depletion and restoration of sleep. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique that may be of value in further exploration of such sleep-wake functions.

  3. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

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    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  4. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

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    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  5. Syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men in China: results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohong; Cao, Ya; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ming; Tang, Weiming; Li, Jianjun; Babu, Giridhara R; Jia, Yue; Huan, Xiping; Xu, Genxing; Yang, Haitao; Fu, Gengfeng; Li, Lei

    2017-02-01

    The recent upsurge of syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is one of the major challenges facing China. However, the overall burden is still not clear. This study aims to summarize the incidence of syphilis among MSM in China by using meta-analysis. We comprehensively searched PubMed-MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang databases. Articles published between December 2009 and March 2015 that met the inclusion criteria were considerably involved in this meta-analysis. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating the overall syphilis incidence. STATA 12.0 was used to summarize the overall incidence of syphilis. In all, 14 studies from 13 papers were included in this study. Follow-up duration of these studies ranged from six to 36 months, while drop-out rates ranged from 11.9% to 83.6%. The individual incidence rates of the included studies varied from 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) to 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), with a pooled incidence of 9.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-12.2/100 person-years). The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that incidence estimates were 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), 12.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-17.2/100 person-years), 11.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.7-23.1/100 person-years), 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI, 6.5-11.2/100 person-years), 5.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 3.4-8.0/100 person-years) and 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) in Northeast, North, Southwest, East, South and Northwest China, respectively. Syphilis incidence among Chinese MSM is high, and this may increase the spread of other sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. It is essential to integrate syphilis control programs with HIV control programs. This can be achieved by establishing public health response systems to monitor and control

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, compared with licensed vaccines in adults in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamboulian, D; Lopardo, G; Lopez, P; Cortes-Barbosa, C; Valencia, A; Bedell, L; Karsten, A; Dull, P M

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide (MPSV4) and conjugate (MenACWY-D) meningococcal vaccines. In this phase III multicenter study, 2505 adults (aged 19-55 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-D, and 326 adults (aged 56-65 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MPSV4. Sera obtained pre-vaccination and at 1-month post-vaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) for immunogenicity non-inferiority and superiority analyses. The vaccines in all groups were well tolerated. In the 19-55 years age group, post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) were consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MenACWY-D for all four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM was non-inferior to MenACWY-D for all serogroups, and superior for serogroup Y. In the 56-65 years age group, post-vaccination GMTs were 1.2- to 5.4-fold higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MPSV4 for the four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated and immunogenic in adults aged 19-65 years, with at least non-inferior immunogenicity compared with the currently licensed meningococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  8. Sexual behavior in the United States: results from a national probability sample of men and women ages 14-94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Despite a demonstrated relationship between sexual behaviors and health, including clinical risks, little is known about contemporary sexual behavior. To assess the rates of sexual behavior among adolescents and adults in the United States. We report the recent (past month, past year) and lifetime prevalence of sexual behaviors in a nationally representative probability sample of 5,865 men and women ages 14 to 94 in the United States (2,936 men, 2,929 women). Behaviors assessed included solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving and receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse. Masturbation was common throughout the lifespan and more common than partnered sexual activities during adolescence and older age (70+). Although uncommon among 14- to 15-year olds, in the past year 18.3% of 16- to 17-year-old males and 22.4% of 16- to 17-year-old females performed oral sex with an other-sex partner. Also in the past year, more than half of women and men ages 18 to 49 engaged in oral sex. The proportion of adults who reported vaginal sex in the past year was highest among men ages 25-39 and for women ages 20-29, then progressively declined among older age groups. More than 20% of men ages 25-49 and women ages 20-39 reported anal sex in the past year. Same-sex sexual behaviors occurring in the past year were uncommonly reported. Men and women engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual behaviors throughout the life course. The rates of contemporary sexual behavior provided in this report will be valuable to those who develop, implement, and evaluate programs that seek to improve societal knowledge related to the prevalence of sexual behaviors and to sexual health clinicians whose work to improve sexual health among the population often requires such rates of behavior. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Common Problem for Both Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Elizabeth A; Quinn, Sheila M; Ambrosino, Jodie M; Weyman, Kate; Tamborlane, William V; Jastreboff, Ania M

    Emerging adults (EA) with disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for severe complications of T1D, and these behaviors have been reported in EA women with T1D. Few studies, though, have included men. This study assessed the prevalence of DEB in both EA men and women with T1D. DEB was measured with the diabetes-specific Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R); scores of 20 or greater indicate need for further evaluation for DEB. A total of 27 women and 33 men (age range = 21 ± 2.5 years) completed the DEPS-R; 27% of women and 18% of men had scores of 20 or greater (p = .23). Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in subjects with elevated DEPS-R scores (10.4 ± 2.1% vs. 7.8 ± 1.3%; p < .001), and DEPS-R scores correlated with increased body mass index values (r = 0.27, p < .05). Clinicians should assess for DEB in both male and female emerging adults with T1D, especially overweight patients with poor glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

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    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  11. Physical and Physiological Demands of Recreational Team Handball for Adult Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Resende, Carlos; Coelho, Eduardo Filipe; Silva, Pedro; Santos, Rute; Seabra, André; Tamames, Juan; Lopes, Mariana; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Lack of motivation to exercise was reported as a major cause of sedentary behavior in adulthood. This descriptive study examines the acute physical and physiological demands of recreational team handball and evaluates whether it could be suggested as an exercise mode for fitness and health enhancement in 33-55-year-old untrained men. Time-motion, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate analyses were obtained from 4 recreational matches. Mean distance covered during the 60 min matches was 6012 ± 428 m. The players changed match activity 386 ± 70 times, of which high-intensity runs and unorthodox movements amounted to 59 ± 18 and 26 ± 26 per match, respectively. The most frequent highly demanding playing actions were jumps and throws. Match average and peak HR were 82 ± 6% and 93 ± 5%  HR max , respectively. Players exercised at intensities between 81 and 90%  HR max for 47% (28 ± 14 min) and >90%  HR max for 24% (14 ± 15 min) of total match time. Match average and peak blood lactate values were 3.6 ± 1.3 and 4.2 ± 1.2 mM, respectively. Recreational team handball is an intermittent high-intensity exercise mode with physical and physiological demands in the range of those found to have a positive effect on aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness in adult individuals. Training studies considering recreational team handball as a health enhancing intervention are warranted.

  12. Physical and Physiological Demands of Recreational Team Handball for Adult Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana C. A. Póvoas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of motivation to exercise was reported as a major cause of sedentary behavior in adulthood. This descriptive study examines the acute physical and physiological demands of recreational team handball and evaluates whether it could be suggested as an exercise mode for fitness and health enhancement in 33–55-year-old untrained men. Time-motion, heart rate (HR, and blood lactate analyses were obtained from 4 recreational matches. Mean distance covered during the 60 min matches was 6012±428 m. The players changed match activity 386±70 times, of which high-intensity runs and unorthodox movements amounted to 59±18 and 26±26 per match, respectively. The most frequent highly demanding playing actions were jumps and throws. Match average and peak HR were 82±6% and 93±5%  HRmax, respectively. Players exercised at intensities between 81 and 90%  HRmax for 47% (28±14 min and >90%  HRmax for 24% (14±15 min of total match time. Match average and peak blood lactate values were 3.6±1.3 and 4.2±1.2 mM, respectively. Recreational team handball is an intermittent high-intensity exercise mode with physical and physiological demands in the range of those found to have a positive effect on aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness in adult individuals. Training studies considering recreational team handball as a health enhancing intervention are warranted.

  13. Relations between subdomains of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and quality of life in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivärinne, V; Kautiainen, H; Heinonen, A; Kiviranta, I

    2018-04-01

    To assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) in work, transport, domestic, and leisure-time domains (with sitting time included) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among young adult men. The long version of IPAQ and SF-36 Health Survey were used to assess PA and HRQoL, respectively, in 1425 voluntary 20- to 40-year-old Finnish male participants. Participants were divided into tertiles (MET-h/week): Lowest tertile (100 MET-h/week). The IPAQ domain leisure-time PA predicted positively the Physical Component Summary (PCS) (β = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) (β = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.16) dimensions. Occupational PA predicted negative relationships in the PCS (β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.07), and sitting time predicted negative relationships in the MCS dimension (β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07). In addition, a linear relationship was found between total PA level (including sitting time) and all of the IPAQ domains (<0.001). The Middle tertile had the highest leisure-time PA (38% of total PA), whereas the highest sitting time (28%) and lowest occupational PA (8%) were found in the Lowest tertile. The Highest tertile had the highest occupational PA (61%), while the leisure-time PA was the lowest (16%). Different PA domains appear to have positive and negative relationships to mental and physical aspects of HRQoL. Relatively high leisure-time PA indicated a better HRQoL regardless of the amount of total PA, while occupational PA and higher daily sitting time related negatively to HRQoL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

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    Ingrid Melnikovova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  15. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Rejection among Young Adult Men in Residential Substance Use Treatment

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    JoAnna Elmquist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs and comorbid mental health problems evidence heightened negative consequences, including poorer treatment outcomes, a higher risk for relapse, and mortality compared to individuals with a single disorder. In this study, we focus on the comorbidity between SUDs and eating disorder (ED symptomatology, as EDs are similarly associated with high rates of relapse, morbidity, and mortality. Of particular importance is research examining treatment rejection among individuals in treatment for SUDs with cooccurring ED symptomatology. This study seeks to add to the literature by examining treatment rejection among young adult men in residential treatment for SUDs ( N = 68 with cooccurring ED symptomatology. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ED symptoms were significantly associated with treatment rejection after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and depression symptoms. Although this is a preliminary study, the results add to a growing body of research examining the comorbidity between SUDs and ED symptomatology. Future research examining this relationship is needed to further elucidate the treatment patterns among individuals with comorbid ED symptoms and substance use diagnoses.

  16. Does a similar procedure result in similar survival for women and men undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tamer; Koch, Colleen G; Houghtaling, Penny L; Blackstone, Eugene H; Sabik, Ellen Mayer; Sabik, Joseph F

    2017-03-01

    To (1) identify sex-related differences in risk factors and revascularization strategies for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), (2) assess whether these differences influenced early and late survival, and (3) determine whether clinical effectiveness of the same revascularization strategy was influenced by sex. From January 1972 to January 2011, 57,943 adults-11,009 (19%) women-underwent primary isolated CABG. Separate models for long-term mortality were developed for men and women, followed by assessing sex-related differences in strength of risk factors (interaction terms). Incomplete revascularization was more common in men than women (26% vs 22%, P  .9) with lower survival in both sexes. Single ITA grafting was associated with equally (P = .3) better survival in women and men. Although bilateral ITA grafting was associated with better survival than single ITA grafting, it was less effective in women-11% lower late mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89 [0.77-1.022]) versus 27% lower in men (hazard ratio, 0.73 [0.69-0.77]; P = .01). Women on average have longer life expectancies than men but not after CABG. Every attempt should be made to use arterial grafting and complete revascularization, but for unexplained reasons, sex-related differences in effectiveness of bilateral arterial grafting were identified. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  18. Evaluation of the impact of the filing on the match results in qualifying for ME 2017 men's volleyball.

    OpenAIRE

    Dopita, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Title of the thesis Evaluation of the impact of service on the match result in qualification for Men's European Volleyball Championship 2017 Abstract The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the influence of service on the match result in qualification for the 2017 Men's Volleyball European Championship, using indirect video monitoring, and trace the success rate and frequency of individual types of services. Our intention is to show the importance of this individual game activity in a match wit...

  19. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  20. Validation and reliability of the Baecke questionnaire for the evaluation of habitual physical activity in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonio Florindo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify validity and reliability of the scores for physical exercise in leisure (PEL, leisure and locomotion activities (LLA, and total score (TS of the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire in adult males. Twenty-one students of Physical Education were evaluated. For validation, the maximum oxygen uptake (O2max and the decrease of the heart rate in percentile (%DHR were measured through the Cooper's 12-minute walk or run test, and an annual index of physical exercise (IPE, and a week index of locomotion activities (ILA. The reliability was verified through test-retest with interval of 45 days. The Pearson correlation coefficient, and partial correlation adjusted for age and body mass index were used for validation. The intraclass correlation and paired t-test were used for reliability. The results indicated that %DHR was correlated with LLA and TS (r = 0.47 and p = 0.030; r = 0.48 and p = 0.027, respectively. IPE was correlated with PEL and TS (r = 0.56 and p = 0.008; r = 0.46 and p = 0.036, respectively. ILA was correlated with LLA and TS (r = 0.64 and p = 0.002 and r = 0.51 and p = 0.017, respectively. There was no significant difference in PEL, LLA and TS means in test-retest. The intraclass correlations were r = 0.69; r = 0.80 and r = 0.77, respectively for PEL, LLA and TS. In conclusion, the Baecke questionnaire is valid and reliable to measure habitual physical activity in Brazilian adult men.

  1. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00-62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00-59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  2. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  3. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  4. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to "neither agree nor disagree" with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant characteristic

  5. Young adult gay and bisexual men's stigma experiences and mental health: An 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Sullivan, Timothy J; Feinstein, Brian A; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-04-05

    This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More self-described feminine men experienced quicker reductions in concealment, compared to more self-described masculine men. Enacted stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with depression and social anxiety across 8 years; and anticipated stigma and internalized stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with social anxiety across 8 years. Enacted stigma was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among men who reported greater masculinity compared to those who reported greater femininity. Findings are discussed in terms of common developmental influences across early sexual orientation identity formation, including gay and bisexual young men's resilience to stigma-based stress; the transition from college; and the rapidly changing social climate surrounding sexual minority individuals. Findings suggest the need for future longitudinal examinations of stigma and mental health among sexual minorities that utilize multiple age cohorts to determine the relative contribution of cohort-specific versus common maturational factors influencing the mental health of this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Orces

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants’ smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2 years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  7. Hormonal therapy (hCG and rhFSH) for infertile men with adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Shin, Takeshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Adult-onset idiopathic male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IMHH) is a very rare but treatable disease. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) for inducing spermatogenesis in men with adult-onset IMHH. Seven men (34-45 years of age) with azoospermia and/or sexual dysfunction, with a low serum testosterone concentration, and apulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone, were referred to our hospital for infertility. All had normal secondary sexual characteristics. Thorough endocrinologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no identifiable cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Adult-onset IMHH was diagnosed in all cases and treatment was started with 150 IU rhFSH and 5,000 IU hCG, both administered two times per week. Spermatogenesis was restored in five of the seven patients. During treatment one patient achieved spontaneous pregnancy with his wife, and spermatozoa recovered from the other four patients were frozen for future use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  8. A qualitative study of career exploration among young adult men with psychosis and co-occurring substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Alison; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and importance of career exploration and career development in the context of integrated treatment for young adults with early psychosis and substance use disorders (i.e., co-occurring disorders). Twelve young adult men (aged 18 to 35 years) with co-occurring disorders recruited from an integrated treatment center completed a series of three semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Purposive sampling ensured participants represented a range of substance abuse treatment stages. Participants had a mean age of 26 (SD = 3) and identified as White. Two-thirds of participants (n = 8, 67%) had diagnosed schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, three (25%) had bipolar disorder, and one (8%) had major depression; four (33%) also had a co-occurring anxiety disorder. The most common substance use disorders involved cannabis (n = 8, 67%), cocaine (n = 5, 42%), and alcohol (n = 5, 42%). These young adult men with co-occurring disorders described past jobs that did not align with future goals as frustrating and disempowering, rather than confidence-building. Most young adult participants began actively developing their careers in treatment through future-oriented work or school placements. They pursued ambitious career goals despite sporadic employment and education histories. Treatment engagement and satisfaction appeared to be linked with career advancement prospects. Integrating career planning into psychosocial treatment is a critical task for providers who serve young adults with co-occurring disorders. Whether integrating career planning within early intervention treatment planning will improve clinical, functional, or economic outcomes is a promising area of inquiry for rehabilitation researchers and clinicians.

  9. Willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States to be circumcised as adults to reduce the risk of HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin B Begley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexual men in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended. METHODS: We interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be circumcised if it were proven to reduce risk of HIV among MSM and perceived barriers to circumcision. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with willingness to be circumcised. RESULTS: Of 780 MSM, 133 (17% were uncircumcised. Of these, 71 (53% were willing to be circumcised. Willingness was associated with black race (exact odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-9.8, non-injection drug use (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.8-23.7 and perceived reduced risk of penile cancer (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-11.9. The most commonly endorsed concerns about circumcision were post-surgical pain and wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of uncircumcised MSM, especially black MSM, expressed willingness to be circumcised. Perceived risks and benefits of circumcision should be a part of educational materials if circumcision is recommended for MSM in the United States.

  10. Comparison of Treatment Results Between Adult and Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, N. Lance; Wolden, Suzanne; Wong, Priscilla; Petrik, David W.; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a bimodal age distribution. In contrast to the adult variant, little is known about the juvenile form. This study examined the treatment results between adult (aNPC) and juvenile NPC (jNPC) patients for future treatment considerations in jNPC. Methods and Materials: The jNPC population included 53 patients treated at two institutions between 1972 and 2004. The aNPC population included 84 patients treated at one institution. The patients had received a median dose of 66 Gy of external beam radiotherapy and 72% underwent chemotherapy. The mean follow-up for surviving patients was 12.6 years for jNPC and 6.6 years for aNPC. Results: The jNPC patients presented with more advance stages than did the aNPC patients (92% vs. 67% Stage III-IV, p = .006). However, jNPC patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) than did aNPC patients. The 5-year OS rate was 71% for jNPC and 58% for aNPC (p = .03). The jNPC group also demonstrated a trend for greater relapse-free survival than the aNPC group (5-year relapse-free survival rate, 69% vs. 49%; p = .056). The pattern of failure analysis revealed that the jNPC patients had greater locoregional control and freedom from metastasis but the differences were not statistically significant. Univariate analysis for OS revealed that age group, nodal classification, and chemotherapy use were significant prognostic factors. Age group remained significant for OS on multivariate analysis, after adjusting for N classification and treatment. Conclusion: Despite more advance stage at presentation, jNPC patients had better survival than did aNPC patients. Future treatment strategies should take into consideration the long-term complications in these young patients.

  11. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence.

  12. Automobile driving in older adults: factors affecting driving restriction in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Dit Asse, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia was defined as no dementia at one follow-up and dementia at the next follow-up. Over the 6-year period, 54% of men and 63% of women stopped driving or reduced the distance they drove. Predementia, Parkinson's disease, older age, and a high number of kilometers previously driven were common restriction factors in both sexes. Prevalent dementia, depressive symptomatology, a decline in one or more instrumental activities of daily living, and poor visual working memory were specific factors in men. In women, low income, fear of falling, slow processing speed, and severe decline in global cognitive performance all affected driving restriction. Older women restricted their driving activity more than older men, regardless of the number of kilometers previously driven, physical health, and cognitive status. Factors affecting driving restriction differed according to sex, and women were more likely to stop driving than men in the period preceding a dementia diagnosis. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = -7.49; 95% CI: -14.8, -0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = -0.80; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.04) compared to MSM 18-34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices.

  14. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Kimberly, Judy A.; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = −7.49; 95% CI: −14.8, −0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = −0.80; 95% CI: −1.57, −0.04) compared to MSM 18–34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices. PMID:26348705

  15. Child maltreatment and eating disorders among men and women in adulthood: Results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Sareen, Jitender; Fortier, Janique; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Henriksen, Christine A

    2017-11-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with an increased likelihood of having mood disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and personality disorders, but far less is known about eating disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between child maltreatment, including harsh physical punishment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence, and eating disorders in adulthood among men and women. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions wave 3 (NESARC-III) collected in 2012-2013. The sample was nationally representative of the United States adult population (N = 36,309). Lifetime eating disorders (anorexia nervosa [AN], bulimia nervosa [BN], and binge-eating disorder [BED]) were assessed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria and the alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5). The prevalence of any lifetime eating disorder was 1.7% (0.8% among men and 2.7% among women). All child maltreatment types were associated with AN, BN, and BED with notable differences among men and women. Overall, the types of child maltreatment with the strongest relationships with any eating disorder were sexual abuse and physical neglect among men and sexual abuse and emotional abuse among women. Clinicians should be mindful that child maltreatment experiences are associated with increased odds of eating disorders including AN, BED, and BN. Such relationships are significant among men and women although notable gender differences in these relationships exist. Abstract word count = 248. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances and alterations of diurnal endocrine rhythms are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We previously showed that young men born small for gestational age (SGA) and with increased risk of T2D have elevated fat and decreased glucose oxidation rates d...

  17. Postprandial triglyceride response in young adult men and familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Stiphout, W.A.H.J. van; Krauss, X.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Bruijn, A.M. de; Tol, A. van; Hofman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Setting: Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Measurements: Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl

  18. Psychosocial outcomes in adult men born with hypospadias: A register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skarin Nordenvall

    Full Text Available In this nationwide matched cohort study, we have investigated whether being born with hypospadias affect subsequent psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. We analyzed prospectively collected data from national Swedish registers. Data on the diagnoses were collected from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Data on psychosocial outcomes such as educational and income level, marital status and disability pension were collected from Statistics Sweden. The effects of covariates, such as age, county of birth, presence of other malformations and psychiatric illness, were taken into account. The associations between hypospadias and psychosocial outcomes were calculated using conditional logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We included 4378 men diagnosed with hypospadias, born between 1969 and 1993 in Sweden. Patients with hypospadias were matched with unaffected men by year of birth and birth county. We did not detect any differences in educational or income level. The probability of entering marriage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.14 did not differ, regardless of phenotype. We did, however, detect a 40% increased probability of receiving a disability pension, (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61. In conclusion, men born with hypospadias in Sweden do not differ from unaffected men with respect to the majority of psychosocial outcomes studied. They are, however, at increased risk of receiving a disability pension, which motivates further investigations.

  19. College Men's Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes: Contributions of Adult Attachment and Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…

  20. Career Assessment of Ultraorthodox Jewish Men: Reliability, Validity, and Results of the Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Ultraorthodox men spend years studying religion and delay entry into the workforce until their early 30s. They then face barriers such as insufficient education and work experience, religious restrictions, and a lack of career information and self-knowledge. Although there is considerable interest in assessment, no measure has been validated…

  1. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  2. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    , the relationship between GL and DeltaTC was modified by age, being particularly strong for the younger men (P = 0.02). In women the relationship between GI and DeltaLDL was modified by age and was stronger for younger rather than older women (P = 0.01). A tendency for a similar interaction was seen for GI......: Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  3. Alleviating gender role strain in adult men with traumatic brain injury: an evaluation of a set of guidelines for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, S A

    1999-01-01

    A set of guidelines to assist men with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to alleviate gender role strain was assessed to determine its effectiveness and acceptability to participants. Four adult male participants with TBI received the intervention (the set of guidelines) for 4 months. The intervention consisted of rebuilding self-identified gendered social roles and activities. Focused interviews and participant observation were used to determine whether gender role strain changed after intervention. The participants reported that the intervention enabled them to (a) enhance their gender role satisfaction through newly rebuilt roles and activities, (b) attain certain long-held personal goals, (c) feel more like members of society, (d) perceive a greater congruency between their internal self-images and external postinjury roles, (e) learn more about personal skills and values as men, (f) feel more comfortable using help-seeking behaviors, (g) feel a sense of shared experience and affinity, (h) feel more understood and accepted, and (i) contribute to others through community member roles. The set of guidelines for alleviating gender role strain was effective in assisting these participants to enhance their gender role satisfaction through rebuilding desired male-gendered social roles and activities. Dating, courtship, extended family member, community member, friend, and mentor-protege roles, lost as a result of TBI, were rebuilt through gender-neutral activities that facilitated a sense of volitional control, competency, and normalcy. Nonetheless, the men continued to lack desired rites of passage leading from male adolescence to adulthood.

  4. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  5. Testicular volume and masculine identity in men with unilateral cryptorchidism: results of a community-based survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Min Eui; Lee, Nam Kyu; Park, Young Ho

    2003-10-01

    We determined the influence of cryptorchidism on testicular volume and masculine identity in young men living in a community. Of the 27,202 men aged 20 years dwelling in the community, we randomly selected a 10% sampling fraction of whom 2,080 men (a response rate of 77.0%) agreed to participate in the study. All volunteers underwent a standard evaluation, including a detailed medical history and physical examination. For the evaluation of the influence of cryptorchidism on masculine identity, we used the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Among participants, 38 (1.8%) had cryptorchidism or a history of surgery for cryptorchidism (right 15, left 21, bilateral 2). In total, 29 had had undergone surgery (mean age at the time of operation; 8.9+/-3.9 years, range; 2-19 years). Of 25 men who had undergone orchiopexy due to unilateral cryptorchidism, the testicular volume of the affected side was significantly smaller than that of the contralateral side. Of the 36 patients with unilateral cryptorchidism, the contralateral testicular volume of men who had undergone orchiopexy was not different with that of those who had undergone orchiectomy or had not undergone surgery. When we compared the scores for masculinity and femininity using the BSRI between men with and without testis in the scrotum, there were no differences between the two groups. Our results demonstrate that delayed orchiopexy does not improve the testicular volume of the affected side or the masculine identity in men with unilateral cryptorchidism. In addition, these findings suggest that there is a need to increase the awareness of cryptorchidism among all parties involved in the health care of children.

  6. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 

  7. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rauda, Juan; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Villalpando, Salvador; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated risk factors in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older, using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The ENSANUT 2006 was conducted between October 2005 and May 2006. Questionnaires were administered to 45 446 adult subjects aged 20 years or older who were residents from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained from all subjects and fasting blood specimens were provided by 30% of participants. We randomly selected a sub-sample of 6 613 from which laboratory measurements were carried out for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. For this analysis, we included only results from eight or more hours of fasting samples (n=6 021). We used individual weighted factors in the statistical analysis and considered the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances and confidence intervals. All analyses were done using SPSS 15.0. In accordance with definitions by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MS in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older was 36.8, 41.6 and 49.8%, respectively. Women were more affected than men due to the higher prevalence of central obesity among females. Prevalence of MS increased with age and was higher among populations living in metropolitan areas, in the west-central region, and those with lower education. Regardless of the MS definition, a large proportion of Mexican adults has the condition, so preventive measures are needed to decrease the prevalence of the MS components in this population. MS can predict type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two of the main causes of death in the adult population in Mexico. The intentional search of MS components allows

  9. Diabetes distress in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus men and women with disease onset in childhood and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lašaitė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Žalinkevičius, Rimantas; Jurgevičienė, Nijolė; Radzevičienė, Lina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether or not diabetes distress varies by age of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset and/or gender. A total of 700 adult T1DM patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry; 214 of them (30.6%) agreed to participate and were recruited for the study. Diabetes distress (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, interpersonal distress) was compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with T1DM diagnosed during 0-18years of life, and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) with T1DM diagnosed in adulthood, using Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). Adult childhood-onset T1DM women have higher regimen-related distress (36.3±21.3 vs 26.6±16.2, p=0.016) than adulthood-onset women. Adult childhood-onset T1DM women experience higher diabetes distress (higher emotional burden (27.0±22.0 vs 15.6±16.4, p=0.006), physician-related distress (34.4±33.9 vs 20.7±29.4, p=0.024), total diabetes distress (41.2±13.6 vs 34.8±10.9, p=0.011)) than childhood-onset men. Adulthood-onset T1DM women experience higher physician-related distress (39.2±37.6 vs 23.4±32.5, p=0.013), but lower regimen-related distress (26.6±16.2 vs 35.8±21.6, p=0.014) than adulthood-onset men. In conclusion our findings reinforce the interdependence of psychological and biomedical factors in influencing health outcomes and support the need to provide psychological assessment and support to patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation of the usefulness of consensus definitions of sarcopenia in older men: results from the observational Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Blackwell, Terri L; Cauley, Jane; Kado, Deborah M; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lee, Christine G; Hoffman, Andrew R; Nevitt, Michael M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, several consensus definitions for sarcopenia have been developed. Objective To evaluate the associations and discriminative ability of definitions of sarcopenia against clinical outcomes. Design Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study Setting Six clinical centers Participants 5,934 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 yrs Measurements Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group (IWG), European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons (EWGSOP), Foundation for the NIH (FNIH) Sarcopenia, Baumgartner, and Newman. Recurrent falls were defined as ≥2 self-reported falls in the year after baseline (N=694, 11.9%). Incident hip fractures (N=207, 3.5 %) and deaths (N=2003, 34.1%) were confirmed by central review of medical records over 9.8 years. Self-reported functional limitations were assessed at baseline and again 4.6 years later. Logistic regression or proportional hazards models estimated associations between sarcopenia and falls, hip fractures or death. The discriminative ability of the sarcopenia definitions (compared to referent models) for these outcomes was evaluated with areas under the receiver operator curve (AUCs) or C-statistics. Referent models included age alone for falls, function limitations and mortality, and age and BMD for hip fractures. Results The association between sarcopenia by the various definitions and risk of falls, functional limitations, and hip fractures was variable; all definitions were associated with increased mortality risk. However, none of the definitions materially changed discrimination based on AUC and C-statistic when compared to referent models (change ≤1% in all models). Conclusions Sarcopenia definitions as currently constructed did not consistently improve prediction of clinical outcomes in relatively healthy older men. PMID:26502831

  11. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  12. Geographic and Individual Associations with PrEP Stigma: Results from the RADAR Cohort of Diverse Young Men Who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Hayford, Christina; Phillips, Gregory; Newcomb, Michael E; Smith, Justin D

    2018-05-22

    Increasing the uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition among at-risk populations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM), is of vital importance to slowing the HIV epidemic. Stigma and negative injunctive norms, such as the so called "Truvada Whore" phenomenon, hamper this effort. We examined the prevalence and types of PrEP stigma and injunctive norm beliefs among YMSM and transgender women and associated individual and geospatial factors. A newly created measure of PrEP Stigma and Positive Attitudes was administered to 620 participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Results indicated lower stigma among White, compared to Black and Latino participants, and among participants not identifying as male. Prior knowledge about PrEP was associated with lower stigma and higher positive attitudes. PrEP stigma had significant geospatial clustering and hotspots were identified in neighborhoods with high HIV incidence and concentration of racial minorities, whereas coldspots were identified in areas with high HIV incidence and low LGBT stigma. These results provide important information about PrEP attitudes and how PrEP stigma differs between individuals and across communities.

  13. Patterns and risk factors of inconsistent condom use among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: Results from an Internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Macarena C; Duong, Quyen L; Mercer, Licelot C Eralte; Meyer, Samantha B; Koppenhaver, Todd; Ward, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which factors are most important in driving these epidemics. The objective of this study was to identify patterns of condom use among MSM Internet users living in Viet Nam, as well as risk factors associated with inconsistent condom use and non-condom use. A national Internet-based survey of sexual behaviours was administered in 2011. Results showed that 44.9% of MSM reported not using a condom during their last anal sex encounter with a male partner. MSM were less likely to report condom use during anal sex with long-term partners than with casual partners. Twenty-three and a half per cent of MSM surveyed had ever taken an HIV test and received the results. Study findings highlight the urgent need for targeted strategies focused on increasing the rate of consistent condom use during anal sex with male partners among MSM in Viet Nam.

  14. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  15. Young adult cognitive ability and subsequent major depression in a cohort of 666,804 Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Rozing, Maarten Pieter; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    at conscription board examinations 1957-1984 (mean age 19 years) and information on MD was based on hospital diagnosis retrieved from Danish Patient registers 1969-2015. Associations between CA and MD were examined using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 666,804 men (born 1939-1959) were followed...... disease severity (ICD10: mild, moderate, and severe depression). LIMITATIONS: The study sample only included men and only MD cases diagnosed at hospital were included which limits the generalizability. CONCLUSION: Low CA could be a risk factor for especially early onset MD in men, whereas the influence...... of CA on re-occurrence seems less strong. Lower pre-morbid CA increases the risk of MD and should therefore be part of the depression risk assessment in clinical practice....

  16. Reference intervals for serum osteocalcin concentrations in adult men and women from the study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Spielhagen, Christin; Rettig, Rainer; Ittermann, Till; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-03-13

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone-specific protein produced primarily by osteoblasts during bone formation. Besides its role in bone formation, osteocalcin may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and male fertility. To interpret serum OC data, reference intervals adapted to a specific laboratory method are needed. A healthy reference population was selected from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum OC concentrations were measured with the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range (2.5th-97.5th percentile). Age-specific reference intervals were calculated by quantile regression for 1107 men (25-79 years) and 545 premenopausal women (25-54 years). The reference interval for 498 postmenopausal women (50-79 years) was calculated irrespective of age. Median (1st-3rd quartile) serum OC concentrations were 15.4 ng/mL (12.0-19.4 ng/mL) in men, 14.4 ng/mL (11.3-18.5 ng/mL) in premenopausal women, and 18.6 ng/mL (13.6-25.6 ng/mL) in postmenopausal women. Serum OC concentrations were highest in men and premenopausal women aged 25-29 years, were stable during midlife, and rose again after 65 years of age in men and at transition to menopause in women. Serum OC concentrations were lower in women taking oral contraceptives or who were under hormone replacement therapy after menopause and in subjects with diabetes mellitus or with body mass index  30 kg/m2 than in subjects without these conditions. We established sex-specific adult reference intervals for the serum OC concentration measured by the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay.

  17. Diabetes in young adult men: social and health-related correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Koelmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global public health issue. It is associated with significant disability, morbidity and mortality risks and substantial healthcare costs. Of great concern is the fact that its prevalence is rising, particularly amongst the young, while epidemiological data regarding the incidence, prevalence and complications of early-onset type 2 diabetes is noted to be sparse. Methods We used data from the baseline wave of Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian males, to investigate the social and health-related correlates of Australian males aged 18–49 years reporting being diagnosed with diabetes. Results The estimated prevalence of a self-reported diabetes diagnosis amongst Australian males aged 18–49 years was 2.95 % (95 % CI: 2.54–3.43 %. Within this age group, approximately 75 % of those diagnosed with diabetes are expected to be living with a known diagnosis of type 2 diabetes; the remainder are expected to be living with type 1 diabetes. Of the 20 social and health-related factors considered, we found evidence to support the association of eighteen factors after adjusting for age and body mass index. The strongest correlates of reporting a diabetes diagnosis, associated with a ≥2-fold increase in the odds of reporting diabetes were being aged 35–49 years, being unemployed, being obese, seeing a doctor for a check-up more frequently, reporting comorbid high blood pressure or physical or mental health comorbidities and worse self-rated and physical health status. Conclusion Australian males aged 18–49 years who are living with a known diagnosis of diabetes are more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged and suffer substantially worse health status than Australian males aged 18–49 years living without a diabetes diagnosis. Based on the associations detected in this study, older, single males living in regional areas who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, obese and/or who have other

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

  19. Swab2know: An HIV-Testing Strategy Using Oral Fluid Samples and Online Communication of Test Results for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Tom; Fransen, Katrien; Apers, Ludwig; Kenyon, Chris; Albers, Laura; Vermoesen, Tine; Loos, Jasna; Florence, Eric

    2015-09-01

    As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project. In this project, we aim to assess the acceptability and feasibility of outreach and online HIV testing using oral fluid samples as well as Web-based delivery of test results. Sample collection happened between December 2012 and April 2014 via outreach and online sampling among MSM. Test results were communicated through a secured website. HIV tests were executed in the laboratory. Each reactive sample needed to be confirmed using state-of-the-art confirmation procedures on a blood sample. Close follow-up of participants who did not pick up their results, and those with reactive results, was included in the protocol. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the methodology using a short survey. During 17 months, 1071 tests were conducted on samples collected from 898 men. Over half of the samples (553/1071, 51.63%) were collected during 23 outreach sessions. During an 8-month period, 430 samples out of 1071 (40.15%) were collected from online sampling. Additionally, 88 samples out of 1071 (8.22%) were collected by two partner organizations during face-to-face consultations with MSM and male sex workers. Results of 983 out of 1071 tests (91.78%) had been collected from the website. The pickup rate was higher among participants who ordered their kit online (421/430, 97.9%) compared to those participating during outreach activities (559/641, 87.2%; Ponline participants were more likely to have never been tested before (17.3% vs 10.0%; P=.001) and reported more sexual partners in the 6 months prior to participation in the project (mean 7.18 vs 3.23; Ponline counseling tool), and in studying the cost effectiveness of the

  20. 'Never testing for HIV' among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: results from an Internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Macarena Cecilia; Duong, Quyen Le; Mercer, Licelot Eralte; Meyer, Samantha Beth; Ward, Paul Russell

    2013-12-28

    Men who have sex with men in Viet Nam have been under-studied as a high-risk group for HIV infection, and this population's percentage and determinants of HIV testing have not been comprehensively investigated. A national Internet-based survey of self-reported sexual and health seeking behaviours was conducted between August and October 2011 with 2077 Vietnamese men who had sex with men in the last twelve months to identify the frequency of 'never testing for HIV' among Internet-using MSM living in Viet Nam, as well as the factors associated with this HIV-related high-rish behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviours predicting never testing for HIV. A total of 76.5% of men who have sex with men who were surveyed reported never having been voluntarily tested for HIV. Predictors of never being tested included having a monthly income less than VND 5 Million, being a student, using the Internet less than 15 hour per week, and not participating in a behavioural HIV intervention. Never testing for HIV is common among Internet-using men who have sex with men in Viet Nam. Given the dangerously high prevalence of this high-risk behaviour, our findings underscore the urgent need for segmented and targeted HIV prevention, care and treatment strategies, focusing on drastically reducing the number of men who have sex with men never testing for HIV in Viet Nam.

  1. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  2. Preliminary results of a screening program for anal cancer and its precursors for HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Vigo-Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iribarren-Díaz

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Men who have sex with men (MSM infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have the highest risk of developing anal cancer (AC. The objective of this study was to describe our screening implementation program in this population, and report the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV anal infection, and cytological and histological findings in a Spanish medium-size community (Vigo, Spain. Method: Prospective cohort analysis of 240 HIV-infected MSM. Cellular anal sample and high risk HPV (HR-HPV-tests were performed to study cytological changes and HPV genotyping. High resolution anoscopy (HRA was performed in 209 patients. Results were analyzed with respect to epidemiological, clinical and analytical factors. Results: Of 209 patients selected for HRA, the prevalence of HR-HPV anal infection, cytological and histological alterations was 85.6%, 47.5%, and 39.8%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for ≥ ASCUS (atypia of squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology in relation to histological alterations were 61% and 85%, (OR: 8.7; IC 95%: 4.4-17.2, respectively. Observed concordance between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cytology and HSIL anal intraepithelial neoplasia types 2 and 3 (AIN-2/3 histology was 64% (OR: 11.4; IC 95%: 3.6-36.7. One patient with HSIL cytology presented a prevalent anal squamous carcinoma. Conclusions: HRA was feasible with similar results to relevant groups. There was a high prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection, and cytological and histological alterations.

  3. Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in South Africa: Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Data on tobacco use have informed the effectiveness of South Africa (SA)'s tobacco control strategies over the past 20 years. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in the adult SA population according to certain demographic variables, and identify the factors influencing cessation attempts ...

  4. [Application of " Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou, China: results from 2010 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W B; Xu, H F; Zhong, F; Cai, Y S; Chen, X B; Meng, G; Lu, Y H; Han, Z G; Fan, L R; Zhao, Y T; Chen, X; Liang, C Y; Wu, H; Gao, K; Mai, H X; Tang, C

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To introduce the development strategy of " Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services and its implementation results from 2010 to 2015 in Guangzhou, China. Methods: A gay men's health column was created for an active website aimed at men who have sex with men(MSM), in collaboration with local community organizations and the Guangzhou CDC. We designed intervention tools(including scenario-based applications and HIV risk self-assessment systems)and an online HIV testing service platform, integrated with applied psychology and behavioral theory as well as the " Internet Plus" concept, to intervene in HIV infection risk factors among MSM. Data of clients who accessed the " Internet Plus" AIDS services from 2010 to 2015 were used to evaluate service operation. Six-year consecutive surveys, conducted between April and July of each service year, were collected using a national AIDS sentinel surveillance questionnaire. For each year of surveillance, information on HIV prevalence, HIV interventions received during the past year, unprotected anal intercourse in the past 6 months, and HIV testing in the past year were compared using the chi-squared(χ 2 )test, to roughly reflect the effect of"Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services. Results: As of 31 December 2015, a total of 34 395 MSM had received " Internet Plus" services and HIV testing. The number of MSM tested increased from 2 338 in 2010 to 8 054 in 2015. From 2010 to 2015, newly identified HIV cases in each year were 59, 166, 312, 283, 291, and 270, which accounted for 25.0%, 32.8%, 38.8%, 35.1%, 30.5%, and 23.2% of MSM HIV cases of Guangzhou, respectively. Sentinel surveillance data showed that during the study period, 3 047 MSM were investigated, with 405, 400, 401, 633, 608, and 600 each year, respectively. The proportion of participants who had received any HIV intervention during the past year was 74.3%(301), 70.8%(283), 83.3%(334), 85.0%(538), 69.1%(420), and 83.8%(503)each year, respectively(trend χ 2

  5. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  6. African American Men, Identity, and Participation in Adult Basic Education and Literacy Programs. Research Brief #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Brendaly; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Although the national graduation rate for African American males is only 47% (Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010), few studies have explored their experiences in adult basic and literacy education (ABEL) programs. This study draws on prior research to explore the relationship between literacy and identity and its potential for…

  7. Physical activity is inversely associated with multimorbidity in elderly men: results from the KORA-Age Augsburg Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Christine S; Kirchberger, Inge; Heier, Margit; Zimmermann, Anja-Kerstin; Peters, Annette; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Physical activity is suggested to play a key role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, data on the association between physical activity and multimorbidity are lacking. Using data from 1007 men and women aged 65-94 years who participated in the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age project conducted in Augsburg/Germany and two adjacent counties in 2008/09, 13 chronic conditions were identified, and physical activity scores were calculated based on the self-reported physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE). Multivariable sex-specific logistic regression was applied to determine the association of the continuous physical activity score with multimorbidity (≥ 2 out of 13 diseases). Physical activity (mean PASE score±SD) was higher in men (125.1 ± 59.2) than in women (112.2 ± 49.2). Among men, the odds ratio (OR) for multimorbidity was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.90) for a 1 standard deviation increase of the PASE score. No significant results could be observed for women (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.83-1.33). We demonstrated an inverse association between physical activity and multimorbidity among men. Further prospective studies have to confirm the temporality of effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Who counts as family? Family typologies, family support, and family undermining among young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Jorge H; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Córdova, David; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A

    2018-06-01

    Gay and bisexual men may form chosen families in addition to or in place of families of origin. However, the characteristics of these diverse families remain largely unexamined in the quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a family typology based on responses from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of young adult gay and bisexual men (YGBM) recruited from the Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=350; 18-29 years old). To explore the role of family, we then examined family social support and social undermining in relation to YGBM psychological distress within different family types. A series of multivariate regressions were used to examine associations between family social support and social undermining with depression and anxiety outcomes. The majority (88%) of YGBM included family of origin in their definitions of family and 63% indicated having chosen families. Associations between family social processes and psychological outcomes varied by type of family, suggesting that family composition shapes how perceptions of support and undermining relate to experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Chosen families play a prominent role in the lives of YGBM and should not be overlooked in family research. Findings also highlight the importance of examining co-occurring family social support and social stress processes to further address psychological distress symptoms among YGBM.

  9. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  10. Amphetamine-type stimulant use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam : Results from a socio-ecological, community-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Le, Huong Thi; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Trang Nhu Nguyen; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) use is associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours and is an emergent problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to describe ATS use patterns and understand the correlates of recent methamphetamine use

  11. Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: are we following adult clinical practice guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Yu, Richard N; Bhasin, Shalender; Cohen, Laurie E

    2015-05-01

    Male hypogonadism is a common disorder that is associated with low bone density, poor muscle mass, anemia, and sexual dysfunction. The Endocrine Society recently published a Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in androgen-deficient men. Because treatment is frequently initiated in adolescence, the goal of this quality improvement initiative was to assess whether pediatric endocrinologists at a large tertiary care center follow these guidelines and to identify opportunities for improvement. We performed a retrospective chart review at Boston Children's Hospital. Inclusion criteria were as follows: current age ≥16 years, diagnosis of hypogonadism, and testosterone replacement therapy. Data were collected about current age, age at treatment initiation, diagnoses, pre- and on-treatment testosterone levels, route of testosterone administration and dose, bone density, hematocrit levels, and adherence with therapy. Fifty-nine patients were included. Fourteen (24%) were prescribed lower testosterone doses than those recommended in the Clinical Practice Guideline. Seven (12%) had no pre-treatment testosterone levels, and 10 (17%) had no on-treatment levels. In 49 patients with on-treatment testosterone levels, 36 had at least one value that was lower than the adult reference range. Ten (28%) of the 36 men with low testosterone levels had no dose adjustments. Thirty-seven (63%) of the 59 patients had no dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and 18 (31%) did not have hematocrit levels. Pediatric endocrinologists in this review did not consistently follow the Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in hypogonadal adult males. Strategies that improve adherence to guidelines could help maximize the benefits of therapy and minimize treatment-associated risks.

  12. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  14. Hepatitis B Prevalance in Young Adult Men Commando Candidates Applying for a Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country is in the median endemicity belt in terms of hepatitis B virus infection. This study was performed in the commando candidates who came from all over Turkey to a military division/brigade, between January 2007 and December 2009, 20.681 commando candidates were checked for HBsAg positivity and these data were investigated retrospectively. In our study, hepatitis B virus carriage among young men as the Turkey\\s average was 3.3%. This data was lower than those reported previously. We attribute this positive trend to the dissemination of immunization programs, the increase of births in the hospitals rather than home delivery, and the widespread use of HBsAg screening tests before marriage [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 197-200

  15. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, Menactra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Keith S; Baxter, Roger; Block, Stanley L; Shah, Jina; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals > or = 15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of > or = 1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than -10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.

  16. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses

  17. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  18. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  19. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  20. The meaning of nuclear war to adult men: A developmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the contextual and thematic meaning of nuclear war. Age-related differences were also investigated by sampling 36 male subjects in three age groups (20-27, 40-50, and above 60). Contextual meaning was measured by asking subjects to rate the meaning of nuclear war and three other threats (personal death, earthquake, and economic depression) on two questionnaires designed to explore personal meaning. Thematic meaning was measured by asking subjects to answer two open-ended questions. In terms of contextual meaning, the study found that, when compared to all other threats, nuclear war has a more extreme emotional meaning. In addition, meaning of nuclear war was found to shift across the adult lift span. In terms of thematic meaning, the study identified five themes describing causation and five themes describing effects. Age differences were found in thematic meaning. Oldest subjects emphasized rational causation, while middle-aged and younger subjects emphasized hopelessness and the impact on either inter-generational or intra-generational relationships. Age differences in meaning are discussed in terms of Eriksonian theory of adult development.

  1. The meaning of nuclear war to adult men: A developmental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the contextual and thematic meaning of nuclear war. Age-related differences were also investigated by sampling 36 male subjects in three age groups (20-27, 40-50, and above 60). Contextual meaning was measured by asking subjects to rate the meaning of nuclear war and three other threats (personal death, earthquake, and economic depression) on two questionnaires designed to explore personal meaning. Thematic meaning was measured by asking subjects to answer two open-ended questions. In terms of contextual meaning, the study found that, when compared to all other threats, nuclear war has a more extreme emotional meaning. In addition, meaning of nuclear war was found to shift across the adult lift span. In terms of thematic meaning, the study identified five themes describing causation and five themes describing effects. Age differences were found in thematic meaning. Oldest subjects emphasized rational causation, while middle-aged and younger subjects emphasized hopelessness and the impact on either inter-generational or intra-generational relationships. Age differences in meaning are discussed in terms of Eriksonian theory of adult development

  2. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  3. "Straight Talk" for African-American heterosexual men: results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Henny, Kirk; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention.

  4. Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangah Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40–69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women. We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p < 0.0001. Adjusted OR for MetS was significantly lower in the highest milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86–0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60–0.76, p trend < 0.0001 in women. Overall, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (all p trend < 0.05. This study concludes that higher milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults.

  5. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  6. Results from radiant treatment in no Hodgkin's lymphomas of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Mesa, E.; Diaz, C.

    1982-01-01

    From 1973 to 1979, at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, Havana City, 91 adults were irradiated because they underwent no Hodgkin's lymphomas at Stage I (located) and Stage II (regional extension) to whom radiant treatment was the basic therapeutic selection, with single or multiple fields and dose ranging between 3 500 and 4 000 rads-tumor, and some of them at Stage III, where primary treatment was chemotherapy. Present survival for all of them after 3 and 5 years is 55.7% and 54.7%, with 84.4% for patients at Stage I, 55.8% and 52.4% for Stage II and 33.8% for Stage III. Survival was similar for both sexes; in the same way ganglionar processes and those of extraganglionar localization presented no significant survival differences. Only to 7 patients (7.7%) modular forms were diagnosed. (author)

  7. Physical and Physiological Demands of Recreational Team Handball for Adult Untrained Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Resende, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Lack of motivation to exercise was reported as a major cause of sedentary behavior in adulthood. This descriptive study examines the acute physical and physiological demands of recreational team handball and evaluates whether it could be suggested as an exercise mode for fitness and health......%  HRmax for 24% (14 ± 15 min) of total match time. Match average and peak blood lactate values were 3.6 ± 1.3 and 4.2 ± 1.2 mM, respectively. Recreational team handball is an intermittent high-intensity exercise mode with physical and physiological demands in the range of those found to have a positive...... effect on aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness in adult individuals. Training studies considering recreational team handball as a health enhancing intervention are warranted....

  8. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  9. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S.; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D.; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. Objective: We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Results: Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). Conclusions: This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings

  10. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis preferences among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: results from a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Le, Bao; Huyen, Hoang Thi; Thien, Dinh Duc; Quan, Nguyen Hoang; Biello, Katie B; Nunn, Amy; Chan, Philip A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Colby, Donn

    2016-07-22

    Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated in subgroups of the population, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable strategy for HIV prevention, but knowledge about and preferences for PrEP delivery among Vietnamese MSM are not well understood. Methods: In 2015, an online survey was conducted with recruitment via social networking websites for MSM and peer recruitment. A description of daily oral, long-acting injectable, and rectal microbicide formulations of PrEP was provided to participants. Participants were asked about their prior awareness of and interest in PrEP, and ranked their most preferred PrEP modality. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with having heard of PrEP and preference for each PrEP modality. Results: Of 548 participants who answered demographic and PrEP-related questions, 26.8% had previously heard of PrEP and most (65.7%) endorsed rectal microbicides as their most preferred PrEP delivery modality. Commonly-cited perceived barriers to uptake of PrEP included concern about side-effects, perception about being HIV positive, and family or friends finding out about their sexual behaviour. In multivariable models, older participants less often endorsed rectal microbicides (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.95 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.99) and more often endorsed long-acting injectables (AOR 1.08 per year, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) as their preferred PrEP modality. Participants who were willing to pay more for PrEP less often endorsed rectal microbicides (AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92) and more often endorsed long-acting injectables (AOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35) and daily oral pills (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35) as their preferred form of PrEP. Conclusions: A variety of PrEP modalities were acceptable to MSM in Vietnam, but low knowledge of PrEP may be a barrier to implementation.

  11. Variations in Recruitment Yield and Characteristics of Participants Recruited Across Diverse Internet Platforms in an HIV Testing Study of Young Adult Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Romanoff, Justin; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-01

    The Internet is a commonly used medium for recruiting geographically dispersed, smaller populations quickly, such as young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM). One approach to improve reach and representativeness is to employ multiple Internet platforms to recruit this hard-to-reach population. The utility of this approach has not been studied adequately, and its impact on the study sample recruited is not yet known. Using data from a study of 18- to 24-year-old HIV-uninfected, Black, Hispanic, and White United States (US) YMSM, this investigation compared advertising and enrollment metrics and participant characteristics of those recruited across Internet platforms. Of the 2,444 participants, their median age was 22 years old; 21% were Black, 37% Hispanic, and 42% White; 90% had been tested for HIV at least once in their life; and 87% reported prior condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with another man. There were noticeable differences across platforms in the number of people accessing the study website, meeting study eligibility requirements, consenting to participate, consenting to participate per day of advertising and per click, as well as costs of advertising per consented participant. Participants recruited also varied across platform by race/ethnicity, geographic area of residence in the US, health-care insurance status, years of formal education, history of HIV testing, and CAI by partner type and sexual positioning. The investigation results indicate that the Internet platforms used for recruitment significantly impact not only enrollment but also diversity and characteristics of the sample obtained and consequently, the observations and conclusions rendered.

  12. Parental bonding and adult psychopathology: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Cox, B J; Clara, I

    2002-08-01

    Research using the parental bonding instrument (PBI) has suggested that lack of parental care and/or overprotection may be important risk factors for adult mental disorders. Much of this research, however, has relied on clinical populations with one or two disorders, or has used highly select community samples. The association between parenting experiences and the occurrence of 13 common mental disorders in adulthood was evaluated in the US National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5877). The effect of sociodemographic variables (age, education, income) was statistically controlled and the effects of six parenting variables (maternal and paternal care, overprotection and authoritarianism) were examined simultaneously. The effects in men and women were examined separately. Lack of care was the parenting variable most consistently associated with adult psychopathology. Parenting experiences with one's mother were more consistently associated with adult mental disorders. In general the impact of parenting was diagnostically non-specific. However, there appeared to be some unique effects for externalizing disorders (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder) in males; paternal overprotection and authoritarianism conferred a reduced risk of externalizing disorders in adult males. The overall impact of parenting as assessed by the PBI was modest, accounting for about 1 to 5 % of the variance in the occurrence of adult mental disorders. Parenting experiences, particularly lack of care, are potentially causally related in a non-specific manner to a wide variety of forms of adult psychopathology in both men and women. The overall magnitude of the effect is small but statistically significant in a nationally representative US sample.

  13. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  14. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  15. Psychosexual development in adolescents and adults with disorders of sex development--results from the German Clinical Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Martina; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Hiort, Olaf; Thyen, Ute; Köhler, Birgit

    2013-11-01

    Both biological and psychosocial factors influence psychosexual development. High levels of pre- and postnatal androgens lead to more male-typical behavior. So far, the influence of androgens on gender identity and sexual orientation is unclear. Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are heterogeneous genetic conditions with different levels of prenatal androgens resulting in variations of genital development. Through DSD, the role of the different factors, especially androgen exposure, on psychosexual development can be evaluated. The purpose of the study was to assess psychosexual development in adolescents and adults with different forms of DSD. For the examination of psychosexual development of 66 adolescents and 110 adults with DSD, the authors used the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale for adolescents, the Questionnaire of Gender Identity for adults, and a condition-specific DSD study questionnaire. Individuals were analyzed in four subgroups reflecting the karyotype, absence/presence of androgen effects, and gender of rearing. Main outcome measures used were gender identity, friendships, love and sexual relationships, and sexual orientation in adolescents and adults with DSD. Individuals with DSD did not show increased gender dysphoria. However, partnership and sexuality were identified to be difficult areas of life. Both adolescents and adults with DSD reported fewer experiences regarding love or sexual relationships compared with unaffected individuals. Especially men with DSD and undervirilization and women with DSD and androgen effects less often had a love relationship. Adult women with DSD and androgen effects more frequently engaged in love and sexual relationships with individuals of the same gender compared with women without DSD. Individuals with DSD experience atypical hormonal influences (higher levels of androgens in girls/women and lower levels in androgens in boys/men); however, they did not show increased gender dysphoria in this study. However

  16. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  18. Avaliação da aplicabilidade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e estatura em homens adultos Assessment of equations that estimate weight and height in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e de altura, bem como a composição corporal em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 98 homens saudáveis, com idades entre 20 e 58 anos. Para a análise das equações de estimativa de peso e altura, coletaram-se dados de peso, altura, altura do joelho, envergadura, semi-envergadura, circunferências da panturrilha e do braço e dobra cutânea subescapular. Avaliou-se a composição corporal por meio de bioimpedância elétrica. RESULTADOS: O peso estimado diferiu significantemente do peso aferido (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of equations that predict weight, height and body composition in adult men. METHODS: The sample consisted of 98 healthy men aged from 20 to 58 years. In order to analyze the equations, weight, height, knee height, arm span, half-arm span, calf and arm circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness were collected. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: Estimated weights were significantly different from measured weights (p<0.001. The only equation that estimated height properly was that validated for adult Caucasian men. Both arm span (r=0.789; d=2.67; p<0.001 and half-arm span (r=0.790; d=2.51; p<0.001 overestimated height. When weight and height estimates were used to calculate body mass index, underweight was overestimated and overweight was underestimated, except when height was estimated with the equations for adult Caucasian men. CONCLUSION: The equation to estimate height validated for adult Caucasian men estimated the height of adult young men properly; the other validated equations presented significant differences. It is important to validate the equations assessed in this study in other population groups, making sure to use the estimated weights and heights to calculate body mass index.

  19. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2......Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...

  20. Gender, time use and overweight and obesity in adults: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lucia; da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Maria; Barreto, Rosane Sousa; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable. The outcome variable was overweight/obesity measured according to body mass index. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A greater proportion of women compared to men reported insufficient time for personal care and leisure (34.5% versus 23.8%, respectively). The prevalence of overweight was greater in men, while obesity was more common in women. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure was associated with overweight (PR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04-1.61) and obesity (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.28-2.12) only in women working over 40 hours/week. No significant association was found for males. These results suggest that the length of the working week influences factors underlying weight gain, possibly issues linked to behavior and/or stress mechanisms. The fact that such an association was restricted to women suggests that the results originate from gender inequalities involving relationships between time and health. The findings of this study provide data on which to base public policies aimed at encouraging the redistribution of domestic responsibilities in the direction of gender equity, as well as macrosocial policies such as providing public schools for workers' children.

  1. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  2. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? results from a cohort of severely obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Emil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high body mass index (BMI has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reproductive indicators. Methods In this pilot cohort study, 43 men with BMI > 33 kg/m2 were followed through a 14 week residential weight loss program. The participants provided semen samples and had blood samples drawn, filled in questionnaires, and had clinical examinations before and after the intervention. Conventional semen characteristics as well as sperm DNA integrity, analysed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA were obtained. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B (Inh-B were measured. Results Participants were from 20 to 59 years of age (median = 32 with BMI ranging from 33 to 61 kg/m2. At baseline, after adjustment for potential confounders, BMI was inversely associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.02, total sperm count (p = 0.02, sperm morphology (p = 0.04, and motile sperm (p = 0.005 as well as testosterone (p = 0.04 and Inh-B (p = 0.04 and positively associated to estradiol (p Conclusion This study found obesity to be associated with poor semen quality and altered reproductive hormonal profile. Weight loss may potentially lead to improvement in semen quality. Whether the improvement is a result of the reduction in body weight per se or improved lifestyles remains unknown.

  3. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riales, R; Albrink, M J

    1981-12-01

    Chromium deficiency may cause insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperlipidemia, recovered by chromium supplementation. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipids and glucose tolerance was tested in a double-blind 12-wk study of 23 healthy adult men aged 31 to 60 yr. Either 200 micrograms trivalent chromium in 5 ml water (Cr) or 5 ml plain water (W) was ingested daily 5 days each week. Half the subjects volunteered for glucose tolerance tests with insulin levels. At 12 wk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the Cr group from 35 to 39 mg/dl (p less than 0.05) but did not change in the water group (34 mg/dl). The largest increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in insulin and glucose were found in those subjects having normal glucose levels together with elevated insulin levels at base-line. The data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that Cr supplementation raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improves insulin sensitivity in those with evidence of insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance.

  4. [Frequency and distribution of sleep problems and insomnia in the adult population in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Hapke, U; Maske, U; Busch, M; Cohrs, S

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a variety of physical and mental health disorders and cause high direct and indirect economic costs. The aim of this study was to report the frequency and distribution of problems of sleep onset and maintaining sleep, sleep quality, effective sleep time, and the consumption of sleeping pills in the adult population in Germany. During the 4 weeks prior to the interview, about one third of the respondents reported potentially clinically relevant problems initiating or maintaining sleep; about one-fifth reported poor quality of sleep. When additionally considering impairments during the daytime such as daytime fatigue or exhaustion, a prevalence of 5.7 % for an insomnia syndrome was found. Women were twice as likely to be affected by insomnia-syndrome as men. Significant age differences were not seen. Persons with low socioeconomic status had an increased risk of insomnia (OR: 3.44) as did people residing in West Germany (OR: 1.53). Women with low socioeconomic status (OR: 4.12) and West German men (OR: 1.79) were more affected. The results illustrate the considerable public health relevance of insomnia-related sleep disturbances. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  5. [Part-time Work and Men's Health : Results based on Routine Data of a Statutory Health Insurance Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    With the introduction of a new occupational classification at the end of 2011, employment characteristics are reported by employees to social insurance agencies in Germany in more detail than in previous years. In addition to other changes, the new classification allows a distinction between full- and part-time work to be made. This provided a reason to consider the health-related aspects of part-time work on the basis of data from a statutory health insurance scheme. Our analysis is based on the data of 3.8 million employees insured with the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), a statutory health insurance scheme, in 2012. In addition to daily information on employment situations, details of periods and diagnoses of sick leave and the drugs prescribed were available. Although approximately 50 % of women of middle to higher working age worked part-time in 2012, the corresponding percentage of men employed in part-time work was less than 10 %. Overall, part-time employees were on sick leave for fewer days than full-time employees, but among men, sick leave due to mental disorders was longer for part-time employees than for full-time employees, whereas women working part time were affected to a lesser extent by corresponding periods of absence than those working full time. The results provide indications for the assertion that men in gender-specifically atypical employment situations are more frequently affected by mental disorders. Further evidence supports this assertion. With the long-term availability of these new employment characteristics, longitudinal analyses could help to clarify this cause-effect relationship.

  6. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  7. Association between pain and the frailty phenotype in older men: longitudinal results from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megale, Rodrigo Z; Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Naganathan, Vasi; Cumming, Robert; Hirani, Vasant; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J; Le Couteur, David G; Handelsman, David J; Blyth, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    to determine whether pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype and whether frailty increases the risk of developing chronic or intrusive pain, using longitudinal data. longitudinal data from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective population based cohort study. a total of 1,705 men aged 70 years or older, living in an urban area of New South Wales, Australia. data on the presence of chronic pain (daily pain for at least 3 months), intrusive pain (pain causing moderate to severe interference with activities) and the criteria for the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) frailty phenotype were collected in three waves, from January 2005 to October 2013. Data on age, living arrangements, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidities, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and history of vertebral or hip fracture were also collected and included as covariates in the analyses. a total of 1,705 participants were included at baseline, of whom 1,332 provided data at the 2-year follow-up and 940 at the 5-year follow-up. Non-frail (robust and pre-frail) men who reported chronic pain were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-2.51, P = 0.039) times more likely to develop frailty at follow-up, compared to those with no pain. Intrusive pain did not significantly increase the risk of future frailty. Likewise, the frailty status was not associated with future chronic or intrusive pain in the adjusted analysis. the presence of chronic pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype in community-dwelling older men.

  8. Adult cognitive ability and educational level in relation to concussions in childhood and adolescence: a population study of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Frøsig, Anna J; Engberg, Aase W

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of concussion(s) suffered through childhood and adolescence with completed level of school education and cognitive ability in young adulthood. Educational level and scores on a test of cognitive ability were obtained for a cohort of 130,298 young men processed by the Danish draft board. Of these, 6146 had, at some age from birth onwards, been briefly admitted to hospital with a main discharge diagnosis of concussion. A further 402 had two such concussions and 48 had three or more. Educational level and cognitive ability test scores were negatively associated with the number of concussions and the age at concussion(s). Most markedly, compared to the 123,684 non-concussed men, those with two or more concussions had lower educational levels (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89), as also did those sustaining one concussion between the age of 13 up to the time of testing (OR = 0.47: 0.42-0.52). Since concussions do not generally have long-term effects, the results suggest that lower educational level is primarily a risk factor for sustaining a concussion at all ages, but in particular in adolescence more than in childhood and in the case of multiple concussions. It should, however, be recognized that, in some proportion of cases, the educational deficits have probably arisen as a consequence of the persistent symptoms of a lengthy post-concussional syndrome.

  9. Vicissitudes in adult life resulting from traumatic experiences in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jorge Luis

    2006-10-01

    The author deals with the difficulties in combining the concepts of trauma and phantasy. He evaluates Freudian observations relating to chance and trauma. He considers traumatic effects of chance in relation to the rupture of a narcissistic phantasy of invulnerability. The narrating of traumatic events may awaken in the analyst tendencies to repeat the aggression of these traumatic events towards the subject. The accusatory interpretation can be one of the means by which this repetition is established. The author explores a type of trauma which is essentially related to the disturbance of the structure which contains the ideals of the subject. This disturbance is a consequence of disillusionment resulting from the loss of an object who was the depository of these ideals. Trauma generates a state of mourning for lost ideals. The author describes traumatic events which occurred in a patient's life at puberty; paradoxical behaviours in the patient's parents caused the patient to have new traumas. The reluctance to explore the derivatives of the unconscious, and to investigate possible meaning in symbols, was a central problem in this patient's analysis. The author discusses disturbances in symbolization, and he examines the subject of projective identifications that were received by patients from their primary objects.

  10. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  11. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  12. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat length (AR-CAGn) modulates the effect of testosterone on androgen-associated somatic traits in Filipino young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P; Georgiev, Alexander V; McDade, Thomas W; Gettler, Lee T; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Agustin, Sonny S; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates expression of androgen-associated somatic traits such as muscle mass and strength. Within the human AR is a highly variable glutamine short-tandem repeat (AR-CAGn), and CAG repeat number has been inversely correlated to AR transcriptional activity in vitro. However, evidence for an attenuating effect of long AR-CAGn on androgen-associated somatic traits has been inconsistent in human populations. One possible explanation for this lack of consistency is that the effect of AR-CAGn on AR bioactivity in target tissues likely varies in relation to circulating androgen levels. We tested whether relationships between AR-CAGn and several androgen-associated somatic traits (waist circumference, lean mass, arm muscle area, and grip strength) were modified by salivary (waking and pre-bed) and circulating (total) testosterone (T) levels in young adult males living in metropolitan Cebu, Philippines (n = 675). When men's waking T was low, they had a reduction in three out of four androgen-associated somatic traits with lengthening AR-CAGn (p AR-CAGn was associated with an increase in these same somatic traits. Our finding that longer AR-CAGn predicts greater androgen-associated trait expression among high-T men runs counter to in vitro work, but is generally consistent with the few prior studies to evaluate similar interactions in human populations. Collectively, these results raise questions about the applicability of findings derived from in vitro AR-CAGn studies to the receptor's role in maintaining androgen-associated somatic traits in human populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  15. Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent 5-year weight changes in adult men and women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    the associations between ED and subsequent changes in BW, and despite a general belief that ED is a major determinant of obesity, the present study did not generally lend support for an association. However, among certain subgroups, an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor for weight development.......OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5...

  16. Life Course Influences on African American Men's Depression: Adolescent Parental Composition, Self-Concept, and Adult Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, C. Andre

    1999-01-01

    Examines factors over the life course that affect levels of depression in Black men using samples of 892 African-American and 1,454 White men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Parental educational attainment is a significant negative predictor of depression. Its role and that of other identified predictors of depression are…

  17. Generational changes in the meanings of sex, sexual identity and stigma among Latino young and adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18-60. This study asks how the bisexual identity and experience of stigma is different for Latino men along the generational spectrum and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18-25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles, and men aged 26-60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate or otherwise negative.

  18. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador: Results of the SABE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H; Gavilanez, Enrique Lopez

    2017-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance among non-diabetic participants. The National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates were used to examine the independent association of metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance in non-diabetic older adults. Of 2298 participants with a mean age of 71.6 (SD 8.1) years, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 66.0% (95% CI, 62.6%, 69.3%) in women and 47.1% (95% CI, 43.2%, 50.9) in men. However, even higher prevalence rates were seen among literate individuals, residents from urban areas of the coastal and Andes Mountains region, obese subjects, those diagnosed with diabetes, and participants with≥2 comorbidities. Overall, abdominal obesity followed by elevated blood pressure were the metabolic syndrome components more prevalent and associated with insulin resistance among older Ecuadorians. Moreover, after adjustment for covariates, older adults defined as having metabolic syndrome had a 3-fold higher odds of having insulin resistance as compared with those without. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of lifestyle and behavioral modification targeting older adults at increased risk for this cardio metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Associated With HIV Testing Among Men in Haiti: Results From the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Teti, Michelle; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-09-01

    HIV testing serves as the gateway to HIV prevention and treatment. However, research examining men's HIV testing behaviors in the Caribbean remains limited. The Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was used to examine factors associated with HIV testing among 7,354 men who participated in the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Haiti. Few men (35%) reported having ever been tested for HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that HIV testing increased with education and wealth. Marital status was associated with HIV testing, with married men more likely to have been tested (adjusted odds ratio: 2.57, 95% CI [2.07, 3.19]) than unmarried men. Positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, indicated by willing to care for a relative who has HIV/AIDS, was also correlated with higher odds of having been tested (adjusted odds ratio: 1.28, 95% CI [1.08, 1.51]). Men who reported condom use during last sex were more likely to have been tested (odds ratio: 1.58, 95% CI [1.33, 1.88). The findings indicate that HIV testing rates remain low among men in Haiti and more efforts are needed to increase HIV testing among men who are not married, have low level of education, and engage in unprotected sex.

  20. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Aggerholm, Anette Skærbech

    2011-01-01

    A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved...

  1. Body mass index, physical activity, and fracture among young adults: longitudinal results from the Thai cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Bain, Chris; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    We investigated risk factors for fracture among young adults, particularly body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, which although associated with fracture in older populations have rarely been investigated in younger people. In 2009, 4 years after initial recruitment, 58 204 Thais aged 19 to 49 years were asked to self-report fractures incident in the preceding 4 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for associations of fracture incidence with baseline BMI and physical activity. Very obese women had a 70% increase in fracture risk (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.46) as compared with women with a normal BMI. Fracture risk increased by 15% with every 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI. The effects were strongest for fractures of the lower limbs. Frequent purposeful physical activity was also associated with increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.12-2.06 for 15 episodes/week vs none). Neither BMI nor physical activity was associated with fracture among men, although fracture risk decreased by 4% with every additional 2 hours of average sitting time per day (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). The increase in obesity prevalence will likely increase fracture burden among young women but not young men. While active lifestyles have health benefits, our results highlight the importance of promoting injury prevention practices in conjunction with physical activity recommendations, particularly among women.

  2. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. The association between unemployment and depression-Results from the population-based LIFE-adult-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelke, Andrea E; Luck, Tobias; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Engel, Christoph; Enzenbach, Cornelia; Zachariae, Silke; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-08-01

    Unemployment is a risk factor for impaired mental health. Based on a large population-based sample, in this study we therefore sought to provide detailed information on the association between unemployment and depression including information on (i) differences between men and women, (ii) differences between different types of unemployment, and (iii) on the impact of material and social resources on the association. We studied 4,842 participants (18-65 years) of the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Employment status was divided into three groups: being employed, being unemployed receiving entitlement-based benefits, being unemployed receiving means-tested benefits. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between employment status and depression. Statistically significantly increased depression risk was solely found for unemployed persons receiving means-tested benefits. Adjusting for differences in sociodemographic factors, net personal income and risk of social isolation, comparable associations of being unemployed and receiving means-tested benefits with elevated depression risk were found for men (Odds Ratio/OR = 2.17, 95%-CI = 1.03-4.55) and women (OR = 1.98, 95%-CI:1.22-3.20). No conclusions regarding causality can be drawn due to the cross-sectional study design. It was not possible to assess length of unemployment spells. Unemployed persons receiving means-tested benefits in Germany constitute a risk group for depression that needs specific attention in the health care and social security system. The negative impact of unemployment on depression risk cannot be explained solely by differences in material and social resources. Contrasting earlier results, women are equally affected as men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-Gang; Zhang, Ji-hang; Qin, Jun; Gao, Xu-bin; Li, Qian-ning; Yu, Jie; Ding, Xiao-han; Huang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS) when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude. A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS) was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were measured. Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.13, Psleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects.

  5. Methionine kinetics in adult men: effects of dietary betaine on L-[2H3-methyl-1-13C]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a daily 3-g supplement of betaine on kinetic aspects of L-[2H3-methyl-1-13C]methionine (MET) metabolism in healthy young adult men were explored. Four groups of four subjects each were given a control diet, based on an L-amino acid mixture supplying 29.5 and 21.9 mg.kg-1.d-1 of L-methionine and L-cystine for 4 d before the tracer study, conducted on day 5 during the fed state. Two groups received the control diet and two groups received the betaine supplement. Tracer was given intravenously (iv) or orally. The transmethylation rate of MET (TM), homocysteine remethylation (RM), and oxidation of methionine were estimated from plasma methionine labeling and 13C enrichment of expired air. RM tended to increase (P = 0.14) but the TM and methionine oxidation were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher after betaine supplementation when estimated with the oral tracer. No differences were detected with the intravenous tracer. Methionine concentration in plasma obtained from blood taken from subjects in the fed state was higher (P less than 0.01) with betaine supplementation. These results suggest that excess methyl-group intake may increase the dietary requirement for methionine

  6. Impact of mild to severe hemophilia on education and work by US men, women, and caregivers of children with hemophilia B: The Bridging Hemophilia B Experiences, Results and Opportunities into Solutions (B-HERO-S) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Susan; Molter, Don; Dunn, Spencer; Hunter, Susan; Peltier, Skye; Haugstad, Kimberly; Frick, Neil; Holot, Natalia; Cooper, David L

    2017-04-01

    The psychosocial impact of hemophilia on work was recently investigated in the Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) study. The findings revealed that hemophilia had an impact for adults with moderate/severe hemophilia and caregivers of children with hemophilia. HERO did not specifically evaluate impact on education in adults/children with mild/moderate hemophilia or the impact on employment of spouses/partners of caregivers of affected children. The Bridging Hemophilia B Experiences, Results and Opportunities into Solutions (B-HERO-S) study evaluated the impact of hemophilia on the lives of adult men/women with mild-severe hemophilia B and caregivers of boys/girls with hemophilia B and their spouses/partners. Many adults with hemophilia B (94%) reported that hemophilia had a negative effect on their ability to complete a formal education, often attributed to the inability to attend or concentrate in school as a result of hemophilia-related bleeding or pain. Most adults with hemophilia B (95%) and caregivers/partners (89%/84%) indicated that hemophilia had a negative impact on employment. Most adults with hemophilia were employed (81%), with construction/manufacturing (35%) as the most frequently reported industry; many worked in jobs requiring manual labor (39%). Of those unemployed, 62% never worked, and those who stopped working reported that they left the workforce due to financial issues (59%), including insurance coverage/co-pays, or hemophilia-related issues (55%). Nearly one-third of caregivers voluntarily left the workforce to care for children with hemophilia. These results suggest a need to focus more effort on career counseling for adults with hemophilia B and caregivers of affected children, especially around mild/moderate hemophilia, as this population may not be as well informed regarding potential impact in school and the workplace. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a food dextrin, in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, E G H M; Wils, D; Pasman, W J; Bakker, M; Saniez, M-H; Kardinaal, A F M

    2004-07-01

    To determine the tolerance of increasing dosages of an incompletely hydrolysed and/or incompletely absorbed food dextrin coming from wheat starch, NUTRIOSE FB, at daily levels of 10 and 15 g up to 60 and 80 g, respectively. A randomized, double-blind, multiple dose, placebo-controlled, combined crossover and parallel trial. The metabolic ward of TNO Nutrition and Food Research. A total of 20 healthy men (age 31.7 +/- 9.1 y; BMI 24.5 +/- 2.9 kg/m2). One group of 10 subjects consumed on top of their diet 10, 30 and 60 g of NUTRIOSE FB or maltodextrin (placebo) daily. The other group of 10 subjects consumed 15, 45 and 80 g daily. Each dose was consumed for 7 days. Compared with placebo, flatulence occurred more frequently over the last 6 days on 30, 60 or 80 g/day of NUTRIOSE FB (P FB, the frequency of flatulence was even higher (P FB, the frequency of defecation decreased (P FB (P FB resulted in diarrhoea. Compared to baseline levels, breath H2 excretion, which was only measured after a week with 10 and 15 g of NUTRIOSE FB daily, increased (P FB is a fermentable carbohydrate and is well tolerated up to a dose of 45 g daily. Higher daily dosages (60 and 80 g) may result in flatulence, but does not result in diarrhoea. TNO Nutrition and Food Research was assigned by Roquette Frères to perform the study.

  8. Sexual Behaviors of U.S. Men by Self-Identified Sexual Orientation: Results From the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of

  9. Household food insecurity, diabetes and hypertension among Mexican adults: results from Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity (HFI) with diabetes and hypertension in a nationally representative cross-sectional sample from Mexico. We assessed the association between HFI and self-reported doctor diagnosed diabetes and hypertension among 32 320 adult individuals using multiple logistic regression. HFI was measured using an adapted version for Mexico of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). HFI was a risk factor for diabetes among women but not men and for hypertension among both genders. Diabetes odds were higher by 31, 67 and 48%, among women living in mild, moderate, and severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households, respectively. Living in moderate to severe food-insecure (vs. food-secure) households was associated with hypertension odds that were 28 and 32% higher, respectively. Decreasing HFI may help improve public health and national development in Mexico.

  10. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: results from a National Internet-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; Duong, Q L; Meyer, S B; Ward, P R

    2016-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the largest HIV risk groups in Viet Nam and have been understudied. Sexual concurrency and multiple sex partnerships may contribute to high HIV incidence among MSM in Viet Nam. Limited information is available on concurrency and multiple sexual partnerships among MSM in Viet Nam or on the extent to which this population engages in concurrent and multiple unprotected anal intercourse. Data are from a self-administered Internet-based survey of Vietnamese MSM aged 18 years or older, having sex with male partner(s) in the last 12 months and recruited from social networking MSM-specific websites in Viet Nam. Multiple partnerships and concurrency were measured using the UNAIDS-recommended sexual partner matrix, a key component in the questionnaire. Concurrent and multiple sexual partnerships were analyzed at the individual level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. A total of 1695 MSM reported on multiple sexual partnerships; 69.5% indicated multiple sexual partnerships in the last 6 months. A total of 257 MSM reported on concurrent sexual partnerships, with 51.0% reporting penetrative sex with concurrent partners in the last 6 months. Respondents were more likely to engage in multiple sexual partnerships if they were no longer a student, consumed alcohol before and/or during sex, used the Internet to meet casual sex partners and had never participated in a behavioral HIV intervention. Multiple sexual partnerships in the previous 6 months were common among MSM surveyed, as was sexual concurrency. High levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in Viet Nam. Given the high prevalence of this high-risk sexual behavior, our findings underscore the urgent need for targeted prevention efforts, focusing on the reduction of multiple and concurrent sexual partners

  11. Results of a Pilot Study to Ameliorate Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Minority Stress Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Grant; Hart, Trevor A; Kidwai, Ammaar; Vernon, Julia R G; Blais, Martin; Adam, Barry

    2017-09-01

    Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience In Discriminatory Environments) is an 8-session small group intervention aimed at reducing negative mental and behavioral health outcomes resulting from minority stress. This study reports the results of a one-armed pilot test of Project PRIDE, which aimed to examine the feasibility and potential for efficacy of the intervention in a sample of 33 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 25. The intervention appeared feasible to administer in two different sites and all participants who completed posttreatment (n = 22) or follow-up (n = 19) assessments reported high satisfaction with the intervention. Small to large effect sizes were observed for increases in self-esteem; small effect sizes were found for decreases in loneliness and decreases in minority stress variables; and small and medium effect sizes were found for reductions in alcohol use and number of sex partners, respectively. Overall, Project PRIDE appears to be a feasible intervention with promise of efficacy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Childhood exposure to domestic violence and attitude towards wife beating in adult life: a study of men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Dalal, Koustuv

    2010-03-01

    This study examined men's justification of wife beating in relation to their perceived rights and autonomy using a nationally representative sample of 18,047 men in India with childhood exposure to parental violence. Five reasons for wife beating justification, four items of men's perceived rights, and five items of household autonomy were analysed using chi2 test and logistic regression. Among 18,047 participants, 67% justified wife beating. Low education, economic stress and being unmarried were generally more associated with justifying wife beating for all five reasons. Wife's refusal of sex and husband's final say on household autonomy are risk factors. Joint autonomy on household decision making and wife's autonomy on managing her own earnings are protective factors. Perceived relationship rights and autonomy are highly predictive of wife-beating justification for the men who have been exposed to parental violence during childhood. The study has significant implications for public health planners and education strategies.

  13. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Eating habits, weight reduction strategies and long-term treatment results in obese men : The "Gustaf" study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ingalena

    1997-01-01

    Eating habits, weight reduction strategies and long-term treatment resultsin obese men. The "Gustaf" study. Ingalena Andersson Obesity Unit and Health Behaviour Research, Department of Medicine, HuddingeHospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Abdominal male obesity is associated with hypertension, abnormal blood lipidsand diabetes type 11. For development of a weight loss program for such males, 86obese men (BMI 37.7 [4.4] kg/m2) (mean [SD] ) from the wa...

  15. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  16. Is It Facebook Official? Coming Out and Passing Strategies of Young Adult Gay Men on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Zachary D

    2017-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of social media, mobile applications, and Internet technologies has shifted a wide variety of social interaction from physical spaces to an online environment. Drawing from 42 semistructured, in-depth interviews with gay college-aged men between the ages of 18 and 27, this article explores these changing patterns of social interaction among gay men. I discuss three strategies of identity management college-aged gay men use to disclose or conceal their sexual identity to others. The first group of men, "Out and Proud," uses Facebook as a way to celebrate and reaffirm their sexual identity, in addition to actively coming out to others on the social media Web site. The second group, "Out and Discreet," uses Facebook to indirectly come out to some of their friends while hiding this information from others. The men in the last group I identify, "Facebook Closeted," actively manage their online profiles to ensure their sexual identity is not exposed. Facebook is both transformative and risky for college-aged gay men, as it represents a new platform for them to come out as gay to friends and family, as well as other areas of their lives where they must actively manage the presentation of their sexual identity.

  17. Trunk kinematics and fall risk of older adults: translating biomechanical results to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, Mark D; Donovan, Stephanie; Bareither, Mary Lou; Marone, Jane R; Hamstra-Wright, Karrie; Gatts, Strawberry; Troy, Karen L

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews some of our experiences over nearly 15 years of trying to determine modifiable factors that contribute to the high incidence of fall by older adults. As part of our approach, we have subjected healthy young and older adults to very large postural disturbances during locomotion, in the form of trips and slips, to which rapid compensatory responses have been necessary to avoid falling. For both trips and slips, the ability to limit trunk motion has consistently discriminated older adults who fall from both younger adults and older adults who have been able to avoid falling. We have shown that the ability to limit trunk motion can be rapidly acquired, or learned, by older adults as a result of task-specific training. The learned motor skill has demonstrated short-term retention and has been shown to effectively decrease fall-risk due to trips. Collectively, we believe the works strongly suggests that the traditional exercise-based fall-prevention and whole-body, task-specific training can synergize to reduce falls and fall-related injury in older adults.

  18. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Won-Bok; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  19. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hung Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and the presence of lower urinary tract stones. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of men with lower urinary tract stones who presented to three clinical centers in Korea over a 4-year period. We divided the patients into two groups based on the location of urinary stones: Group 1 (bladder calculi and Group 2 (urethral calculi. We compared the characteristics of both groups and performed univariate and multivariate analyses with a logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between BPH and lower urinary tract stones. Results: Of 221 patients, 194 (87.8% had bladder calculi and 27 (12.2% had urethral calculi. The mean age of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (68.96 ± 12.11 years vs. 55.74 ± 14.20 years, p < 0.001. The mean prostate volume of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (44.47 ± 27.14 mL vs. 24.70 ± 6.41 mL, respectively, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (OR = 1.075, 95%CI: 1.023–1.129 and prostate volume (OR = 1.069, 95%CI: 1.017–1.123 were independently associated with increased risk for bladder calculi. Upper urinary tract stones and/or hydronephrosis conferred a 3-fold risk for urethral calculi (OR = 3.468, 95%CI: 1.093–10.999. Conclusion: Age and prostate volume are independent risk factors for bladder calculi. In addition, men with upper urinary tract disease are at greater risk for urethral calculi, which may migrate from the upper urinary tract rather than from the bladder. Keywords: Prostatic hyperplasia, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urolithiasis, Lower urinary tract stones

  20. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    ) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In total, 193 juvenile obese men at draft board examination and 205 randomly selected nonobese controls from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age and height...

  1. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  3. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.

  5. Association between milk and milk product consumption and anthropometric measures in adult men and women in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Satija

    Full Text Available The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries.To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians.Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women, conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders.After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43-0.76;p ≤ 0.0001 and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51-0.87;p = 0.005, and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54-0.93;p = 0.005 and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59-1.05;p>0.05 who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥ 1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00-2.25;p>0.050 and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08-2.51;p>0.019 among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women.The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore

  6. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  7. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  8. Preparedness for use of the rapid result HIV self-test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study among MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, P; Riddell, J; Park, C; Ahmed, B; Young, I; Frankis, J; Davis, M; Gilbert, M; Estcourt, C; Wallace, L; McDaid, L M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore preparedness for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) and those involved in HIV prevention and care. A mixed methods exploratory research design was employed, detailing awareness and willingness to use the self-test and the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were completed in parallel. Descriptive and inferential analysis of cross-sectional bar-based survey data collected from MSM through a self-completed questionnaire and oral fluid specimen collection (n = 999) was combined with qualitative, thematic, analysis of data collected through 12 expert focus groups (n = 55) consisting of gay men, National Health Service (NHS) staff, community organizations, entrepreneurs and activists. Findings were subsequently combined and assessed for synergies. Among MSM, self-test awareness was moderate (55%). Greater awareness was associated with increased educational attainment [adjusted odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.30; P = 0.05] and previous history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.11-2.39; P = 0.01). Willingness to use the test was high (89%) and associated with meeting sexual partners online (unadjusted odds ratio 1.96; 95% CI 1.31-2.94; P self-testing; it was understood as convenient, discreet, accessible, and with a low burden to services. However, some ambivalence towards self-testing was reported; it could reduce opportunities to engage with wider services, wider health issues and the determinants of risk. Self-testing represents an opportunity to reduce barriers to HIV testing and enhance prevention and access to care. Levels of awareness are moderate but willingness to use is high. Self-testing may amplify health inequalities. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  9. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: khoffman1@mdanderson.org; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-04-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  10. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Karen E.; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  11. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  12. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in muscle strength after diet-induced weight reduction in adult men with obesity: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bokun Kim,1 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2,3 Rina So,4 Xiaoguang Zhao,5 Sechang Oh,6,7 Kiyoji Tanaka2 1Faculty of Sports Health Care, Inje University, Gyeongsangnamdo, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Shimane, 4Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 5Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 7The Center of Sports Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Background and objective: The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men.Methods: A total of 24 men with obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age: 52.4 ± 10.0 years attended a 12-week weight reduction program that implemented dietary restrictions. Each participant underwent assessments of body weight (by a digital scale, body composition (by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA], and upper and lower extremity muscle strength (by a hand-held dynamometer and a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, respectively before and after the program.Results: The program led to significant reductions of 10.5% of weight and 6.1% of lower extremity muscle mass. Similarly, lower extremity muscle strength (measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer was significantly decreased (isometric 60° peak torque decreased by 10% and

  14. Contributing Determinants to Hearing Loss in Elderly Men and Women: Results from the Population-Based Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Rigters (Stephanie); R.M. Metselaar (Mick); Wieringa, M.H. (Marjan H.); De Jong, R.J.B. (Robert J. Baatenburg); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Goedegebure (Andre)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo contribute to a better understanding of the etiology in age-related hearing loss, we carried out a cross-sectional study of 3,315 participants (aged 52-99 years) in the Rotterdam Study, to analyze both low- and high-frequency hearing loss in men and women. Hearing thresholds with

  15. The Intentions of Men 23 to 29 Years Old to Join the Military: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borack, Jules I.

    Since the population of 17-to-21-year-old males, the traditional source for military recruitment, will decline sharply during the 1980s, consideration is being given to recruiting males aged 23-29. A national survey was conducted to assess the interest of 23-to-29-year-old men in joining the military under present conditions and with monetary…

  16. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  17. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Study design Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation. PMID:22901287

  18. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan B. Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006. Study design. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively. Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  19. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Mathews, Catherine; Zembe, Yanga

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections needs to move to the forefront in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In the current economic crisis, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should invest limited resources to amass reliable evidence-based information about behavioral prevention efforts, and on behaviors that are driving the epidemic among people who are engaging in those behaviors. This paper aims to provide a systematic review and synthesis of behavioral interventions among a group of people in high HIV-burden countries: heterosexual men in LMICs. The review includes articles published between January 2001 and May 2010 that evaluated behavioral prevention interventions among heterosexual males aged 18+ years in LMICs. The studies were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project. The review identified 19 articles that met the review's inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n=6); two each in Uganda and Thailand; and one in each of Angola, Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Russia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. Eight of 19 interventions increased condom use among their respective populations. Those interventions that sought to reduce the number of sexual partners had little effect, and those that addressed alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence had mixed effects. There was no evidence for any specific format of intervention that impacted best on any of the targeted risk behaviors. The paucity of evaluated interventions for heterosexual men in LMICs suggests that adult men in these countries remain underrepresented in HIV prevention efforts.

  20. Adult attachment as a moderator of the association between childhood traumatic experiences and depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Valera, Pamela; Calebs, Benjamin J; Wilson, Patrick A

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of adult attachment on the association between childhood traumatic experiences, (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and being bullied), age of childhood traumatic experience, and young adult depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Self-report measures of attachment, childhood traumatic experiences, and depression symptoms were collected from a community-based sample of YBGBM living in New York City (n = 228). Regression analyses were conducted to address the study goals. Findings indicated that YBGBM who were more anxious in their adult attachment style and experienced being bullied or physically abused by a non-family member during childhood experienced greater depression in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less anxious in their adult attachment style. In addition, we found that being bullied later in childhood was associated with greater depression symptoms than being bullied earlier. Lastly, we found that YBGBM who were more avoidant and bullied later in adolescence reported more depression symptoms in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less avoidant in their attachment style. The findings suggest that it may be important to utilize an attachment perspective that is sensitive to age of traumatic experience when creating mental health and trauma interventions for YBGBM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gender differences in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Gaining insight into possible gender differences in the clinical presentation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of relevance in order to conduct appropriate screening and treatment interventions in both genders. The analyses compared (1) prevalence and sociodemographic correlates, (2) frequency of ADHD core symptoms, (3) rates of subtypes, (4) prevalence of comorbid mental health conditions, and (5) rates of risky/impulsive behaviors, as well as health and social correlates, in men and women with ADHD in a nationally representative, US population-based sample. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews were conducted according to DSM-IV criteria in 34,653 adults from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 2, 2004-2005). While the prevalence of lifetime ADHD was significantly higher in men than in women (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.22-1.76), the rate of persistent ADHD did not significantly differ across genders (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.96-1.58). Compared to men with persistent ADHD, women with persistent ADHD, despite having lower rates of hyperactive symptoms, presented with similar ADHD subtypes profile and rates of risky behaviors (except for reckless driving), as well as with significantly more anxiety and perceived mental health impairment (P = .032). Results were similar when considering lifetime ADHD. Our findings show that, despite different symptom profiles and comorbidities, men and women have similar rates of current ADHD and of risky behaviors associated with the disorder. Women with ADHD should receive as much attention as their male counterparts. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Lower serum endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end product level as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome among Japanese adult men: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Huang, Cong; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Tadaura, Hiroko; Miyata, Toshio; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) activation by its ligands is implicated in obesity-related metabolic disease and accelerated atherothrombosis. Circulating soluble (sRAGE) and/or endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) may counteract the detrimental effects of RAGE. This study aimed at determining the relationship between circulating RAGE and metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence among Japanese adult men. This 2-year longitudinal study included 426 Japanese men aged 30-83 years who had no MetS at baseline. Serum esRAGE and sRAGE were assayed by ELISA at baseline. Incident metabolic syndrome, defined according to the Asian cutoff based on the 2009 criteria of the American Heart Association Scientific Statements, was evaluated after the 2-year follow-up. During the follow-up period, 55 participants (12.9%) had newly diagnosed MetS. In the multiple logistic models comparing MetS risk in the lowest with that in the highest tertile of baseline esRAGE, a high serum esRAGE level was found to be significantly associated with a low risk of MetS [odds ratios (95% confidence interval), 0.37 (0.14-0.95); P for trend = 0.038] after adjusting for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and MetS components at baseline. Although sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.88), the sRAGE level was not associated with MetS incidence. A high circulating esRAGE level, but not sRAGE level, was associated with a low MetS incidence among Japanese adult men.

  3. Domestic work and self-rated health among women and men aged 25-64 years: results from a population-based survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Granström, Fredrik; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Elo, Sirkka

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association between domestic work and self-rated health among women and men in the general population. The study is based on women (N = 12,910) and men (N = 9784) aged 25-64 years, who responded to a survey questionnaire in 2008 (response rate 56%). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association adjusting for age, educational level, employment status, family status and longstanding illness. Population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated to assess the contribution of domestic work to the prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health. More women (29%) than men (12%) spent more than 20 hours per week in domestic work. Women also experienced domestic work more often as burdensome. Disability pensioners and single mothers reported highest levels of burdensome domestic work. There was a strong independent association between burdensome domestic work and suboptimal self-rated health both in women and men. The PAR for burdensome domestic work was 21% in women and 12% in men and comparable to other major risk factors. The results suggest that domestic work should not be omitted when considering factors that affect self-rated health in the general population.

  4. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  5. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  6. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  7. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    liver cirrhosis. Offspring birth dimensions showed an inverse association with parental mortality, which was most pronounced for maternal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The strong inverse association between birth dimensions and adult mortality, but lack of association between ponderal index and mortality...

  8. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  9. Greater fruit intake was associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women: results of Hong Kong Mr. Os and Ms. Os studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Leung, Jason; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although studies in white populations have reported the beneficial effects of intakes of fruit and vegetables (F&V) on bone mass, limited data are available in Asians, especially among the elderly population. We examined the association of F&V intakes and bone mineral status in Chinese elderly adults and explored the potential mechanisms. The study was a population-based cross-sectional study among 4000 Hong Kong Chinese men and women aged 65 years and older. Habitual F&V intakes were ascertained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral measurements of the whole body, hip, lumber spine, and femoral neck were made by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Information on demographic, health, and lifestyles factors was obtained by standardized questionnaire. Relations between F&V intakes and bone mass at various sites were assessed by regression models. Whole-body and femoral neck bone mineral density and content were significantly and positively associated with fruit intake in both men and women, even when adjustment for a range of potential confounders was made. A daily increase of 100 g/kcal total fruit intake was associated with 4.5% and 6.4% increase of BMD at whole body, and 3.9% and 4.8% increase at the femoral neck in men and women, respectively. No significant association was found between vegetable intake and bone mass. The adjustment for vitamin C intake, but not dietary acid load, attenuated the association between fruit intake and bone mass. Greater fruit intake was independently associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women. The association is probably modified by dietary vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with young adults delaying and forgoing driving licenses: results from Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, Scott; Polak, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify the reasons that young adults (age 17-29) in Britain delay or forgo driving license acquisition. Using year 2010 British National Travel Survey microdata, we first analyze self-reported reasons (including their prioritisation) for not holding a full car driving license and then estimate a logistic regression model for license-holding to investigate additional factors, several of which extend from previous studies. This study also employs a novel segmentation approach to analyze the sets of reasons that individual young adults cite for not driving. These results show that, despite the lack of a graduated driving license system at present, many young adults indicate that issues associated with the driving license acquisition process are the main reason they do not hold a full driving license. About 3 in 10 young adults can be interpreted as not viewing driving as a priority, though half of those without a license are either learning to drive or are deterred principally by the cost of learning. We calculate that after their 17th birthday (the age of eligibility for a full driving license) young adults spend a mean of 1.7 years learning to drive. Young adults citing the costs of insurance or car purchase are likely to cite them as secondary rather than the main reason for not driving, whereas those citing physical/health difficulties are very likely to cite this as the main reason they do not drive. Two distinct groups of young people are identified that both indicate that costs deter them from driving-one group that is less well off financially and that indicates that costs alone are the primary deterrent and one that reports that other reasons also apply and is better off. Status as an international migrant was found to be an important factor, net of confounding variables, for identifying that a young adult in Britain does not hold a driving license. Further research is needed to understand the relative saliency of plausible causal mechanisms for this

  11. Factorial Validity of the ADHD Adult Symptom Rating Scale in a French Community Sample: Results From the ChiP-ARD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Tran, Antoine; Caci, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Recent publications reported that a bifactor model better represented the underlying structure of ADHD than classical models, at least in youth. The Adult ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ASRS) has been translated into many languages, but a single study compared its structure in adults across Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) classifications. We investigated the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance of the ASRS among a community sample of 1,171 adults. Results support a bifactor model, including one general ADHD factor and three specific Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity factors corresponding to ICD-10, albeit the Impulsivity specific factor was weakly defined. Results also support the complete measurement invariance of this model across gender and age groups, and that men have higher scores than women on the ADHD G-factor but lower scores on all three S-factors. Results suggest that a total ASRS-ADHD score is meaningful, reliable, and valid in adults. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 530-541). © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Job strain and unhealthy lifestyle: results from the baseline cohort study, Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Toivanen, Susanna; Chor, Dóra

    2015-03-31

    Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and sedentary behavior, are among the main modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. The workplace is regarded as an important site of potential health risks where preventive strategies can be effective. We investigated independent associations among psychosocial job strain, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking in public servants in the largest Brazilian adult cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. Our analytical samples comprised 11,779 and 11,963 current workers for, respectively, analyses of job strain and leisure-time physical activity and analyses of job strain and smoking. Job strain was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire; physical activity was evaluated using a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We also examined smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The association reported in this paper was assessed by means of multinomial and logistic regression, stratified by sex. Among men, compared with low-strain activities (low demand and high control), job strain showed an association with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.64) or with the practice of physical activities of less than recommended duration (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.15-1.82). Among women, greater likelihood of physical inactivity was identified among job-strain and passive-job groups (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.22-1.77 and OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.20-1.67, respectively). Greater control at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among both men and women. Social support at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among women, as was smoking for both genders. We observed no association

  13. Declining prevalence of undiagnosed HIV in Melbourne : results from community-based bio-behavioural studies of gay and bisexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoové, Mark; Asselin, Jason; Pedrana, Alisa; Lea, Toby; Hellard, Margaret; Wilson, David B; Prestage, Garrett; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Melbourne. METHODS: Undiagnosed HIV was compared between GBM recruited anonymously in 2008 in gay venues only and GBM anonymously or confidentially (results delivery) recruited in 2014 at gay venues and a community

  14. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  15. Reassuring results on birth outcomes in children fathered by men treated with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine within 3 months before conception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, B M; Magnussen, B; Larsen, M D

    2017-01-01

    not use AZA/6-MP 3 months prior to conception constituted the unexposed cohort (N=1 012 624). The outcomes were congenital abnormalities (CAs), preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). We adjusted for multiple covariates and performed a restricted analysis of men with IBD. RESULTS: There were...

  16. Smoking is associated with impaired bone mass development in young adult men: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudäng, Robert; Darelid, Anna; Nilsson, Martin; Nilsson, Staffan; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    It has previously been shown that smoking is associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk, but no longitudinal studies have been published investigating altered smoking behavior at the time of bone mass acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone density and geometry according to alterations in smoking behavior in a 5-year, longitudinal, population-based study of 833 young men, age 18 to 20 years (baseline). Furthermore, we aimed to examine the cross-sectional, associations between current smoking and parameters of trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), in young men aged 23 to 25 years (5-year follow-up). Men who had started to smoke since baseline had considerably smaller increases in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total body (mean ± SD, 0.020 ± 0.047 mg/cm(2) versus 0.043 ± 0.040 mg/cm(2) , p young adulthood have poorer development of their aBMD at clinically important sites such as the spine and hip than nonsmokers, possibly due to augmented loss of trabecular density and impaired growth of cortical cross-sectional area. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Relationships of inflammatory and haemostatic markers with social class: results from a population-based study of older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena; Lowe, Gordon D O; Whincup, Peter H; Rumley, Ann; Morris, Richard W; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2008-04-01

    Haemostatic and inflammatory markers have been hypothesised to mediate the relationship of social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a range of inflammatory/haemostatic markers are associated with social class independent of chronic diseases and behavioural risk factors in a population-based sample of 2682 British men aged 60-79 without a physician diagnosis of CVD, diabetes or musculoskeletal disease requiring anti-inflammatory medications. Men in lower social classes had higher mean levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor (vWF), factor VIII, activated protein C (APC) resistance, plasma viscosity, fibrin D-dimer and platelet count, compared to higher social class groups; but not of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, haematocrit or activated partial prothrombin time. After adjustment for behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, physical activity and body mass), the associations of social class with vWF, factor VIII, APC resistance, plasma viscosity, and platelet count though weakened, remained statistically significant, while those of other markers were considerably attenuated. In this study of older men without CVD, the social gradient in inflammatory and haemostatic markers was substantially explained by behavioural risk factors. The effect of socio-economic gradient on the factor VIII-vWF complex, APC resistance, plasma viscosity and platelet count merits further study.

  18. Phenobarbital Treatment at a Neonatal Age Results in Decreased Efficacy of Omeprazole in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Piekos, Stephanie C; Pope, Chad; Zhong, Xiao-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) occur when the action of one drug interferes with or alters the activity of another drug taken concomitantly. This can lead to decreased drug efficacy or increased toxicity. Because of DDIs, physicians in the clinical practice attempt to avoid potential interactions when multiple drugs are coadministrated; however, there is still a large knowledge gap in understanding how drugs taken in the past can contribute to DDIs in the future. The goal of this study was to investigate the consequence of neonatal drug exposure on efficacy of other drugs administered up through adult life. We selected a mouse model to test phenobarbital exposure at a neonatal age and its impact on efficacy of omeprazole in adult life. The results of our experiment show an observed decrease in omeprazole's ability to raise gastric pH in adult mice that received single or multiple doses of phenobarbital at a neonatal age. This effect may be associated with the permanent induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in adult liver after neonatal phenobarbital treatment. Our data indicates that DDIs may result from drugs administered in the past in an animal model and should prompt re-evaluation of how DDIs are viewed and how to avoid long-term DDIs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  20. Treatment Results of Adults and Children with Medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALIL, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adults and pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated by adjuvant postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2004, 67 patients were treated in the National cancer Institute- Cairo University; 51 pediatric patients with a median age of 7 years and 16 adult patients with a median age of 25 years. According to the Chang staging system; 50%-35%, 37.5%-47% and 12.5%-18% had T2, T3 and T4 tumors of adults and pediatric patient's population respectively. M1, M2 and M4 were reported in 16%, 3% and in 1.5% respectively. All patients underwent primary surgical resection; near total resection in 25%, Subtotal resection in 61%; with tumor residual 2 in 49% compared to 51% with >1.5 cm 2 residual tumor and 14%, had biopsy only. All patients were treated by craniospinal radiotherapy (RT); with a median dose of 34 Gy to the whole brain, 54 Gy to the posterior fossa and 32 Gy to the spinal axis. The median interval between surgery and RT was 45 days and 38 days for the pediatric and adult groups respectively. The median duration of RT was 54 days and 52 days for pediatric and adult patients respectively. Thirty four pediatric patients (67%) received concomitant chemotherapy, while 61% received adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy and 57% received sequential chemotherapy. Only 33% of patients did not receive chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 49 months for the whole group of patients (range 11-121). Results: For the pediatric and adult patients, the 5- and 7-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 89% and 78% Vs. 84% and 56% and 80% and 68% Vs. 79% and 52% respectively. Fourteen patients (21%) relapsed (10 pediatric and 4 adults) at a median time of 11 months vs. 23 months and a median follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively; Neuro-axis was the most common site of relapse (11 patients). Ninety percent (9/10) of the pediatric relapses

  1. Socioeconomic patterning in the incidence and survival of teenage and young adult men aged between 15 and 24 years diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer in northern england.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Basta, Nermine O; Errington, Steven; James, Peter W; Norman, Paul D; Hale, Juliet P; Pearce, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Previous research from developed countries has shown a marked increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in the past 50 years. This has also been demonstrated in northern England, along with improving 5-year survival. The present study aims to determine if socioeconomic factors may play a role in both etiology and survival from non-seminoma testicular cancer. We extracted all 214 cases of non-seminoma testicular cancer diagnosed in teenage and young adult men aged between 15 and 24 years during 1968 to 2006 from the Northern Region Young Persons' Malignant Disease Registry, which is a population-based specialist regional registry. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence and both the Townsend deprivation score (and component variables) and small-area population density. Cox regression was used to analyze the relationship between survival and both deprivation and population density. Decreased incidence was associated with living in areas of higher household overcrowding for young adults aged between 20 and 24 years (relative risk per 1% increase in household overcrowding = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66-0.94) but no association was detected for young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Community-level household unemployment was associated with worse survival (hazard ratio per 1% increase in household unemployment = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08). This study has shown that increased risk of non-seminoma testicular cancer in teenage and young adult men may be associated with some aspect of more advantaged living. In contrast, greater deprivation is linked with worse survival prospects. The study was ecological by design and so these area-based results may not necessarily apply to individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  3. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  4. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD, in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35 and 0.92 (0.82-1.03, respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05-1.89 and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.87. There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red

  5. Care and the Influence of Student-Adult Stakeholder Interactions on Young Black Men's College Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.; Bonilla, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Students' college aspirations precede any decision they may make to apply and enroll in college. College aspirations broadly refer to the formal development of specific plans made by a young person to position themselves to enroll in a four-year college or university after high school. Regular, ongoing interaction with college-educated adults is…

  6. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of completed suicide: results from three prospective cohorts of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michel; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Pan, An; Mirzaei, Fariba; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the association between coffee and caffeine consumption and suicide risk in three large-scale cohorts of US men and women. We accessed data of 43,599 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1988-2008), 73,820 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1992-2008), and 91,005 women in the NHS II (1993-2007). Consumption of caffeine, coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, was assessed every 4 years by validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths from suicide were determined by physician review of death certificates. Multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. Cohort specific RRs were pooled using random-effect models. We documented 277 deaths from suicide. Compared to those consuming ≤ 1 cup/week of caffeinated coffee (coffee and 0.77 (0.63-0.93) for each increment of 300 mg/day of caffeine. These results from three large cohorts support an association between caffeine consumption and lower risk of suicide.

  7. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hung; Park, Jinsung; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Hong Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Hong, Sungwoo; Yang, Hee Jo; Chung, Hong

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the presence of lower urinary tract stones. We retrospectively reviewed the records of men with lower urinary tract stones who presented to three clinical centers in Korea over a 4-year period. We divided the patients into two groups based on the location of urinary stones: Group 1 (bladder calculi) and Group 2 (urethral calculi). We compared the characteristics of both groups and performed univariate and multivariate analyses with a logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between BPH and lower urinary tract stones. Of 221 patients, 194 (87.8%) had bladder calculi and 27 (12.2%) had urethral calculi. The mean age of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (68.96 ± 12.11 years vs. 55.74 ± 14.20 years, p  urinary tract stones and/or hydronephrosis conferred a 3-fold risk for urethral calculi (OR = 3.468, 95%CI: 1.093-10.999). Age and prostate volume are independent risk factors for bladder calculi. In addition, men with upper urinary tract disease are at greater risk for urethral calculi, which may migrate from the upper urinary tract rather than from the bladder.

  8. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN CHOSEN SUBJECTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE MOTIVATION OF ADULT STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    VOSTRÁ VYDROVÁ, Hana; JINDROVÁ, Andrea; DÖMEOVÁ, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The university studies of adult people in the combined or distance form of study denotes many differences in comparison with the regular studies. Very important question is if the results of the distance students are on the same level as those of regular students. The Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague has steadily high number of combined students in tutorial centres outside Prague. The contribution is based on an inquiry survey among the students of tutorial centres. Another data so...

  9. Coffee intake and risk of incident diabetes in Puerto Rican men: results from the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, B J; Smit, E; Crespo, C J; Garcia-Palmieri, M R

    2009-06-01

    To study prospectively the association of coffee intake with incident diabetes in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program cohort, comprising 9824 middle-aged men (aged 35-79 years). Of 9824 men, 3869 did not provide a fasting blood sample at baseline, 1095 had prevalent diabetes and 131 were not given fasting glucose tests at any subsequent study visit. Thus, the present analysis includes 4685 participants. Diabetes was ascertained at baseline and at two study visits between 1968 and 1975 using fasting glucose tests and self-reports of physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of insulin or hypoglycaemic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of coffee intake with risk of incident diabetes while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, intakes of milk and sugar). Five hundred and nineteen participants met the criteria for incident diabetes. Compared with those reporting intake of 1-2 servings of coffee/d, coffee abstainers were at reduced risk (OR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.94). Among coffee drinkers, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk by intake (P = 0.02); intake of >/=4 servings/d was associated with an odds ratio of 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.97). Study findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on diabetes risk, while also suggesting that abstainers may be at reduced risk.

  10. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtmann, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Levitan, Emily B; Yang, Gong; Waterbor, John W; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Xie, Li; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-11-01

    The observed associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men. 61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai. Follow-up for diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer was available through 31 December 2010. Dietary intakes were analyzed both as categorical and continuous variables. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers using Cox proportional hazards models. After 390,688 person-years of follow-up, 398 cases of colorectal cancer (236 colon and 162 rectal) were observed in the cohort. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk. The associations for subgroups of fruits and legumes, but not other vegetable categories, were generally inversely associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancers. Fruit intake was generally inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas vegetable consumption was largely unrelated to risk among middle-aged and older Chinese men.

  11. Homeless women with schizophrenia reported lower adherence to their medication than men: results from the French Housing First experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinland, A; Zemmour, K; Auquier, P; Boucekine, M; Girard, V; Loubière, S; Fond, G; Boyer, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with non-adherence to medication in a large multi-center sample of homeless schizophrenia (HSZ) patients. This multi-center study was conducted in four French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris, and Toulouse. In addition to the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS), sociodemographic information, history of homelessness, illness severity using the Modified Colorado Symptom Index (MCSI) and the Multnomah Community Integration Scale (MCAS), and drug information were collected. In total, 218 HSZ patients (16.1% women, mean age 36.8 ± 9.3 years) were included in this study. In the multivariate analysis, being a woman and having higher illness severity (MCSI score) and lower "acceptance of illness" (MCAS score) were significantly associated with lower MARS index scores. Compared to men, women had lower MARS dimension 1 ('medication adherence behavior') and dimension 3 ('negative side effects and attitudes toward psychotropic medication') scores. First-generation antipsychotic use was also associated with lower MARS dimension 3 scores. HSZ women reported lower adherence than men, mainly due to having more subjective negative side effects and worse attitudes toward psychotropic medication. Future longitudinal studies should confirm these findings and explore the applicability of specific pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies for HSZ women, including treatment dose adaptation and psychoeducation. Clinical trial number NCT01570712.

  12. Perceived stress and cause-specific mortality among men and women: results from a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Schnohr, Peter

    2008-01-01

    until 2004, with Sex differences were found in the relations between stress and mortality (p = 0.02). After adjustments, men with high stress versus low stress had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.52). This finding......The authors assessed the effect of psychological stress on total and cause-specific mortality among men and women. In 1981-1983, the 12,128 Danish participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked two questions on stress intensity and frequency and were followed in a nationwide registry...... was most pronounced for deaths due to respiratory diseases (high vs. low stress: HR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.91), external causes (HR = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.71), and suicide (HR = 5.91, 95% CI: 2.47, 14.16). High stress was related to a 2.59 (95% CI: 1.20, 5.61) higher risk of ischemic heart disease...

  13. Is hypertension in adult age related to unemployment at a young age? Results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Karina; Gong, Weidan; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between early unemployment (ages 16-21 years) and adult hypertension after controlling for earlier hypertension, unemployment in adult life, risk factors for hypertension and confounders. A cohort of 927 (86.6% of the original cohort) 9th grade school-leavers was followed from 1981 until 2008. Data were collected through questionnaires, health examinations, and national registers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used as primary statistical methods. At ages 21 and 43, hypertension was significantly more prevalent among men than women (p Unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21 was related to hypertension at age 43 among women but not men. The odds ratio (OR) was persistently high (OR 3.16 [95% confidence interval 1.45-6.89]) after controlling for late unemployment, hypertension at age 16, risk factors for hypertension and confounders. There was no significant relationship between exposure to early unemployment and hypertension at age 21 for women or men. From a public health perspective, youth unemployment is a societal problem in need of more attention and intervention in order to prevent long-term adverse health outcomes. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  15. Variability and exposure classification of urinary levels of non-essential metals aluminum, antimony, barium, thallium, tungsten and uranium in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Pan, An; Feng, Wei; Liu, Chong; Huang, Li-Li; Ai, Song-Hua; Zeng, Qiang; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2017-12-21

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known toxic metals, and there are substantial studies on variability of these metals in urine to optimize design of exposure assessment. For urinary levels of other nonessential metals such as aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W) and uranium (U), however, their within-individual and between-individual variability are unclear. Therefore, we collected 529 samples from 11 healthy adult men on 8 days during a 3-month period. We measured urinary metals and creatinine (Cr) levels, assessed the reproducibility using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses to assess how well 1, 2 or 3 specimens could classify exposure. Al, Sb, Ba, W and U levels measured from spot samples varied greatly over days and months (Cr-adjusted ICCs = 0.01-0.14). Serial measures of Tl levels measured from spot samples had fair-to-good reproducibility over 5 consecutive days (Cr-adjusted ICC = 0.40), but worsened when the specimens were collected months apart (Cr-adjusted ICC = 0.16). To identify men who were highly exposed (top 33%) based on their 3-month averages, tests of single spot samples and tests of first-morning voids had high specificities (0.73-0.85) but relatively low sensitivities (0.27-0.60). Collection of repeated urine specimens from each individual improved the classification.

  16. Social media literacy protects against the negative impact of exposure to appearance ideal social media images in young adult women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Natalie C; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2018-05-25

    Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (M age  = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (M age  = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only. Social media literacy was assessed prior to image exposure and body satisfaction measured before and after exposure. A negative effect of ideal image exposure on body satisfaction was observed in both women and men. In women only, commercial-social media literacy moderated the negative effect of exposure, independent of internalization or body comparison. Inclusion of social media literacy skills in prevention interventions is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis.

  18. A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress symptoms and increased mental resources among working adultsResults perceived after a 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the effect of a 12-month physical exercise intervention accompanied by a 12-month followup evaluating stress symptoms (SS, mental resources (MR and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy, working adults. We hypothesized that the stress symptoms would decrease and mental resources would increase during the intervention and that these results are associated with changes in CRF. Material and methods The study group included healthy adults (N = 371. Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 in the control group (17 women and 16 men. For the analysis, the exercise group was divided into subgroups according to the baseline SS and MR. Stress symptoms and MR were measured using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire. Results During the 12-month exercise intervention, SS decreased by 16% (p < 0.0001, MR increased by 8% (p < 0.0001 and CRF increased by 7% (p < 0.0001 in the exercise group, while no changes occurred in the control group (ANCOVA, p < 0.01. In the exercise group, the results (SS, MR, and CRF remained improved during the follow-up. There was a positive correlation between the change in SS and the change in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01. In the subgroup having the highest SS at baseline, SS during the intervention decreased most (26% (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001. Conclusions One year physical exercise intervention improved mental well-being among working adults and this was associated with an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. The positive changes remained after the 12-month follow-up.

  19. Decline in sperm count and motility in young adult men from 2003 to 2013: observations from a U.S. sperm bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, G M; Blanchard, A; Demick, J; Li, S; Eisenberg, M L

    2016-03-01

    Controversy exists regarding stability of semen quality over time with papers reporting decrease, increase or stable parameters in heterogeneous populations. The current study examined semen parameters of young adult men from 2003 to 2013 at an urban U.S. sperm bank. Semen parameters were analyzed before and after cryopreservation for a total of 9425 specimens from 489 individuals. Demographic information was obtained from a social and medical history questionnaire. Following 2-3 days abstinence, the specimens were collected at the laboratory and assessed by uniform technicians and techniques. The data were analyzed using generalized linear regression after adjustment for age, days of abstinence, for repeated samples, as well as by the Cochran-Armitage trend test. The within variability was accounted for by the repeated measures model. All p values were two-sided with p sperm concentration (-3.55, 95% CI -4.87, -2.23; p count (-10.75, 95% CI -15.95, -5.54; p count (-9.43, 95% CI -13.14, -5.73; p Average) (p(trend) = 0.02). BMI (p(trend) = 0.73), educational attainment (p(trend) = 0.2), race/ethnicity (p(trend) = 0.53), and lifestyle habits (weekly exercise, p(trend) = 0.21; smoking, p(trend) = 0.99; marital status, p(trend) = 0.85) remained constant. Uniform technicians and techniques over the study period make measurement bias unlikely. This report demonstrates a decline in semen quality among young adult men in the Boston area who were attending or completed a college education during the past 10 years, and requires further study. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Functional results after Bonebridge implantation in adults and children with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children.

  1. Longitudinal Relationship Between Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older Adults: Results From the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Johanna; Kaye, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Peter G; Quinones, Ana; Dodge, Hiroko; Arnold, Alice; Thielke, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    To understand the longitudinal relationship between loneliness and isolation. Participants included 5,870 adults 65 years and older (M = 72.89 ± 5.59 years) from the first 5 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Loneliness was assessed using a dichotomized loneliness question. Social isolation was assessed using six items from the Lubben Social Network Scale. Yearly life events were included to assess abrupt social network changes. Mixed effects logistic regression was employed to analyze the relationship between isolation and loneliness. Higher levels of social isolation were associated with higher odds of loneliness, as was an increase (from median) in level of social isolation. Life events such as a friend dying were also associated with increased odds of loneliness. These results suggest that average level of isolation and increases in the level of isolation are closely tied to loneliness, which has implications for future assessment or monitoring of loneliness in older adult populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Are physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men or women? Results from a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Kupelian, Varant; Miyasato, Gavin; McVary, Kevin T; McKinlay, John B

    2012-08-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and the development of lower urinary tract symptoms have been largely unexamined. We investigated physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women. Data were obtained from the BACH (Boston Area Community Health) Survey, a longitudinal observational study. Baseline (2002 to 2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Five-year followup interviews (2006 to 2010 in 4,145) assessed new reports of moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms defined by the AUASI (AUA symptom index). Analysis was conducted using multivariable logistic regression. Lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17, 0.60; p physical activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly storage symptoms (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.30, 3.56; p = 0.003), compared to never smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype. A low level of physical activity was associated with a 2 to 3 times greater likelihood of lower urinary tract symptoms. Smoking may contribute to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in women but not in men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation, noting the additional potential benefits of the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly for women. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  3. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-10-01

    Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrolment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00; 0.98 (0.71-1.35); 0.93 (0.67-1.29); and 0.58 (0.40-0.84); P(trend) = 0.01. The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all P(trend) < 0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  5. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  6. Medical Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in United States Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between lifetime trauma exposures, PTSD and partial PTSD, and past-year medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 participants in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of trauma exposure, PTSD and partial PTSD with respondent-reported medical diagnoses. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than traumatized respondents without full or partial PTSD (comparison group) to report diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, noncirrhotic liver disease, angina pectoris, tachycardia, hypercholesterolemia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, HIV seropositivity, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.2-2.5). Respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than the comparison group to report past-year diagnoses of stomach ulcer, angina pectoris, tachycardia, and arthritis (ORs=1.3-1.6). Men with full and partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report diagnoses of hypertension (both ORs=1.6), and both men and women with PTSD (ORs=1.8 and 1.6, respectively), and men with partial PTSD (OR=2.0) were more likely to report gastritis. Total number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with many assessed medical conditions (ORs=1.04-1.16), reducing the magnitudes and rendering non-significant some of the associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusions Greater lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with numerous medical conditions, many of which are stress-related and chronic, in U.S. adults. Partial PTSD is associated with intermediate odds of some of these conditions. PMID:21949429

  7. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006).Study design: Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey.Results: Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total populati...

  8. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  9. Changes in Prevalence of HIV or Syphilis among Male Sex Workers and Non-Commercial Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China: Results of a Second Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanwei; Zhang, Yanting; Li, Ke; Zhao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A previous time-location sampling survey (TLS) was performed in 2008 to evaluate the HIV or syphilis infection rate among male sex workers (MSWs) and non-commercial men who have sex with men (ncMSM) in Shenzhen, China. This is a second TLS performed in 2014. This article describes the findings and changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. TLS was used to collect information as a second cross-sectional survey to an earlier TLS assessment. Data on behavior (e.g., sexual history and sexual behavior) were analyzed. Blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. To determine the changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, we analyzed these results and compared them to the results of our first survey. A total of 965 participants were recruited, including 489 MSWs and 476 ncMSM. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 9.7%: 2.9% for MSWs and 16.8% for ncMSM (PHIV prevalence in MSWs decreased from 4.5% in 2008 to 2.9% in 2014 (P = 0.143) but increased in ncMSM (7.0% in 2008 vs 16.8% in 2014, PHIV and syphilis in MSWs but not in ncMSM. The study indicated the need for continued efforts to improve public health, particularly to counter the rising rate of HIV in ncMSM.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of recent injecting drug use among gay and bisexual men in Australia: Results from the FLUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H; Zablotska-Manos, I; Hammoud, M; Jin, F; Lea, T; Bourne, A; Iversen, J; Bath, N; Grierson, J; Degenhardt, L; Prestage, G; Maher, L

    2018-05-01

    While illicit drug use is prevalent among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia, little is known about the factors associated with injecting drug use among GBM. The Following Lives Undergoing Change (FLUX) study is a national, online prospective observational cohort investigating drug use among Australian GBM. Eligible participants were men living in Australia who were aged 16.5 years or older, identified as gay or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the last year. We examined baseline data for associations between socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics and recent (last six months) injecting using log-binomial regression. Of 1995 eligible respondents, 206 (10.3%) reported ever injecting drugs and 93 (4.7%) had injected recently, most commonly crystal (91.4%) and speed (9.7%). Among recent injectors, only 16 (17.2%) reported injecting at least weekly; eight (8.6%) reported recent receptive syringe sharing. Self-reported HIV and HCV prevalence was higher among recent injectors than among other participants (HIV: 46.2% vs 5.0%, p drug classes (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.21-1.41), longer time since initiating party drug use (APR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.04), greater numbers of sex partners (2-10 sex partners: APR = 3.44, 95%CI 1.45-8.20; >10 sex partners: APR = 3.21, 95%CI 1.30-7.92), group sex (APR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.91) and condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (APR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.34-2.43) in the last six months. Observed associations between injecting and sexual risk reflect a strong relationship between these practices among GBM. The intersectionality between injecting drug use and sex partying indicates a need to integrate harm reduction interventions for GBM who inject drugs into sexual health services and targeted sexual health interventions into Needle and Syringe Programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH): results of the national audit of adult epilepsy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter A; Kirkham, Jamie J; Marson, Anthony G; Pearson, Mike G

    2015-03-31

    About 100,000 people present to hospitals each year in England with an epileptic seizure. How they are managed is unknown; thus, the National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH) set out to assess prior care, management of the acute event and follow-up of these patients. This paper describes the data from the second audit conducted in 2013. 154 emergency departments (EDs) across the UK. Data from 4544 attendances (median age of 45 years, 57% men) showed that 61% had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy, 12% other neurological problems and 22% were first seizure cases. Each ED identified 30 consecutive adult cases presenting due to a seizure. Details were recorded of the patient's prior care, management at hospital and onward referral to neurological specialists onto an online database. Descriptive results are reported at national level. Of those with epilepsy, 498 (18%) were on no antiepileptic drug therapy and 1330 (48%) were on monotherapy. Assessments were often incomplete and witness histories were sought in only 759 (75%) of first seizure patients, 58% were seen by a senior doctor and 57% were admitted. For first seizure patients, advice on further seizure management was given to 264 (27%) and only 55% were referred to a neurologist or epilepsy specialist. For each variable, there was wide variability among sites that was not explicable. For the sites who partook in both audits, there was a trend towards better care in 2013, but this was small and dwarfed by the intersite variability. These results have parallels with the Sentinel Audit of Stroke performed a decade earlier. There is wide intersite variability in care covering the entire care pathway, and a need for better organised and accessible care for these patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta's tomorrow project cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Poirier, Abbey E; Haig, Tiffany R; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-11-25

    Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP). ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35-69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 and ≥30 kg/m 2 , respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001). In addition, the proportion of participants reporting being overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p < 0.001) and lower income groups (p < 0.001). Overall, approximately two thirds of men and women in ATP cohort reported abdominal obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  13. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Chighaf; Schwartz, Skai; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Wang, Wei; Sappenfield, William; Couluris, Marisa; Chen, Henian

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the effects of short and long sleep duration patterns in young adults on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the potential effect modification by sex. Using data from waves III (age 18-26) and IV (age 24-32) of the National Longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health, we examined the association between sleep trajectories in young adults, and the risk of elevated high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. Short sleep trajectories were associated with significantly elevated log-transformed hs-CRP (coefficient = 0.11, p-value .03) and with significantly higher odds of having hs-CRP levels > 3 mg/L (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.29, 2.67). The association was modified by sex, with the association between short sleep duration and hs-CRP limited to males. Both the continuous (coefficient 0.117, p-value = .0362) and the categorized hs-CRP (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.48, 3.30) were significantly elevated with short sleep durations in males, whereas no significant associations were seen in females with short sleep durations. By contrast, log hs-CRP was significantly elevated in females with long sleep durations (coefficient = 0.232, p-value = .0296), with a nonsignificant increase in the odds of having hs-CRP levels greater than 3 mg/L (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.75, 2.93), whereas there were no associations with long sleep duration in males. Systemic inflammation, measured by an elevated level of hs-CRP, is seen with persistent short sleep duration in young adult men and persistent long sleep duration in young adult women. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Changes in mean serum lipids among adults in Germany: results from National Health Surveys 1997-99 and 2008-11

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    Julia Truthmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of serum lipid concentrations at the population level is an important public health tool to describe progress in cardiovascular disease risk control and prevention. Using data from two nationally representative health surveys of adults 18–79 years, this study identified changes in mean serum total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG in relation to changes in potential determinants of serum lipids between 1997–99 and 2008–11 in Germany. Methods Sex-specific multivariable linear regression analyses were performed with serum lipids as dependent variables and survey wave as independent variable and adjusted for the following covariables: age, fasting duration, educational status, lifestyle, and use of medication. Results Mean TC declined between the two survey periods by 13 % (5.97 mmol/l vs. 5.19 mmol/l among men and by 12 % (6.03 mmol/l vs. 5.30 mmol/l among women. Geometric mean TG decreased by 14 % (1.66 mmol/l vs. 1.42 mmol/l among men and by 8 % (1.20 mmol/l vs. 1.10 mmol/l among women. Mean HDL-C remained unchanged among men (1.29 mmol/l vs. 1.27 mmol/l, but decreased by 5 % among women (1.66 mmol/l vs. 1.58 mmol/l. Sports activity and coffee consumption increased, while smoking and high alcohol consumption decreased only in men. Processed food consumption increased and wholegrain bread consumption decreased in both sexes, and obesity increased among men. The use of lipid-lowering medication, in particular statins nearly doubled over time in both sexes. Among women, hormonal contraceptive use increased and postmenopausal hormone therapy halved over time. The changes in lipid levels between surveys remained significant after adjusting for covariables. Conclusion Serum TC and TG considerably declined over one decade in Germany, which can be partly explained by increased use of lipid-lowering medication and improved lifestyle among men. The

  15. Effect of an advanced glycation end product-restricted diet and exercise on metabolic parameters in adult overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Rodríguez-Soto, Juana María Dolores; Uribarri, Jaime; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco José; Cai, Weijingi; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of a low advanced glycation end product (AGEs) diet, exercise, and a combination of both on circulating AGE levels as well as on plasma lipids and anthropometric parameters. Forty-three overweight or obese men (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m(2)), 30 to 55 y, participated in a 12-wk study and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low AGE diet, exercise with habitual food intake, or exercise plus low AGE diet. Exercise was for 45 min at 65% to 75% of their maximum heart rate three times a week. We measured somatometric variables (BMI and waist circumference), blood glucose, lipids, and serum AGEs (N(ε)-[Carboxymethyl]Lysine [CML] and methylglyoxal [MG]) at baseline and at 12 wk. Exercise alone was associated with decreased somatometric variables; the low AGE diet had the same effects and decreased serum CML and MG and when combined with exercise reproduced all these effects, but also decreased triacylglycerols and increased high-density lipoprotein. Correlation analysis showed that both changes of CML and MG correlated with changes in dietary AGEs (P diet reduces serum AGE and indices of body fat. The addition of exercise to the restricted diet has the same effects but also improves lipid profile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term evaluation of the adequacy of habitual diets to provide protein needs of adult Nigerian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, T; Egun, G; Mbofung, C M

    1988-11-01

    1. A continuous 40 d metabolic nitrogen balance study was conducted on twelve young men aged 25 (SD 2.6) years to evaluate the adequacy of a previously determined safe level of protein intake. 2. Subjects were fed on diets which they were habitually accustomed to and which provided a protein level of 0.75 g protein (N x 6.25)/kg body-weight per d as the safe level and an energy intake level of 0.2 MJ/kg body-weight per d. N balances, including an estimate for integumental losses as well as certain biochemical variables, were determined for the last 5 d of two consecutive 20 d diet periods. 3. Only two of the twelve subjects were observed to be in negative N balance the final 5 d of the 40 d period. N balance was generally positive at 8.24 (SD 8.61) mg N/kg body-weight, thus confirming the adequacy of 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight per d as a safe level of protein intake in the majority of the subjects.

  17. Breakup-related appraisals and the psychological well-being of young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglarek, Peter; Darbes, Lynae; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one's sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-reported psychological well-being (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety; self-esteem, sense of personal competency) and YGBM's negative and positive appraisals of breakups within a sample of single YGBM (N=1,040; ages 18-24) who reported prior serious same-sex relationships. Negative appraisals were associated with lower psychological well-being. Positive appraisals were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and sense of personal competency. Our findings highlight the need to acknowledge how YGBM's differential responses to breakups may be associated with their psychological well-being.

  18. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  19. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  20. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  1. The relationship between physical activity, fitness, physical complaints and BMI in German adults - results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlbach, Susanne A; Jekauc, Darko; Schmidt, Steffen C E; Woll, Alexander; Bös, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    This study's aims were to describe the development of physical activity, physical fitness (PF), subjective (physical complaints (PC)) and objective (Body mass index (BMI)) health measures and to examine the relationship between the development trajectories. In addition, the study also aimed to assess the influence of sociodemographic determinants (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES)) in German adults over a period of 18 years. The longitudinal study population comprises of 721 men and women, aged 33-76 years over the study period. There was self-report of physical activity and PC and testing of physical fitness and BMI in each study year (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2010). Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the development. Physical activity slightly increased while fitness, PC and BMI worsened over the course of 18 years. Sex, age and SES play important roles concerning physical activity, fitness and health. Several integrative associations could be detected between physical activity, fitness, PC and BMI as well as their trajectories. In particular, high initial levels of physical activity and fitness protect from high PC and BMI.The slope of physical activity was not significantly associated with slopes of fitness, PC and BMI. However, increase of fitness resulted in decrease of PC. A general positive development regarding the amount of physical activity could be detected. However, if it is only an unsystematic increase of physical activity, this is not in itself enough to achieve health benefits. The strengthening of fitness should be focused when increasing physical activity, since only then a health benefit is possible.

  2. The Influence of Community Disadvantage and Masculinity Ideology on Number of Sexual Partners: A Prospective Analysis of Young Adult, Rural Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Barton, Allen W; Duprey, Erinn B; Hicks, Megan R; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Young, rural Black men are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), a consequence, in part, of multiple sexual partnerships. We conducted a prospective study that examined the influence of masculinity ideology on changes in numbers of sexual partners in this population. We focused on a set of high-risk attitudes termed reputational masculinity. Community disadvantage during young adulthood was examined as a risk factor for reputational masculinity ideology, and vocational commitment was examined as a potential protective factor. The sample included 505 African American men ages 19 to 22 from high-poverty rural communities. Men reported their numbers of sexual partners during the past three months, masculinity ideology, community disadvantage, and vocational commitment. Follow-up data were collected 18 months after baseline assessment. Negative binomial modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Results indicated that community disadvantage was associated with increases in reputational masculinity during early adulthood, which in turn were linked to increases in numbers of sexual partners. Vocational commitment interacted with reputational masculinity to forecast numbers of sexual partners, attenuating the influence of reputational masculinity. Reputational masculinity and promotion of engagement with the workplace may be important targets for interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior.

  3. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  4. Does Peak Urine Flow Rate Predict the Development of Incident Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Mild to No Current Symptoms? Results from REDUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Vidal, Adriana; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    We determined whether decreased peak urine flow is associated with future incident lower urinary tract symptoms in men with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms. Our population consisted of 3,140 men from the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) less than 8. REDUCE was a randomized trial of dutasteride vs placebo for prostate cancer prevention in men with elevated prostate specific antigen and negative biopsy. I-PSS measures were obtained every 6 months throughout the 4-year study. The association between peak urine flow rate and progression to incident lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as the first of medical treatment, surgery or sustained and clinically significant lower urinary tract symptoms, was tested by multivariable Cox models, adjusting for various baseline characteristics and treatment arm. On multivariable analysis as a continuous variable, decreased peak urine flow rate was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (p = 0.002). Results were similar in the dutasteride and placebo arms. On univariable analysis when peak flow was categorized as 15 or greater, 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second, flow rates of 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second were associated with a significantly increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (HR 1.39, p = 0.011 and 1.67, p urinary tract symptoms a decreased peak urine flow rate is independently associated with incident lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these men should be followed closer for incident lower urinary tract symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Personal Care Product Use in Men and Urinary Concentrations of Select Phthalate Metabolites and Parabens: Results from the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, Feiby L; Coull, Brent A; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Michelle A; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Ford, Jennifer B; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Hauser, Russ

    2017-08-18

    Personal care products (PCPs) are exposure sources to phthalates and parabens; however, their contribution to men's exposure is understudied. We examined the association between PCP use and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in men. In a prospective cohort, at multiple study visits, men self-reported their use of 14 PCPs and provided a urine sample (2004-2015, Boston, MA). We measured urinary concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent change in urinary concentrations associated with PCP use using linear mixed and Tobit mixed regressions. We also estimated weights for each PCP in a weighted binary score regression and modeled the resulting composite weighted PCP use. Four hundred men contributed 1,037 urine samples (mean of 3/man). The largest percent increase in monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with use of cologne/perfume (83%, p -value<0.01) and deodorant (74%, p -value<0.01). In contrast, the largest percent increase for parabens was associated with the use of suntan/sunblock lotion (66-156%) and hand/body lotion (79-147%). Increases in MEP and parabens were generally greater with PCP use within 6 h of urine collection. A subset of 10 PCPs that were used within 6 h of urine collection contributed to at least 70% of the weighted score and predicted a 254-1,333% increase in MEP and parabens concentrations. Associations between PCP use and concentrations of the other phthalate metabolites were not statistically significant. We identified 10 PCPs of relevance and demonstrated that their use within 6 h of urine collection strongly predicted MEP and paraben urinary concentrations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1374.

  6. The Role of Race and Gender in Nutrition Habits and Self-Efficacy: Results from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna D; Althouse, Andrew; Tan, Alai; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a massive public health problem and young adults are at high risk for gaining weight once they enter a college. This study sought to examine gender and race as they relate to nutrition habits and self-efficacy in a population of diverse young adults from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study. Participants ( N = 62) were 29% males, 38.7% white, 33.8% Asian, and 12.9% African American. Males had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean score = 92.5, SD = 17.1) compared to females (mean = 102.3, SD = 13.7, p = 0.02). Males had higher consumption of sodium compared to females (4308 versus 3239 milligrams/day, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences across racial subgroups in self-efficacy for healthy eating ( p = 0.67) or self-efficacy for exercise ( p = 0.61). Higher self-efficacy scores for healthy eating were significantly associated with less total sodium ( r = -0.37, p = 0.007), greater fruit consumption, and less saturated fat. Our results indicate that weight loss interventions should be individualized and that there may be specific areas to target that are different for men and women. Additional larger studies should be conducted to confirm if racial differences exist across nutrition habits and self-efficacy and to confirm gender differences noted in this study.

  7. The Role of Race and Gender in Nutrition Habits and Self-Efficacy: Results from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna D. Stephens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are a massive public health problem and young adults are at high risk for gaining weight once they enter a college. This study sought to examine gender and race as they relate to nutrition habits and self-efficacy in a population of diverse young adults from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study. Participants (N=62 were 29% males, 38.7% white, 33.8% Asian, and 12.9% African American. Males had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean score = 92.5, SD = 17.1 compared to females (mean = 102.3, SD = 13.7, p=0.02. Males had higher consumption of sodium compared to females (4308 versus 3239 milligrams/day, p=0.01. There were no significant differences across racial subgroups in self-efficacy for healthy eating (p=0.67 or self-efficacy for exercise (p=0.61. Higher self-efficacy scores for healthy eating were significantly associated with less total sodium (r=-0.37, p=0.007, greater fruit consumption, and less saturated fat. Our results indicate that weight loss interventions should be individualized and that there may be specific areas to target that are different for men and women. Additional larger studies should be conducted to confirm if racial differences exist across nutrition habits and self-efficacy and to confirm gender differences noted in this study.

  8. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  9. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Sabrina L; Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-02-02

    Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication ("sexting") is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses including yes/no and Likert scale

  10. Self-perceived coping resources of middle-aged and older adults - results of a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Friederike H; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Maatouk, Imad; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann; Wild, Beate

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial resources (personal resources, social resources, and other) are important for coping with aging and impairment. The aim of this study was to describe the resources of older adults and to compare subgroups with frailty, complex health care needs, and/or mental disorders. At the third follow-up of the large population-based German ESTHER study, 3124 elderly persons (aged 55-85) were included. Psychosocial resources were assessed during a home visit by trained study doctors by using a list of 26 different items. Resources were described for the total group, separated by sex, and for the three subgroups of persons with frailty, complex health care needs, and mental disorders. Family, self-efficacy, and financial security were the most frequently reported resources of older adults. Women and men showed significant differences in their self-perceived resources. Personal resources (self-efficacy, optimism, mastery), social resources, and financial security were reported significantly less frequently by frail persons, persons with complex health care needs, and mentally ill older adults compared to non-impaired participants. Apart from external support, patients who experienced complex health care needs reported resources less frequently compared to frail and mentally ill patients. Coping resources in older adults are associated with sex and impairment. Evaluation and support of personal resources of frail or mentally ill persons or individuals with complex health care needs should be integrated in the therapeutic process.

  11. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  12. Do impotent men with diabetes have more severe erectile dysfunction and worse quality of life than the general population of impotent patients? Results from the Exploratory Comprehensive Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction (ExCEED) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, David F; Latini, David M; Lubeck, Deborah P; Wallace, Katrine L; Henning, James M; Lue, Tom F

    2003-04-01

    Little is known regarding how diabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) differ from the general population of impotent men. The primary objective of this study was to compare disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and severity of ED in impotent men with and without diabetes. Validated functional and HRQOL questionnaires (including the International Index of Erectile Function, the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction scales) were administered to patients in an ED disease registry. Men with ED and a history of diabetes (n = 20) were compared with men with ED and no history of diabetes (n = 90) at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. Diabetic impotent men reported worse erectile function and intercourse satisfaction at baseline, and ED had a greater impact on their emotional life. Diabetic men with ED had significantly different trends over time in the Erectile Function (P Emotional Life-Psychological Impact domain (P < 0.067). Impotent men with diabetes present with worse ED than nondiabetic men with ED, resulting in worse disease-specific HRQOL in the diabetic men. Although diabetic patients initially respond well to ED treatment, responses do not appear to be durable over time. Therefore, clinicians must provide longer-term follow-up when treating ED in diabetic patients.

  13. Results of Closed Intramedullary Nailing using Talwarkar Square Nail in Adult Forearm Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A Lil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate results of closed intramedullary nailing using Talwarkar square nails in adult forearm fractures. We prospectively evaluated 34 patients with both bone forearm fractures. The average time to union was 12.8 (SD +3.2 weeks with cast support for a mean of 8.2 weeks. Union was achieved in 31 out of 34 patients. Using the Grace and Eversmann rating system, 17 patients were excellent, 10 were good, and 4 had an acceptable result. Three patients had non-unions, 2 for the radius and one for the ulna. There were two cases of superficial infection, one subject had olecranon bursitis, and one case of radio-ulnar synostosis. Complication rates associated with the use of square nails were lower compared to plate osteosynthesis and locked intramedullary nails. To control rotation post- operatively, there is a need for application of an above-elbow cast after nailing.

  14. Is Meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Protein Related to Body Composition among Older Adults?: Results from the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J M; Deierlein, A L; Morland, K B; Granieri, E C; Spark, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. New York City community centers. 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age. Protein intake was assessed using two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls, and body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of fat mass (kg) (FM), fat free mass (kg) (FFM), and impedance resistance (Ohms). Indices of FM and FFM were calculated by dividing BIA measurements by height squared (m2), and percent FFM was calculated by dividing FFM by the sum of FM and FFM. Log linear models adjusting for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, physical activity (dichotomized at the median), hypertension, diabetes, and total calories (continuous). Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein. Both fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were negatively associated with meeting the RDA for protein (Women: FFMI -1.78 95%CI [-2.24, -1.33], FMI -4.12 95% CI [-4.82, -3.42]; Men: FFMI -1.62 95% CI [-2.32, -0.93] FMI -1.80 95% CI [-2.70, -0.89]). After accounting for confounders, women and men consuming at least 0.8 g/kg/day had a 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.4%) and a 3.2% (95% CI 1.1%, 5.3%) higher percent fat free mass, respectively. FFM, FFMI, FM, and FMI were inversely related to meeting the RDA for protein. Meeting the RDA for protein of at least 0.8g/kg/day was associated with a higher percentage of fat free mass among older adults. These results suggest meeting the protein recommendations of at least 0.8 g/kg/day may help to promote lower overall body mass, primarily through loss of fat mass rather than lean mass.

  15. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  16. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings.

  17. Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s and Iraq (in the 1970s. The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 μg/g was based partly on evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 μg/g. Methods. Early in the Niigata epidemic in June 1965 there were two extensive surveys. From these two surveys, we examined 103 adults with hair mercury measurement who consulted two medical institutions. We compared the prevalence and the distribution of neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning between exposure categories. Result. We found 48 subjects with neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning who had hair mercury concentration less than 50 μg/g. Among the neurological signs, sensory disturbance of the bilateral distal extremities was observed more frequently, followed by disequilibrium, hearing impairment, and ataxia, in groups with hair MeHg concentration both below 50 μg/g and over 50 μg/g. Conclusion. The present study suggests the possibility that exposure to MeHg at levels below the current WHO limits could cause neurologic signs, in particular, sensory disturbance.

  18. A radiological study on the degenerative joint disease of the lumbar spine in Korean adult men below the age of forty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sook Hi; Lee, Sang Seun

    1979-01-01

    It is generally believed that this disease is a degenerative process, a part of the general phenomena, hastened by excessive functional demand and a decreasing efficiency of blood supply. Though degenerative joint disease is the commonest of all ailments, its manifestations do not appear as a rule until the fourth or fifth decade, and it is not always easy to diagnose because we know less about it than about many less common types. Little information is available on its frequency in person below the age of forty. The present study was designed to obtain more precise information about development of this disease in person below the age of forty. After a detailed clinical examination, x-ray findings of a total of 566 men with low back pain checked at the Department of Radiology, National Public Hospital from Jan. 1976 to Dec. 1978 were received. The following result were obtained: 1. 111 (19.6%) of the 566 men had radiologic evidence of degenerative disease in lumbar spine. The degenerative joint disease first appeared on the age of 26. The degenerative joint disease was found in 16 (14.9%) of the 107 men between 25 and 29 years old, 14 (16.3%) of the 86 men between 35 and 39 years old, 31 (27.4%) of the 113 men between 35 and 39 years old, and 50 (50%) of the 100 between 40 and 44 years old. 2.The 4th lumbar spine was most commonly involved, being in 82.0% of the cases, and less frequent sites were the 5th lumbar spine (67.6%), the 3rd lumbar spine (51.3%), the 2nd lumbar spine (18.9%) and the 1st lumbar spine (3.6%). 38 (28.8%) of the 111 cases revealed single level involvement, but 79 (71.2%) cases showed multiple level involvement with the highest incidence at 14 and 15. 3. 111 cases of the 566 revealed marginal spurring. Bridging was noted in 8 cases, space narrowing 8 cases, and eburnation 7 caes.

  19. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Brenner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP. Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI of 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. Results BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001. In addition, the proportion of participants reporting being overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p < 0.001 and lower income groups (p < 0.001. Overall, approximately two thirds of men and women in ATP cohort reported abdominal obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. Conclusion A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  1. Experimental results concerning the metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Capelle, A.; Tricaud, Y.; Nizza, P.

    1967-01-01

    The authors give the results of a series of experiments on metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; the measurement were carried out over a number of years from 1961 to 1966. The work was concerned initially with the fixation of iodine 131 in the thyroid gland, with the calculation of radiation doses absorbed and with ways of showing up any possible radiation damage in the gland. The modes of absorption of iodine 131 and its elimination through milk, urine and the faeces were then considered. Finally, a last chapter is devoted to changes in the radioactivity of the blood and of the milk, to variations of the PBI level of the blood serum as to different methods for measuring this level. (authors) [fr

  2. Multiple strategies to identify HIV-positive black men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City: a cross-sectional analysis of recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Julie; Mannheimer, Sharon B; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Colson, Paul W; Ortega, Hugo; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2018-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed but not in care. The STAR (Seek, Test, and Retain) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01790360) used several recruitment strategies to identify black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women with undiagnosed HIV infection or with previously diagnosed HIV infection but who were not in HIV care. Respondent-driven sampling, community-based recruitment and online advertising were used to recruit participants. Incentivized peer referral was integrated into all recruitment strategies. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV testing. Demographic and HIV risk-related characteristics and recruitment strategy were summarized and stratified by HIV status. Associations were tested using Pearson's chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Factors associated with HIV-positive diagnosis at p recruitment strategies, respondent driven sampling was least effective in identifying HIV-positive participants. Integrating multiple recruitment strategies yielded a large sample of black men who have sex with men and transgender women at substantial risk for HIV. Respondent-driven sampling was less effective than other strategies at identifying men who have sex with men and transgender women with HIV. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  3. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M; Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-04-01

    Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: -1.61; 95% CI, -1.74 to -1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both moderated (multiplicative, β = .006; SE = 0.002; P = .02 and additive, β = .008; SE = 0.002; P

  4. PO-58 - Cardiovascular risk profile in survivors of adult cancer - results from the general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova-Noeva, M; Hermanns, I M; Schulz, A; Laubert-Reh, D; Zeller, T; Blankenberg, S; Spronk, H M; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Ten Cate, H; Wild, P S

    2016-04-01

    The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study. Presence of CVRFs and laboratory markers have been compared in individuals with (n=1,359) and without (n=13,626) history of cancer. Standard laboratory profile, including blood glucose and lipid profile, has been evaluated in 15,010 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Coagulation factors, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity were available in N=4,993. The individuals with history of cancer were older compared to no history of cancer with mean age of 61,5years and 54.4years, respectively (pprofile showed cancer survivors with lower erythrocyte, platelet and white blood cell counts and higher C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides levels (pprofile in individuals with history of cancer from a well characterized population-representative adult sample. It gives evidence for higher prevalence of CVRFs, particularly diabetes in this vulnerable population. Markers of inflammation as CRP and fibrinogen and vWF activity were higher in cancer survivors independent of the cardiovascular risk profile. These results underline the increased risk of CVD and need for development of cardio-oncology programs offering cardiovascular prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  6. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]valine (and [2H3]leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1

  7. Correlates of unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

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    Barrón-Limón Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Mexico, data on current risk behaviors in this population are lacking. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI in a sample of 260 MSM in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In June 2010, men attending a gay pride celebration were invited to complete a sexual risk survey. Men who reported UAI with a male partner in the past year were compared with men who reported only protected anal sex during the same period. Results Mean age of participants was 29.7; 54% had a high school diploma or less; and 43% were unemployed. In the past year, 55% had been tested for HIV, 21% reported using illicit drugs before or during sex, and 94% had sex only with men. Overall, 50% reported having UAI with another male in the past year. Factors independently associated with UAI in the past year were unemployment (AOR = 1.87, attending adult movie theaters (AOR = 2.21, using illicit drugs before or during sex (AOR = 2.43, and not having a recent HIV test (AOR = 1.85. Conclusions Interventions to promote HIV testing and condom use among men who have sex with men may want to consider venue-specific approaches, as well as focus on drug-use issues in the context of unsafe sex.

  8. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36-53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender.

  9. An open-label clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG in adult men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G; Stegmann, Barbara J; Shankar, R Ravi; Guan, Yanfen; Tzontcheva, Anjela; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-03-07

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in men results in insufficient testicular function and deficiencies in testosterone and spermatogenesis. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (recFSH) have been successful in the treatment of HH. Corifollitropin alfa is a long-acting FSH-analog with demonstrated action in women seeking infertility care. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG to increase testicular volume and induce spermatogenesis in men with HH. This was a Phase III, multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial of corifollitropin alfa in azoospermic men aged 18 to 50 years with HH. After 16 weeks of pretreatment of 23 subjects with hCG alone, 18 subjects with normalized testosterone (T) levels who remained azoospermic entered the 52-week combined treatment phase with hCG twice-weekly and 150 μg corifollitropin alfa every other week. The increase in testicular volume (primary efficacy endpoint) and induction of spermatogenesis resulting in a sperm count ≥1 × 10 6 /mL (key secondary efficacy endpoint) during 52 weeks of combined treatment were assessed. Safety was evaluated by the presence of anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). Mean (±SD) testicular volume increased from 8.6 (±6.09) mL to 17.8 (±8.93) mL (geometric mean fold increase, 2.30 [95% CI: 2.03, 2.62]); 14 (77.8%) subjects reached a sperm count ≥1 × 10 6 /mL. No subject developed confirmed anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies during the trial. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Corifollitropin alfa 150 μg administrated every other week combined with twice-weekly hCG for 52 weeks increased testicular volume significantly, and induced spermatogenesis in >75% of men with HH who had remained azoospermic after hCG treatment alone. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01709331 .

  10. Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ingar; Tonstad, Serena; Sogaard, Anne Johanne; Larsen, Per G Lund; Haheim, Lise Lund

    2007-01-01

    Background Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart. Methods Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209) were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported. Results Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's ρ = 0.25). Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54–0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52–0.91] for diabetes) (test for trend P < 0.05). However, when adjusted for more factors measured in 1972/3 including glucose, triglycerides, body mass index, treated hypertension and systolic blood pressure these associations were markedly attenuated. Smoking was associated with the metabolic syndrome but not with diabetes in 2000. Conclusion Physical activity during leisure recorded in middle age prior to the current waves of obesity and diabetes had an independent predictive association with the presence of the metabolic syndrome but not significantly so with diabetes 28 years later in life, when

  11. Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. Results from the Network in Europe on Male Osteoporosis (NEMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, S.; Silva, J.A. da; Brixen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm2......, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The respective...

  12. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  13. Sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in England: results from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, S; Bebbington, P; McManus, S; Meltzer, H; Jenkins, R; Kuipers, E; Cooper, C; King, M; Brugha, T

    2011-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with many psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This paper uses the detailed information available from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of England (APMS 2007) to quantify links between CSA and a range of psychiatric conditions. The prevalence of psychiatric disorder was established in a random sample of the English household population (n=7403), which also provided sociodemographic and experiential information. We analyzed six types of common mental disorder, alcohol abuse and drug abuse, and people who screened positively for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders. All were strongly and highly significantly associated with CSA, particularly if non-consensual sexual intercourse was involved, for which odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.7 to 12.1. These disorders were also related to adult sexual abuse (ASA), although the likelihood of reverse causality is then increased. Revictimization in adulthood was common, and increased the association of CSA with disorder. For several disorders, the relative odds were higher in females but formal tests for moderation by gender were significant only for common mental disorders and only in relation to non-consensual sexual intercourse. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was higher in females in all cases. The detailed and high-quality data in APMS 2007 provided important confirmation both of the strength of association of CSA with psychiatric disorder and of its relative non-specificity. Our results have major implications at the public health level and the individual level, in particular the need for better recognition and treatment of the sequelae of CSA.

  14. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months' follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients.

  15. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  16. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca T Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years, young adulthood (ages 18-25, and middle adulthood (ages 26-49. We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

  17. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  18. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  19. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  20. Psychopathology in young adults with congenital heart disease. Follow-up results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, E. M.; Bieman, H. J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Meijboom, F. J.; Erdman, R. A.; Hess, J.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of a wide range of behavioural and emotional problems long-term (> 9 years) after surgical correction for congenital heart disease in infancy and childhood. The problem scores on the Young Adult Self-Report of 166 19-25-year-old adults with

  1. Incremental predictive value of sarcopenia for incident fracture in an elderly Chinese cohort: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether sarcopenia is predictive of incident fractures among older men, whether the inclusion of sarcopenia in models adds any incremental value to bone mineral density (BMD), and whether sarcopenia is associated with a higher risk of fractures in elderly with osteoporosis. A cohort of 2000 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years were examined for which detailed information regarding demographics, socioeconomic, medical history, clinical, and lifestyle factors were documented. Body composition and BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) algorithm. Incident fractures were documented during the follow-up period from 2001 to 2013, and related to sarcopenia and its component measures using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The contribution of sarcopenia for predicting fracture risk was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 226 (11.3%) men sustained at least 1 incident fracture, making the incidence of fractures 1200.6/100,000 person-years. After multivariate adjustments, sarcopenia was associated with increased fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.79) independent of BMD and other clinical risk factors. The addition of sarcopenia did not significantly increase area under curve or IDI but significantly improved the predictive ability on fracture risk over BMD and other clinical risk factors by 5.12% (P sarcopenia (sarco-osteoporosis) resulted in a significantly increased risk of fractures (HR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.76-6.90) compared with those with normal BMD and without sarcopenia. This study confirms that sarcopenia is a predictor of fracture risk in this elderly men cohort, establishes that sarcopenia provides incremental predictive value for fractures over the

  2. Quality of Life and Sexual Function Benefits of Long-Term Testosterone Treatment: Longitudinal Results From the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Wu, Frederick; Behre, Hermann M; Porst, Hartmut; Meuleman, Eric J H; Maggi, Mario; Romero-Otero, Javier; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I; Jones, Thomas Hugh; Debruyne, Frans M J; Kurth, Karl-Heinz; Hackett, Geoff I; Quinton, Richard; Stroberg, Peter; Reisman, Yacov; Pescatori, Edoardo S; Morales, Antonio; Bassas, Lluis; Cruz, Natalio; Cunningham, Glenn R; Wheaton, Olivia A

    2017-09-01

    : Longitudinal Results From the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). J Sex Med 2017;14:1104-1115. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Severe Maternal Stress Exposure Due to Bereavement before, during and after Pregnancy and Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Young Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military...... service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25...... kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0...

  4. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing Intimate Partner Violence: Results From a Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study With Young Men in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hughes, Lindsay; Mehta, Manisha; Kidanu, Aklilu; Verani, Fabio; Tewolde, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of a community-based project in Ethiopia that worked with young men to promote gender-equitable norms and reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign young Ethiopian men 15 to 24 years of age (809 participants were surveyed at baseline in 2008) to an intervention involving community engagement (CE) activities in combination with interactive group education (GE) sessions promoting gender-equitable norms and violence prevention, an intervention involving CE activities alone, or a comparison group. Results. Participants in the GE + CE intervention were twice as likely (P gender-equitable norms between the baseline and end-line points. Also, the percentage of GE + CE participants who reported IPV toward their partner in the preceding 6 months decreased from 53% to 38% between baseline and end line, and the percentage in the CE-only group decreased from 60% to 37%; changes were negligible in the comparison group. Conclusions. Promoting gender equity is an important strategy to reduce IPV.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ganger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3% were children and 24 (38.7% were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23. Visual improvement of 1 line and ≥2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31. Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults.

  6. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  7. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian professional drivers: results from a population based study of 12,138 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohebbi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is evident that professional driving is associated with substantial changes in lifestyle habits. Professional drivers are prone to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its complications because their working environment is characterized by numerous stress factors such as lack of physical activity due to working in a fixed position, disruption in diet, and irregular sleep habits. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of MetS among long distance drivers residing in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. MATERIALS: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among professional long distance drivers, 12138 participants were enrolled in this cross sectional study. The MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: Among 12138 participants, 3697 subjects found to be MetS. The crude and age-adjusted rates of MetS were 30.5% and 32.4% respectively. Based on Body mass index (BMI, 5027 subjects (41.4% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.01-30 kg/m2, and 2592 (21.3% were obese (BMI ≥ 30.01 kg/m2. The presence of central obesity was more common than other components. The associations of MetS with BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences were significant in the logistic regression. By increasing BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences, odds ratio of MetS was increased. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that MetS has become a noteworthy health problem among Iranian long distance drivers. This might be due to the following facts: sitting in a fixed position for long hours while working, cigarette smoking, job stress, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyle and also for early detection and appropriate interventions.

  9. Factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults: Results from the HOPE HOME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstak, Emily; Johnson, Julene K; Tieu, Lina; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Lee, Christopher T; Jamora, Christina Weyer; Kushel, Margot

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated cognitive function and factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults. We hypothesized that substance use and a history of traumatic brain injury would be associated with cognitive impairment. We recruited 350 homeless individuals aged ≥50 years using population-based sampling and conducted structured interviews and neuropsychological testing. We evaluated alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, defining high-severity alcohol use as a total score ≥16 or ≥4 on the alcohol dependency sub-scale. We assessed global cognition with the Modified Mini-Mental State Test (3MS) and processing speed and executive function with the Trail Making Test (TMTB), defining impairment as performing 1.5 standard deviations below the standardized mean. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol use and cognition. Participants had a median age of 58 years [IQR 54-61], 76.7% were men, and 79.9% were African American. A quarter (25.1%) of participants met criteria for impairment on the 3MS; 32.9% met criteria for impairment on TMTB. In models adjusted for sociodemographic variables and health conditions, high-severity alcohol use was associated with global cognitive impairment (AOR 2.39, CI 1.19-4.79) and executive dysfunction (AOR 3.09, CI 1.61-5.92). Older homeless adults displayed a prevalence of cognitive impairment 3-4 times higher than has been observed in general population adults aged 70 and older. Impaired cognition in older homeless adults could impact access to housing programs and the treatment of health conditions, including the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Community-based prevention leads to an increase in condom use and a reduction in sexually transmitted infections (STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM and female sex workers (FSW: the Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has an estimated 2.0 million to 3.1 million people living with HIV; it has the highest number of HIV-positive people in Asia and ranks third in the world. The Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP was implemented in 2002 to conduct targeted prevention intervention geared towards female sex workers (FSW and men who have sex with men (MSM in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. This paper reports the overall changes in behaviour and STI outcomes between 2003/4 and 2007 and also describes the changes attributed to the FPP. Methods The evaluation used two cross-sectional surveys among MSM and FSW at 24 sites in AP. Surveys were implemented using a similar methodology. Univariate analyses were conducted by comparing means: baseline vs. four-year follow-up and FPP vs. non-FPP. For both MSM and FSW, random and fixed-effects logit regression models at the site level were estimated for condom use with last partner, syphilis sero-positivity and HSV 2 sero-positivity. In addition, for FSW we estimated models for condom use with regular partner, and for MSM we estimated models for condom use with last female partner. Results Among MSM, fixed-effects analysis revealed that FPP was positively correlated with the probability of condom use with last female sexual partner and negatively correlated with the individual probability of sero-positivity to syphilis and HSV 2. Among FSW, the FPP intervention was significantly correlated with increased condom use with regular partners and with lower probability of STI sero-positivity. Discussion Important changes in behaviours related to an increase in prevention activities translated to reductions in STI sero-prevalence in AP, India. In contrast with non-FPP sites, the FPP sites experienced an intense community approach as part of the FPP intervention, and the general increase in condom use and its effect on STI sero-prevalence reflected the efficacy of these intense prevention activities focused on

  11. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative and de...... and descriptive HR-pQCT data from a large population-based sample of Danish Caucasian women and men (n = 499) aged 20-80 years. In young adults (...

  12. Measurement error in the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: results from a general adult population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Koki; Takahashi, Kana; Hirao, Kazuki

    2018-01-17

    Although the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is frequently used to measure social anxiety, data is lacking on the smallest detectable change (SDC), an important index of measurement error. We therefore aimed to determine the SDC of LSAS. Japanese adults aged 20-69 years were invited from a panel managed by a nationwide internet research agency. We then conducted a test-retest internet survey with a two-week interval to estimate the SDC at the individual (SDC ind ) and group (SDC group ) levels. The analysis included 1300 participants. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total fear subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 23.52 points (32.7%) and 0.65 points (0.9%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total avoidance subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 32.43 points (45.0%) and 0.90 points (1.2%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the overall total score (scoring range: 0-144) were 45.90 points (31.9%) and 1.27 points (0.9%), respectively. Measurement error is large and indicate the potential for major problems when attempting to use the LSAS to detect changes at the individual level. These results should be considered when using the LSAS as measures of treatment change.

  13. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female older adults (M=55 years who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session, infrequent (2×/week, resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press. Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male and 19 weeks (female. Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered.

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in adult Malaysians: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Ismail, Aziz al-Safi; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan

    2012-04-01

    Aim: To report the national prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors among adult Malaysians (>18 years old) based on World Health Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel III (ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the 'Harmonized' criteria.Methods: A multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select 4341 subjects from Peninsular and East Malaysia. Subjects underwent physical and clinical examinations.Results: Based on the WHO, ATP III, IDF and Harmonized definitions, the overall crude prevalences of MetS were 32.1, 34.3, 37.1 and 42.5%, respectively. Regardless of the criteria used, MetS was higher in urban areas, in females, in the Indian population and increased significantly with age. Risk factors also increased with age; abdominal obesity was most prevalent (57.4%), was higher in females (64.2%) and was highest in Indians (68.8%).Hypertension was higher in males (56.5%) and highest among Malays (52.2%). In contrast,the Chinese had the highest prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (47.4%).Conclusions: Malaysia has a much higher prevalence of MetS compared with other Asian countries and, unless there is immediate intervention to reduce risk factors, this may pose serious implications on the country's healthcare costs and services.

  15. THE MEANS TESTING OF BENEFITS AND THE LABOUR SUPPLY OF THE WIVES OF UNEMPLOYED MEN: RESULTS FROM A MOVER-STAYER MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Aedin Doris;

    1999-01-01

    Women married to unemployed men in Britain have lower participation rates than those married to employed men. Possible reasons include (1) husbands and wives fac-ing similar unfavourable local labour market conditions, (2) their both having characteristics which make it more likely that they will be unemployed, and (3) the means testing of benefit income, which creates a disincentive for the wife to work. These is-sues are investigated using a British survey of unemployed men and their famili...

  16. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20-67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied...... was also a risk factor (hazard ratio(yes/no) 1.38:1.16-1.64). These estimates attenuated somewhat when other social and behavioural covariates were taken into account. The effects were similar in men and women, but the influence of individuals' unemployment experience during one and five years decreased...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....

  17. The Prostate cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial:VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy to watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Brawer, Michael K; Barry, Michael J; Jones, Karen M; Kwon, Young; Gingrich, Jeffrey R; Aronson, William J; Nsouli, Imad; Iyer, Padmini; Cartagena, Ruben; Snider, Glenn; Roehrborn, Claus; Fox, Steven

    2009-01-01

    histologic grade and tumor stage, approximately 43% had low risk, 36% had medium risk and 20% had high-risk prostate cancer. Comparison to our national sample of eligible men declining PIVOT participation as well as to men enrolled in the Scandinavian trial indicated that PIVOT enrollees are representative of men being diagnosed and treated in the U.S. and quite different from men in the Scandinavian trial. PIVOT enrolled an ethnically diverse population representative of men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States. Results will yield important information regarding the relative effectiveness and harms of surgery compared to watchful waiting for men with predominately PSA detected clinically localized prostate cancer.

  18. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    categorizations incorporating PSA levels, Gleason histologic grade, and tumor stage, it was found that approximately 40% had low-risk, 34% had medium-risk, and 21% had high-risk prostate cancer based on local histopathology. Comparison to our national sample of eligible men declining PIVOT participation as well as to men enrolled in the Scandinavian trial indicated that PIVOT enrollees are representative of men being diagnosed and treated in the United States and quite different from men in the Scandinavian trial. PIVOT enrolled an ethnically diverse population representative of men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States. Results will yield important information regarding the relative effectiveness and harms of surgery compared with WW for men with predominately PSA-detected clinically localized prostate cancer.

  19. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  20. [Long-term results of midtarsal arthrodesis for flatfoot in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquet, V; Mehdi, N; Naudi, S; Maynou, C; Mestdagh, H

    2007-09-01

    Arthrodesis proposed for the surgical treatment of reducible pes planovalgus (flatfoot) in adults is designed to relieve pain and correct the deformity. The purpose of this work was to present the radiological and clinical results obtained with midtarsal arthrodesis performed in 22 cases of pes planovalgus. This study concerned 22 cases of reducible flatfoot (Johnson grade 2) in 19 patients (11 males, 8 females, mean age 43 years, age range 15-75 years). Clinical outcome was assessed in terms of pain, function and motion using the AOFAS and Mann classifications. Radiological assessment (loaded anteroposterior and lateral views with Méary cerclage) noted the Djian angle, talometatarsal alignment, talar slope, calcaneal slope, calcaneal valgus, and osteoarthritis stage in adjacent joints. Mean follow-up was 7 years 4 months (range 6 months-20 years 3 months). Two nonunions resolved favorable after cancellous grafting. The Kitaoka score was 73.5/100 points (range 53-94). Pain and function improved from 2.8 to 1.1 points (/4 points) and from 3.45 to 1.6 points (/4) on the Mann scale. Flexion-extension remained unchanged. The foot was aligned correctly in 68% of cases. The mean talar slope and the talocalcaneal divergence were normal at last follow-up but there was a persistent undercorrection of the Djian angle in 68% of the feet and a break in the Méary line in 41%. Calcaneal valgus was reduced 6.6 degrees (16.6 to 10 degrees ) but the podoscope footprint was still the flatfoot type in 86% of the feet. For 50%, the neighboring joints presented progressive osteoarthritic degeneration. Subjectively the patients were very satisfied or satisfied with minor reservations for 73%. None of the patients was disappointed with the results. The objective outcome was excellent or good in 68% of the feet. The results in terms of pain relief, function, motion, complications, and rate of satisfaction were comparable with results presented in the literature. Midtarsal arthrodesis

  1. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  2. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  3. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  4. Psychological factors related to donation behaviour among Chinese adults: results from a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Wang, T; Fu, Q

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the psychological factors currently influencing blood donation in China. This study investigated the structure of psychological factors and their correlation with donation behaviour of adults in a transforming city in China over a 6-month period. Participants were recruited in Nanjing from May 2013 to April 2014. Preliminary focus group interviews with 102 participants were conducted to generate new items for a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by 300 participants, and responses were subjected to factor analysis. We confirmed the resulting factorial structure with 861 respondents and examined the associations between these factors and donation behaviour during the next 6 months using structural equation modelling. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling of the data supported an extended TPB model with self-reported past donation behaviour as a covariate. After controlling for past donation behaviour, attitudes towards blood donation (β = 0·288), subjective norm (β = 0·149), self-efficacy (β = 0·199), trust in third-party health professionals (β = 0·237), mistrust towards blood collection agencies (BCAs) (β = -0·085) and traditional Chinese beliefs (β = -0·046) were significantly related to donation intention, whilst donation intention was positively (β = 0·212) associated with donation behaviour. These findings confirm that psychological factors such as attitudes are predictors of blood donation. Recruitment efforts using public information campaigns and interpersonal communications should focus on strengthening positive attitudes, increasing trust in third-party health professionals, elevating self-efficacy, changing traditional Chinese beliefs and relieving mistrust in blood collection agencies (BCAs). © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  6. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group. Median body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02 and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06 was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively. Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31. There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. CONCLUSION: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  7. Adults miscoded and misdiagnosed as having pneumonia: results from the British Thoracic Society pneumonia audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Priya; Bewick, Thomas; Welham, Sally; Mckeever, Tricia M; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-04-01

    A key objective of the British Thoracic Society national community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) audit was to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised adults given a primary discharge code of pneumonia but who did not fulfil accepted diagnostic criteria for pneumonia. Adults miscoded as having pneumonia (n=1251) were older compared with adults with CAP (n=6660) (median 80 vs 78 years, p<0.001) and had more comorbid disease, significantly fewer respiratory symptoms (fever, cough, dyspnoea, pleuritic pain), more constitutional symptoms (general deterioration, falls) and significantly lower 30-day inpatient mortality (14.3% vs 17.0%, adjusted OR 0.75, p=0.003). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Perceived Effects of Sexually Explicit Media among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-01-01

    a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). Main Outcome Measure. A revised version of the PCES by Hald and Malamuth. Methods. Online cross-sectional survey study of 1,333 US adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Results. This study...... health potential for MSM. Hald GM, Smolenski D, and Rosser BRS. Perceived effects of sexually explicit media among men who have sex with men and psychometric properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). J Sex Med 2013;10:757-767....

  9. Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a National British Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Anu; Michael, Benedict D; Ledger, Elizabeth; Hart, Ian J; Absoud, Michael; Chow, Gabriel; Lilleker, James; Lunn, Michael; McKee, David; Peake, Deirdre; Pysden, Karen; Roberts, Mark; Carrol, Enitan D; Lim, Ming; Avula, Shivaram; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was met with increased reports of associated neurological manifestations. We aimed to describe neurological manifestations of influenza in adults and children in the United Kingdom that presented at this time. A 2-year surveillance study was undertaken through the British adult and pediatric neurological surveillance units from February 2011. Patients were included if they met clinical case definitions within 1 month of proven influenza infection. Twenty-five cases were identified: 21 (84%) in children and 4 (16%) in adults. Six (29%) children had preexisting neurological disorders. Polymerase chain reaction of respiratory secretions identified influenza A in 21 (81%; 20 of which [95%] were H1N1) and influenza B in 4 (15%). Twelve children had encephalopathy (1 with movement disorder), 8 had encephalitis, and 1 had meningoencephalitis. Two adults had encephalopathy with movement disorder, 1 had encephalitis, and 1 had Guillain-Barré syndrome. Seven individuals (6 children) had specific acute encephalopathy syndromes (4 acute necrotizing encephalopathy, 1 acute infantile encephalopathy predominantly affecting the frontal lobes, 1 hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy, 1 acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy). Twenty (80%) required intensive care, 17 (68%) had poor outcome, and 4 (16%) died. This surveillance study described a cohort of adults and children with neurological manifestations of influenza. The majority were due to H1N1. More children than adults were identified; many children had specific encephalopathy syndromes with poor outcomes. None had been vaccinated, although 8 (32%) had indications for this. A modified classification system is proposed based on our data and the increasing spectrum of recognized acute encephalopathy syndromes.

  10. Physical domestic violence exposure is highly associated with suicidal attempts in both women and men. Results from the national public health survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Mariana; Stenbacka, Marlene; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-06-01

    Studies on a national level concerning domestic violence (DV) among both men and women are few. DV and its relation to other social and health outcomes within the framework of the Swedish Public Health Survey have remained unexplored. To compare women and men regarding their social situation and health status in relation to self-reported exposure to physical DV as measured in the Swedish National Public Health Survey. This study used cross-sectional data from the Swedish Public Health Survey, years 2004-09 with a total sample of 50 350 respondents, of which 205 women and 93 men reported DV exposure. Logistic regression analyses stratified by sex with physical DV exposure as the outcome measure were conducted, and the multivariate models were fitted using the likelihood ratio test. Being foreign-born [women odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, men OR = 1.92] and lack of social support (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) were associated with DV exposure among both sexes. Higher psychological distress (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) and hazardous drinking (women OR = 1.61, men OR = 2.33) were also associated with DV exposure. Among women, financial problems were associated with DV exposure (OR = 1.83), whereas among men, sum of medicines used and higher odds of DV were associated (OR = 1.17). Further, suicidal attempts were associated with DV exposure among both women (OR = 5.59) and men (OR = 8.34). In this national survey, prevalence rates of violence exposure were lower than in other studies, but despite this, both women and men exposed to physical DV reported increased odds of having attempted suicide. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  11. Genetic ablation of Dicer in adult forebrain neurons results in abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert, Sébastien S; Papadopoulou, Aikaterini S; Smith, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    , particularly in the adult brain, remain poorly defined. Here we show that the absence of Dicer in the adult forebrain is accompanied by a mixed neurodegenerative phenotype. Although neuronal loss is observed in the hippocampus, cellular shrinkage is predominant in the cortex. Interestingly, neuronal...... degeneration coincides with the hyperphosphorylation of endogenous tau at several epitopes previously associated with neurofibrillary pathology. Transcriptome analysis of enzymes involved in tau phosphorylation identified ERK1 as one of the candidate kinases responsible for this event in vivo. We further...

  12. Consequences of Fatherhood for Young Men's Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Taillade, Jaslean J; Hofferth, Sandra; Wight, Vanessa R

    2010-04-01

    This paper examined how the onset and timing of the transition to fatherhood affects the type and quality of young men's relationships with partners and parents. Data are drawn from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Survey and included young men (ages 18-31 years old in 2006) who varied on residential status with their children and timing of fatherhood (N = 1,931). Results indicated the effects of fatherhood varied across types of fathers, with residential fathers more likely to be in a committed but less satisfactory relationship regardless of timing of fatherhood. Nonresidential fathers were more likely to have close relationships with their mothers and fathers, but findings varied by timing of fatherhood and gender of parent. Implications of these findings are framed in terms of young men's developmental readiness for multiple demands of first-time fatherhood.

  13. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T.; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev. Edwin C.; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants. PMID:26758708

  14. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T; Dyer, Typhanye V; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev Edwin C; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 ( N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants.

  15. Young adults' perceptions about established and emerging tobacco products: results from eight focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Berman, Susan; Zellin, Stacie; Vijaykumar, Santosh

    2012-02-01

    In order to sustain their market, tobacco producers target young adults through novel product design and marketing strategies. Public health professionals need to understand young adults' risks perceptions about and use of new tobacco products to best inform tobacco control interventions. In 2009, researchers conducted 8 focus groups with 67 young adults stratified by self-reported tobacco use and nonuse, residence in rural and urban areas, and living in a state with or without a statewide smoking restriction policy. Participants provided feedback about their knowledge and risk perceptions about and use of tobacco products and marketing. Participants reported a high level of familiarity with a wide range of novel tobacco products. A great deal of confusion and disagreement appeared with regard to absolute and relative risk of different tobacco products. Participants readily discussed using smokeless tobacco products as alternatives to smoking when smoking is prohibited. Fewer differences in tobacco-related knowledge risk perceptions and use were found between urban and rural participants and those in smoke-free policy and nonpolicy states than between user and nonuser groups. Both users and nonusers were familiar with and skeptical about tobacco marketing and prevention efforts. Young adults are familiar with many tobacco products, but they convey little understanding of relative risks of new or trendy tobacco products, such as snus or hookah. Mindful of industry innovation, tobacco control advocates must continuously update prevention efforts, seeking new strategies to limit promotion, marketing, and use of new and conventional products.

  16. Online Counseling to Enhance Sexual Health of Young Adults under 25: Results Contextual Inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Roskam, V. R.; David, Silke; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2012-01-01

    The current approach for improving sexual health of young adults under 25 in the Netherlands is supported via the national website Sense.info, integrated with the face-to-face sexual counselling organized by designated regional Municipal Health Services (MHS). Evaluations among the target group of

  17. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  18. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  19. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  20. Happiness and Arousal: Framing Happiness as Arousing Results in Lower Happiness Ratings for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Par eBjalkebring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control. In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions. Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  1. Outcome in Adult Life for People with Williams Syndrome Results from a Survey of 239 Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, P.; Udwin, O.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been considerable research into the genotype and phenotype of Williams syndrome, there have been relatively few studies of long-term prognosis. As a preliminary to a more detailed investigation of adults with Williams syndrome, a parental questionnaire was distributed to members of the UK Williams Syndrome…

  2. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  3. Cognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; Porton, Shannondora A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social-cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST (d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social-cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 (d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months (d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2018, 11: 519-530. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18-month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was

  4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and cancer risk in older adults: results from a large German prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Mena, José M; Schöttker, Ben; Haug, Ulrike; Müller, Heiko; Köhrle, Josef; Schomburg, Lutz; Holleczek, Bernd; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-05-01

    Several observational studies assessed the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and the risk of cancer but results were inconclusive. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in a population-based cohort study of 9,949 men and women ages 50 to 74 years in Saarland, Germany. Comprehensively adjusted Cox regression models were applied to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations and total and site-specific cancer incidence. Overall, during a median of 8 years of follow-up, 873 subjects developed cancer; the most common being prostate (171), breast (137), lung (136), and colorectal (136) cancer. Low season-standardized 25(OH)D (risk was observed for low 25(OH)D among men, nonobese subjects and subjects reporting low fish consumption and for high 25(OH)D in nonsmokers and nonobese subjects. Accordingly, restricted cubic splines to investigate dose-response relationships curves showed an inverse association of 25(OH)D levels and total cancer risk in men but not in women. 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly associated with overall cancer incidence in subgroups of this large cohort from Germany. No significant association was observed with site-specific cancers but this could be due to a limited statistical power for these endpoints. Further research should clarify whether and to what extent specific risk groups might profit from vitamin D supplementation.

  5. Symptom management strategies for men with early-stage prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Patient Education Program (PC PEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Alok; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Hart, Tae; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Hoffman, David J; Knight, Sara J; Caroll, Peter R; Latini, David M

    2013-12-01

    While the literature on prostate cancer health-related quality of life has grown extensively, little is known about symptom management strategies used by men to manage treatment-related side effects and the effectiveness of those strategies. We collected 628 symptom management reports from 98 men treated for localized prostate cancer. Participants were recruited from email lists and a prostate cancer clinic in Northern California. Data were collected using the Critical Incident Technique. Symptom management reports were assigned to categories of urinary, sexual, bowel, mental health, systemic, or "other." We calculated descriptive statistics by symptom type and management strategy effectiveness. The most common symptoms were urinary (26 %) and sexual (23 %). Participants' symptom management strategies varied widely, from medical and surgical interventions (20 %) to behavioral strategies (11 %) to diet and lifestyle interventions (12 %). The effectiveness of symptom management strategies varied, with sexual symptoms being managed effectively only 47 % of the time to mental health symptom management strategies considered effective 89 % of the time. Doing nothing was a commonly reported (15 %) response to symptoms and was effective only 14 % of the time. Men report the least effectiveness in symptom management for sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment. Including men's experience with managing treatment side effects may be an important way to improve survivorship programs and make them more acceptable to men. More work is needed to find out why men frequently do nothing in response to symptoms when effective solutions exist and how providers can successfully engage such men.

  6. Epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in adults: Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, S; Auziere, S; Gadkari, A; Girolomoni, G; Puig, L; Simpson, E L; Margolis, D J; de Bruin-Weller, M; Eckert, L

    2018-01-10

    There are gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence of adult atopic dermatitis (AD). To estimate the prevalence of AD in adults and by disease severity. This international, cross-sectional, web-based survey was performed in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, and Japan. Adult members of online respondent panels were sent a questionnaire for AD identification and severity assessment; demographic quotas ensured population representativeness for each country. A diagnosis of AD required subjects to be positive on the modified UK Working Party/ISAAC criteria and self-report of ever having an AD diagnosis by a physician. The proportion of subjects with AD who reported being treated for their condition was determined and also used to estimate prevalence. Severity scales were Patient-Oriented SCORAD, Patient-Orientated Eczema Measure, and Patient Global Assessment. Among participants by region, the point prevalence of adult AD in the overall/treated populations was 4.9%/3.9% in the US, 3.5%/2.6% in Canada, 4.4%/3.5% in the EU, and 2.1%/1.5% in Japan. The prevalence was generally lower for males vs females, and decreased with age. Regional variability was observed within countries. Severity varied by scale and region; however, regardless of the scale or region, proportion of subjects reporting severe disease was lower than mild or moderate disease. Prevalence of adult AD ranged from 2.1% to 4.9% across countries. Severe AD represented a small proportion of the overall AD population regardless of measure or region. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L

    2016-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  8. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarathy

    Full Text Available Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity.We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria.Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4% versus Mexican-Americans (40.6% or non-Hispanic whites (37.4% (P-value = 0.004. Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2, p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease.Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  9. Race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and education are associated with gay and bisexual men's religious and spiritual participation and beliefs: Results from the One Thousand Strong cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The development and validation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale: results from a nationally representative probability sample of men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Numerous factors may affect men's sexual experiences, including their health status, past trauma or abuse, medication use, relationships, mood, anxiety, and body image. Little research has assessed the influence of men's genital self-image on their sexual function or behaviors and none has done so in a nationally representative sample. The purpose of this study was to, in a nationally representative probability sample of men ages 18 to 60, assess the reliability and validity of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS), and to examine the relationship between scores on the MGSIS and men's scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The MGSIS was developed in two stages. Phase One involved a review of the literature and an analysis of cross-sectional survey data. Phase Two involved an administration of the scale items to a nationally representative sample of men in the United States ages 18 to 60. Measures include demographic items, the IIEF, and the MGSIS. Overall, most men felt positively about their genitals. However, 24.6% of men expressed some discomfort letting a healthcare provider examine their genitals and about 20% reported dissatisfaction with their genital size. The MGSIS was found to be reliable and valid, with the MGSIS-5 (consisting of five items) being the best fit to the data. The MGSIS was found to be a reliable and valid measure. In addition, men's scores on the MGSIS-5 were found to be positively related to men's scores on the IIEF. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Determinants of heavy smoking: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-03-01

    The aim of current analysis was to identify socio-demographic correlates of heavy smoking. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household study was implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. We used data on representative sample of 1915 adults, age 25 years and older. The Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for heavy smoking to the broad number of variables including age, age at smoking onset, education, occupational classification, living conditions, place of residence, place of residence at age about 14 years, awareness of smoking health consequences were tested in logistic regression model. Among daily smokers the rate of heavy smokers was 63% in males and 45% in females (p things, educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse tobacco health effects should be widely implemented.

  12. Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenfeld, Bruno; Mskhalaya, George; Zitzmann, Michael; Arver, Stefan; Kalinchenko, Svetlana; Tishova, Yuliya; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency (TD) in adult men as defined by low levels of serum testosterone accompanied by characteristic symptoms and/or signs as detailed further on can be found in long-recognized clinical entities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, pituitary or testicular disorders, as well as in men with idiopathic, metabolic or iatrogenic conditions that result in testosterone deficiency. These recommendations do not encompass the full range of pathologies leading to hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency), but instead focus on the clinical spectrum of hypogonadism related to metabolic and idiopathic disorders that contribute to the majority of cases that occur in adult men.

  13. Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenfeld, Bruno; Zitzmann, Michael; Arver, Stefan; Kalinchenko, Svetlana; Tishova, Yuliya; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency (TD) in adult men as defined by low levels of serum testosterone accompanied by characteristic symptoms and/or signs as detailed further on can be found in long-recognized clinical entities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, pituitary or testicular disorders, as well as in men with idiopathic, metabolic or iatrogenic conditions that result in testosterone deficiency. These recommendations do not encompass the full range of pathologies leading to hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency), but instead focus on the clinical spectrum of hypogonadism related to metabolic and idiopathic disorders that contribute to the majority of cases that occur in adult men. PMID:25657080

  14. [Gait speed and the appearance of neurocognitive disorders in older adults: Results of a Peruvian cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, José F; Nieto-Gutierrez, Wendy; Tellez, Walter A; Ventocilla-Gonzales, Iris; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants' gait speed was recorded. Subsequently, participants were followed-up annually for 5 years, with a mean of 21 months. NCD onset was defined as the occurrence of a score ≤24 points on the Mini Mental State Examination (screening test) during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox regression. The study included 657 participants, with a mean age of 73.4±9.2 (SD) years, of whom 47.0% were male, 47.8% had a gait speed <0.8 m/s, and 20.1% developed NCD during the follow up. It was found that older adults who had gait speed <0.8 m/s at baseline were more likely to develop NCD than those who had a gait speed ≥0.8 m/s (adjusted HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.34-1.47). A longitudinal association was found between decreased gait speed and NCD onset, suggesting that gait speed could be useful to identify patients at risk of NCD onset. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Online sexual solicitation by adults and peers - Results from a population based German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarova, Halina; Schulz, Anja; Schuhmann, Petya; Osterheider, Michael; Neutze, Janina

    2018-02-01

    Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents' online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14-17 (N=2238) was recruited using online survey panel. The sample was representative for gender and education. Subjects completed an online survey reporting their online sexual activities (i.e., sexual conversation, exchanging pictures, and cybersex) with peers (14-17y.) and/or adults (≥18y.). Findings illustrated that 51.3% (n=1148) of adolescents had experienced online sexual activity, which mostly involved peers (n=969; 84.4%). In contrast, 23.2% (n=519) of the adolescents experienced OSS with 2.6% (n=57) reporting subjectively negative online sexual interactions with peers and 22.2% (n=490) reporting online sexual interactions with adults, of which 10.4% (n=51) were perceived as negative. The findings suggest that adolescents frequently engage in sexual interactions on the Internet with only a relatively small number perceiving such contacts as exploitative. In addition, females and adolescents with incomplete family situation, foreign nationality, higher education, homo- or bisexual orientation, and those without perceived social support reported OSS significantly more often. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  17. Comparing adults who use cannabis medically with those who use recreationally: Results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lewei A; Ilgen, Mark A; Jannausch, Mary; Bohnert, Kipling M

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis has been legalized for medical use in almost half of the states in the U.S. Although laws in these states make the distinction between medical and recreational use of cannabis, the prevalence of people using medical cannabis and how distinct this group is from individuals using cannabis recreationally is unknown at a national level. Data came from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). All adults endorsing past year cannabis use who reported living in a state that had legalized medical cannabis were divided into recreational cannabis use only and medical cannabis use. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared across these two groups. 17% of adults who used cannabis in the past year used cannabis medically. There were no significant differences between those who used medically versus recreationally in race, education, past year depression and prevalence of cannabis use disorders. In adjusted analyses, those with medical cannabis use were more likely to have poorer health and lower levels of alcohol use disorders and non-cannabis drug use. A third of those who reported medical cannabis use endorsed daily cannabis use compared to 11% in those who reported recreational use exclusively. Adults who use medical and recreational cannabis shared some characteristics, but those who used medical cannabis had higher prevalence of poor health and daily cannabis use. As more states legalize cannabis for medical use, it is important to better understand similarities and differences between people who use cannabis medically and recreationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Caffeine intake is not associated with serum testosterone levels in adult men: cross-sectional findings from the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Qiu, Xueting; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khera, Mohit; Kim, Jeri; Canfield, Steven

    2018-04-25

    The association of caffeine intake with testosterone remains unclear. We evaluated the association of caffeine intake with serum testosterone among American men and determined whether this association varied by race/ethnicity and measurements of adiposity. Data were analyzed for 2581 men (≥20 years old) who participated in the cycles of the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012, a cross-sectional study. Testosterone (ng/mL) was measured by immunoassay among men who participated in the morning examination session. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day). Multivariable weighted linear regression models were conducted. We identified no linear relationship between caffeine intake and testosterone levels in the total population, but there was a non-linear association (p nonlinearity  < .01). Similarly, stratified analysis showed nonlinear associations among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White men (p nonlinearity  ≤ .03 both) and only among men with waist circumference <102 cm and body mass index <25 kg/m 2 (p nonlinearity  < .01, both). No linear association was identified between levels of caffeine intake and testosterone in US men, but we observed a non-linear association, including among racial/ethnic groups and measurements of adiposity in this cross-sectional study. These associations are warranted to be investigated in larger prospective studies.

  19. Risk factor profile for atherosclerosis among young adults in Israel--results of a large-scale survey from the young adult periodic examinations in Israel (YAPEIS) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Y; Grotto, I; Huerta, M; Eldad, A; Green, M S

    2001-01-01

    Assessing the prevalence of relevant risk factors among young adults is a critical step in the process of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) later in life. The Israel Defense Force Periodic Health Examination Center performs a routine check-up for subjects aged 25-45 years. Medical history, physical examination notes, laboratory results and ECG tracings are recorded, computerized and processed to form the Young Adults Periodic Examinations in Israel (YAPEIS) database. Data representing 31,640 subjects (27,769 males and 3871 females) examined between the years 1991-1999 were analyzed. The prevalence of documented risk factors for ASCVD were evaluated. The results of all parameters were graded categorically as low, moderate or high and the Framingham risk score was calculated. Fifty-one percent of the study participants were found to be overweight (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2), 8.5% had high systolic blood pressure and 14.6% had high diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was found to be 44.7 and 9.7%, respectively. Thirty-two percent of the subjects smoked cigarettes, and 76.7% reported not performing any routine physical activity. Furthermore, 31.8% had a Framingham score indicating a greater than 5% risk for developing a coronary event within the next 10 years. As expected, the prevalence of these risk factors increased with age and were found to be less frequent among females. Thus we conclude that many young Israeli adults hold significant risk factors for future ASCVD. Many of these risk factors are modifiable, and risk behavior is often amenable to alteration. Awareness to the high prevalence of risk factors among young adults should spark vigorous health-promotion programs as well as screening, education, and interventional measures aimed at altering the expected outcome of future ASCVD.

  20. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  1. Off-Label Use of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Erectile Dysfunction Medication to Enhance Sex Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Australia: Results From the FLUX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Mohamed A; Jin, Fengyi; Lea, Toby; Maher, Lisa; Grierson, Jeffrey; Prestage, Garrett

    2017-06-01

    be representative of all GBMs in Australia. GBMs who used an oral EDM in the previous 6 months often used it for recreational purposes, but many of those who used it on a weekly basis also might have used it for therapeutic reasons. GBMs often use EDMs to enhance their sexual experiences often in the context of intensive sex partying (which can include risky sexual behavior). Hammoud MA, Jin F, Lea T, et al. Off-Label Use of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Erectile Dysfunction Medication to Enhance Sex Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Australia: Results From the FLUX Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:774-784. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiak, Peter; Holm, Anders; Halička, Juraj; Mojžiš, Peter; Piñero, David P

    2017-06-28

    The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye. However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment. A total of 17 subjects (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range, 17-69 year) and anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoacuity (Stereo Randot graded circle test) changes were evaluated after 8 sessions (40 min per session) of dichoptic training with the computer game Diplopia Game (Vivid Vision) run in the Oculus Rift OC DK2 virtual reality head mounted display (Oculus VR). Mean BCVA in amblyopic eye improved significantly from a logMAR value of 0.58 ± 0.35 before training to a post-training value of 0.43 ± 0.38 (p virtual reality head mounted display seems to be an effective option of treatment in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Trial ID: ISRCTN62086471 . Date registered: 13/06/2017. Retrospectively registered.

  3. Women are considerably more exposed to intimate partner violence than men in Rwanda: results from a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla

    2014-08-26

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is an important, yet often neglected public health issue. The existence of gender norms imbalance expressed by men's and women's attitudes in relation to power and decision-making in intimate relationships may influence the magnitude of IPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors of physical, sexual and psychological IPV in young men and women in Rwanda. This population-based, cross-sectional study included a representative sample of men and women from the Southern Province of Rwanda. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire for violence exposure to estimate past year and earlier in life IPV occurrence. Risk factor patterns were analyzed by use of bi- and multivariate logistic regression. Women were, to a considerably higher extent, exposed to physical, sexual and psychological IPV than men. Of the women, 18.8% (n = 78) reported physical abuse in the past year, compared to 4.3% (n = 18) of men. The corresponding figures for women and men for sexual abuse were 17.4% (n = 71) and 1.5% (n = 6), respectively, and for psychological abuse, the corresponding figures were 21.4% (n = 92) and 7.3% (n = 32). Findings illustrate that violence against women was recurrent, as the highest frequency (>3 times) dominated in women for the various acts of all forms of violence. Identified risk factors for women's exposure to physical violence were being low educated, having poor social support, being poor and having many children. For men exposed to physical violence, no statistically significant risk factor was identified. In this setting, IPV exposure was more common in women than men in the Southern Province of Rwanda. Promotion of gender equality at the individual level is needed to make a positive difference in a relatively short term perspective. Men's lower reporting of IPV confirms women's subordinate position

  4. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women--associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-08-06

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  5. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women - associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  6. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "Some of My Best Friends": Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)

  8. Association Between Chewing Difficulty and Symptoms of Depression in Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Ahn, Yong-Soon; Lim, Do-Seon

    2016-12-01

    To assess the association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in a representative sample of the Korean population. Cross-sectional. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). KNHANES participants (N = 5,158). Chewing difficulty was assessed according to the self-reported presence of chewing problems using a structured questionnaire. Symptoms of depression were defined as having feelings of sadness or depression consecutively over 2 weeks during the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression, adjusted for age; sex; monthly household income; education; number of teeth; number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth; periodontitis; state of dentition; tooth brushing frequency; regular dental visits; smoking status; alcohol consumption; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; and obesity. The interaction effects between chewing difficulty and confounders were evaluated, and age- and sex-stratified analyses were performed. There was a significant positive association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in the fully adjusted model (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.48-2.33). The strength of the association was highest in men aged 60 and older (AOR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.54-7.00). Chewing difficulty was independently associated with symptoms of depression in a representative sample of Korean adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Osteoporosis in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Misiorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis. Acute hypogonadism induced by ablation treatment for prostate cancer (surgical or pharmacological castration, antiandrogen therapy is associated with an extremely high risk of fracture. Other documented causes of bone loss in men are cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse, and a number of diseases that require corticosteroid treatment. Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis should be recommended to all men with a diagnosed osteoporotic fracture and all men with a high 10-year absolute fracture risk (FRAXTM. Not all drugs registered for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis have been registered for the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and others have not been the subject of long-term and costly clinical trials required for such registration. The risk reduction of new fractures was documented only for treatment with zoledronic acid. Risedronate, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and denosumab in men increase in bone mineral density comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women.

  10. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  11. Long-term results of postoperative radiotherapy in adult patients with incompletely excised infratentorial low grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, E.; Glinski, B.; Szpytma, T.; Nowak-Sadzikowska, J.

    2002-01-01

    lnfratentorial low grade astrocytoma (ILGA) occurs rarely in adult patients and accounts for about 3% of all intracranial tumors.The basic method of treatment for ILGA is surgery. Complete resection results in high local control rate and the role of postoperative irradiation in management of partially resected tumors is not clearly determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative irradiation in adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA. Between 1975 and 1995, thirty one adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA received postoperative irradiation with curative intent. All patients were treated with megavoltage gamma rays ( 60C o). The total dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (mean; 54 Gy) and was delivered with daily fraction of 1.8-2 Gy. The treatment volume covered the tumor being area with a margin of 1-2 cm. Tolerance to treatment has been found to be good in 30 patients (97%). The overall 15-year actuarial survival rate was 62% in the entire group. Young patients, up to twenty years of age achieved a 15-year overall actuarial survival rate of 85%, older patients - 46%. This difference was statistically significant (p =0. 0205). Conventionally fractionated postoperative radiotherapy with doses of 50 to 60 Gy may improve long term results of adult patients with ILGA after uncomplete resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor - young patients, up to twenty years of age, show best survival. (author)

  12. Racial and Ethnic Difference in Falls Among Older Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Han, Benjamin H; Kranick, Julie A; Wyatt, Laura C; Blaum, Caroline S; Yi, Stella S; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-04-01

    Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations. A secondary analysis examines differences in fall risk by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity among Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. African Americans and Hispanics did not differ significantly from non-Hispanic whites. Analysis adjusting for race/ethnicity and English language proficiency found that limited English proficient Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. No differences were found when examining by racial/ethnic and English proficient/limited English proficient groups. Further research is needed to explore factors associated with fall risks across racial/ethnic groups. Culturally relevant and targeted interventions are needed to prevent falls and subsequent injuries in the increasingly diverse aging population in the USA.

  13. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Villalpando, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gilabert, César; Durazo-Arvizú, Ramón; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. The primary data source came from adults (>20 years) sampled (n=33366) in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >or=140 and/or diastolic was >or= 90 or patients previously diagnosed. A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (p<0.05) between hypertension and BMI, abdominal obesity, previous diagnosis of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with hypertension had a significantly higher odd of having a history of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension had a higher prevalence in Mexico than among Mexican-Americans living in the US. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Mexico. In the last six years in Mexico, a substantial increase (25%) has been observed in contrast to the reduction seen among Mexican-Americans (-15%).

  14. Cognitive predictors of everyday functioning in older adults: results from the ACTIVE Cognitive Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Willis, Sherry L; Brandt, Jason

    2011-09-01

    The present study sought to predict changes in everyday functioning using cognitive tests. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were used to examine the extent to which competence in different cognitive domains--memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, and global mental status--predicts prospectively measured everyday functioning among older adults. Coefficients of determination for baseline levels and trajectories of everyday functioning were estimated using parallel process latent growth models. Each cognitive domain independently predicts a significant proportion of the variance in baseline and trajectory change of everyday functioning, with inductive reasoning explaining the most variance (R2 = .175) in baseline functioning and memory explaining the most variance (R2 = .057) in changes in everyday functioning. Inductive reasoning is an important determinant of current everyday functioning in community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that successful performance in daily tasks is critically dependent on executive cognitive function. On the other hand, baseline memory function is more important in determining change over time in everyday functioning, suggesting that some participants with low baseline memory function may reflect a subgroup with incipient progressive neurologic disease.

  15. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  16. Should an inquiry about sexual health, as a reflection of vascular health, be part of routine physicals for young men? Results from an outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulah Al Turki, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factors among men with erectile dysfunction (ED) at a hospital-based primary care clinic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary care clinic in the King Khalid University Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), during the period from January to March 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from the attending patients. All patients attending a consultant primary care clinic were interviewed and asked about the presence of ED. Cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking were determined during consultation. Data entry and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. A P-value old age, 64% of men with ED were aged > or =60 years. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking were common cardiovascular risk factors among men with ED. Using medications for chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia was common among men with EDs (98%). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking are common cardiovascular risk factors among men with ED. Early diagnosis and management of cardiovascular risk factors at an early stage might help to decrease the prevalence of ED. Facilitating patients to talk with their treating physicians regarding sensitive issues such as ED during consultation will help patients to seek proper and safe medical advice. Further research at multi-centres to study the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and ED is recommended.

  17. Absorbable hydrogel spacer use in men undergoing prostate cancer radiotherapy: 12 month toxicity and proctoscopy results of a prospective multicenter phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, Matthias; DeWeese, Theodore L; Herfarth, Klaus; Eble, Michael J; Pinkawa, Michael; Triest, Baukelien van; Kalisvaart, Robin; Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Song, Danny Y

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the recommended treatment options for localized prostate cancer. In randomized trials, dose escalation was correlated with better biochemical control but also with higher rectal toxicity. A prospective multicenter phase II study was carried out to evaluate the safety, clinical and dosimetric effects of the hydrogel prostate-rectum spacer. Here we present the 12 months toxicity results of this trial. Fifty two patients with localized prostate cancer received a transperineal PEG hydrogel injection between the prostate and rectum, and then received IMRT to a dose of 78 Gy. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity were recorded during treatment and at 3, 6 and 12 months following irradiation by using the RTOG/EORTC criteria. Additionally, proctoscopy was performed 12 months after treatment and the results were scored using the Vienna Rectoscopy Scale (VRS). Of the patients treated 39.6% and 12.5% experienced acute Grade 1 and Grade 2 GI toxicity, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or Grade 4 acute GI toxicity experienced in the study. Only 4.3% showed late Grade 1 GI toxicity, and there was no late Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity experienced in the study. A total of 41.7%, 35.4% and 2.1% of the men experienced acute Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 GU toxicity, respectively. There was no Grade 4 acute GU toxicity experienced in the study. Late Grade 1 and Grade 2 GU toxicity was experienced in 17.0% and 2.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no late Grade 3 or greater GU toxicity experienced in the study. Seventy one percent of the patients had a VRS score of 0, and one patient (2%) had Grade 3 teleangiectasia. There was no evidence of ulceration, stricture or necrosis at 12 months. The use of PEG spacer gel is a safe and effective method to spare the rectum from higher dose and toxicity

  18. [Self-concept and erectile dysfunction in 45-year-old men : Results of a corollary study of the PROBASE trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögel, A M; Dinkel, A; Marten-Mittag, B; Baron, J; Albers, P; Arsov, C; Hadaschik, B; Hohenfellner, M; Imkamp, F; Kuczyk, M; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2016-10-01

    Self-concept consists of self-perceptions and is influenced by the life course of the person. This study investigated associations between self-concept and erectile dysfunction (ED) in 45-year-old German men. Forty-five-year-old, heterosexual men who had participated in the PROBASE-study were included. Erectile Function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6). The presence of ED was defined by IIEF-6 score ≤ 25. Self-concept was assessed using the facets "body image" (three items from the Dresden Body Image Inventory, DKB-35), "perception of masculinity" (three items from the Male Role Norms Scale, MRNS), "perceived social pressure with regard to sexual performance" (four newly constructed items), and "sexual self-esteem" (three newly constructed items). Scores for these facets of self-concept can range from 1 to 5. Higher scores indicate a more positive body image, higher sexual self-esteem, a more modern understanding of masculinity, and greater perceived social pressure. Differences in self-concept between men with ED and without ED were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney-U-test. Furthermore, Cohen's d effect sizes (ES d) were calculated. The responses of 3143 men were analyzed. Men with ED (16.2 %) have significantly lower scores regarding body image (mean 3.6 ± 0.6 vs 3.8 ± 0.5; p self-esteem (mean 3.6 ± 0.6 vs 3.9 ± 0.5; p self-esteem, and greater perceived social pressure with regard to sexual performance than men without ED.

  19. Short communication: HIV incidence among vulnerable populations in Honduras: results from an integrated behavioral and biological survey among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and Garifuna in Honduras, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrea A; Morales, Sonia; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Paredes, Mayte; Juarez, Sandra; Alvarez, Berta; Liu, Xin; Parekh, Bharat; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    Honduras has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Central America. Data on HIV incidence are needed to identify groups at greatest need of prevention interventions to inform the national HIV response. We applied a test for recent infection to HIV-positive specimens from a biological and behavioral survey to estimate assay-derived incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and the Garifuna population in Honduras. Assay-derived estimates were compared to the mathematically modeled estimates in the same populations to assess plausibility of the assay-based estimates. Assay-derived incidence was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-2.0) among MSM, 0.4% (95% CI 0.1-0.8) among the Garifuna, and 0% (95% CI 0-0.01) among FSWs. The modeled incidence estimates were similar at 1.03% among MSM, 0.30% among the Garifuna, and 0.23% among FSWs. HIV incidence based on the assay was highest among MSM in Honduras, lowest among FSWs, and similar to modeled incidence in these groups. Targeted programs on HIV prevention, care, and treatment are urgently needed for the MSM population. Continued support for existing prevention programs for FSWs and Garifuna are recommended.

  20. 'It brought joy in my home as in the area of my wife.' How recently circumcised adult men ascribe value to and make sense of male circumcision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsby, Katrine; Dræbel, Tania; Wolf Meyrowitsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a phenomenological approach to explore the everyday-life experiences of male circumcision (MC) and to learn how recently circumcised men ascribe value to and make sense of MC. Thirteen recently circumcised Zambian men were identified through the snowball technique...... that in addition to emphasising the HIV protective effect of MC, MC promotion should also highlight the social, sexual and romantic values perceived and experienced by the interviewees of this study; (3) the analysis reveals potentially harmful misconceptions about the health benefits of MC, demonstrating...

  1. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Financial performance among adult day centers: results of a national demonstration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, B V; Henry, R S; Rushing, J; Yates, M K; Cox, N J; Bradham, D D; McFarlane, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the financial performance (defined as percent of total expenses covered by net operating revenue) of 16 adult day centers participating in a national demonstration program on day services for people with dementia, including examination of possible predictors of financial performance. Participating sites submitted quarterly financial and utilization reports to the National Program Office. Descriptive statistics summarize the factors believed to influence financial performance. Sites averaged meeting 35% of expenses from self-pay and 29% from government (mainly Medicaid) revenue, totaling 64% of all (cash plus in-kind) expenses met by operating revenue. Examination of center characteristics suggests that factors related to meeting consumer needs, such as being open a full day (i.e., 7:30 am to 6:00 pm) rather than shorter hours, and providing transportation, may be related to improved utilization and, thus, improved financial performance. Higher fees were not related to lower enrollment, census, or revenue. Adult day centers are able to achieve financial viability through a combination of operating (i.e., fee-for-service) and non-operating revenue. Operating revenue is enhanced by placing emphasis on consumer responsiveness, such as being open a full day. Because higher fees were not related to lower utilization, centers should set fees to reflect actual costs. The figure of 64% of expenses met by operating revenue is conservative inasmuch as sites included in-kind revenue as expenses in their budgeting calculations, and percent of cash expenses met by operating revenue would be higher (approximately 75% for this group of centers).

  3. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  4. Driving performance in adults with ADHD: results from a randomized, waiting list controlled trial with atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, E; Sabljic, D; Alm, B; Dittmann, R W; Wehmeier, P M; Skopp, G; Strohbeck-Kühner, P

    2013-08-01

    To investigate effects of a 12-week treatment with atomoxetine (ATX) on driving performance in real traffic, driving-related neuropsychological performance tests and self-evaluation of driving in adult patients with ADHD compared to an untreated control group with ADHD. Parallel group design with an ATX and a waiting list group. At baseline and endpoint patients were evaluated with a standardized on-road driving test (SDBO), a driving-related neuropsychological test battery (Act and React Test System [ART2020]), and subjective measures of driving performance (one-week driving diary, Driver Coping Questionnaire). Forty-three of the 64 included patients completed the study (n=22 ATX, n=21 controls). Mean intervention period was 11.9±3.0 weeks, mean daily ATX dosage was 71.6±14.9mg. At endpoint, 60.1% of patients treated with ATX and 0% of waiting list group had reduced ADHD symptoms by greater or equal to 30%. In SDBO, ATX group reduced driving errors in three of four driving performance categories (attention, Pself-control, Pdriving errors remained stable in control group. At endpoint, 47.6% of control group and 18.2% of ATX group (Pdriving fitness criteria according to German Guidelines (percentile rank less or equal to 16 in one or more subtests in ART2020). Total number of self-reported critical traffic situations decreased from 12.0 to 6.8 per week in ATX group (Ptraffic situations did not change within both groups. Our study provides first evidence that treatment with ATX improves driving performance in real traffic in adults with ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol and other drug use in older adults: results from a community needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Emily; Sterling, Robert C; Weinstein, Stephen P; Salzman, Brooke

    2017-12-01

    With the "Baby Boomer" generation reaching older adulthood, substance abuse treatment providers find themselves needing to address the unique needs of this population. Heavy drinking in adults ages 65 and over is strongly correlated with depression, anxiety, decreased social support, and poor health. However, while alcohol misuse has been shown to be predictive of a lower quality of life in older adults, the generalizability of these findings to urban dwelling, lower socioeconomic status individuals remains unclear. To identify potential treatment needs of this population, a city-funded needs assessment was conducted. Subjects were 249 individuals (44% male) who voluntarily completed measures of quality of life (QOL), depression, and substance abuse. Measures used included the Psychological General Well-Being Schedule, the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol or substance abuse was reported by over 20% of respondents, with 3.4% of respondents engaged in maladaptive alcohol use. Scores on the AUDIT were predictive of increased depression (r = - .209, p = .01), anxiety (r = - .201, p = .002), lower general well-being (r = - .154, p = .019), and decreased self-control (r = - .157, p = .017). A substantial percentage of the sample reported alcohol and substance misuse. Alcohol use was predictive of depression, global psychological distress, and decreased quality of life. This needs assessment reinforces findings from previous studies and addresses the added dimension of examining this in an urban, lower socioeconomic population.

  6. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Flores, Mario; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; Kanter, Rebecca; Rivera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2005-2006. A total of 33023 adults > 20 years old were included; 39.7% were found to be overweight and 29.9% were found to be obese; 75.9% of all adults had abdominal obesity. In Mexico between 2000 and 2006, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults increased approximately 12%. Mexican-Americans showed a higher prevalence of morbid obesity compared to native Mexicans. Mexico has experienced a rapid increase in the number of adults who have experienced excess weight gain between the years 2000 and 2006.

  7. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  8. Children's Physical Attractiveness and Sex as Determinants of Adult Punitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.

    1974-01-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of a child's physical attractiveness and sex as potential elicitors of differential adult punitiveness. Assessed were the reactions of 40 women and 44 men. Results reveal differences in men's and women's reactions and suggest differences in their orientation towards children's task behavior. (Author/SDH)

  9. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  10. The Origins of the "Two Cultures" Debate in the Adult Education Movement: The Case of the Working Men's College (c.1854-1914)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella Pellegrino

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the Working Men's College (WMC), this study charts the chequered fortunes of a Victorian project: providing workers with a "liberal education." The paper analyses the project's aim (making "better citizens"), its disciplinary content (the humanities and/or the sciences) and its challenges (the increasing prestige of…

  11. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa

    2009-01-01

    and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X...

  12. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: Only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  13. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: Only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  14. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men : only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Stek, M. L.; van Tilburg, T. G.; Visser, P. J.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R. A.

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing