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Sample records for adult men results

  1. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E; Hamilton, Deven T; Down, Kayla L; Marrett, Karl D; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  2. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

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    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  3. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

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    Bulik Cynthia M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle.

  4. Sexual Health in Adult Men with Spina Bifida

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    Gary W. Bong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical and surgical advances in the treatment of spina bifida (SB have resulted in increasing numbers of patients reaching adulthood. As such, issues related to sexual maturity are being investigated to offer optimal healthcare to men with spina bifida. This report constitutes a review of the current literature relating to adults with spina bifida and issues of sexuality, erectile dysfunction and fertility. In general, adult males with spina bifida have normal sexual desires and an interest in addressing these issues with healthcare providers. Sexual education and access to intimacy are delayed compared to the general population. 75% of men achieve erections, but maintaining erections is a problem and some may be merely reflexive in nature. The many of these men show marked improvement with sildenafil. In SB erectile dysfunction and infertility are related to the level of neurological lesion with the best performance status in those with sacral lesions and intact reflexes. Men with lesions higher than T10 are at risk for azoospermia. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects in the children of men with spina bifida, but the current incidence with modern folic acid therapy is unknown. As the number of males with spina bifida reaching sexual maturity increases, further investigation into sexuality, sex education, intimacy, and treatments for erectile dysfunction and infertility will be needed.

  5. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Amanda Cordova; Carla Gonzales; Arturo Chung; Karla Vega; Arturo Villena

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to determine the effect of a 4-month oral treatment with tablets of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on seminal analysis in nine adult normal men aged 24 - 44 years old. Methods: Nine men received tablets of Maca (1500 or 3000 mg/day) for 4 months. Seminal analysis was performed according to guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment with Maca resulted in increased seminal volume, sperm count per ejaculum, motile sperm count, and sperm motility. Serum hormone levels were not modified with Maca treatment. Increase of sperm count was not related to dose of Maca.Conclusion: Maca improved sperm production and sperm motility by mechanisms not related to LH, FSH, PRL, T and E2 .

  6. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  7. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

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    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  8. ELEMENTAL CONTENTS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF CHINESE ADULT MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-da Zhu; Ya-qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Jing-yu Wang; Quan Wu; Nei-fen Wang; Ti-jiang Fan; Hu-sheng Liu; Qing-fen Liu; Xiao-yan Wang; Li Ou-yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man.Methods Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from 4 areas (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces) with different dietary patterns in China in autopsy of 16 healthy adult men, who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 56 elements in these samples were detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spec-trometry (ICP-AES), and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the relative elemental burdens in these organs or tissues as well whole body were also estimated.Results The concentrations of 56 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined all together and their elemental organ or tissue and whole body burdens were estimated. Furthermore, the distributions of important elements for radiation protection in these organs or tissues were emphatically discussed.Conclusion By summing with past related results, the total results obtained from the series of research may provide more reliable and better representative basis of these reference values for Chinese Reference Man than before.

  9. Do Lesbians Differ from Heterosexual Men and Women in Levinsonian Phases of Adult Development?

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    Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.

    2008-01-01

    Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…

  10. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

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    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  11. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

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    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  12. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men.

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    Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…

  13. Common Genetic Variation in the DKK1 Gene is Associated with Hip Axis Length but not with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Young Adult Men: Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piters, Elke; Balemans, Wendy; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2010-01-01

    signaling. Using HapMap, we selected three SNPs covering the genetic variation in a 13.53-kb region comprising DKK1. The Odense Androgen Study is a population-based study comprising 783 Caucasian men aged 20-29 years. BMD and hip structural parameters were available for study. Bone turnover markers were...... used as a secondary end point. All analyses were repeated after adjusting for covariables and in subgroups according to physical activity. We found no significant association between DKK1 and BMD or markers of bone turnover; however, a significant association (P = 0.012) was found for rs1569198...

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

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    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  15. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.......01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 7, and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 13. Estimates were similar and significant at all other ages. However, adjustment for childhood height attenuated the associations at all but the youngest ages as most estimates became nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS...

  16. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

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    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  17. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

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    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  18. Higher risk of violence exposure in men and women with physical or sensory disabilities: results from a public health survey.

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    Olofsson, Niclas; Lindqvist, Kent; Danielsson, Ingela

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization has declared that violence is a global public health problem. The prevalence of violence exposure among adults with intellectual and unspecific disabilities has been demonstrated in several studies, whereas only a few articles on people with sensory disabilities have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk for exposure to physical violence, psychological offence, or threats of violence in people with physical and/or sensory disabilities, compared with people with no such disabilities, controlling for socioeconomic data. Data from a public health survey were analyzed. A nationally representative sample of women and men aged 16 to 84 years had answered a questionnaire. In the present study, the whole sample, comprised of 25,461 women and 21,545 men, was used. Women with auditory disabilities were generally more often violence exposed than non-disabled women, whereas men with physical disabilities were more often violence exposed than non-impaired men. Some age groups among both women and men with visual disabilities had higher prevalence rates than women and men without disabilities. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were significantly higher among the auditory impairment group for exposure to physical (OR = 1.4, confidence interval [CI] = [1.1, 1.9]) and psychological (OR = 1.4, CI = [1.1, 1.8]) violence among women. Men with physical disabilities had raised odds ratios for physical violence (OR = 1.7, CI = [1.2, 2.4]) and psychological violence (OR = 1.4, CI = [1.0, 2.0]) compared with the non-disabled group. Both men and women with a physical or sensory disability showed higher odds of being exposed to violence than men and women without a disability. The results indicated that socioeconomic situation, smoking, and hazardous drinking strengthened the association between impairment and violence.

  19. Adult attachment among partnered gay men: patterns and associations with sexual relationship quality.

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    Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found secure adult attachment to be associated positively with dimensions of main partner relationship quality and negatively with sexual risk taking and sex with casual partners among heterosexuals in primary relationships. Potential associations between adult attachment and aspects of relationship functioning have received limited attention among gay men. Data were collected from both members of 344 gay male couples as part of a community survey (M age = 38.6, SD = 9.4). Participants completed a shortened version of the Adult Attachment Inventory (Collins & Read, 1990) and the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale (Catania, 1998). They reported the frequency of sex with main partners and the number of casual male unprotected sex partners. Data were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Securely attached individuals reported the highest levels of sexual communication and men with securely attached partners were the most likely to report having sex with their partners as least once per week. Avoidantly attached men reported significantly more casual unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners compared to other attachment styles. Having an avoidantly attached partner was also associated with an increase in the number of UAI partners reported. Attachment style is relevant to the sexual relationship quality and sexual safety of partnered gay men. Cognitive-interpersonal intervention approaches developed to target attachment-related cognitions and behaviors may be relevant to HIV prevention efforts in this population.

  20. Ethnic and Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Intentions among Men Receiving HPV Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, Ellen M.; Marhefka, Stephanie; Buhi, Eric; Hernandez, Natalie D.; Chandler, Rasheeta; Vamos, Cheryl; Kolar, Stephanie; Wheldon, Christopher; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors associated with HPV vaccine intentions by racial/ethnic group among men participating in a HPV natural history study. HPV knowledge, vaccine intentions and perceived barriers were assessed among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic men. Men were tested for HPV every 6 months. After receiving test results from their previous visit, participants (N=477) reported their intentions for HPV vaccination in a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI). Vaccine inten...

  1. How Serious Is Erectile Dysfunction in Men's Lives? Comparative Data From Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yoon Seob; Choi, Ji Woong; Ko, Young Hwii; Song, Phil Hyun; Jung, Hee Chang; Moon, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Whereas sexual function has long been assumed to be an important component of adult men's lives, the impact of sexual dysfunction has not been estimated in parallel to other modern disease entities. We compared the seriousness of erectile dysfunction (ED) with that of other diseases by use of self-administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods Between January 2012 and July 2012, 434 healthy male volunteers (group 1) and 263 ED patients (group 2) were enrolled. The questionnaire co...

  2. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    ). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight...... change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years...

  3. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

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    Jessica M Perkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  4. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

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    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  5. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  6. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

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    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  7. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana. PMID:26754167

  8. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. Methods The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. Results About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). Conclusions This first look at access

  9. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayden I Scheim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM. In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender MSM. Methods: The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857 were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. Results: About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%; lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%; and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%. HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98 and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98. Conclusions: This first

  10. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    : Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  11. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged....... Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (Plipids in blood were always highest in the older adults. FFA and glycerol...... increased with reduced activity (Plipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...

  12. Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finance Peer Search Education Finance Statistics Center Compare Academic Libraries IPEDS Data Center State Education Data Profiles ... box Title: The Health Literacy of America’s Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy ...

  13. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  14. Cardiorespiratory responses and prediction of peak oxygen uptake during the shuttle walking test in healthy sedentary adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila D C Neves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak in healthy sedentary adult men. METHODS: In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R, and heart rate (HR were evaluated. RESULTS: Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05, R peak (P>0.05 and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05 were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01 and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05 was found. CONCLUSIONS: The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men.

  15. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  16. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  17. Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult men: Effect on gait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Uros; Kavcic, Voyko; Giordani, Bruno; Gerževič, Mitja; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged physical inactivity or bed rest (BR) due to illness or other factors can result in significant declines in physical health and even cognitive functions. Based on random selection, 7 healthy older adult men received computerized spatial navigation training, while 8 served as active controls during 14-day BR. Greater post-BR declines were seen in normal and complex (dual-task) walking for the control as compared to intervention group, suggesting that computerized spatial navigation training can successfully moderate detrimental BR effects. Findings underline the generalization of cognitive-based intervention to the motor domain and potentially support their use to supplement BR interventions (e.g., exercise and nutrition). PMID:25938245

  18. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  19. Laminotomy in adults: technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Andrea; Pichierri, Angelo; Marotta, Nicola; Tarantino, Roberto; Delfini, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe step by step our surgical technique of laminotomy and analyze our series with regard to spinal deformities (risk and predisposing factors), postoperative pain and rate of postoperative contusions. Data regarding patients who underwent our technique of laminotomy (N = 40, mean follow-up: 52 ms) (N = 40) between 2002 and 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The technique used is illustrated in depth. Chronic pain was present in 30% with a mean score of 3/10 cm (Graphic Rating Scale). Postoperative kyphoses occurred in three patients, all below 35 years of age and with laminotomies which involved C2 and/or C7. None of these deformities required further surgical treatment because they were self-limiting or asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 52 months. Based on the results, our technique proved to be safe and effective in terms of late deformities, blood loss, early and chronic postoperative pain and protection from postoperative accidents over the surgical site.

  20. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES in eight countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fleming

    Full Text Available This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806 that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC, men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON C - REACTIVE PROTEIN AND PLASMA FIBRINOGEN IN UNTRAINED YOUNG ADULT MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Seyed Alangi; Farshad Ghazalian; Heshmatollah Parsaian; Fatanhe Khanali

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training onC-reactive protein and plasma fibrinogen in untrained young adult men.The subjects of this research consisted of twenty-four healthy student men with mean age(25±1.19) years; weight (74.37±5.38) Kg; height (174.70±5.51) cm which were dividedrandomly into two groups : strength group (n=12) and control group (n=12).The strength training was consisted of 12 weeks; 3 days per week in circuit pattern in 6 stations.Each ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF A STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE FATIGUE TEST ON THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LOWER LIMBS IN ADULT MEN AND PRE-PUBESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ftikas C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study focused on the acute effect differences between children and adults after a stretch shortening cycle fatigue test on drop jump performance.Method: Eleven pre-pubescent boys (10,2 ± 0,7 y old and eleven adult men (24,3 ± 3,3 y old performed a stretch shortening cycle fatigue test (SSFT,10 sets /10 repetitions, with 30 sec interval between sets. Before and after fatigue test, maximal isometric torque, drop jump (DJ, contact time and ground reaction forces (GRF wereevaluated. Fatigue perceives and feel of pain were evaluated immediately after fatigue as well.Results: After fatigue MVC and DJ significantly decreased in both groups but this decrease was higher in adults.Contact time and GRF were increased in both groups but in a higher extend in adults. Fatigue perception and the feeling of pain were also higher in adults.Conclusion: In this research, the SSFT resulted in acute reduction of the performance of both age groups butmore in adults. The higher performance reduction in adults could be attributed possibly both in neuromuscular, metabolic and inflammatory factors

  3. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A;

    2004-01-01

    follow-up surveys, after 5 and 11 years. SUBJECTS: In all, 3785 men and women attended at baseline, of which 2436 aged 30-60 y attended all three examinations. MEASUREMENTS: A 26-item food frequency questionnaire, standardised measurements of height and weight and a lifestyle questionnaire. Food intake...... patterns were identified by factor analysis. Regression models including: scores on each factor, BMI, smoking, leisure time physical activity, education, parity, age; and as outcomes: baseline BMI, BMI change between baseline, 5- and 11-y follow-up and obesity at 11-y follow-up, respectively. RESULTS...

  4. Depressive symptoms and suicide risk in older adults: value placed on autonomy as a moderator for men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.

  5. Characterizing trends in HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Australia by birth cohorts: results from a modified back-projection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Handan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to estimate historical trends in HIV incidence in Australian men who have sex with men with respect to age at infection and birth cohort. Methods A modified back-projection technique is applied to data from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance System in Australia, including "newly diagnosed HIV infections", "newly acquired HIV infections" and "AIDS diagnoses", to estimate trends in HIV incidence over both calendar time and age at infection. Results Our results demonstrate that since 2000, there has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australian men who have sex with men across all age groups. The estimated mean age at infection increased from ~35 years in 2000 to ~37 years in 2007. When the epidemic peaked in the mid 1980s, the majority of the infections (56% occurred among men aged 30 years and younger; 30% occurred in ages 31 to 40 years; and only ~14% of them were attributed to the group who were older than 40 years of age. In 2007, the proportion of infections occurring in persons 40 years or older doubled to 31% compared to the mid 1980s, while the proportion of infections attributed to the group younger than 30 years of age decreased to 36%. Conclusion The distribution of HIV incidence for birth cohorts by infection year suggests that the HIV epidemic continues to affect older homosexual men as much as, if not more than, younger men. The results are useful for evaluating the impact of the epidemic across successive birth cohorts and study trends among the age groups most at risk.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    OpenAIRE

    Camila D C Neves; Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; Núbia C. P. Avelar; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mendonça, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. METHODS: In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underw...

  8. Sexual Health of Trans Men Who Are Gay, Bisexual, or Who Have Sex with Men: Results from Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Greta R; Redman, Nik; Bradley, Kaitlin; Scheim, Ayden I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have addressed the sexual health of female-to-male transgender or transsexual people who are gay, bisexual, and/or have sex with men (trans GB-MSM) using urban convenience samples. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multimode, respondent-driven sampling survey in Ontario, Canada, in 2009–2010. Weighted estimates were calculated for trans GB-MSM (n = 173) for sexual orientation, behavior, partners, and HIV-related risk, as well as for psychosocial stressors and sexual ...

  9. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  10. The Relationship Between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Rejection among Young Adult Men in Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) and comorbid mental health problems evidence heightened negative consequences, including poorer treatment outcomes, a higher risk for relapse, and mortality compared to individuals with a single disorder. In this study, we focus on the comorbidity between SUDs and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, as EDs are similarly associated with high rates of relapse, morbidity, and mortality. Of particular importance is research examining treatment rejection among individuals in treatment for SUDs with cooccurring ED symptomatology. This study seeks to add to the literature by examining treatment rejection among young adult men in residential treatment for SUDs (N = 68) with cooccurring ED symptomatology. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ED symptoms were significantly associated with treatment rejection after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and depression symptoms. Although this is a preliminary study, the results add to a growing body of research examining the comorbidity between SUDs and ED symptomatology. Future research examining this relationship is needed to further elucidate the treatment patterns among individuals with comorbid ED symptoms and substance use diagnoses. PMID:27257382

  11. Associations between serum phthalates and biomarkers of reproductive function in 589 adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, Karin S;

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates which are widely used, are ubiquitous in the environment and in some human tissues. It is generally accepted that phthalates exert their toxic action by inhibiting Leydig cell synthesis of testosterone, but in vitro studies have also shown anti-androgenic effects at the receptor level....... Some cross-sectional studies have shown inverse associations between urinary levels of phthalates and reproductive hormones, but results are conflicting and the evidence base is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate if levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (Di...... and Ukraine were enrolled between 2002 and 2004. The men gave semen and blood samples and were interviewed. Six phthalate metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in serum. The metabolites were summed according to their molar weight. We observed significant...

  12. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  13. The safety of adult male circumcision in HIV-infected and uninfected men in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Kigozi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to compare rates of adverse events (AEs related to male circumcision (MC in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in order to provide guidance for MC programs that may provide services to HIV-infected and uninfected men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 2,326 HIV-negative and 420 HIV-positive men (World Health Organization [WHO] stage I or II and CD4 counts > 350 cells/mm3 were circumcised in two separate but procedurally identical trials of MC for HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Rakai, Uganda. Participants were followed at 1-2 d and 5-9 d, and at 4-6 wk, to assess surgery-related AEs, wound healing, and resumption of intercourse. AE risks and wound healing were compared in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for baseline characteristics and postoperative resumption of sex. At enrollment, HIV-positive men were older, more likely to be married, reported more sexual partners, less condom use, and higher rates of sexually transmitted disease symptoms than HIV-negative men. Risks of moderate or severe AEs were 3.1/100 and 3.5/100 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively (AdjOR 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.74. Infections were the most common AEs (2.6/100 in HIV-positive versus 3.0/100 in HIV-negative men. Risks of other complications were similar in the two groups. The proportion with completed healing by 6 wk postsurgery was 92.7% in HIV-positive men and 95.8% in HIV-negative men (p = 0.007. AEs were more common in men who resumed intercourse before wound healing compared to those who waited (AdjOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.33. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the safety of MC was comparable in asymptomatic HIV-positive and HIV-negative men, although healing was somewhat slower among the HIV infected. All men should be strongly counseled to refrain from intercourse until full wound

  14. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y....... RESULTS: After adjusting for current BMI, smoking and education, birth weight was positively related to FEV(1), although only with borderline statistical significance. BMI at age 7 y was positively associated with both FEV(1) and FVC, whereas BMI at later ages in childhood and in youth was not associated...

  15. Light-emitting diode exposure enhances sperm motility in men with and without asthenospermia: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of lightemitting diode (LED on sperm motility in men with and without asthenospermia. Material and Methods: Semen samples from 27 men were assessed and washed. An aliquot was taken from each sample as a control. The remaining amount was exposed to red LED for 2, 5 and 10 minutes. Sperm motility from the test and control tubes were re-checked at the end of each time interval. In 11 of these 27 samples, the same protocol was repeated without sperm washing. Evaluation of sperm creatine kinase (CK activity, hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test and aniline blue staining (ANBS were undertaken after phototherapy in additional 15 samples. Results: Progressive sperm motility increased significantly after LED treatment at the different time intervals whether in washed (p = 0.000 or non-washed (p = 0.003 samples. The amount of the increase in motility in washed aliquots was significantly more (p = 0.000 than in naive semen. Sperm CK activity increased, but was not significant whilst there were no changes regarding HOS and ANBS. Conclusion: Red LED is a promising safe tool to boost sperm motility in vitro. This may have a great implication on maximizing the possibilities and outcomes of intrauterine insemination trials.

  16. LifeSkills for Men (LS4M): Pilot Evaluation of a Gender-Affirmative HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Young Adult Transgender Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana J; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Young adult transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. To date, no HIV and STI prevention interventions have been developed specifically for young adult TMSM. To address this gap, the current study aimed to (1) adapt a small group-based behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed for young transgender women ("LifeSkills") to address the unique HIV and STI prevention needs of young TMSM ages 18-29 years and (2) conduct a pilot evaluation of the intervention ("LifeSkills for Men"; LS4M). LS4M was carried out in an iterative approach with community input along the way, which allowed for refinement of the intervention manual and enhanced participant acceptability. A LS4M Task Force was convened to guide intervention development/adaptation and study implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted to examine the sexual health needs, concerns, and stressors facing young TMSM (n = 12; mean age = 23.8 years; 16.7% people of color). Next, LS4M was pilot tested (n = 17; mean age = 24.3 years; 23.5% people of color) to assess acceptability with the study population and feasibility of all study procedures. Overall attendance, participation rates, and positive feedback from participants demonstrate that LS4M is highly acceptable and feasible to carry out with young TMSM. Trends in outcome measures across 4 months of follow-up suggest that participation in the intervention may improve mental health, reduce internalized stigma, and reduce HIV- and STI-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention enrolling young TMSM with recent sexual risk behavior at baseline and with a control group is warranted. Lessons learned for future work with young TMSM are discussed. PMID:26753882

  17. Willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States to be circumcised as adults to reduce the risk of HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin B Begley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexual men in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended. METHODS: We interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be circumcised if it were proven to reduce risk of HIV among MSM and perceived barriers to circumcision. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with willingness to be circumcised. RESULTS: Of 780 MSM, 133 (17% were uncircumcised. Of these, 71 (53% were willing to be circumcised. Willingness was associated with black race (exact odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-9.8, non-injection drug use (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.8-23.7 and perceived reduced risk of penile cancer (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-11.9. The most commonly endorsed concerns about circumcision were post-surgical pain and wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of uncircumcised MSM, especially black MSM, expressed willingness to be circumcised. Perceived risks and benefits of circumcision should be a part of educational materials if circumcision is recommended for MSM in the United States.

  18. The effect of swimming training on body composition and motoric features in adult sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week of swimming training program on motoricfeatures, resting heart rate, blood pressure, andbody composition in young sedentary men.Materials and methods: Forty volunteers aged between20 and 29 years participated in the research. The participants’body weight, percentage of body fat, body massindex, flexibility, push-up, shuttle, horizontal-verticaljump and 20-meter sprint were measured and comparedbefore and after the 8 weeks of swimming training program.Results: At the end of the study, study groups’ measurementswere compared. Significant decreases wereobserved on parameters of percentage of body fat and20 m sprint run between pre-post test (p0.05. Significant increaseswere observed on parameters of push-up, verticaljump (p0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming training seems toreduce percentage of body fat. It has been observed that8 weeks swimming training increased values of push-up,shuttle and vertical jump. On the other hand, no changewas observed in values of flexibility and horizontal jump.J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 69-73

  19. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  20. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  1. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  2. Correlation Between Insulin Level with Serum Ghrelin and Growth Hormone in Adult Men with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apart from glucose, insulin release is stimulated or suppressed by some hormones and neural signs. Ghrelin is a gut hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion, and recent studies have suggested its role in insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to determine baseline insulin’s relationship to ghrelin and GH concentration in asthma males. Methods: In this study, we measured the baseline blood levels of serum ghrelin and GH in adult obese males with mild to moderate asthma and assessed their relationship with serum insulin and pancreatic beta- cell function. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between insulin and other variables. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between fasting serum insulin and both ghrelin and GH concentration. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between the beta- cell function and both serum ghrelin and GH (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our study findings demonstrated that in adult asthma patients, an increase in serum ghrelin and GH is accompanied by a decrease in serum insulin secretion, and the measuring of serum ghrelin or GH is a predictor of blood insulin level in these patients.

  3. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Gao; Chuan Xu; Jingjing Zhang; Chaozhao Liang; Puyu Su; Zhen Peng; Kai Shi; Dongdong Tang; Pan Gao; Zhaoxiang Lu; Jishuang Liu; Lei Xia; Jiajia Yang; Zongyao Hao; Jun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patie...

  4. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = -7.49; 95% CI: -14.8, -0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = -0.80; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.04) compared to MSM 18-34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices.

  5. Effects of whisky on plasma gastrin and cholecystokinin in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, T; Sawai, H; Okada, Y; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, M; Sato, M; Hayakawa, T; Yamaki, K

    2003-01-01

    Whisky (1 g/kg, 21.5% alcohol) was administered orally to healthy young adult male volunteers, and changes in the plasma concentrations of alcohol, acetaldehyde, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and serum amylase were measured over time. Values for alcohol and acetaldehyde rapidly reached a peak at 30-45 min after alcohol intake, followed by a gradual decline. The plasma gastrin concentration showed a rapid elevation, while the plasma CCK concentration did not exhibit any significant changes in the early phase after alcohol intake. Elevation of CCK was observed after 75 min, however. These results show that intake of whisky stimulates the secretion of gastrin and is associated with a later increase in CCK.

  6. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26541646

  7. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, AA; Doros, G

    2013-01-01

    Summary What is already known about this subject Hypogonadism is associated with increased fat mass and reduced muscle mass, which contributes to obesity and health risks, such as cardiovascular disease. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men improves muscle mass and reduces fat mass; however, many of these studies are of short duration. Thus, the long-term effects of testosterone on body anthropometry are not known. What this study adds Long-term testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men,...

  8. HIV Risk and the Internet: Results of the Men's INTernet Sex (MINTS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, B.R. Simon; Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Michael W. Ross; Konstan, Joseph; Gurak, Laura; Stanton, Jeffrey; Edwards, Weston; Jacoby, Scott; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Mazin, Rafael; Coleman, Eli

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of online recruitment of high-risk Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV prevention survey research and investigated the relationship between Internet use and unsafe sex. Participants (N= 1,026) were Internet-using Latino MSM living in the U.S. recruited using online banner advertisements. Respondents completed a cross-sectional, online survey in English or Spanish. Sample characteristics reflected national statistics within 5%. Nearly all (99%) re...

  9. Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion results in gut dysfunction in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim van Wijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Splanchnic hypoperfusion is common in various pathophysiological conditions and often considered to lead to gut dysfunction. While it is known that physiological situations such as physical exercise also result in splanchnic hypoperfusion, the consequences of flow redistribution at the expense of abdominal organs remained to be determined. This study focuses on the effects of splanchnic hypoperfusion on the gut, and the relationship between hypoperfusion, intestinal injury and permeability during physical exercise in healthy men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy men cycled for 60 minutes at 70% of maximum workload capacity. Splanchnic hypoperfusion was assessed using gastric tonometry. Blood, sampled every 10 minutes, was analyzed for enterocyte damage parameters (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP. Changes in intestinal permeability were assessed using sugar probes. Furthermore, liver and renal parameters were assessed. Splanchnic perfusion rapidly decreased during exercise, reflected by increased gap(g-apCO(2 from -0.85±0.15 to 0.85±0.42 kPa (p<0.001. Hypoperfusion increased plasma I-FABP (615±118 vs. 309±46 pg/ml, p<0.001 and I-BABP (14.30±2.20 vs. 5.06±1.27 ng/ml, p<0.001, and hypoperfusion correlated significantly with this small intestinal damage (r(S = 0.59; p<0.001. Last of all, plasma analysis revealed an increase in small intestinal permeability after exercise (p<0.001, which correlated with intestinal injury (r(S = 0.50; p<0.001. Liver parameters, but not renal parameters were elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion results in quantifiable small intestinal injury. Importantly, the extent of intestinal injury correlates with transiently increased small intestinal permeability, indicating gut barrier dysfunction in healthy individuals. These physiological observations increase our knowledge of splanchnic hypoperfusion sequelae, and may

  10. Automobile Driving in Older Adults: Factors Affecting Driving Restriction in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    MARIE-DIT-ASSE, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. SETTING: The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia w...

  11. Educational Level, Obesity and Incidence of Diabetes among Chinese Adult Men and Women Aged 18–59 Years Old: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwen Shang; Jiongyi Li; Qiushan Tao; Jing Li; Xi Li; Lihua Zhang; Xiancheng Liu; Qing Wang; Xiuzhong Shi; Yuhong Zhao; Shuang Hu; Lixin Jiang; Ying Yang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether educational level and overweight/obesity was associated with the development of diabetes among Chinese adult men and women. METHODS: A cohort (2000-2011) of 10 704 participants aged 18-59 years (8 238 men, 2 466 women) in Qingdao Port Health Study (QPHS) were recruited in this study. The personal lifestyle, height, weight, waist circumference, resting heart rate, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and plasma uric acid were c...

  12. [Formalized dietary advice in hypercholesterolemia. Results in 110 men diagnosed by selective screening in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Jacobsen, K; Baastrup, A; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%. PMID:2238224

  13. Sexuality and affection among elderly German men and women in long-term relationships: results of a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Müller

    Full Text Available Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE. At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the 'second language of sexuality': for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals.

  14. Sexuality and affection among elderly German men and women in long-term relationships: results of a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the 'second language of sexuality': for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  15. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  16. Light-emitting diode exposure enhances sperm motility in men with and without asthenospermia: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Salama; Mohamed El-Sawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of lightemitting diode (LED) on sperm motility in men with and without asthenospermia. Material and Methods: Semen samples from 27 men were assessed and washed. An aliquot was taken from each sample as a control. The remaining amount was exposed to red LED for 2, 5 and 10 minutes. Sperm motility from the test and control tubes were re-checked at the end of each time interval. In 11 of these 27 samples, the same protocol was repeated without sperm washing. Eva...

  17. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  18. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. Results The results showed that, during the 1 year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (Pejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. Conclusions In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  19. A comparison of HIV seropositive and seronegative young adult heroin- and cocaine-using men who have sex with men in New York City, 2000–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Crystal M.; Absalon, Judith; Ompad, Danielle C.; Nash, Denis; Koblin, Beryl; Blaney, Shannon; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among a street-recruited sample of heroin-and cocaine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). Injection (injecting ≦3 years) and non-injection drug users (heroin, crack, and/or cocaine use

  20. Growth in height in childhood and risk of coronary heart disease in adult men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Adult height is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is still unknown which phase of the human growth period is critical for the formation of this association. We investigated the association between growth in height from 7 to 13 years of age and the risk...

  1. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  2. Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Frøyland, Livar

    2010-07-01

    Although the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on several physiologic functions have been widely reported, information about the effects of oily fish in the Asian diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is diminutive. We hypothesize that daily inclusion of oily fish for 8 weeks in the Chinese diet will elevate serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and reduce CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men, comparable with the effects generally observed by inclusion of oily fish in the Western diet. In this 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, food-based intervention study, lunches were prepared with 500 g pork/chicken/beef, typically consumed fish (hairtail and freshwater carp), or oily fish (salmon). Male subjects aged between 35 and 70 years with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to eat lunches with pork/chicken/beef (n = 30 subjects at 8 weeks), freshwater fish (n = 30), or oily fish (n = 32). Circulating markers were measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. In the oily fish diet, dietary EPA and DHA levels were significantly increased as compared with other diets; and the n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was decreased (P < .05). Thus, the oily fish diet significantly elevated serum EPA and DHA concentrations (P < .01) and lowered serum n-6:n-3 ratio at 8 weeks (P < .05). Furthermore, oily fish intake significantly reduced serum levels of triglycerides (P < .05) and interleukin-6 (P < .01) and increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .01). In conclusion, daily inclusion of oily fish as part of the Chinese diet for 8 weeks is sufficient to significantly increase the serum content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduce levels of CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

  3. Comparison of Treatment Results Between Adult and Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a bimodal age distribution. In contrast to the adult variant, little is known about the juvenile form. This study examined the treatment results between adult (aNPC) and juvenile NPC (jNPC) patients for future treatment considerations in jNPC. Methods and Materials: The jNPC population included 53 patients treated at two institutions between 1972 and 2004. The aNPC population included 84 patients treated at one institution. The patients had received a median dose of 66 Gy of external beam radiotherapy and 72% underwent chemotherapy. The mean follow-up for surviving patients was 12.6 years for jNPC and 6.6 years for aNPC. Results: The jNPC patients presented with more advance stages than did the aNPC patients (92% vs. 67% Stage III-IV, p = .006). However, jNPC patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) than did aNPC patients. The 5-year OS rate was 71% for jNPC and 58% for aNPC (p = .03). The jNPC group also demonstrated a trend for greater relapse-free survival than the aNPC group (5-year relapse-free survival rate, 69% vs. 49%; p = .056). The pattern of failure analysis revealed that the jNPC patients had greater locoregional control and freedom from metastasis but the differences were not statistically significant. Univariate analysis for OS revealed that age group, nodal classification, and chemotherapy use were significant prognostic factors. Age group remained significant for OS on multivariate analysis, after adjusting for N classification and treatment. Conclusion: Despite more advance stage at presentation, jNPC patients had better survival than did aNPC patients. Future treatment strategies should take into consideration the long-term complications in these young patients.

  4. Pro-inflammatory Profiles of Indonesian Adult Men with Central Obesity: A Preliminary Study on TNF-alpha, sTNFR-2 and IL-1beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Retna Sartika

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is closely associated with chronic inflammation, characterized by abnormal cytokine production such as IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR-2. Central obesity and chronic inflammation form a complex link with insulin resistance, leading to the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Knowing the coinciding occurrence of chronic inflammation and central obesity, this study aimed to examine pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of Indonesian adult men with central obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 80 apparently healthy Indonesian adult men, aged 23-53 years with waist circumference of 64-125 cm. This study was done in Jakarta. Measurements included clinical parameters like systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, anthropometric parameters, namely weight, height and waist circumference; and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, soluble TNFR-2 (sTNFR-2 and IL-1β. RESULTS: Basic characteristics of the subjects showed linear increase in values of SBP, DBP and the serum concentrations of AST, ALT, FBG, GFR, hsCRP (p<0.005, respectively with the degree of obesity. sTNFR-2 and IL-1 β positively correlated with hsCRP (r=0.277, p=0.013 and r=0.257, p=0.022, respectively, WC (r=0.380, p=0.001 and r=0.400, p<0.001, respectively and body mass index (BMI (r=0.364, p=0.001 and r=0.399, p<0.001, respectively. Moreover, TNF-α did not show correlations with hsCRP, WC and BMI. CONCLUSION: There was a linear increase in the serum concentrations of sTNFR-2 and IL-1β in subjects with central obesity. Both pro-inflammatory markers, correlated with hsCRP, WC and BMI, but TNF-α did not. sTNFR-2 and IL-1β were, therefore, considered as valid biomarkers to indicate chronic

  5. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36–53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Methods Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. Results The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Conclusion Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender. PMID:21098826

  6. Hepatitis B Prevalance in Young Adult Men Commando Candidates Applying for a Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country is in the median endemicity belt in terms of hepatitis B virus infection. This study was performed in the commando candidates who came from all over Turkey to a military division/brigade, between January 2007 and December 2009, 20.681 commando candidates were checked for HBsAg positivity and these data were investigated retrospectively. In our study, hepatitis B virus carriage among young men as the Turkey\\s average was 3.3%. This data was lower than those reported previously. We attribute this positive trend to the dissemination of immunization programs, the increase of births in the hospitals rather than home delivery, and the widespread use of HBsAg screening tests before marriage [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 197-200

  7. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  8. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  9. Is the HIV epidemic stable among MSM in Mexico? HIV prevalence and risk behavior results from a nationally representative survey among men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM and injecting drug users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities throughout the 5 regions in the country and reports the socio-demographic and sexual risk behaviors that predict the probability of infection. METHODS: The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified and characterized places where MSM gather in each city and then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported sexual risk behaviors. RESULTS: We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6-18.3], significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases with age, with the number of sexual partners, and among those who play a receptive sexual role, and the risk decreases with higher education. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged and that a significant regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the epidemic that should be better understood and promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts

  10. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  11. Reducing shame in a game that predicts HIV risk reduction for young adult men who have sex with men: a randomized trial delivered nationally over the web

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, John L; Lynn Carol Miller; Paul Robert Appleby; Charisse Corsbie-Massay; Carlos Gustavo Godoy; Stacy C. Marsella; Read, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM) often face socially sanctioned disapproval of sexual deviance from the heterosexual “normal.” Such sexual stigma can be internalized producing a painful affective state (i.e., shame). Although shame (e.g., addiction) can predict risk-taking (e.g., alcohol abuse), sexual shame's link to sexual risk-taking is unclear. Socially Optimized Learning in Virtual Environments (SOLVE) was designed to reduce MSM's sexual shame, bu...

  12. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhu Geng; Ge Gao; Yu-Hua Ruan; Ming-Run Yu; Yun-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior.The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs).Methods:A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing.The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior.To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions,three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire:(1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions,(2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions,and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions.Formulae for the point estimate,variance,and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model.Results:Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants,the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI:21.2-22.2),and each had sex with about three (2.9,95% CI:2.4-3.4) male partners on average in the past month.The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI:50.1-62.8%).In addition,condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI:74.1-85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner.Conclusions:Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM,and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents,especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  13. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  14. Muscular strength is inversely related to prevalence and incidence of obesity in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen W; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Morrow, James R; Church, Timothy S; Maslow, Andrea L; Blair, Steven N

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between quintiles of muscular strength after adjustment for age and body weight, and excessive body fat (EBF) and excessive abdominal fat (EAF) when controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other potential confounders. A two-phased cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted assessing the prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF across quintiles of muscular strength. The sample included 3,258 men (mean age = 42.2 ± 8.9; weight (kg) = 81.2 ± 11.0; BMI = 25.3 ± 2.9; %fat = 19.4 ± 5.8; waist girth (cm) = 91.2 ± 9.0) who completed at least two clinical examinations as part of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Muscular strength was assessed with tests of upper and lower body muscular strength using rack-mounted weights with participants placed into strength quintiles. CRF was measured by a modified Balke treadmill test, %fat via underwater weighing or seven-site skinfold measurements, and waist girth measured at the level of the umbilicus. EBF was defined as ≥25% and EAF was defined as >102 cm. There was a strong inverse gradient across quintiles of muscular strength for prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF (P trend <0.01, each). With the lowest quintile serving as the referent, reductions in risk of EBF and EAF exceeded 70% for the highest strength quintile. Evidence suggests muscular strength may provide protection from EBF and EAF and their related comorbidities. PMID:19960002

  15. Avaliação da aplicabilidade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e estatura em homens adultos Assessment of equations that estimate weight and height in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e de altura, bem como a composição corporal em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 98 homens saudáveis, com idades entre 20 e 58 anos. Para a análise das equações de estimativa de peso e altura, coletaram-se dados de peso, altura, altura do joelho, envergadura, semi-envergadura, circunferências da panturrilha e do braço e dobra cutânea subescapular. Avaliou-se a composição corporal por meio de bioimpedância elétrica. RESULTADOS: O peso estimado diferiu significantemente do peso aferido (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of equations that predict weight, height and body composition in adult men. METHODS: The sample consisted of 98 healthy men aged from 20 to 58 years. In order to analyze the equations, weight, height, knee height, arm span, half-arm span, calf and arm circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness were collected. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: Estimated weights were significantly different from measured weights (p<0.001. The only equation that estimated height properly was that validated for adult Caucasian men. Both arm span (r=0.789; d=2.67; p<0.001 and half-arm span (r=0.790; d=2.51; p<0.001 overestimated height. When weight and height estimates were used to calculate body mass index, underweight was overestimated and overweight was underestimated, except when height was estimated with the equations for adult Caucasian men. CONCLUSION: The equation to estimate height validated for adult Caucasian men estimated the height of adult young men properly; the other validated equations presented significant differences. It is important to validate the equations assessed in this study in other population groups, making sure to use the estimated weights and heights to calculate body mass index.

  16. Sex differences in the Kimchi-Palmer task revisited: Global reaction times, but not number of global choices differ between adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2016-10-15

    Research, directly assessing sex-dependent differences in global versus local processing is sparse, but predominantly suggesting that men show a stronger global processing bias than women. Utilizing the Kimchi-Palmer task however, sex differences in the number of global choices can only be found in children, but not in adults. In the current study 52 men and 46 women completed a computerized version of the Kimchi Palmer task, in order to investigate whether sex-differences in global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task are reflected in choice reaction times rather than choices per se. While no sex differences were found in the number of global choices, we found that especially women are faster in making local choices than men, while men are faster in making global choices than women. We did not find support for the assumption that this sex difference was modulated by menstrual cycle phase of women, since the difference between reaction times to global and local choices was consistent across the menstrual cycle of women. Accordingly there was no relationship between progesterone and global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task. However, like in studies utilizing the Navon task, testosterone was positively related to the number of global choices in both men and women. To our knowledge, this is the first study including reaction times as outcome measure in a Kimchi Palmer paradigm and also the first study demonstrating sex differences in the Kimchi Palmer task in adults.

  17. Generational Changes in the Meanings of Sex, Sexual Identity and Stigma among Latino Young and Adult Men

    OpenAIRE

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18–60. This study asks how is the bisexual identity and experience of stigma different for Latino men along the generational spectrum, and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men ...

  18. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    summary measure (45q(15-the probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia. PMID:26096688

  20. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  1. 'It brought joy in my home as in the area of my wife.' How recently circumcised adult men ascribe value to and make sense of male circumcision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsby, Katrine; Dræbel, Tania; Wolf Meyrowitsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a phenomenological approach to explore the everyday-life experiences of male circumcision (MC) and to learn how recently circumcised men ascribe value to and make sense of MC. Thirteen recently circumcised Zambian men were identified through the snowball technique...... and interviewed using a semi-structured interviewer's guide. Findings indicate that the post-operational experience of adult MC smoothly fits into the everyday-life experience of the men interviewed and is perceived and experienced as a broader social health issue, which largely transcends both the personal HIV...... that in addition to emphasising the HIV protective effect of MC, MC promotion should also highlight the social, sexual and romantic values perceived and experienced by the interviewees of this study; (3) the analysis reveals potentially harmful misconceptions about the health benefits of MC, demonstrating...

  2. Similar Reference Intervals for Total Testosterone in Healthy Young and Elderly Men. Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2013-01-01

    and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......), respectively, in both young and elderly men. CONCLUSION: Reference intervals for TT were comparable in healthy young and elderly men, but reference intervals for FT and BT were lower in elderly men due to higher levels of SHBG. Androgens and SHBG were lower in elderly men with chronic disease and inversely...

  3. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  4. Determinants in adolescence for adult sickness absence in women and men : a 26-year follow-up of a prospective population based cohort (Northern Swedish cohort)

    OpenAIRE

    Mittendorfer-Rutz Ellenor; Hensing Gunnel; Westerlund Hugo; Backheden Magnus; Hammarström Anne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To date little is known regarding how factors measured in adolescence predict sickness absence in adulthood, and whether different patterns of factors exist for women and men that could contribute to an explanation of adult gender differences in sickness absence. Methods All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in the municipality of Luleå with complete information from surveys (questionnaires) in 1981 and 1983 (compulsory and upper-secondary schooling; 16 and 18 y...

  5. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  6. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. PMID:23917064

  7. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  8. Learning a Living First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    OpenAIRE

    OECD; Canada, S

    2005-01-01

    First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey OECD, Statistics Canada. 250250250250250 both their health and emotional status using the extreme positive categories, whereas the larger group reports their physical and mental well ...

  9. Long-Term Natural Course of Pituitary Tumors in Patients With MEN1: Results From the DutchMEN1 Study Group (DMSG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, J.M. de; Dekkers, O.M.; Pieterman, C.R.; Kluijfhout, W.P.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Pereira, A.M.; Horst-Schrivers, A.N. van der; Drent, M.L.; Bisschop, P.H.; Havekes, B.; Herder, W.W. de; Valk, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Guidelines advise lifelong radiological followup for asymptomatic pituitary adenomas (PITs) because of the risk for growth and subsequent visual field defects. In the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) an even more comprehensive screening is advised because PITs are presu

  10. Long-Term Natural Course of Pituitary Tumors in Patients With MEN1 : Results From the DutchMEN1 Study Group (DMSG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pieterman, Carolina R C; Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Hermus, Ad R; Pereira, Alberto M; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N; Drent, Madeleine L; Bisschop, Peter H; Havekes, Bas; de Herder, Wouter W; Valk, Gerlof D; Valk, GD

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Guidelines advise lifelong radiological followup for asymptomatic pituitary adenomas (PITs) because of the risk for growth and subsequent visual field defects. In the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) an even more comprehensive screening is advised because PITs are presu

  11. Long-Term Natural Course of Pituitary Tumors in Patients With MEN1 : Results From the DutchMEN1 Study Group (DMSG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Kluijfhout, Wouter P.; Hermus, Ad R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; de Herder, Wouter W.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Guidelines advise lifelong radiological followup for asymptomatic pituitary adenomas (PITs) because of the risk for growth and subsequent visual field defects. In the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) an even more comprehensive screening is advised because PITs are pres

  12. Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáhn Marianna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is basicly important for the well-being of people. Thus, it is strongly suggested to organize epidemiological surveys in order to gain representative data on oral condition of the given population. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to determine the results on tooth loss and caries prevalence of Hungarian adults in different age groups. Methods Altogether 4606 persons (2923 women, 1683 men participated in the study who were classified into different age groups: 19 [less than or equal to], 20–24, 35–44, 45–64, 65–74, [greater than or equal to]75 year olds. Probands were selected randomly from the population attending the compulsory lung screening examinations. The participants were examined by calibrated dentists, according to the WHO (1997 criteria. In order to produce representative data, the chosen localities for these examinations covered the capital, the largest towns, the villages, and case weights were used for the statistical evaluation. Results The mean values of DMF-T were found between 11.79±5.68 and 21.90±7.61 These values were significantly higher in women compared to men (p Data showed some decrease in caries experience in 35–44 years of age between 2000 and 2004. The prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth had been increased from 65.6% to 73.1%. This positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group: the prevalence of edentulous persons changed from 1.4 to 1.9%. In 65–74 year olds the level of edentulousness became lower, from 25.9 to 14.8% and the prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth is higher (22.6% than it was in 2000 (13.0%. Conclusion Present data from Hungary show some slight decrease in caries experience between 35–44 years of age, although this positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group. A positive tendency could be experienced in the group of 65–74 year olds in

  13. [Frequency and distribution of sleep problems and insomnia in the adult population in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Hapke, U; Maske, U; Busch, M; Cohrs, S

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a variety of physical and mental health disorders and cause high direct and indirect economic costs. The aim of this study was to report the frequency and distribution of problems of sleep onset and maintaining sleep, sleep quality, effective sleep time, and the consumption of sleeping pills in the adult population in Germany. During the 4 weeks prior to the interview, about one third of the respondents reported potentially clinically relevant problems initiating or maintaining sleep; about one-fifth reported poor quality of sleep. When additionally considering impairments during the daytime such as daytime fatigue or exhaustion, a prevalence of 5.7 % for an insomnia syndrome was found. Women were twice as likely to be affected by insomnia-syndrome as men. Significant age differences were not seen. Persons with low socioeconomic status had an increased risk of insomnia (OR: 3.44) as did people residing in West Germany (OR: 1.53). Women with low socioeconomic status (OR: 4.12) and West German men (OR: 1.79) were more affected. The results illustrate the considerable public health relevance of insomnia-related sleep disturbances. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703493

  14. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in elderly men: results from a large prospective study in Southern Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Y Chung

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and depressive symptoms was previously reported among Southern Chinese men; however, the temporal relationship was unclear. Our objective is to evaluate the temporal relationship between moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms and clinically significant depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men aged 65 in a prospective manner. In a prospective cohort of 2,000 Chinese men aged 65 to 92 years in Hong Kong, we studied the association of having moderate to severe LUTS at baseline and having clinically relevant depressive symptoms at year 2 follow-up. After excluding men with prostate or bladder cancer or surgery (n = 20 and lost to follow-up (n = 254, data on 1,726 subjects were analyzed. LUTS were measured by the International Prostate Symptom score; and clinically relevant depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The multiple logistic regressions showed that the presence of moderate-to-severe LUTS at baseline were significantly associated with increased risk for being depressed at two-year follow-up, with adjustments for demographic, lifestyle, medical factors, weight status and stressful life events (OR = 2.97; CI: 1.70-5.20. Association remained significant with additional adjustments for baseline GDS score (OR = 1.88; CI: 1.03-3.41. LUTS are important risk factors in predicting the presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. In elderly men, increased awareness and possible screening are needed to detect the increased risk of clinically relevant depressive symptoms.

  15. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency ...

  16. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? results from a cohort of severely obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Emil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high body mass index (BMI has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reproductive indicators. Methods In this pilot cohort study, 43 men with BMI > 33 kg/m2 were followed through a 14 week residential weight loss program. The participants provided semen samples and had blood samples drawn, filled in questionnaires, and had clinical examinations before and after the intervention. Conventional semen characteristics as well as sperm DNA integrity, analysed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA were obtained. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B (Inh-B were measured. Results Participants were from 20 to 59 years of age (median = 32 with BMI ranging from 33 to 61 kg/m2. At baseline, after adjustment for potential confounders, BMI was inversely associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.02, total sperm count (p = 0.02, sperm morphology (p = 0.04, and motile sperm (p = 0.005 as well as testosterone (p = 0.04 and Inh-B (p = 0.04 and positively associated to estradiol (p Conclusion This study found obesity to be associated with poor semen quality and altered reproductive hormonal profile. Weight loss may potentially lead to improvement in semen quality. Whether the improvement is a result of the reduction in body weight per se or improved lifestyles remains unknown.

  17. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  18. Preparedness for the use of the rapid result HIV self-test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study amongst MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, P; Riddell, J.; Park, C; Ahmed, B.; Young, I.; Frankis, J.; Davis, M.; Gilbert, M.; Estcourt, C; Wallace, L; McDaid, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore preparedness for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) and those involved in HIV prevention and care. Methods: A mixed methods exploratory research design was employed, detailing awareness and willingness to use the self-test and the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were completed in parallel. Descriptive and inferential analysis of cross-...

  19. Different gene expression profiles in normo- and dyslipidemic men after fish oil supplementation: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular health, but only limited data are available describing n-3 PUFA regulated pathways in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on whole genome expression profiles in the blood of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. Methods Differentially expressed genes were detected after four hours, one week and twelve weeks of supplementation with either fish oil (FO or corn oil in normo- and dyslipidemic men using whole genome microarrays. Results Independent of the oil, a significantly higher number of genes was regulated in dyslipidemic subjects compared to normolipidemic subjects. Pathway analyses discovered metabolisms dominantly affected by FO after twelve weeks of supplementation, including the lipid metabolism, immune system and cardiovascular diseases. Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions This is the first study showing significant differences in gene expression profiles between normo- and dyslipidemic men after FO supplementation. Further studies need to clarify the exact role of n-3 PUFAs in pathways and metabolisms which were identified as being regulated after FO supplementation in this study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01089231

  20. The use of medication and associated factors among adults living in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: differences between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify factors associated with the use of medication by adults, with emphasis on the differences between men and women. It was a population-based, cross-sectional study with cluster sampling conducted in two stages in Campinas in the state of São Paulo in 2008. Among the 2,413 individuals aged 20 or older, the prevalence of use of at least one drug in the three days before the research was 45.4% (95% CI: 41.3 - 49.4 in men and 64.6% (95% CI: 59.8 - 69.2 in women. For adult men over 40 years old who were not working, former smokers, with one or more chronic diseases, with two or more health problems and who sought health care or a health professional in the two weeks preceding the research showed higher prevalence of medication use. Among women, a higher prevalence of use was observed in females over 40, obese, former smokers, who reported a short sleep pattern, with one or more chronic diseases and two or more health problems, and who reported seeking a health care service or professional in the past 15 days. The findings showed some differences in the determinants of drug use in relation to gender, revealing the greater importance of health-related behavior among women.

  1. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  2. Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion results in gut dysfunction in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijck, K. van; Lenaerts, K.; Loon, L.J. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Buurman, W.A.; Dejong, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Splanchnic hypoperfusion is common in various pathophysiological conditions and often considered to lead to gut dysfunction. While it is known that physiological situations such as physical exercise also result in splanchnic hypoperfusion, the consequences of flow redistribution at the e

  3. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  4. Project SMART: Preliminary Results From a Test of the Efficacy of a Swedish Internet-Based HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    In Sweden, 57 % of HIV transmission occurs among MSM, and other sexually transmitted infections are increasing, supporting the need for innovative interventions. The Internet is a potentially useful HIV-prevention platform, but there is a lack of such programs in Sweden. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the efficacy of the Internet-based SMART intervention to decrease HIV sexual risks in Swedish MSM. The intervention was adapted from the Wyoming Rural AIDS Prevention Project to the Swedish context, which was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model and consisted of six sessions. A total of 112 men responded to a pretest questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the SMART intervention or to a waitlist group. Fifty-four men dropped out, leaving a final sample of 58 participants. Twenty-five were assigned to the SMART intervention and 33 to a waitlist group. One month post intervention, the number of casual anal sex partners significantly decreased (t = 2.19, p = .04). Compared with the waitlist group, men in the intervention group increased their HIV knowledge (β = 0.70, p = .01), their belief of condom use as an act of responsibility (β = 1.19, p = .04), their willingness to use a condom with every new partner all the time (β = 1.39, p = .03), and their confidence in using condoms in challenging situations (β = 1.65, p = .02). Condom use was not analyzed due to the small sample size. Despite the small sample, high drop-out, and short follow-up, the study provides support for the efficacy of the Internet interventions, the SMART intervention specifically, for reducing the proportion of casual anal sex partners and improving the three cognitive components of the IMB model for Swedish MSM. PMID:26545912

  5. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingting Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years. Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89 and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38. Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%, but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so.

  6. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Aggerholm, Anette Skærbech;

    2011-01-01

    A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with reduced semen quality and male subfecundity, but no studies following obese men losing weight have yet been published. We examined semen quality and reproductive hormones among morbidly obese men and studied if weight loss improved the reprodu...

  7. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  8. Inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary CT: change of bronchial and accompanying pulmonary arterial diameter during respiration in healthy adult men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate changes in the diameter of bronchi and pulmonary arteries during respiration. The ratio of the diameter of matched inner bronchi and accompanying pulmonary arteries was calculated from full inspiration and expiration HRCT of healthy men. In 106 pairs of matched bronchi and pulmonary arteries, the bronhchial-arterial ratios were0.61 ±0.18(upper lung), 0.72±0.21(lower lung), and 0.65±0.20(total) at full inspiration and 0.51±0.32(upper lung), 0.52±0.15(lower lung), and 0.51±0.26(total) at full expiration HRCT, denotiong a statistically significant increase in bronchial diameter of the entire lung at full inspiration. The inner diameter of the bronchus was larger than the diameter of the accompanying pulmonary artery by 0.1% at full expiration and 8.5% at full inspiration. The result of this study would be helpful in understanding the physiology of the lung during respiration

  9. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  10. The effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men%枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国琴; 翁锡全; 彭燕群; 蓝道忠

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men. METHODS:40 adult men of 30-70 years old were recruited, and given lycium barbarum juice 100 mL at night for 32 days. The serum testosterone and cortisol were measured and sexual function of adult men were evaluated by the IIEF and BMSFI before and af⁃ter the study. RESULTS: After drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days, the serum testosterone, serum testosterone/cortisol ratio were significantly higher than before, while sexual satisfac⁃tion was significantly increased, libido, erectile function and sex⁃ual function total score were significantly improved, all with statis⁃tically significant difference(P<0.05), especially in men of 41-65 years old. CONCLUSION: Drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days can increase serum testosterone and testosterone/corti⁃sol ratio in adult men, improve sexual satisfaction, sexual desire and overall satisfaction with erectile function, and enhance sexual function of adult men.%目的:探讨枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响.方法:招募30~70岁成年男性共40人,每晚睡前饮用枸杞汁100 mL,持续32 d,测试研究前后血睾酮和皮质醇含量,并通过勃起功能国际指数问卷( IIEF)和简明男性性功能量表( BMSFI)评价性功能状况.结果:饮用32 d枸杞汁后,成年男性血睾酮升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血睾酮/皮质醇比值出现显著性升高现象,同时,性交满意度显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);性欲、勃起功能总体满意度提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),性功能评分总分有显著性的提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),尤其是41-65岁年龄组成年男性血清激素水平和性功能评价指标提高更加明显.结论:饮用32 d枸杞汁可提高成年男性血清睾酮浓度和睾酮/皮

  11. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all Psugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  12. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan B. Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006. Study design. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively. Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  13. Higher testosterone levels are associated with increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men with cardiovascular disease: results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie T.Page; Beth A.Mohr; Carol L.Link; Amy B.O' Donnell; William J.Bremner; John B.McKinlay

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between circulating androgens (total testosterone [TT], free testosterone [fT] and dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Cross-sectional analyses included 1 661 baseline samples from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS), a population-based cohort of men ages 40-70 years. Serum hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and HDL-C was determined following precipitation of the lower density lipoproteins. CVD was determined by self-report. Analyses were performed using multiple linear regression. Results: TT and HDL-C were positively correlated in the entire sample (r = 0.11, P = 0.0001). After adjusting for confounders, we found this relationship was mostly limited to the 209 men with CVD. Among men with CVD, TT (P = 0.0004), fT (P = 0.0172)and DHT (P = 0.0128) were all positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas in men without CVD only TT correlatedwith HDL-C (P = 0.0099). Conclusion: Our results suggest that if androgens contribute to CVD in middle-aged men, the effect is not related to a suppressive effect of endogenous T on HDL-C.

  14. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa'afafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa'afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women's CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = -0.62) between these variables in both men and fa'afafine. Among males (both men and fa'afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia. PMID:27100108

  15. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China:a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanMin Ma; DaLin He; KaiJie Wu; Liang Ning; Jin Zeng; Bo Kou; HongJun Xie; ZhenKun Ma; XinYang Wang; YongGuang Gong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and iffty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if they harbored repeat length of≤20 or as CAG long (CAGL) if their CAG repeat length was>20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the speciifed physicians;CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method;and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student’s t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T) level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P= 0.01); whereas, no signiifcant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P= 0.593). Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL) levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (b=-0.024, P= 0.039, 95%conifdence interval (CI):-0.047, 0). Collectively, this study provides the ifrst evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China.

  16. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  17. Let's not forget about the men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, N

    1995-08-01

    Replacing the concept of "women in development" with that of "gender in development" reflects a welcome perspective which views men and women as intrinsically bound and able to work together to achieve shared goals. Women's empowerment is now recognized as a human issue which a significant number of men are willing to support. Identifying gender gaps remains an important first step, and many programs are most effective if their first efforts are devoted to building capacities of women in separate groups. However, once strength has been achieved, men can be included without the danger of male domination. As the results of women's educational and economic empowerment have begun to benefit their families and communities, men have proved willing to contribute to the efforts. Men also have a greater concern than the stereotype indicates with their own and their partner's reproductive health and in the survival of their wives and children. Yet men are usually denied access to family planning, safe motherhood, and child survival programs. Two programs which started out as women's programs but expanded to include men are Mexico's Centro de Orientacion para Adolescentes, which provides family planning and reproductive health information and services to young people, and a Young Men's Clinic at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City which parallels the previously established Young Adults Clinic for women. Progress in economics, health, and the labor force will depend upon the development of cooperation rather than competition between men and women. PMID:12346505

  18. The prevalence and correlates of undiagnosed HIV among Australian gay and bisexual men: results of a national, community-based, bio-behavioural survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Holt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gay and bisexual men (GBM with undiagnosed HIV are believed to contribute disproportionately to HIV transmission in Australia but national prevalence estimates have been lacking. Methods: From November 2013 to November 2014, we recruited men at gay venues and events in six Australian states and territories. Of 7291 survey participants, 3071 men also provided an oral fluid sample for testing and decided whether to receive their test results or not. We calculated raw and population-weighted prevalence estimates and identified associations with undiagnosed infection using logistic regression. Results: Of 3071 participants, 213 men tested HIV-positive (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0 to 7.8%, of whom 19 (8.9%, 95% CI 5.8 to 13.5% were previously undiagnosed. After weighting for the size of the gay and bisexual male population in each state or territory, national HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7.2% (95% CI 6.3 to 8.1, of which 9.1% (95% CI 6.0 to 13.6% were estimated to be undiagnosed. Compared with HIV-negative participants, men with undiagnosed HIV were more likely to report meeting partners at sex venues, using antiretroviral drugs as pre-exposure prophylaxis, condomless anal intercourse with casual partners, using party drugs for sex, injecting drugs and using amyl nitrite, crystal methamphetamine or gamma hydroxybutyrate in the six months prior to the survey. Discussion: The results indicate that the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV is relatively low among Australian GBM but is higher among men who report riskier sex and drug practices. Conclusions: The results underline the importance of targeted HIV prevention and frequent testing for men at increased risk of infection.

  19. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: khoffman1@mdanderson.org; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-04-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  20. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  1. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  2. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  3. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Inflammation in Men and Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, increasing the risk for various adverse health outcomes. Purpose Our objective was to investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for systemic inflammation, and lifestyle factors in a national sample of people with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study analyzed data from 1086 men and women with diabetes, who completed the 1999-2004 NHANES. Lifestyle factors included diet quality, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and physical activity. Results Stratified logistic regression showed that for both men and women, BMI was a strong predictor of elevated CRP after adjusting for age, energy intake, race/ethnicity, medications, diabetes duration, and glycosylated hemoglobin. However, among men, but not among women, the likelihood of elevated CRP increased with lower diet quality and physical inactivity. Conclusions Among people with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of CRP were associated with lower diet quality and physical inactivity among men, and with obesity among both men and women. PMID:22865468

  4. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  5. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  6. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    length were strongly associated with adult mortality risk, but no relationship between low ponderal index at birth and mortality was found. The relationship between birth size and early adult mortality was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for early-life social position and/or maternal...... liver cirrhosis. Offspring birth dimensions showed an inverse association with parental mortality, which was most pronounced for maternal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The strong inverse association between birth dimensions and adult mortality, but lack of association between ponderal index and mortality...... in relative risk of cause-specific mortality, and the heterogeneity in the association between birth dimensions and maternal and paternal mortality, respectively, indicate that several mechanisms (factors related to social position, common genetic factors, and specific organ programming) may account...

  7. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  8. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  9. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  10. Zinc absorption in adult men from a chicken sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, measured by a double-label stable-isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, S J; Fox, T E; Wharf, S G; Eagles, J; Kennedy, H

    1992-05-01

    Eleven fasted adult men consumed a chicken meat sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, extrinsically labelled with 2 mg 67Zn, on two different occasions. Immediately after eating the sandwich they were given an intravenous injection of 1.5 mg 70Zn. True Zn absorption (which was approximately 7% higher than apparent absorption) was determined by the faecal balance technique by making an allowance for endogenous excretion from measurements of faecal excretion of 70Zn. There was no significant difference in mean true Zn absorption from the white or wholemeal bread sandwich, 33.6 and 25.4% respectively. It was concluded that the substitution of wholemeal for white bread does not reduce Zn absorption from meat-based sandwiches.

  11. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CORRELATES OF SELF-PERCEIVED HEALTH STATUS IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF ALBANIAN ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Methods: Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into “not poor” and “poor health”. Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant “predictors” of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant “determinant” of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries.

  12. Long term results of pectus excavatum in adult women after the nuss procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical treatment of pectus excavatum in adult women was challenging and the results have not been discussed. In adults with pectus excavatum, asymmetric deformity is common and becomes a critical factor for the repair using the Nuss procedure. Out of 556 surgically treated patients using the Nuss procedure in my own experience, 86 (62: male, 24: female) were more than 18 years old. In order to show cosmetic results of the breast, 10 adult female patients who underwent removal of Pectus bars were included in this study. All cases showed mild to severe asymmetric deformity. In preoperative and post-bar removal CT examinations, a CT slice at the nipple level was selected and measured bilateral chest heights (L/R ratio), sternal twist angle and CT index at this level. Comparison of average chest height L/R ratio (from 1.09 to 1.065), sternal twist angle (from 22.1 deg to 18.40 deg) and CT index (from 0.204 to 0.26) before and after the Nuss procedure showed significant improvement. In conclusion, cosmetic results of the breast in adult women after the Nuss procedure were mostly good. However, asymmetry of the chest wall in the CT examination remained in some cases. Further surgical modification is required for adult patients. (author)

  13. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  14. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  15. Depressive Symptoms, Transitions to Widowhood, and Informal Support From Adult Children Among Older Women and Men in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedt, Andrew D; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationships among depressive symptoms, transitions to widowhood, worsening health, and family support in Japan over 10 years. The analyses focus on availability and receipt as the two primary dimensions of intergenerational support relationships. We used growth curve models to analyze data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, finding that (1) becoming widowed correlated with increased depressive symptoms and this relationship was weaker among women than men, (2) continuous widowhood was associated with fewer depressive symptoms over time, (3) transitions to coresidence with sons and daughters among the widowed was correlated with reduced depressive symptoms, (4) self-reported health and difficulty with activities of daily living were predictors of depressive symptoms over time. The findings suggest the importance of new research on household transitions, availability and proximity of family caregivers, and social embeddedness as protections against depressive symptoms. PMID:26243334

  16. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  17. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD, in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35 and 0.92 (0.82-1.03, respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05-1.89 and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.87. There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red

  18. Work Content and Serious Mental Illness among Middle-Aged Men: Results from a 6-Year Longitudinal Study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine prospective associations between work content after a working life of more than 20 years and serious mental illness among Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years, using a nationwide population-based survey.Data were extracted from a national longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly persons previously conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. We analyzed data across 10 work content categories for Japanese men who had been working in the same job type or industry for over 20 years. As part pf the survey, participants completed the Kessler (K6 scale each year to determine their level of psychological distress (with scores ≥13 indicating serious mental illness. Cox discrete time proposal hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between work content and serious mental illness from 2005 to 2010. Further adjustments were made for other sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors.The current study involved a total of 11,942 participants with a mean (± standard deviation [SD] of follow-up was 3.4 (± 2.0 years, during which time 892 participants (7.5% had been classified as having a new-onset serious mental illness. Men who had worked in service jobs and in manufacturing jobs at baseline were more likely to develop serious mental illness than those in managerial jobs (hazard ratio 1.37, 1.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.80, 1.02-1.65 after adjustment for confounding variables.These findings suggest that Japanese men aged 50 to 59 years who have worked in service and manufacturing jobs after a working life of over 20 years have an increased risk of serious mental illness during follow-up. Identifying the most at-risk work content category after a working life of over 20 years would be an essential part of providing more effective interventions for psychological distress among Japanese men in this age group.

  19. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  20. 合肥市成年男性迟发性性腺功能减退认知水平的调查%An investigation on late-onset hypogonadism knowledge among adult men in Hefei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉双; 张贤生; 梁朝朝; 郝宗耀; 周骏; 张翼飞; 樊松; 江长琴; 夏磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查合肥市成年男性对迟发性性腺机能减退(LOH)的认知水平及其影响因素.方法 发放问卷调查1500名成年男性的基本情况,对LOH基本情况的认知,对LOH治疗的认识,希望通过什么途径了解LOH以及对LOH诊疗的态度.并比较分析年龄和文化程度对这些结果的影响.结果 本研究共收集有效可评价问卷及填写完整者1135(75.7%)份.被调查者中只有256人(22.6%)自述听说过LOH,仅有78人(6.9%)回答知道十一酸睾酮补充疗法.年龄较大组及高中以上组对LOH的基本认知率及对LOH知识的需求较高.学历较低组倾向于选择广播电视等来了解LOH的知识,而学历高者喜欢医务人员讲解等方式.年龄较小组偏重于寻求医院及药房的帮助,年龄较大者则更希望得到医务人员、保健品等的帮助.学历较低者倾向于选择保健品、药房,而学历高者喜欢医务人员的建议等方式来处理LOH.结论 合肥市成年男性对LOH的认知水平很低,不同年龄段和不同文化程度者对诊疗的态度不同,并选择也获取LOH知识的途径不同.%Objective To investigate the knowledge of adult men in Hefei on late onset hypogonadism (LOH) and explore its associated factors. Methods Total of 1500 adult men were investigated according to the following items: the basic situation of adult men, the basic knowledge on LOH, understanding of the treatment, the means what I hope to know LOH, and the attitude toward treatment of LOE. The influences of age and education on these results were compared and analyzed. Results Total 1135 questionnaire; (75.7%) were valid, and 256 (22.6%) of them knew LOH,but only 78 people (6.9%) knew Testosterone Undecamoate replacement therapy. Among them, the peoples in the older group and high school groups had less knowledge about LOH, compared with that of the young group and junior group.Interviewee with low education background would like to learn the knowledge of LOH

  1. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  2. 个体化健康管理对改善成年男性下尿路症状的效果评价%Effects of individual health management intervention on lower urinary tract symptoms among adult men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖小玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨个体化健康管理对改善成年男性下尿路症状的效果.方法 对100例成年男性下尿路症状患者进行为期一年的个性化健康管理.结果 健康管理后患者的国际前列腺症状评分下降、生活质量评分提高,与管理前比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01);健康管理后患者勃起功能国际问卷-5评分明显下降,与管理前比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 个体化健康管理能有效减轻患者的排尿症状、提高生活质量、降低勃起功能障碍的严重程度.%Objective To evaluate the effects of the individual health management on improving lower urinary tract symptoms of adult men.Methods A total of 100 adult men with lower urinary tract symptoms received one - year individual health management.Results After the health management,the scores of International Prostate Symptoms were lower than before, the quality of life was significantly improved.To compare before management there was statistically significant ( P < 0.01 ).And the scores of International Index of Erectile Function - 5 were higher than before.The differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The individual health management can be effective to relieve patients’urinary symptoms,enhance their quality of life,and reduce the severity of erectile dysfunction.

  3. Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

  4. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  5. Low DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men: results from a large study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel YS Wong; Jason C Leung; Timothy Kwok; Claes Ohlsson; Liesbeth Vandenput; Ping C Leung; Jean Woo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men and the total testosterone,dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA),DHEA sulphate (DHEAS),oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels,and the free androgen index.Cross-sectional data from 1147 community-dwelling elderly men,aged 65 and older,were used.Depressive symptoms were measured using the Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).Total testosterone,free testosterone,DHEA,DHEAS,total oestradiol,the free androgen index and SHBG levels were assessed.DH EA was significantly associated with GDS score,and there was a trend towards DHEAS association,but this was not significant (β=0.110,P=0.015;β=0.074,P=0.055).However,no association was seen between depressive symptoms and total testosterone levels,free testosterone levels,oestradiol levels or SHBG levels.In terms of the presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms,there were no statistically significant differences between patients in the lowest quartile of sex steroid hormone levels and those in other quartiles of sex steroid hormone levels.Similarly to Western studies,our study shows that DHEA and DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms.

  6. Correlates of unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

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    Barrón-Limón Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Mexico, data on current risk behaviors in this population are lacking. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI in a sample of 260 MSM in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In June 2010, men attending a gay pride celebration were invited to complete a sexual risk survey. Men who reported UAI with a male partner in the past year were compared with men who reported only protected anal sex during the same period. Results Mean age of participants was 29.7; 54% had a high school diploma or less; and 43% were unemployed. In the past year, 55% had been tested for HIV, 21% reported using illicit drugs before or during sex, and 94% had sex only with men. Overall, 50% reported having UAI with another male in the past year. Factors independently associated with UAI in the past year were unemployment (AOR = 1.87, attending adult movie theaters (AOR = 2.21, using illicit drugs before or during sex (AOR = 2.43, and not having a recent HIV test (AOR = 1.85. Conclusions Interventions to promote HIV testing and condom use among men who have sex with men may want to consider venue-specific approaches, as well as focus on drug-use issues in the context of unsafe sex.

  7. Urinary sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure in adults of Shandong province, China: preliminary results of the SMASH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Xu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Jie; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Gaohui; Dong, Jing; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium or potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project were collected from 20 countries or districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24-hour urine collections, and urinary volume or creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. The mean sodium excretion was 241.8 ± 7.9 mmol among men and 222.3 ± 7.9 mmol among women, respectively. The 24-hour average potassium excretion was 39.9 ± 0.9 and 41.8 ± 1.1 mmol, respectively. Some resident and geographic differences were found for 24-hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1-g potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure was observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (P sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium or potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of hypertension, including lower sodium intake, higher potassium intake, and prevention and control of obesity. PMID:26302666

  8. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  9. Characteristics of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Use Adult Developmental Disability Services: Results from 25 US States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Amy S.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Sirek, Annie Johnson; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Taub, Sarah; Engler, Joshua; Bershadsky, Julie; Fortune, Jon; Moseley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a significant increase in the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with estimates now reaching 1 in 110 children in the United States. Families report difficulties in finding services for their young and adult children. Many adults with ASD receive services and supports through state intellectual and…

  10. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  11. Perceived stress and cause-specific mortality among men and women: results from a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Schnohr, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    was most pronounced for deaths due to respiratory diseases (high vs. low stress: HR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.91), external causes (HR = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.71), and suicide (HR = 5.91, 95% CI: 2.47, 14.16). High stress was related to a 2.59 (95% CI: 1.20, 5.61) higher risk of ischemic heart disease......The authors assessed the effect of psychological stress on total and cause-specific mortality among men and women. In 1981-1983, the 12,128 Danish participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked two questions on stress intensity and frequency and were followed in a nationwide registry...... until 2004, with cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.52). This finding...

  12. Results of treatment of infertility in men by complex acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhaylichenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients with various forms of patozoospermii were randomly divided equally into 2 groups. First group of patients administered complex of acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine (SpermAktin ® and alpha-tocopherol acetate for 3 months, in the second group of patients was carried out single-agent alpha-tocopherol acetate duration of 3 months. Ejaculate volume, viscosity and pH of seminal plasma, the concentration, motility and morphology were evaluated after 1.5 and 3 months of starting treatment. In the first group of infertile men showed a significant improvement in the quality and quantity of semen compared with the second patient group.

  13. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  14. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time. PMID:25297618

  15. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  16. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  17. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]valine (and [2H3]leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1

  18. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous......-ray absorptiometry and adipose tissue areas using abdominal computed tomography at 18 to 20 years of age. RESULTS: The main finding in the present study was that subjects with increases in BMI Z score of more than 1 SD during adolescence had, independent of prepubertal BMI, both larger subcutaneous (+138%; P ....001) and visceral adipose tissue areas (+91%; P adipose tissue (+83%; P

  19. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  20. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  1. Sodium intake may promote weight gain: results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Navia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess of weight. Additionally, the study investigated the relationships between salt intake and dietary habits, as a high salt intake may be associated with inadequate eating habits and a high incidence of obesity. Methods: This study involved 418 adults (196 men and 222 women aged 18 to 60 years old. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, and we calculated, BMI and waist/height ratio. Dietary intake was estimated using a "24 h recalls", for two consecutive days, and sodium content was determined from 24 h urine sample. Results: The 34.4% of the population had overweight and 13.6% had obesity. A positive association was seen between BMI and urinary sodium concentration. Urine sodium values were also positively associated with others adiposity indicators such as waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio were higher in the group of individuals with a urinary sodium excretion > 154 mmol/l (Percentile 50 (P50. Additionally, individuals placed in this group presented a higher caloric intake and total food intake, in particular, more meat, processed food and snacks. Adjusting by energy intake, a higher sodium intake was a risk factor of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0.01. Conclusions: Salt intake was associated with obesity; since people with higher sodium intake consumed more energy and presented worse eating habits. Additionally, sodium intake itself appears to be related to obesity.

  2. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Sante cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. METHODS: Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51% and regular (RCOP, 14% organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines, compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity (25 ≤ body mass index<30 and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30: -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001. OCOP participants (% generally showed intermediate figures. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  3. Effects of alfuzosin and tamsulosin on sperm parameters in healthy men: results of a short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Sikka, Suresh C

    2009-01-01

    Ejaculation disorders are associated with tamsulosin treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess whether tamsulosin has any effect on semen, sperm parameters were evaluated in healthy men receiving tamsulosin, alfuzosin, and placebo. Forty-eight healthy men received 5 days of tamsulosin 0.8 mg once daily (QD), alfuzosin 10 mg QD, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study with a 10-14-day washout period between treatments. The changes (x +/- SE) from baseline in semen sperm concentration, semen sperm count, semen viscosity, semen fructose, sperm motility, and sperm morphology on day 5 of treatment were assessed. The change from baseline in semen sperm concentration was 3.1 +/- 8.3 million/mL with tamsulosin, 15.0 +/- 6.5 million/mL with alfuzosin, and 24.4 +/- 6.5 million/mL with placebo. The total sperm count in semen decreased from baseline with tamsulosin (-54.6 +/- 24.0 million) but not with placebo (81.5 +/- 18.8 million) or alfuzosin (46.2 +/- 19.0 million). The percentage of men with normal semen viscosity was lower with tamsulosin (65%) than with placebo (98%) or alfuzosin (92%). The change from baseline in semen fructose was comparable for all treatments. The percentage of motile sperm decreased 13.8% from baseline to day 5 of treatment with tamsulosin compared with decreases of 2.3% with placebo and 0.4% with alfuzosin. The percentage of abnormal sperm increased marginally with tamsulosin (0.6%) but not with placebo (-2.8%) or alfuzosin (-3.9%). The most common adverse events were dizziness (alfuzosin 11%, tamsulosin 14%, placebo 0%) and orthostatic hypotension (alfuzosin 25%, tamsulosin 11%, placebo 5%). The results suggest that tamsulosin has a negative effect on sperm in healthy men. Studies on the effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic blockers on sperm in men with BPH are warranted. PMID:19201696

  4. Severe Maternal Stress Exposure Due to Bereavement before, during and after Pregnancy and Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Young Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military...... service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25...... kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0...

  5. Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Joshi, Rajnish; Moodie, Erica E M; Taksande, Bharati; Kalantri, S P; Pai, Madhukar; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Reingold, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Rural India has an undetected load of HIV-positive individuals. Few rural adults present for HIV testing and counseling due to stigma, discrimination, and fear of social ostracization. In this rural hospital clinic-based study, we document profiles of rural adults seeking voluntary testing and counseling, and analyze correlates of HIV seropositivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 450 participants presenting to the outpatient clinics of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Central India. After informed consent, pre- and post-test counseling, HIV testing, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The median age of the 450 study participants was 34 years (range 18-88 years); the majority (74%) was married. The overall proportion of HIV seropositivity was 32% [95% CI 28%, 37%]. The proportions of HIV seropositivity in married women, married men, and single men were 41%, 37%, 18%, respectively. No single woman was found seropositive in the study. Very few married women were aware of their husbands' HIV status. In a multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV seropositivity in men were: age 30-39 years, being married, having sex with multiple partners, use of alcohol before sex, and testing positive for HIV in the past. In married women, the only predictor of seropositivity was being married. Although limited by the non-random nature of the sampling method, this pilot study is unique in that it is the first from this rural region of Central India. It provides baseline data on marginalized, largely unstudied populations that may aid in designing probabilistic community-based surveys in this neglected population.

  6. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  7. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  8. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  9. Physical Activity Is not Associated with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Young and Middle-Aged Adults : Results from the Population-Based Longitudinal Doetinchem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hulsegge, Gerben; Hartman, Linda; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2015-01-01

    There is debate as to whether physical inactivity is associated with reduced kidney function. We studied the prospective association of (changes in) physical activity with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adult men and women. We included 3,935 participants aged 26 to 65 years from the

  10. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  11. Is Involvement in Sex Work Associated with Engagement in HIV-Related Medical Care in Latin American Men Who Have Sex with Men? Results of a Large, Multinational Internet Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Biello, Katie B.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Rosenberger, Joshua; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Novak, David; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in transactional sex are at increased HIV risk, and face complex barriers to care seeking. Among 2,035 men recruited through an MSM social/sexual networking website in Latin America and who reported being HIV-infected, 186 (9.1%) reported being paid for sex with another man in the past year. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with decreased odds of receiving medical care for HIV (AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.37–0.85). No significant differences wer...

  12. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;

    2003-01-01

    characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. RESULTS: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class at......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry. The...... time of birth had higher mortality rates compared with those whose fathers were high/middle class: hazard ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.67) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.83) respectively. Birth weight and childhood cognitive function were both related to father's social class and inversely associated with...

  13. Analysis of results related to the percent free prostate specific antigen among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Ziming Wang; Tie Chong; Lihua Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To measure the percent of free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area, and to study the relationship of percent fPSA with age and pathological grade, clinical stage of prostate cancer (PCa) with percent fPSA, and to analyze the difference between the data in China and theoverseas data to determine appropriate reference range for Chinese male. Methods: A total of 713 participants were enrolled into the study, with PSA, fPSA in serum measured and the percent fPSA calculated. Out of 713 cases, 679 without prostate diseases were divided into 5 groups by age, and then the relationships of PSA, fPSA and percent fPSA with age were studied, respectively. The relationship of pathological grade and clinical stage with percent fPSA of the 34 participants with PCa was also studied. With the help of the related data of men without prostate disease, the appropriate reference range for Chinese male was established. Results: The increases in PSA or fPSA were correlated with age, while there was no significant correlation between age and percent fPSA. The percent fPSA was also correlated with pathological grade and clinical stage of PCa. The percent fPSA of men without prostate disease in Xi'an area was significantly lower than that in the related overseas data. The reference range of percent fPSA for Chinese male was≥15%. Conclusion: Percent fPSA might be more useful than PSA in the detection of prostate cancer. As the percent fPSA is decreased, the pathological grade is decreased, and the clinical stage is increased, the malignant degree is increased. The reference range of≥15% is more appropriate for Chinese male.

  14. Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogaard Anne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart. Methods Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209 were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported. Results Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's ρ = 0.25. Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54–0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52–0.91] for diabetes (test for trend P Conclusion Physical activity during leisure recorded in middle age prior to the current waves of obesity and diabetes had an independent predictive association with the presence of the metabolic syndrome but not significantly so with diabetes 28 years later in life, when the subjects were elderly.

  15. Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. Results from the Network in Europe on male osteoporosis (NEMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; da Silva, Jose A; Brixen, Kim;

    2008-01-01

    We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm(2...... data, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The...

  16. Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. Results from the Network in Europe on Male Osteoporosis (NEMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, S.; Silva, J.A. da; Brixen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm2...... data, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The...

  17. Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s and Iraq (in the 1970s. The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 μg/g was based partly on evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 μg/g. Methods. Early in the Niigata epidemic in June 1965 there were two extensive surveys. From these two surveys, we examined 103 adults with hair mercury measurement who consulted two medical institutions. We compared the prevalence and the distribution of neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning between exposure categories. Result. We found 48 subjects with neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning who had hair mercury concentration less than 50 μg/g. Among the neurological signs, sensory disturbance of the bilateral distal extremities was observed more frequently, followed by disequilibrium, hearing impairment, and ataxia, in groups with hair MeHg concentration both below 50 μg/g and over 50 μg/g. Conclusion. The present study suggests the possibility that exposure to MeHg at levels below the current WHO limits could cause neurologic signs, in particular, sensory disturbance.

  18. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Lebanese Adults: Results from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use in Lebanon. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face to face interviews on a nationally representative sample of 1,475 Lebanese adults. The survey questionnaire explored the sociodemographic and health related characteristics as well as the types and modes of CAM use. The main outcome in this study was the use of CAM during the last 12 months. Results. Prevalence of CAM use was 29.87% with “folk herbs” being the most commonly used (75%. Two out of five CAM users indicated using it as alternative to conventional therapies and only 28.4% of users disclosed the use of CAM to their physician. CAM use was significantly associated with higher income, presence of a chronic disease, and lack of access to needed health care. Lower odds of CAM use were observed among older adults and those with a higher education level. Conclusions. This study revealed a high prevalence of CAM use in Lebanon. Health policy and decision makers need to facilitate proper regulation and integration of CAM into mainstream medicine and educate health care providers and the public alike on the safe and effective use of CAM therapies.

  19. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group. Median body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02 and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06 was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively. Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31. There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. CONCLUSION: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  20. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  1. Association of Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection with Male Circumcision in Young Men: Results from a Longitudinal Study Conducted in Orange Farm (South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Tarnaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus (LR-HPV genotypes 6 and 11 cause genital warts. This study investigated the association of LR-HPV infection with male circumcision (MC. Methods. We used data from the South African MC trial conducted among young men. Urethral swabs, collected among intervention (circumcised and control (uncircumcised groups, were analyzed using HPV linear array. Adjusted LR-HPV prevalence rate ratio (aPPR and Poisson mean ratio (aPMR of number of LR-HPV genotypes were estimated using log-Poisson regression, controlling for background characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV and HSV-2 statuses. Results. Compared to controls, LR-HPV prevalence and mean number of genotypes were significantly lower among the intervention group ((8.5% versus 15.8%; aPRR: 0.54, P<.001 and (0.33 versus 0.18; aPMR: 0.54, P<.001, resp.. Mean number of LR-HPV genotypes increased with number of lifetime sexual partners and decreased with education level and consistent condom use. Conclusions. This study shows a reduction in LR-HPV infection among circumcised men.

  2. Experiencia en el cuidado de enfermería: herida de abdomen abierto en el adulto Experiência no cuidado de enfermagem: ferida de abdômen aberto em adultos Nursing care experience: open abdomen wound in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfonso Castro Becerra

    2011-12-01

    -truturada feita ao profissional de enfermagem da Clínica de feridas que foi tomada como referência, servindo de guia na qual é recomendado aprofundar em pesquisas posteriores. Resultados: um protocolo de cuidados de enfermagem é estruturado e integrado por doze (12 diagramas de fluxo, agrupados e distribuídos em quatro lineamentos básicos. Conclusões: O protocolo é o resultado da descrição e análise, dos procedimentos realizados pelo pessoal de enfermagem, contando com uma ampla experiência no cuidado de pessoas com feridas de abdômen, à luz da literatura. No entanto, a continuação da estruturação deste protocolo é necessária, levando em conta tanto o processo de cicatrização quanto as dimensões psicossociais que intervém no cuidado dos adultos com feridas abertas no abdômen.Goal: the creation of a nursing protocol for adults with open abdomen wounds, in a State-owned social enterprise of the city of Bogota. Method: a descriptive and transversal study, whose sample was constituted by four (4 people with an open abdomen wound, and the contribution of the experience of the institution's professional nurse. The information gathered from an observation guide, from the photographic register of the evolution of four adults with an open abdomen wound and from a semi-structured interview made to a nursing professional form the Wound Clinics taken as reference, which serves as a guide and should be used further in future researches. Results: a nursing protocol is created, and is composed by twelve (12 flowcharts, grouped and divided in four basic guidelines. Conclusions: the protocol is the result of the description and analysis of the procedures performed by the nursing staff, who has a rich experience in the care of people with open abdomen wounds thanks to literature available to them. However, the construction of the protocol must be continued, taking into consideration not only the physiological aspect of the scarification process, but also the psychosocial

  3. Use of assisted reproductive technology to separate sperm from human immunodeficiency virus infected men resulting in pregnancy among serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Schuffner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to HIV care improvement, discordant couples more frequently seek help in order to conceive their own biological child. Besides the advance of antiretroviral therapy, unprotected intercourse is not a complete safe option, carrying a low but still present risk of HIV transmission. We report 10 serodiscordant couples in whom the male partner is HIV positive, submitted to sperm washing and intrauterine insemination. The procedure resulted in four pregnancies and no HIV transmission to mother or child was observed. Techniques of assisted reproduction can help HIV discordant couples to conceive biological offspring and is a safer option than unprotected intercourse.

  4. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  5. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  6. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  7. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  8. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca T Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years, young adulthood (ages 18-25, and middle adulthood (ages 26-49. We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

  9. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  10. Is Involvement in Sex Work Associated with Engagement in HIV-Related Medical Care in Latin American Men Who Have Sex with Men? Results of a Large, Multinational Internet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Rosenberger, Joshua; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Novak, David; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in transactional sex are at increased HIV risk, and face complex barriers to care seeking. Among 2,035 men recruited through an MSM social/sexual networking website in Latin America and who reported being HIV-infected, 186 (9.1%) reported being paid for sex with another man in the past year. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with decreased odds of receiving medical care for HIV (AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.37–0.85). No significant differences were seen in being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) or ART adherence once in care. Interventions in this population should focus on reducing barriers to engagement in care. PMID:26789395

  11. Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet.......Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet....

  12. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (M...

  13. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J.; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. Methods All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. ...

  14. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening ...

  15. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  16. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    OpenAIRE

    Osler, M; Christensen, U; Lund, R; Gamborg, M; Godtfredsen, N; Prescott, E

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and unemployment registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20–67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied. All-cause mortality was followed from January 1981 to December 1998.

  17. Health literacy, health status, and healthcare utilization of taiwanese adults: results from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo Ken N; Tsai Yi-Wen; Tsai Tzu-I; Lee Shoou-Yih D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low health literacy is considered a worldwide health threat. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic covariates of low health literacy in Taiwanese adults and to investigate the relationships between health literacy and health status and health care utilization. Methods A national survey of 1493 adults was conducted in 2008. Health literacy was measured using the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale. Health status was measured based on self-ra...

  18. Functional MRI evidence for language plasticity in adult epileptic patients: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Cousin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Cousin1, Monica Baciu1, Cédric Pichat1, Philippe Kahane2, Jean-François Le Bas31UMR CNRS/UPMF 5105, Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition; 2Laboratoire de Neurophysiopathologie de l’Epilepsie, CHU Grenoble; 3Unité IRM, CHU Grenoble, FranceAbstract: The present fMRI study explores the cerebral reorganisation of language in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the age of seizures onset (early or late and the hippocampal sclerosis (associated or not. Seven right-handed control volunteers and seven preoperative adult epileptic patients performed a rhyme decision (language condition and a visual detection (control condition tasks in visually presented words and unreadable characters, respectively. All patients were left hemisphere dominant for language. Appropriate statistical analyses provided the following preliminary results: (1 patients compared with healthy subjects showed lower degree of hemispheric lateralization with supplementary involvement of the right hemisphere; (2 the degree of hemispheric specialization depends on the considered region; (3 patients with early seizures show signs of temporal and parietal reorganization more frequently than patients with late onset of seizures; (4 patients with early seizures show a tendency for intra-hemispheric frontal reorganisation; (5 associated hippocampal sclerosis facilitates the inter-hemispheric shift of temporal activation. Although our patients were left hemisphere predominant for language, the statistical analyses indicated that the degree of lateralization was significantly lower than in healthy subjects. This result has been considered as the indication of atypical lateralization of language.Keywords: language, fMRI, plasticity, temporal epilepsy, age, hippocampal sclerosis

  19. Increasing Belief in the Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention: Results of Repeated, National Surveys of Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Murphy, Dean; Rosengarten, Marsha; Crawford, David; Ellard, Jeanne; Kolstee, Johann; de Wit, John

    2016-07-01

    We surveyed Australian gay and bisexual men, assessing belief in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and support for early treatment. We identified the characteristics of participants who believed in TasP and supported early treatment using multivariate logistic regression. In 2013, 1316 men participated; 1251 participated in 2015. Belief in TasP increased from 2.6 % in 2013 to 13.1 % in 2015 (p education, having recent condomless anal intercourse with casual male partners, and ever having taken post-exposure prophylaxis. Support for early HIV treatment was associated with being younger, living in New South Wales and being in paid employment. We recommend continued monitoring of the growing gap in belief about TasP between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative/untested men. PMID:26803613

  20. Women are considerably more exposed to intimate partner violence than men in Rwanda : results from a population-based, cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is an important, yet often neglected public health issue. The existence of gender norms imbalance expressed by men's and women's attitudes in relation to power and decision-making in intimate relationships may influence the magnitude of IPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors of physical, sexual and psychological IPV in young men and women in Rwanda. Methods: This population-based, cross-...

  1. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas;

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  3. Sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and hepatitis C co-infection in HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Daskalopoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. Methods: ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248 HIV-diagnosed MSM under care in the United Kingdom during 2011–2012. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, HIV-related and sexual behaviour data were collected during the study. One thousand seven hundred and fifty two (≥70% of the MSM who consented to linkage of ASTRA and clinical information (prior to and post questionnaire were included. Cumulative prevalence of HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA test result at any point prior to questionnaire completion. We excluded 536 participants with clinical records only after questionnaire completion. Among the remaining 1,216 MSM, we describe associations of self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use in the three months prior to ASTRA with cumulative HCV prevalence, using modified Poisson regression with robust error variances. New HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA after questionnaire completion. We excluded 591 MSM who reported ever having a HCV diagnosis at questionnaire, any positive HCV result prior to questionnaire or did not have any HCV tests after the questionnaire. Among the remaining 1,195 MSM, we describe occurrence of new HCV diagnosis during follow-up according to self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use three months prior to questionnaire (Fisher's exact test. Results: Cumulative HCV prevalence among MSM prior to ASTRA was 13.3% (95% CI 11.5–15.4. Clinic- and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI for cumulative HCV prevalence were 4.6 (3.1–6.7 for methamphetamine, 6.5 (3.5–12.1 for injection drugs, 2.3 (1.6–3.4 for gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB, 1.6 (1.3–2.0 for nitrites, 1

  4. HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Silan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance reported high human immunodeficiency virus positivity rates among men who have sex with men. The current study has described the high-risk behavior and self-reported sexually transmitted infection(s among self-identified men who have sex with men. Aims: The present study was to find out the extent of high-risk behavior and prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among self-identified men who have sex with men, registered with selected nongovernmental organizations in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was done among 250 men who have sex with men during March 2009 to February 2010, through consecutive sampling strategy. Results: Majority (80% were anal-receptive, received money for sex (61% and were involved in all types of sexual intercourse with men (oral-86%, manual-97%, and anal-94%. Consistent condom use with male partner was low (46%, most common reason (52% for not using condom was, that either the condoms were not available or the partner objected. Self-reported sexually transmitted infection(s was 41% in the past 12 months. Conclusions: This study underscores the increased vulnerability of men who have sex with men of Delhi and need for sustained interventions.

  5. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2012.Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL. Odds ratios (ORs of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio.Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044, 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018 for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone.The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men.

  6. Childhood socioeconomic position, young adult intelligence and fillings of prescribed medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard;

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator.......To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator....

  7. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  8. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  9. Changes in Older Adult Loneliness : Results From a Seven-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Pearl A.; Tilburg, Theo G. van; Jong Gierveld, Jenny de

    2005-01-01

    This study examines loneliness and its correlates—health, residential care, partner status, and network size—over a seven-year period among adults born between 1908 and 1937. The four waves of data are from the Dutch “Living Arrangements and Social Networks of Older Adults” and the “Longitudinal Agi

  10. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  11. Fiber consumption and metabolic syndrome in adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect ofincreasing fiber and whole grain (WG) consumption on the odds of having metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a recent, nationally representative sample of US adults 19 to 51 years (n=7,039) and 51+ years (n=6,237) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1...

  12. Older Adults' Perceptions of Offensive Senior Stereotypes in Magazine Advertisements: Results of a Q Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Popovich, Mark; Gustafson, Robert; Fraser, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    Using a Q sort, 39 older adults rated 40 magazine ads. They found offensive ads that stereotyped elders as out of touch, ridiculous, difficult, and unattractive. Stereotypes of real aging problems were deemed nonoffensive. In interviews, they expressed concerns about the harm such stereotypes can do. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  13. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  14. Quadriceps Strength, Quadriceps Power, and Gait Speed in Older U.S. Adults with Diabetes: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent association of diabetes (and its duration and severity) with quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting U.S. Participants We examined 2573 adults ≥50 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensors (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60 degrees/second. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Results Among older U.S. adults, those with versus without diabetes had significantly slower gait speed (0.96±0.02 versus 1.08±0.01 m/s; p<0.001). After adjusting for demographics, weight, and height, diabetes was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (−4.6±1.9 Newton-meters; p=0.02), quadriceps power (−4.9±2.0 Watts; p=0.02), in addition to gait speed (−0.05±0.02 m/s; p=0.002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, COPD), diabetes was only independently associated with gait speed (−0.04±0.02 m/s; p=0.02). Diabetes duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (−5.7 and −3.5 Newton-meters/decade of diabetes, respectively) and power (−6.1 and −3.8 Watts/decade of diabetes, respectively) (all p≤0.001, no significant interactions by gender). Hemoglobin A1c was not associated with outcomes accounting for body weight. Conclusion Compared to persons without diabetes, older U.S. adults with diabetes have lower quadriceps

  15. Risk factors for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men: medical conditions and lifestyle: results from a European multicentre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Timmer, Antje; Vyberg, Mogens;

    2007-01-01

    or smoking showed no clear association, whereas some increase in risk was suggested for consumption of 40-80 g alcohol per day and more. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates gallstones as a risk indicator in extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma. Permanent overweight and obesity in adult life was identified...... as a strong risk factor for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma, whereas we did not find any strong lifestyle-associated risk factors. Inconsistent results across studies concerning the association of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma with overweight and obesity may be explained by the different......-matched by age and region. Adjusted odds ratios and 95%-confidence intervals were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The analysis included 153 patients and 1421 controls. The participation proportion was 71% for patients and 61% for controls. Gallstone disease was corroborated as a risk factor...

  16. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  17. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke;

    2003-01-01

    registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20-67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied......AIMS: To examine the relation between unemployment rates in area of residence and all-cause mortality, taking the individuals' unemployment experience and a number of social and behavioural factors into account. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and unemployment...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....

  18. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Christensen, U; Lund, R;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the relation between unemployment rates in area of residence and all-cause mortality, taking the individuals' unemployment experience and a number of social and behavioural factors into account. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and unemployment...... was also a risk factor (hazard ratio(yes/no) 1.38:1.16-1.64). These estimates attenuated somewhat when other social and behavioural covariates were taken into account. The effects were similar in men and women, but the influence of individuals' unemployment experience during one and five years decreased...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....

  19. Obesity disparities among disadvantaged men: National adult male inmate prevalence pooled with non-incarcerated estimates, United States, 2002 – 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Obesity prevalence among inmates in the United States is unknown. Since incarceration disproportionately affects minorities, excluding inmates from surveys may bias national obesity estimates. Including inmates may also help explain racial obesity disparities among men. This descriptive study summarizes obesity prevalence among US male inmates and analyzes the effect of incarceration on national prevalence estimates. Data for male inmates came from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails an...

  20. Cause-specific hospital admission and mortality among working men: association with socioeconomic circumstances in childhood and adult life, and the mediating role of daily stress

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, C.; Davey Smith, G; Sterne, J A C; Heslop, P.; Macleod, J.; Hart, C. L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of childhood and adulthood social class with the occurrence of specific diseases, including those not associated with a high mortality rate, and to investigate daily stress as the mechanism for that part of any association which cannot be accounted for by established risk factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with 25 years of follow-up for cause-specific morbidity and mortality. A total of 5577 Scottish men w...

  1. P07.03RECURRENT MEDULLOBLASTOMA AND CNS PNET IN ADULTS - RESULTS OF VIP CHEMOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, L.A.; van den Bent, M. J; Taal, W.; Rijt, C.C.D. van der; Bromberg, J. E. C.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma and central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are rare embryonal brain tumors in adults. Surgery and radiotherapy are an important part of the initial treatment, however, the role of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy or chemotherapy at relapse is still unclear. In our center, etoposide/ifosfamide/cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with a first relapse of medulloblastoma or CNS PNET. We reviewed the outcome in a co...

  2. Short communication: HIV incidence among vulnerable populations in Honduras: results from an integrated behavioral and biological survey among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and Garifuna in Honduras, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrea A; Morales, Sonia; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Paredes, Mayte; Juarez, Sandra; Alvarez, Berta; Liu, Xin; Parekh, Bharat; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    Honduras has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Central America. Data on HIV incidence are needed to identify groups at greatest need of prevention interventions to inform the national HIV response. We applied a test for recent infection to HIV-positive specimens from a biological and behavioral survey to estimate assay-derived incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and the Garifuna population in Honduras. Assay-derived estimates were compared to the mathematically modeled estimates in the same populations to assess plausibility of the assay-based estimates. Assay-derived incidence was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-2.0) among MSM, 0.4% (95% CI 0.1-0.8) among the Garifuna, and 0% (95% CI 0-0.01) among FSWs. The modeled incidence estimates were similar at 1.03% among MSM, 0.30% among the Garifuna, and 0.23% among FSWs. HIV incidence based on the assay was highest among MSM in Honduras, lowest among FSWs, and similar to modeled incidence in these groups. Targeted programs on HIV prevention, care, and treatment are urgently needed for the MSM population. Continued support for existing prevention programs for FSWs and Garifuna are recommended.

  3. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  4. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  5. 我国四地区成年男子膳食中15种稀土元素浓度和每日摄入量%Daily intake and concentrations of 15 kinds of rare earth elements in foods for adult men in four areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武权; 刘庆芬; 樊体强; 诸洪达

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain the concentrations and daily intakes of 15 rare earth elements in foods for adult men in four areas in China.Methods With duplicate portion study,120 mixed diet samples were collected from adult men in cities of Tianjin,Chengdu,Zhenjiang and Taiyuan,which belong to 4 areas with different dietary types in China.The concentrations of cerium,dysprosium,erbium,gadolinium,lanthanum,lutetium,holmium,neodymium,praseodymium,scandium,samarium,terbium,thulium,yttrium and ytterbium in these samples were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry(ICP-MS) after pretreatment,and the daily intakes of them were also calculated.Results The concentrations of 15 rare earth elements and their daily intakes in foods for adult men were obtained.Conclusions The concentrations of these elements in each area are consistent with normal distribution.The total rare earth element concentration in the diet of adult men ranges from 24.68 to 109.27 μg/g.The daily intake of total rare earth elements is about 24 μg/d.Reference values of the rare earth element concentrations in the diet and daily intake of Chinese adult men were updated.%目的 获得我国4地区成年男子膳食中15种稀土元素浓度和每日摄入量.方法 通过双份饭法,采集分属4个膳食类型地区的天津、成都、镇江、太原共120例成年男子膳食样品,预处理后应用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)测定其中Ce、Dy、Er、Gd、Ho、La、Lu、Nd、Pr、Sc、Sm、Tb、Tm、Y、Yb的浓度,并计算每日各元素摄入量.结果 获得了我国4地区成年男子膳食中15种稀土元素浓度和每日摄入量.结论 我国4地区成年男子膳食中大部分稀土元素浓度符合正态分布,总稀土元素浓度范围约为24.68 ~ 109.27 μg/g,总稀土元素日摄入量约为24 μg/d,更新了我国成年男子膳食中稀土元素浓度和日摄入量参考值.

  6. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  7. Childhood socioeconomic position, young adult intelligence and fillings of prescribed medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with logistic and Cox-proportional ......OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with logistic and Cox...

  8. Sabril® registry 5-year results: Characteristics of adult patients treated with vigabatrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Faught, Edward; Foroozan, Rod; Pellock, John M; Sergott, Robert C; Shields, W Donald; Ziemann, Adam; Dribinsky, Yekaterina; Lee, Deborah; Torri, Sarah; Othman, Feisal; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-03-01

    Vigabatrin (Sabril®), approved in the US in 2009, is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) in patients ≥ 10 years old who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for infantile spasms (IS) in patients 1 month to 2 years of age. Because of reports of vision loss following vigabatrin exposure, FDA approval required a risk evaluation mitigation strategy (REMS) program. Vigabatrin is only available in the US through Support, Help, And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE), which includes a mandated registry. This article describes 5 years of demographic and treatment exposure data from adult patients (≥ 17 years old) in the US treated with vigabatrin and monitored in the ongoing Sabril® registry. Registry participation is mandatory for all US Sabril® prescribers and patients. A benefit-risk assessment must be documented by the physician for a patient to progress to maintenance therapy, defined as 1 month of vigabatrin treatment for patients with IS and 3 months for patients with rCPS. Ophthalmologic assessments must be documented during and after completion of therapy. As of August 26, 2014, a total of 6823 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1200 were adults at enrollment. Of these patients, 1031 (86%) were naïve to vigabatrin. The majority of adult patients (n=783, 65%) had previously been prescribed ≥ 4 AEDs, and 719 (60%) were receiving ≥ 3 concomitant AEDs at vigabatrin initiation. Prescribers submitted an initial ophthalmological assessment form for 863 patients; an ophthalmologic exam was not completed for 300 (35%) patients and thus, were considered exempted from vision testing. Of these patients, 128 (43%) were exempted for neurologic disabilities. Clinicians discontinued treatment in 8 patients because of visual field deficits (VFD) (5 patients naïve to vigabatrin and 3 patients previously exposed). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, it is

  9. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... among adults aged 18-64, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual, selected years 1993-1994 through ...

  10. Black Men and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.

  11. Computer quantitation of Q-T and terminal T wave (aT-eT) intervals during exercise: methodology and results in normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J; Knoebel, S B; Lovelace, D E; McHenry, P L

    1981-05-01

    Computer-quantitated measurements of the Q-T intervals, the Q-T/Q-Tc ratio (Q-T/corrected Q-T) and the terminal T wave (apex to end of T [aT-eT] interval) were evaluated in resting and exercise electrocardiograms of 130 normal men with a mean age of 40 years. Pseudo-orthogonal, bipolar X, Y and Z axis leads were recorded during treadmill exercise testing, and 25 consecutive QRS-T complexes from standing rest and three exercise stages were computer-averaged. The Q-T intervals, Q-T/Q-Tc ratio and aT-eT interval measurements were then computed in the X and Z axis leads only, because the Y lead proved to be too noisy for accurate interpretation. A correlation coefficient of 0.9830 resulted between measurements made manually from the plotted, composite QRS-T complexes and those made by computer. No significant differences , in the paired sense, were found between any of the measurements. Measurements made on the Z axis lead; however, the differences in the measurements remained constant across all stages of exercise. A Q-T/Q-Tc ratio of greater than 1.08, previously reported to be a reliable indicator of coronary disease, was observed in the majority of our normal subjects during exercise. Although the Q-T interval is substantially influenced by many factors, the aT-eT interval proved not to be age- or heart rate-dependent. It appears that the aT-eT interval can be measured with a high degree of reliability during exercise and it may prove to be a relatively specific indicator of repolarization alterations that occur with myocardial ischemia.

  12. Results of application of a combination of Doksazozina and Indigala in therapy of men with prostate adenoma I—II stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In work the way of conservative therapy of men with prostate adenoma I—II of a stage with use of a combination of Doksazozina and Indigala different antioxidantiv, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties that has allowed to improve urodynamic indicators is offered and to slow down progressing prostate adenoma, having reduced to a minimum undesirable effects of treatment.

  13. MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism as an independent predictor of peak bone mass in Danish men--results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Hans Henrik Lohfert; Nielsen, Torben L;

    2006-01-01

    The MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism has been shown to have significant effects on skeletal health in middle-aged to elderly women and men. Despite an accumulating amount of data on MTHFR genetics and the association between homocysteine levels and fracture, it remains unknown if MTHFR c.677C>T genotype...

  14. MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism as an indepent predictor of peak bone mass in Danish men - results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Nielsen, Torben L.;

    2005-01-01

    The MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism has been shown to have significant effects on skeletal health in middle-aged to elderly women and men. Despite an accumulating amount of data on MTHFR genetics and the association between homocysteine levels and fracture, it remains unknown if MTHFR c.677C>T genotype...

  15. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: Only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing lon

  16. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Holwerda; A.T.F. Beekman; D.J.H. Deeg; M.L. Stek; T.G. van Tilburg; P.J. Visser; B. Schmand; C. Jonker; R.A. Schoevers

    2012-01-01

    Background: Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing lon

  17. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men : only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Stek, M. L.; van Tilburg, T. G.; Visser, P. J.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing lon

  18. Barriers and motivators to voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among different age groups of men in Zimbabwe: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hatzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15-49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%. Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%, improved hygiene (26%, enhanced sexual performance (6% and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%. Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%, not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%, lack of partner support (6%. Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised.

  19. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be carefully considered and discussed between the prospective parents. Issues for Men with TSC Many men with ... the case of severely learning-disabled adults, their parents/caregivers/guardians need to be the advocate to ...

  20. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  1. Later Life Learning for Adults in Scotland: Tracking the Engagement with and Impact of Learning for Working-Class Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Brian; McEwan, Brett; McCullough, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Undertaken in the context of an ageing population and under-representation of older adults in formal education in Scotland, this paper reports on selected findings from research funded by the West of Scotland Wider Access Forum. Using a longitudinal design, the project sought, over a two-year period, to track the experiences of 85 working class…

  2. The Prognostic Value of Family History for the Estimation of Cardiovascular Mortality Risk in Men: Results from a Long-Term Cohort Study in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdonas Tamosiunas

    Full Text Available To evaluate the additional prognostic value of family history for the estimation of cardiovascular (CVD mortality risk in middle-aged urban Lithuanian men.The association between family history of CVD and the risk of CVD mortality was examined in a population-based cohort of 6,098 men enrolled during 1972-1974 and 1976-1980 in Kaunas, Lithuania. After up to 40 years of follow-up, 2,272 deaths from CVD and 1,482 deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR for CVD and CHD mortality.After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.42 and for CHD mortality 1.20 (1.02-1.42 in men with first-degree relatives having a history of myocardial infarction (MI, compared to men without positive family history. A significant effect on the risk of CVD and CHD mortality was also observed for the family history of sudden cardiac death and any CVD. Addition of family history of MI, sudden death, and any CVD to traditional CVD risk factors demonstrated modest improvement in the performance of Cox models for CVD and CHD mortality.Family history of CVD is associated with a risk of CVD and CHD mortality significantly and independently of other risk factors in a middle-aged male population. Addition of family history to traditional CVD risk factors improves the prediction of CVD mortality and could be used for identification of high-risk individuals.

  3. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  4. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  5. Association of Tobacco Products Use and Diabetes Mellitus-Results of a National Survey Among Adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Abdelwahid Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tobacco products use patterns of known diabetics and non diabetics. Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study using STEPwise approach among adults using a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographics; tobacco products use habits, history of diabetes, biochemical and anthropometric measurements.Results: Of the total of 4654 subjects who participated in the study, 1016 (21.8...

  6. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  7. Blockage of VIP during mouse embryogenesis modifies adult behavior and results in permanent changes in brain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Hauser, Janet M; Sheppard, Lia M; Abebe, Daniel; Spivak-Pohis, Irit; Kushnir, Michal; Deitch, Iris; Gozes, Illana

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates growth and development during the early postimplantation period of mouse embryogenesis. Blockage of VIP with a VIP antagonist during this period results in growth restriction, microcephaly, and developmental delays. Similar treatment of neonatal rodents also causes developmental delays and impaired diurnal rhythms, and the adult brains of these animals exhibit neuronal dystrophy and increased VIP binding. These data suggest that blockage of VIP during the development of the nervous system can result in permanent changes to the brain. In the current study, pregnant mice were treated with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10. The adult male offspring were examined in tests of novelty, paired activity, and social recognition. Brain tissue was examined for several measures of chemistry and gene expression of VIP and related compounds. Glial cells from the cortex of treated newborn mice were plated with neurons and examined for VIP binding and their ability to enhance neuronal survival. Treated adult male mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in social behavior. Brain tissue exhibited regionally specific changes in VIP chemistry and a trend toward increased gene expression of VIP and related compounds that reached statistical significance in the VIP receptor, VPAC-1, in the female cortex. When compared to control astrocytes, astrocytes from treated cerebral cortex produced further increases in neuronal survival with excess synaptic connections and reduced VIP binding. In conclusion, impaired VIP activity during mouse embryogenesis resulted in permanent changes to both adult brain chemistry/cell biology and behavior with aspects of autism-like social deficits. PMID:17726225

  8. Clinical observation of penis lengthening surgery of 77 cases of healthy adult men%成年健康男性77例阴茎延长术的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过阴茎延长术达到阴茎延长的目的,满足患者性心理和性生理的需求,提高生活质量.方法 选择22~60周岁成年健康男性,平均年龄38.3周岁,阴茎自然状态下小于4 cm,平均(2.5±1) cm.选择对象不包括性腺发育异常,先天性睾丸发育不全综合征, (细胞核型分析47XXY)等先天性性腺,性器官发育异常所导致的阴茎短小患者.耻骨前正中直切口长3 cm左右,达男性性生殖三角顶端后,沿生殖三角皮肤外侧缘做V型切口至阴茎根部左右两侧平3点,9点钟处.依次切开皮肤、皮下,分离阴茎三角,切断阴茎浅悬韧带,深悬韧带切断1/3~2/3,充分松解释放阴茎体.结果 77例患者手术顺利,除一例患者切口延期愈合外,其余患者均一期愈合.5例患者出现阴囊水肿,术后20 d左右消失.阴茎在自然状态下体外部分达到(6±1.5) cm.延长3~5 cm,平均4 cm.所有患者对手术效果满意.结论 随着物质生活水平的提高,对生殖器大小及性生活质量要求也随之提高.通过阴茎延长术可以满足这部分患者的性心理和性生理的需求,提高生活质量.%OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical effect of the penis lengthening surgery in order to kown the sex psychology and sex physiology requirements of the patients and improve their life quality. METHODS The healthy adult men were chosen. Their ages ranged from 22 to 60,-and the average age was 38.3 years. Their penises were less than 4cm in the natural state and the average length was 2.5±lcm. The selected subjects didn' t include the men with the abnormal gonad, the congenital aplastic testis syndrome, and the short penis caused by the congenital dysplasia of the gonad (the cell karyotype 47XXY) and the dys-plasia of the sexual organs. The straight incision in the middle of the front surface of the pubis was 3cm or so, and the V-shape incision was made till the planar points at 3 clock and 9 clock on the left and right sides of

  9. A study of filicidal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, J F; Cravens, J M; Covan, F

    1988-09-01

    Twelve filicidal men were examined on a forensic psychiatric service. The majority suffered from severe mental impairments due to psychosis, neurological disorders, substance abuse, or mental retardation. Most of the filicidal acts committed by these chronically impaired men resulted from isolated explosive behavior. PMID:3414858

  10. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L. [University of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Center for Salmonid and Feshwater Species at Risk; Maki, A.W. [Exxon Mobil Production Company, Anchorage, AK (United States); Moulton, L.L. [MJM Research, Lopez Island, WA (United States); Parker, K.R. [Data Analysis Group, Cloverdale, CA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. (author)

  11. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  12. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  13. Cerebral white matter deficiencies in pedophilic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James M; Kabani, Noor; Christensen, Bruce K; Zipursky, Robert B; Barbaree, Howard E; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Mikulis, David J; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Richards, Blake A; Hanratty, M Katherine; Blanchard, Ray

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation sought to identify which brain regions distinguish pedophilic from nonpedophilic men, using unbiased, automated analyses of the whole brain. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were acquired from men who demonstrated illegal or clinically significant sexual behaviors or interests (n = 65) and from men who had histories of nonsexual offenses but no sexual offenses (n = 62). Sexual interest in children was assessed by participants' admissions of pedophilic interest, histories of committing sexual offenses against children, and psychophysiological responses in the laboratory to erotic stimuli depicting children or adults. Automated parcellation of the MRIs revealed significant negative associations between pedophilia and white matter volumes of the temporal and parietal lobes bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry corroborated the associations and indicated that the regions of lower white matter volumes followed, and were limited to, two major fiber bundles: the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right arcuate fasciculus. No significant differences were found in grey matter or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Because the superior fronto-occipital and arcuate fasciculi connect the cortical regions that respond to sexual cues, these results suggest (1) that those cortical regions operate as a network for recognizing sexually relevant stimuli and (2) that pedophilia results from a partial disconnection within that network. PMID:18039544

  14. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Merchant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415. Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631 of participants had >10 h/day and >3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0, or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day, whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day, sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  15. Fatores associados à prática de exercícios físicos em homens voluntários adultos e idosos residentes na Grande São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated to physical exercise in adults and elderly volunteer men living in S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonio Florindo

    2001-08-01

    drinks, occupation and body mass index (BMI. The analysis was done using the c²test and simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression. Education was associated to PPE, even after adjusting for smoking habits, age and BMI. Men with elementary school (OR= 4.56, 95CI%=1.66-12.50 and men with college education (OR= 8.39, 95CI%=1.83-38.42 practice more physical exercise than men that did not finish elementary school. These results show that education should be considered in the planning of physical exercise programs for adults and elderly men.

  16. Evaluation of joints in the lower limbs in adults and children using bone SPECT: Technical aspects and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization procedures for and results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) bone scintigraphy scans of the lower limbs are discussed. A group of patients was selected comprising 12 adults with chronic knee pain and 11 children with disorders which might affect growth cartilage. For the latter, it was proposed to evaluate the global and localized activity of the physics using SPECT with post-processing in three dimensions. These results are important in that they may directly influence the decision whether or not to proceed with orthopedic treatment or surgery, the aim being to prevent or predict dysmetrias and secondary deformities caused by various pathologies. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE and physical activity (PA, less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414, from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS, we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  18. From men to the media and back again: help-seeking in popular men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstiss, David; Lyons, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Men's help-seeking behaviour for health issues is apparent in advice columns in men's magazines. This study discursively analysed men's help-seeking letters and expert replies within two international and popular men's magazines, Men's Health and For Him Magazine or FHM. Findings showed that the texts reinforced hegemonic ideals. Letters positioning men as self-reliant, independently knowledgeable, stoic and avoiding associations with femininity were positively reinforced in expert replies, while other types of positioning were responded to with condescension or ridicule. Results suggest the policing of boundaries by 'experts' around unacceptable/acceptable enactments of masculinity, which may have implications for if, how and when men seek help from experts.

  19. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  20. Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Older Adult Men: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Mathieu L; Perreault, Karine; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Lagacé, Jean Christophe; Barsalani, Razieh; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2016-02-01

    The decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation with aging is associated with an increase in fat mass (FM), and both could be prevented by exercise such as resistance training. Dairy consumption has also been shown to promote FM loss in different subpopulations and to be positively associated with fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resistance exercise combined with dairy supplementation could have an additive impact on FM and energy metabolism, especially in individuals with a deficit in muscle mass. Twenty-six older overweight sarcopenic men (65 ± 5 years old) were recruited for the study. They participated in 4 months of resistance exercise and were randomized into three groups for postexercise shakes (control, dairy, and nondairy isocaloric and isoprotein supplement with 375 ml and ~280 calories per shake). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and REE by indirect calorimetry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory profile, and blood lipid profile were also measured. Significant decreases were observed with FM only in the dairy supplement group; no changes were observed for any other variables. To conclude, FM may decrease without changes in metabolic parameters during resistance training and dairy supplementation with no caloric restriction without having any impact on metabolic properties. More studies are warranted to explain this significant decrease in FM. PMID:26894503

  1. Comparison of Very Low Energy Diet Products Available in Australia and How to Tailor Them to Optimise Protein Content for Younger and Older Adult Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Alice A.; Franklin, Janet; Pattinson, Andrea L.; Cheng, Zilvia G. Y.; Samman, Samir; Markovic, Tania P.; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Very low energy diets (VLED) are efficacious in inducing rapid weight loss but may not contain adequate macronutrients or micronutrients for individuals with varying nutritional requirements. Adequate protein intake during weight loss appears particularly important to help preserve fat free mass and control appetite, and low energy and carbohydrate content also contributes to appetite control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content (with a focus on protein), nutritional adequacy and cost of all commercially-available VLED brands in Australia. Nutritional content and cost were extracted and compared between brands and to the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) of macronutrients and micronutrients for men and women aged 19–70 years or >70 years. There was wide variability in the nutritional content, nutritional adequacy and cost of VLED brands. Most notably, even brands with the highest daily protein content, based on consuming three products/day (KicStart™ and Optislim®, ~60 g/day), only met estimated protein requirements of the smallest and youngest women for whom a VLED would be indicated. Considering multiple options to optimise protein content, we propose that adding pure powdered protein is the most suitable option because it minimizes additional energy, carbohydrate and cost of VLEDs. PMID:27657150

  2. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  3. Perceived Effects of Sexually Explicit Media among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Researchers have proposed that consumption of Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) may not only adversely influence sexual attitudes and behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) but (also) play a positive role in the development and sexual education of MSM, be a major source of sexual....... To investigate how MSM who consume SEM self-perceive the impact of SEM on their sexually-transmitted-infections-related sexual risk behaviors (i.e., anal intercourse), sexual knowledge, enjoyment of sex, interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Further, to provide...... a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). Main Outcome Measure. A revised version of the PCES by Hald and Malamuth. Methods. Online cross-sectional survey study of 1,333 US adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Results. This study...

  4. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and testosterone in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.T.Manning; S.Wood; E.Vang; J.Walton; RE.Bundred; C.vanHeyningen; D.I.Lewis-Jones

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between 2D:4D and testosterone in men attending an infertility clinic and men drawn from the general population. Methods: Data on 2D:4D and testosterone from two samples were collected: (1) 43 men attending an infertility clinic, and (2) 51 men drawn from the general population without regard to fertility. Results: In sample (1) there were negative associations between 2D:4D and testicular function, and men with lower 2D:4D in their right compared to left hand had higher testosterone levels than men with higher 2D:4D in their right compared to left hand. Sample (2) showed no significant associations between 2D:4D or side differences in 2D:4D and testosterone. Conclusion: Adult levels of testosterone may be related to aspects of 2D:4D in samples which contain men with compromised testicular function, but not in men from normative samples. Associations between 2D:4D and fertility-associated traits probably arise from early organisational effects of testosterone rather than from activational effects of current testosterone. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 211-215)

  5. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  6. Evaluating the Results of Persian Version of the Temporal Resolution Test in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Shaghayegh Omidvar

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Temporal resolution refers to the ability of perceiving changes over time. This study was conducted to prepare Persian version of the temporal resolution test, which was first introduced by Phillips (1994) and Stuart (1996), and to obtain its results in 18 to 25 year old normal individuals of both genders.Methods: To construct the Persian version of the temporal resolution test, like the original version, speech stimuli, continuous and interrupted noises were used. Speech ...

  7. Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Delayed Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Elmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are urgent injuries that require precise reduction and stable fixation. In some cases, however, early treatment is not possible.Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate long-term results of delayed fixation of femoral neck fractures using cannulated screws.Patients and Methods: This retrospective descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 26 patients with femoral neck fractures. The patients were treated through a closed reduction and fixation method using cannulated screws. Patients were followed up for at least five years and the rate of complications was determined.Results: In this study, 26 patients with mean age of 34.3 years were assessed. Average time interval from injury to surgery was 46.4 ± 12.2 hours; 18 patients (69% were operated on with more than 36 hours of delay. Incidence of AVN and nonunion was reported in 10 (38.4% and 3 (11.5% patients, respectively.Conclusions: Time plays an important role in treatment results of femoral neck fractures. To treat the fractures, closed reduction and fixation using cannulated screws may still be the best option.

  8. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  9. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference. PMID:19901237

  10. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Britta Müller; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Olaf Reis; Peter Kropp; Wolfgang Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionali...

  11. [Study of the remote results of five cases of unilateral condylar hyperplasia in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P; Choitel, J; Souyris, F

    1984-01-01

    Exceptionally bilateral, condylar hyperplasia result in graduated facial asymmetry . The principal treatment is the condylectomy. (Condylar head and a portion of the neck of the condyle are removed.) Sometimes we must complete this condylectomy by mandibular osteotomy or resection of a segment of body of the mandible. The occlusal relationships of the teeth are affected by this process. That's why surgery treatment must be associated with orthodontics and prosthetic preparations. We use in post-operative immediate an intermaxillary fixation and traction by elastics. This allow to have a better congruence between the dental arches, and spare functional troubles. PMID:6587518

  12. Genetic ablation of Dicer in adult forebrain neurons results in abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert, Sébastien S; Papadopoulou, Aikaterini S; Smith, Pascal;

    2010-01-01

    demonstrate that miRNAs belonging to the miR-15 family are potent regulators of ERK1 expression in mouse neuronal cells and co-expressed with ERK1/2 in vivo. Finally, we show that miR-15a is specifically downregulated in Alzheimer's disease brain. In summary, these results support the hypothesis that changes...... degeneration coincides with the hyperphosphorylation of endogenous tau at several epitopes previously associated with neurofibrillary pathology. Transcriptome analysis of enzymes involved in tau phosphorylation identified ERK1 as one of the candidate kinases responsible for this event in vivo. We further...

  13. Androgen deficiency and aging in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C

    1993-01-01

    Androgen levels decrease with age in men. Androgen deficiency in men older than 65 years leads to asthenia, a decrease in muscle mass, osteoporosis, and a decrease in sexual activity. Androgen deficiency has been reported to cause changes in mood and cognitive function. The combination of these factors results in impaired quality of life in older men. Androgen replacement therapy in hypogonadal men increases bone and muscle mass, enhances muscle and cardiovascular function, and improves sexua...

  14. Evaluating the Results of Persian Version of the Temporal Resolution Test in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Temporal resolution refers to the ability of perceiving changes over time. This study was conducted to prepare Persian version of the temporal resolution test, which was first introduced by Phillips (1994 and Stuart (1996, and to obtain its results in 18 to 25 year old normal individuals of both genders.Methods: To construct the Persian version of the temporal resolution test, like the original version, speech stimuli, continuous and interrupted noises were used. Speech stimuli comprised four lists of fifty words-monosyllabic lists, which were presented to the right ears first in quietness and then with continuous and interrupted noises on S/Ns of -20, -10, 0, +10 dB. The test was performed on thirty three right handed healthy individuals (14 male and 19 female with the mean age 21.02, SD=1.7 year old in written response mode.Results: Significant difference was shown between test scores in quiet with each of the continuous (p<0.0001 and interrupted (p≤0.0001 noises in four signal to noise ratios, and also between test scores of continuous and interrupted noise presentations (p<0.0001. No significant correlation was revealed between gender and test scores and age and test score and age in +10 dB S/N ratio.Conclusion: Conducting this test on a group of healthy individuals showed its application for measuring temporal resolution with speech stimuli.

  15. Long-term results of external valvuloplasty in adult patients with isolated great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarac A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Sarac,1 Artan Jahollari,1 Sureyya Talay,1 Sevket Ozkaya,2 Ertugrul Ozal1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Samsun Medical Park Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study is to present our 7-year results of external valvuloplasty for isolated great saphenous vein (GSV insufficiency. Methods: External valvuloplasty was applied in 83 patients with isolated GSV insufficiency. Follow-up consisted of venous color duplex scanning performed on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative month, and then annually. Valvular insufficiency, venous reflux, and venous thrombosis formation in the saphenofemoral junction were the main outcomes. Results: A complete clinical and radiological healing was observed in 50 patients (60%. In 13 cases (15.6%, a secondary surgical treatment was performed consisting of vena saphena magna high ligation/stripping and varicose vein excisions, mainly due to severe and progressive vena saphena magna valvular insufficiency and clinical persistence of symptoms. Eight patients (9.6% developed superficial vein thrombosis, and only one patient (1.2% developed deep vein thrombosis. Contact was lost from 32 patients (38.5% for different reasons. Conclusion: External valvuloplasty is an effective surgical technique for selected cases of isolated GSV insufficiency without extensive varicose dilatations. This alternative method can be safely administered as an alternative to high ligation and conventional GSV stripping. Keyword: vein, saphenous, insufficiency, external valv, valvuloplasty, varicosis

  16. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 Diabetes mellitus in Mexican adults: results from the 2000 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Olaiz-Fernández

    2007-01-01

    xico. Su efecto se magnifica al afectar con mayor frecuencia a grupos de población cuyos factores sociales o económicos limitan su acceso al tratamiento. Los datos informados son útiles para la institución de programas de escrutinio y prevención. Los resultados confirman que la diabetes debe ser motivo de investigación en familiares de primer grado e individuos que tengan uno o más de los componentes del síndrome metabólico (hipertensión, dislipidemia, obesidad y microalbuminuria.OBJECTIVE: To show the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and its associated factors in adults, using data derived from the 2000 National Health Survey (NHS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 2000 NHS was conducted between November 1999 and June 2000. An adult questionnaire was administered to 45 294 subjects 20 years of age and older. Capillary glucose levels, weight, height and blood pressure were obtained. Individual weighted factors were considered in the statistical analysis, as was the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances using SUDAAN 7.5.6. RESULTS: The national prevalence of DM in adults ages 20 years and older was 7.5% (95% CI: 7.1-7.9. The prevalence was 7.8% in women and 7.2% in men. It was higher according to age: 2.3% in adults 40 years or younger and 21.2% in those older than 60 years of age. In the urban population, prevalence was 8.1% and in the rural population it was 6.5%. The disease was more frequent in the northern region of the country (8.4% and in the Mexico City metropolitan area (8.1%. DM was more frequent in the population with the least amount of schooling (9.9%, the lowest income (8.1%, high blood pressure (13.7%, hypercholesterolemia (23.3% microalbuminuria (15.5% and renal disease (12.3%. Using multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, variables associated with DM were identified: age, little schooling, family history of DM, high blood pressure, renal disease or hypercholesterolemia in both genders. Abdominal obesity was associated

  17. Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas da aorta abdominal: existe diferença dos resultados entre homens e mulheres? Surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms: is there difference in the results obtained in men and women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos após o tratamento convencional e eletivo do aneurisma da aorta abdominal, verificando se existe diferença entre homens e mulheres na mortalidade e morbidade cirúrgicas, bem como nos resultados a longo prazo. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Entre dezembro de 1983 e dezembro de 2003, 675 pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal, sendo divididos em dois grupos: homens (n = 575 e mulheres (n = 100. Os dados demográficos e aqueles relacionados ao procedimento cirúrgico, bem como os resultados perioperatórios, foram coletados pela revisão dos prontuários. Os pacientes com alta hospitalar formaram uma coorte retrospectiva, onde foram avaliadas as causas tardias de óbito e a sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A média das idades foi similar, sem diferença estatística entre mulheres e homens (68,9 ± 9,1 versus 67,4 ± 7,1 anos; P = 0,089. A presença de hipertensão arterial foi significativamente superior nas mulheres (73 versus 62,4%; P = 0,042, e a cardiopatia isquêmica e história de tabagismo foram mais freqüentes nos homens (P OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perioperative results in patients submitted to elective conventional open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, comparing the results between women and men in relation to perioperative mortality and morbidity, as well as long term outcomes. PATIENTES AND METHODS: Between December 1983 and December 2003, 675 patients were submitted to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We divided these patients into two groups: men (n = 575 and women (n = 100. Demographic and operative data, as well as perioperative outcomes were obtained from chart review. Discharged patients formed a retrospective cohort, in which the late causes of death and survival were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age was similar, but no statistical difference was observed between men and women (68.9 ± 9.1 versus. 67.4 ± 7.1 years; P = 0.089. The

  18. Influence of curcumin (Curcuma longa as a natural anticoccidial alternative in adult rabbits: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cervantes-Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is one of the most common ailments in rabbits farming and is usually treated with drugs that can produce resistance; therefore, a natural alternative was sought. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous extract of curcumin (Curcuma longa on the excretion of oocysts of Eimeria spp. in New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty-four eight-month-old rabbits were divided into four groups of six animals to be C. longa extract administered at 0 (Control, 10, 25 or 40 mg/kg body weight (BW. Rabbit weights were recorded and faeces samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The McMaster technique was used for quantifying Eimeria spp. oocysts. Results were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance for repeated observations. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 from d 28 were observed among the Control, the group of 25 mg/kg BW and that of 40 mg/kg BW. At d 42, statistically difference (P<0.05 among the Control group and the other three groups was observed. It could be concluded that C. longa decreased Eimeria spp. oocysts excretion efficiently at a dose of 40 mg/kg BW with 80.1, 63.7 and 64.9% for d 28, 35 and 42, respectively, with reducing concentration of eggs per gram of faeces with about 20.1, 15.6 and 17.8 for d 14, 21 and 35, respectively. However, further studies are needed to assess and confirm the antiparasitic activity of C. longa.

  19. Long-term results of diaphragmatic plication in adults with unilateral diaphragm paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okay Tamer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of diaphragmatic plication for symptomatic unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Methods Thirteen patients who underwent unilateral diaphragmatic plication (2 patients had right, 11 left plication between January 2003 and December 2006 were evaluated. One patient died postoperatively due to sepsis. The remaining 12 patients [9 males, 3 females; mean age 60 (36-66 years] were reevaluated with chest radiography, flouroscopy or ultrasonography, pulmonary function tests, computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and the MRC/ATS dyspnea score at an average of 5.4 (4-7 years after diaphragmatic plication. Results The etiology of paralysis was trauma (9 patients, cardiac by pass surgery (3 patients, and idiopathic (1 patient. The principle symptom was progressive dyspnea with a mean duration of 32.9 (22-60 months before surgery. All patients had an elevated hemidiaphragm and paradoxical movement radiologically prior to surgery. There were partial atelectasis and reccurent infection of the lower lobe in the affected side on CT in 9 patients. Atelectasis was completely improved in 9 patients after plication. Preoperative spirometry showed a clear restrictive pattern. Mean preoperative FVC was 56.7 ± 11.6% and FEV1 65.3 ± 8.7%. FVC and FEV1 improved by 43.6 ± 30.6% (p Conclusions Diaphragmatic plication for unilateral diaphragm paralysis decreases lung compression, ensures remission of symptoms, and improves quality of life in long-term period.

  20. Helicobacter pylori colonization and diarrhoeal illness: Results of a population-based cross-sectional study in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori colonization may protect against diarrhoeagenic gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and the frequency of diarrhoeal episodes among adults. Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. Overall, 784 adults (mean age: 48.7 ± 17.7; range 18-85 years) who participated in two epidemiological studies were included in the analysis. Overall H. pylori prevalence was 25.5%. Episodes of diarrhoea within prior 3 months were less often reported for H. pylori infected subjects compared with H. pylori negative subjects (40.2 vs. 51.6%, p = 0.016). Compared to H. pylori negative subjects the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of diarrhoea within the prior 3 months was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45-0.87) for H. pylori infected subjects. After adjustment for covariates the OR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47-0.95). These results support the hypothesis that colonization with H. pylori may protect from gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhoea

  1. Flexible guided self-determination intervention for younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes, decreased HbA1c and psychosocial distress in women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report results from an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of a flexible guided self-determination (GSD) intervention on glycaemic control and psychosocial distress in younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Between January 2010 and...

  2. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, D J; Osmond, C.; Simmonds, S J; Wield, G A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. DESIGN--A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth. SETTING--Sheffield, England. SUBJECTS--1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell from 119 in men who weighed 5.5 pounds (2...

  3. Brief Report: the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): initial results in a German cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven

    2012-09-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a specificity of .83 for ASD versus CLIN/TD. Correlations with established autism scales (ADOS, AQ, SCQ) were moderate to high (r = .25-.83). Results provide adequate preliminary support for the application of the SRS-A. PMID:22183423

  4. Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Serum Leptin in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Kuchel, George A.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may be associated with higher serum levels of the adipokine leptin, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated in humans. Methods In a cohort of older adults, we estimated the association between serum leptin concentrations and two markers of long-term exposure to traffic pollution, adjusting for participant characteristics, temporal trends, socioeconomic factors, and medical history. Results An interquartile range increase (0.11 µg/m3) in annual mean residential black carbon was associated with 12% (95% CI: 3%, 22%) higher leptin levels. Leptin levels were not associated with residential distance to major roadway. Conculsions If confirmed, these findings support the emerging evidence suggesting that certain sources of traffic pollution may be associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects. PMID:25192230

  5. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

  6. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charumathi Sabanayagam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval (CI of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87. In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI = 3.68 (2.01–6.72 but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04, P-interaction =0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction =0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men.

  7. Periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness in younger adults: results from continuous national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Thai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. METHODS: The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max . Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20-49 years, 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99. Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28. Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00. The odds ratio (OR for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64-1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51-1.15]. CONCLUSION: Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults.

  8. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong;

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  9. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  10. Serum testosterone as a biomarker for second prostatic biopsy in men with negative first biopsy for prostatic cancer and PSA>4ng/mL, or with PIN biopsy result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamegos, Alexandros; Varkarakis, John; Kontraros, Michael; Karagiannis, Andreas; Chrisofos, Michael; Barbalias, Dimitrios; Deliveliotis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from animal, clinical and prevention studies support the role of androgens in prostate cancer growth, proliferation and progression. Results of serum based epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have been inconclusive. The present study aims to define whether serum testosterone can be used as a predictor of a positive second biopsy in males considered for re-biopsy. Material and Methods: The study included 320 men who underwent a prostatic biopsy in our department from October 2011 until June 2012. Total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and prostate pathology were evaluated in all cases. Patients undergoing a second biopsy were identified and biopsy results were statistically analyzed. Results: Forty men (12.5%) were assessed with a second biopsy. The diagnosis of the second biopsy was High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in 14 patients (35%) and Prostate Cancer in 12 patients (30%). The comparison of prostatic volume, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and albumin showed that patients with cancer of the prostate had significantly greater levels of free testosterone (p=0.043) and bioavailable T (p=0.049). Conclusion: In our study, higher free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with a cancer diagnosis at re-biopsy. Our results indicate a possible role for free and bioavailable testosterone in predicting the presence of prostate cancer in patients considered for re-biopsy. PMID:27532110

  11. Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect with Amplatzer Septal Occluder in Adults: Immediate, Short, and Intermediate-Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Dehghani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transcatheter closure of the atrial septal defect (ASD has become an alternative technique to surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate, short, and intermediate-term results of the transcatheter closure of the secundum ASD with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO in adult Iranian patients.Methods: Between December 2004 and July 2008, the transcatheter closure of the ASD using the ASO was attempted in 58consecutive, adult patients. The mean age of the patients was 37.1 ± 12.7 years (range = 19 - 75 years.All the procedures were performed under local anesthesia with transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopic guidance. The stretched diameter of the ASD was determined with a balloon sizing catheter, and device selection was based on and matched to the stretched diameter of the septal defect.Transthoracic echocardiography was performed immediately after the release of the device and before discharge.Further follow-up at one month, six months, and yearly thereafter included physical examination, electrocardiography, andtransthoracic echocardiography.Results: The mean ASD diameter, as measured by esophageal echocardiography, was 24.8 ± 5.4 mm (range = 13 - 34 mm.The mean stretched diameter, as measured by the balloon catheter, was 27.1 ± 6.4 mm (range = 12.5 - 39 mm. Deploymentof the ASO was successful in 52 (89.6% patients and failed in 6 (10.4%. Four patients experienced severe complications,1 had tamponade requiring drainage, 2 had device embolization to the left atrium and right ventricular outflow tract, and 1 had late wire fracture (surgical removal and repair of the ASD. The position of two large devices (34 mm and 36 mm was considered unsuitable and unstable after implantation and resulted in the removal of these devices.Minor complications included transient complete atrioventricular block in 1 patient, paroxysmal supra tachycardia in 3 patients, atrial flutter in 1 patient

  12. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  13. Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Satija

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial. We examined the association of an overall plant-based diet and hypothesized healthful and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet with T2D incidence in three prospective cohort studies in the US.We included 69,949 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012, 90,239 women from the Nurses' Health Study 2 (1991-2011, and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010, free of chronic diseases at baseline. Dietary data were collected every 2-4 y using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using these data, we created an overall plant-based diet index (PDI, where plant foods received positive scores, while animal foods (animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish/seafood, poultry/red meat, miscellaneous animal-based foods received reverse scores. We also created a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI, where healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, tea/coffee received positive scores, while less healthy plant foods (fruit juices, sweetened beverages, refined grains, potatoes, sweets/desserts and animal foods received reverse scores. Lastly, we created an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI by assigning positive scores to less healthy plant foods and reverse scores to healthy plant foods and animal foods. We documented 16,162 incident T2D cases during 4,102,369 person-years of follow-up. In pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, both PDI and hPDI were inversely associated with T2D (PDI: hazard ratio [HR] for extreme deciles 0.51, 95% CI 0.47-0.55, p trend < 0.001; hPDI: HR for extreme deciles 0.55, 95% CI 0.51-0.59, p trend < 0.001. The association of T2D with PDI was considerably attenuated when we additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI categories (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, p trend < 0.001, while that with hPDI remained

  14. When Men Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning

    men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...

  15. Mental Health for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for men ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , ...

  16. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Men Published June 23, 2014 Print Email ... June 2014 Tags Health Wellness Nutrition Healthy Aging Healthy Eating Preventing Illness Your Health and Your Weight Heart ...

  17. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  18. Rundt om Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling...

  19. Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior among Adults: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0.3 No Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse + Difference between this estimate and the estimate for adults with no drug or alcohol dependence or abuse is statistically significant at the .05 level. Suicidal ...

  20. Utilization of Hyaluronate and Incidence of Septic Knee Arthritis in Adults: Results from the Korean National Claim Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Ki-Choul; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Septic arthritis of the knee has been reported recently in adult patients who were administered hyaluronate. We evaluated the incidence of septic knees and the utilization of hyaluronate in the Korean adult population using nationwide data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Methods All new admissions to the clinics or hospitals for septic knees were recorded in the HIRA database which was established by the Korean government and covers the Korean popula...

  1. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the commo...

  2. Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, So Yeon; Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifes...

  3. Social network among young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network.......Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network....

  4. Vaginal hygiene and douching: perspectives of Hispanic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Diane; Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-02-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City. Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed.

  5. Men and women have similarly shaped carpometacarpal joint bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M T Y; Zhang, J; Crisco, J J; Weiss, A P C; Ladd, A L; Nielsen, P; Besier, T

    2015-09-18

    Characterizing the morphology of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint bones and how they vary across the population is important for understanding the functional anatomy and pathology of the thumb. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical shape model of the trapezium and first metacarpal bones to characterize the size and shape of the whole bones across a cohort of 50. We used this shape model to investigate the effects of sex and age on the size and shape of the CMC joint bones and the articulating surface area of the CMC joint. We hypothesized that women have similar shape trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men, following scaling for overall size. We also hypothesized that age would be a significant predictor variable for CMC joint bone changes. CT image data and segmented point clouds of 50 CMC bones from healthy adult men and women were obtained from an ongoing study and used to generate two statistical shape models. Statistical analysis of the principal component weights of both models was performed to investigate morphological sex and age differences. We observed sex differences, but were unable to detect any age differences. Between men and women the only difference in morphology of the trapezia and first metacarpal bones was size. These findings confirm our first hypothesis, and suggest that the women have similarly shaped trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men. Furthermore, our results reject our second hypothesis, indicating that age is a poor predictor of CMC joint morphology.

  6. Recapitulation of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Human Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) Syndrome via Pdx1-directed Inactivation of Men1

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H.-C. Jennifer; He, Mei; Powell, Anathea; Adem, Asha; Lorang, Dominique; Heller, Charles; Grover, Amelia C; Ylaya, Kris; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Marx, Stephen J.; Spiegel, Allen M.; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal syndrome caused by mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. While the protein product of MEN1, menin, is ubiquitously expressed, somatic loss of the remaining wildtype MEN1 allele results in tumors primarily in parathyroid, pituitary, and endocrine pancreas. To understand the endocrine specificity of the MEN1 syndrome, we evaluated biallelic loss of Men1 by inactivating Men1 in pancreatic progenitor cells utilizing the Cre-lox sys...

  7. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B, end of treatment (EOT, and six-week followup (FU. We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P<.001 in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P<.05; however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  8. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11−12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11–12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: –1.35 [–1.70, –1.01] study 2: –1.66 [–2.04, –1.28] both Peating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating–related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  9. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have r

  10. Maximizing Effectiveness of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Julia Lenore

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of prevention and treatment efforts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global pandemic, with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among the leading causes of death for children and adults in developing countries. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), including in the United States, where MSM account for over half of all new HIV infections. Existing HIV prevention tools have not been sufficient to curb the pandemic, and bi...

  11. Formation of homosexual orientation of men in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katra Grażyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of homosexual men connected with the formation of their sexual orientation in adolescence. A comparative study of 27 young adult homosexual men and 28 heterosexual men of similar age used a categorised interview questionnaire consisting of two parts: the first with questions regarding sexual dreams, fantasies and erotic encounters; the second with questions on family and social circumstances.

  12. Male Men1 heterozygous mice exhibit fasting hyperglycemia in the early stage of MEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongxiuzi; Zhang, Li; Xie, Wenting; Wang, Siqi; Bao, Xiaorui; Guo, Yuli; Zhang, Houjian; Hu, Qingzhong; Chen, Yi; Wang, Zeen; Xue, Maoqiang; Jin, Guanghui

    2016-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by multiple tumors in the parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Recent clinical studies have revealed a strong association between MEN1 syndrome and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, heterozygous Men1 knockout (Men1(+/-)) mice were used as MEN1 models to investigate MEN1-associated glucose metabolic phenotypes and mechanisms. Heterozygous deficiency of Men1 in 12-month-old male mice induced fasting hyperglycemia, along with increased serum insulin levels. However, male Men1(+/-) mice did not show insulin resistance, as evidenced by Akt activation in hepatic tissues and an insulin tolerance test. Increased glucose levels following pyruvate challenge and expression of key gluconeogenic genes suggested increased hepatic glucose output in the male Men1(+/-) mice. This effect could be partly due to higher basal serum glucagon levels, which resulted from pancreatic islet cell proliferation induced by heterozygous loss of Men1 Taken together, our results indicate that fasted male Men1(+/-) mice, in the early stage of development of MEN1, display glucose metabolic disorders. These disorders are caused not by direct induction of insulin resistance, but via increased glucagon secretion and the consequent stimulation of hepatic glucose production. PMID:27432891

  13. Dieting Habits of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  14. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  15. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  16. Sexual Abuse of Vulnerable Young and Old Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.

    2007-01-01

    During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…

  17. Gender-based screening for chlamydial infection and divergent infection trends in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Rogers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential impact of chlamydial screening policy that recommends routine screening of women but not men. METHODS: Population surveys of probability samples of Baltimore adults aged 18 to 35 years in 1997-1998 and 2006-2009 collected biospecimens to estimate trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Survey estimates are compared to surveillance data on diagnosed chlamydial infections reported to the Health Department. RESULTS: Prevalence of undiagnosed chlamydial infection among men increased from 1.6% to 4.0%, but it declined from 4.3% to 3.1% among women (p = 0.028 for test of interaction. The annual (average number of diagnosed infections was substantially higher among women than men in both time periods and increased among both men and women. Undiagnosed infection prevalence was substantially higher among black than non-black adults (4.0% vs 1.2%, p = 0.042 in 1997-98 and 5.5% vs 0.7%, p<0.001 in 2006-09. CONCLUSION: Divergent trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection by gender parallel divergent screening recommendations that encourage chlamydial testing for women but not for men.

  18. Age-specific PSA reference ranges in Chinese men without prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Ying-Hao Sun; Chuan-Liang Xu; Xu Gao; Luo-Man Zhang; Shan-Cheng Ren

    2009-01-01

    This study is to determine age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) distributions in Chinese men without prostate cancer (PC) and to recommend reference ranges for this population after comparison with other studies.From September 2003 to December 2006,9 374 adult men aged from 18 to 96 years agreed to participate in the study.After all cases of PC were excluded,8 422 adult men participated in statistical analysis and were divided into five age groups.Simple descriptive statistical analyses were carried out and quartiles and 95th percentiles were calculated for each age group.The age-specific PSA reference ranges are as follows:40-49 years,2.15 ng mL-1;50-59 years,3.20 ng mL-1;60-69 years,4.10 ng mL-1;70-79 years,5.37 ng mL-1.The results indicate that the ethnic differences in PSA levels are obvious.The currently adopted Oesterling's age-specific PSA reference ranges are not appropriate for Chinese men.The reference ranges of this study should be more suitable to Chinese men.

  19. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support. PMID:27263201

  20. Doubling over ten years of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KO Gary Tin-choi; CHAN Juliana; CHAN Amy; WONG Patrick; HUI Stanley; CHOW Ferrie; TONG Spencer; CHAN Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity is now an epidemic in most parts of the world. In this cross sectional study, we report the most recent data on obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working population and compare the changes over 10 years.Methods Between July 2000 and March 2002, 5882 adult subjects from the working class in Hong Kong were recruited (2716 men (46.2%) and 3166 women (53.8%)). They were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. Results of this study were compared with the data collected from a prevalence survey for cardiovascular risk factors in a Hong Kong Chinese working population conducted in 1990 (1513 subjects, 910 men (60.1%) and 603 women (39.9%)).Results Standardized percentages of overweight, obesity, and central obesity, in Hong Kong Chinese working population were 59.7%, 35.0%, 26.7% in men and 32.0%, 21.7%, 26.7% in women. Compared to the data collected in 1990, the percentage of obesity increased by 5% in men and reduced by 6% in women. The percentage of central obesity doubled in men (from 12.2% to 26.7%) but remained stable in women.Conclusions There is a doubling of the percentage of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men over previous decade. Education and proper lifestyle modification program to tackle this social health issue are urgently indicated.

  1. Alcohol Use and STI among men in India: Evidences from a national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use has been found to correlate with risky sexual behavior as well as with sexually transmitted infections (STI among populations with high-risk behavior in India. Objective: To examine the correlates of alcohol use and its association with STI among adult men in India. Materials and Methods: Data from a national representative large-scale household sample survey in the country were used. It included information on sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use as a part of substance use. Clinical as well laboratory testing was done to ascertain the STI. Results: The overall STI prevalence among adult males was found to be 2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-3.1. Over 26% adult men were found to have been using alcohol in the study population. It was higher among men who were illiterate and unskilled industrial workers/drivers. The men who consumed alcohol had higher prevalence of STI (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1 than those who did not consume alcohol (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6. The degree of association between alcoholism and STI was slightly reduced after adjusting for various sociodemographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.9-2.3; P=0.06. Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest integrating alcohol risk reduction into STI/HIV prevention programmes.

  2. Changes of body mass index in relation to mortality: results of a cohort of 42,099 adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Klenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High Body-Mass-Index (BMI is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but little is known about the effect of short- and long-term BMI change on mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how long-term weight change affects mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within a population-based prospective cohort of 42,099 Austrian men and women (mean age 43 years with at least three BMI measurements we investigated the relationship of BMI at baseline and two subsequent BMI change intervals of five years each with all-cause mortality using Cox proportional Hazard models. During median follow-up of 12 years 4,119 deaths were identified. The lowest mortalities were found in persons with normal weight or overweight at baseline and stable BMI over 10 years. Weight gain (≥0.10 kg/m(2/year during the first five years was associated with increased mortality in overweight and obese people. For weight gain during both time intervals mortality risk remained significantly increased only in overweight (Hazard Ratio (HR: 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.01; 1.92 and obese women (1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.18; 2.89. Weight loss (< -0.10 kg/m(2/year increased all-cause mortality in men and women consistently. BMI change over time assessed using accepted World Health Organisation BMI categories showed no increased mortality risk for people who remained in the normal or overweight category for all three measurements. In contrast, HRs for stable obese men and women were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.31; 1.87 and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.71 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of weight stability and obesity avoidance in prevention strategy.

  3. 上海市成人男女性身高与恶性肿瘤发病的前瞻性队列研究%Prospective cohort study of body height and cancer incidence among adult men and women in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐认桥; 郑苇; 李泓澜; 高玉堂; 舒晓鸥; 项永兵

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨上海市成人男女性身高与常见恶性肿瘤发生的相关性.方法:利用1996-2000年上海市女性健康队列(Shanghai women's health study,SWHS)和2002-2006年上海市男性健康队列(Shanghai men's health study,SMHS)基线调查资料获得身高和肿瘤相关信息,排除身高数据缺失和随访时间<1年的对象,最终女性队列74709人、男性队列61161人纳入本次数据分析对象.随访至2009年底,女性队列累积收集肿瘤病例4031例,男性队列累积收集肿瘤病例2047例.用COX回归模型估计身高与常见肿瘤的相对风险比(hazard ratio,HR)及其95%可信区间(95% confidence interval,95% CI).结果:调整相关潜在混杂因子[如年龄、体重、体力活动、能量摄入、职业、经济收入和生理因素(仅对女性)等]后,身高每增加1个标准差单位(本研究中男、女性都为6 cm),女性总肿瘤发生的HR值为1.04(95% CI:1.00~1.08),其中胃癌HR值为1.18(95% CI:1.05~1.33)、肾癌HR值为1.34 (95%CI:1.06~1.70)、乳腺癌HR值为1.05 (95% CI.0.99~1.12);男性总肿瘤发生的HR值为1.06 (95%CI:1.00~1.11),其中肺癌HR值为1.11 (95% CI:1.00~1.25)、胰腺癌HR值为1.34 (95%CI:1.02~1.75)、直肠癌HR值为1.23 (95%CI:1.01~1.49)、前列腺癌HR值为0.78 (95% CI:0.66~0.94).结论:身高与恶性肿瘤发病之间存在一定的联系,不同的肿瘤发生部位,其结果可能存在一定差异.%Objective: To investigate the association between body height and risk of cancer incidence among adult men and women in Shanghai. Methods: Baseline information on body height and other factors relevant for cancer was obtained from Women's (1996-2000) and Men's Health Studies (2002-2006) in Shanghai. Participants with missing data on body height, or those lost to follow-up in one year after the study enrollment were excluded, leaving 74 709 women and 61 161 men for analysis. There were 4 031 incident cancers for women and 2

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031

  5. Impact of HIV on and the constructions of masculinities among HIV-positive men in South Africa: implications for secondary prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandisa M. Sikweyiya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, whilst there have been many published studies exploring the links between masculinity and HIV, not much work has been done to explore how an HIV-positive diagnosis impacts men's sense of masculinity and contextualizing the masculinities as fluid and changing. Objective: To explore how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV impacts the lives of men and their constructions of masculinity through interviews with 18 men living with HIV. Design: Qualitative study involving conveniently and purposively selected black South African adult men who lived with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 men who resided in Johannesburg and Mthatha, South Africa. Results: Our analysis suggests that the performance of risky masculinity may influence the acquisition of HIV. Yet, it also reveals that HIV can have a significant effect on men and their masculinities. Men's constructions of harmful notions of hegemonic masculinity pre-HIV diagnosis negatively affected their help-seeking behavior and coping and adjustment to living with HIV, post-diagnosis. The dominant discourse that men are strong and healthy visibly presented challenges for men when faced with an HIV-positive status. They interpreted HIV diagnosis as a loss, a sign of failure as a man, and evidence of an inability to retain control. Being sick undermined their ability to perform roles expected of them, and this led to feelings of powerlessness, worthlessness, and distress. Conclusions: Interventions with men living with HIV need to provide safe spaces for men to critically explore gender and constructions of social identities and the pressures these place on men and implications for their health. With this approach, harmful constructions of masculinities may be challenged and mitigated, and this process may render men amenable to change.

  6. Design and intermediate results of the Lower Extremity Arterial Disease Event Reduction (LEADER* trial of bezafibrate in men with lower extremity arterial disease [ISRCTN41194621

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Thomas W

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raised levels of both triglycerides and fibrinogen, each of which are reduced by bezafibrate, may contribute to lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD. This condition is characterized by a particularly high incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, but is little studied thus far in randomised controlled trials. Method Patients were recruited through 85 practices in the British Medical Research Council General Practice Research Framework and through nine hospital vascular clinics. The treatment regimen, which is double-blind and placebo-controlled, is bezafibrate 400 mg/day. The 1568 patients recruited represent 86% of those eligible at screening. Results None of the anticipated side effects (mainly gastrointestinal differed between the two groups. Nearly 80% of the total person-years accrued at 3 years were spent on trial treatment. Bezafibrate significantly reduced total cholesterol by approximately 8.0% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol by approximately 9.0%, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol by approximately 11.0% initially, falling to about 6.0% at 3 years. Triglycerides were significantly reduced by about 23.0% and fibrinogen by about 14.0%. Plasma creatinine rose by approximately 11% in those on active treatment. All of these effects were highly significant (P Conclusion The trial recruited an unusually high proportion of eligible patients, ensuring the general applicability of its results. The fibrinogen-lowering and lipid-modifying effects of bezafibrate were confirmed. Although bezafibrate lowers fibrinogen, it has no effect on CRP; this suggests that the reduction in fibrinogen is due to an effect on its metabolism rather than suppression of an inflammatory response.

  7. Subgroups associated with lower physical fitness in older adults with ID : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Although physical fitness is generally very low in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), levels may differ across subgroups. It is important to identify which subgroups need to be targeted specifically in physical activity and fitness interventions and reference values. Physical fitness

  8. Integrated Care for Older Adults Improves Perceived Quality of Care : Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Embrace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Wynia, Klaske

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All community-living older adults might benefit from integrated care, but evidence is lacking on the effectiveness of such services for perceived quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of Embrace, a community-based integrated primary care service, on perceived quality of care.

  9. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  10. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  11. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, C.; Fayyad, J.; de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Demytteneare, K.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Lepine, J.P.; Mora, M.E.M.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  12. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, Carmen; Fayyad, John; de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  13. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  14. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  15. Is the cultural transmission of irrelevant tool actions in adult humans (Homo sapiens best explained as the result of an evolved conformist bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGuigan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies of social learning have revealed that adult humans are "over-imitators" who frequently reproduce a model's causally irrelevant tool actions to the detriment of task efficiency. At present our knowledge of adult over-imitation is limited to the fact that adults do over-imitate, we know very little about the causes of this behavior. The current study aimed to provide novel insights into adult over-imitation by extending a paradigm recently used with human children to explore social aspects of over-imitation. In the child study observers saw two models demonstrate a tool-use task using the same inefficient approach, or two models demonstrate different approaches to the task (one inefficient and one efficient. The manipulation of social influence came in the testing phase where the observer completed the task in the presence of either an inefficient model or an efficient model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted the paradigm used in the child study to provide the first systematic exploration of factors which may lead to adult over-imitation including: 1 the presence of the model(s during testing, 2 the presence of a competing efficient task demonstration, 3 the presence of a majority displaying the inefficient approach, and 4 the 'removal' of the experimental context during task completion. We show that the adult participants only over-imitated in conditions where the inefficient strategy was the majority approach witnessed. This tendency towards over-imitation was almost entirely eliminated when the participants interacted with the task when they believed the experiment to be complete. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adult over-imitation is best explained as a result of an evolved 'conformist bias' argued to be crucial to the transmission of human cultural behavior and one which may be unique in the animal kingdom.

  16. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  17. Does obesity modify the relationship between exposure to occupational factors and musculoskeletal pain in men? Results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Evanoff

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between physical occupational exposures, post-retirement shoulder/knee pain, and obesity. METHODS: 9 415 male participants (aged 63-73 in 2012 from the French GAZEL cohort answered self-administered questionnaires in 2006 and 2012. Occupational exposures retrospectively assessed in 2006 included arm elevation and squatting (never, <10 years, ≥10 years. "Severe" shoulder and knee pain were defined as ≥5 on an 8-point scale. BMI was self-reported. RESULTS: Mean BMI was 26.59 kg/m2 +/-3.5 in 2012. Long-term occupational exposure to arm elevation and squatting predicted severe shoulder and knee pain after retirement. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 was a risk factor for severe shoulder pain (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03, 1.90. Overweight (adjusted OR 1.71; 1.28,2.29 and obesity (adjusted OR 3.21; 1.90,5.41 were risk factors for severe knee pain. In stratified models, associations between long-term squatting and severe knee pain varied by BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a role in relationships between occupational exposures and musculoskeletal pain. Further prospective studies should use BMI in analyses of musculoskeletal pain and occupational factors, and continue to clarify this relationship.

  18. Men in Feminised Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Kenn

    »Male nurses – Is that really what It’s called?« »Aren’t all male hairdressers gay?« »All preschool educators do is to wipe children’s bums, isn’t it?« »Cleaning is a job for women, not for menMen working in women’s professions often give rise to a lot of prejudices. But why? Are these men less...

  19. Men in Feminised Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Kenn

    »Male nurses – Is that really what It’s called?« »Aren’t all male hairdressers gay?« »All preschool educators do is to wipe children’s bums, isn’t it?« »Cleaning is a job for women, not for menMen working in women’s professions often give rise to a lot of prejudices. But why? Are these men les...

  20. Association between vitamin D and pressure ulcers in older ambulatory adults: results of a matched case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalava UR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Usha R Kalava1, Stephen S Cha2, Paul Y Takahashi1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Kogod Center of Aging, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Pressure ulcers are common among older adults, but knowledge about nutritional risk factors is still developing. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly population and is required for normal skin proliferation. The role of vitamin D in pressure ulceration and wound healing is not known. The purpose of this case–control study was to determine the association between vitamin D levels and pressure ulceration in an older community-dwelling cohort.Methods: All cases and controls were community-dwelling elderly older than 60 years in a primary care panel in Olmsted County, MN. Pressure ulcer cases were defined clinically. The controls were age-matched and gender-matched to controls without pressure ulceration. The main exposure variable was 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both groups. The other exposure variable was the Charlson Comorbidity Index used to measure medical comorbidity. The analysis included univariate and conditional logistic regression for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.Results: The average (standard deviation age of the study participants with a pressure ulcer was 80.46 years (±8.67, and the average vitamin D level was 30.92 ng/mL (±12.46. In univariate analysis, Vitamin D deficiency (levels < 25 ng/mL was associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.871, P = 0.0154. Comorbidities of the subjects calculated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index were also associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.136, P < 0.001. In the final conditional logistical regression model, the association of Vitamin D and pressure ulcers became nonsignificant after adjustment for comorbid illness.Conclusion: Medical comorbidities increased the risk of pressure ulceration. Vitamin D deficiency was not an independent risk factor

  1. Uncovering Cultural Prototypes : Old Men in Japanese Folktales and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    ニコリッチ細中, ネベンカ; ニコリッチホソナカ, ネベンカ; Nevenka, Nikolic Hosonaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the preliminary stages of a larger project that aims to find out if Japanese children's concepts of old men would change through exposure to the images of old men in Western folktales. It is the old men's characterization that differs most in the two cultures, as seen in traditional folktales. Research showed both Japanese adults' and the 2-3^ graders' familiarity with the folktales representative of the Japanese culture. Their concepts of old men were compa...

  2. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  3. ICT and L2 Acquisition by Adult Migrants: Results from a Comparative Study in the Netherlands and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    SPOTTI Massimiliano; KLUZER Stefano; Ferrari, Anusca

    2010-01-01

    This paper, part of a larger comparative study jointly developed by IPTS (Seville) and DG INFSO (Brussels), deals with ICT and L2 learning as enablers of integration and the everyday engagement of adult migrants in both in the Netherlands and Sweden. More specifically, the paper provides a qualitative snapshot of the current situation in these two countries where migrant integration is regimented by opposite policy regimes with sharp differences in their ICT provision (a highly developed priv...

  4. The Relationship Between Health, Education, and Health Literacy: Results From the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, I. van der; Wang, J.; Droomers, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P; Rademakers, J.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 year...

  5. Comparing adult and pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, 1988-2005: an analysis of 21 734 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzeh, Faiha; Rihani, Rawad; Howard, Scott; Sultan, Iyad

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed data from 18 898 adults (age ≥20 years) and 2836 children/adolescents reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database as having Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), diagnosed from 1988 to 2005. The nodular sclerosis subtype was significantly more common in the pediatric age group (76% in children/adolescents vs. 61% in adults, p < 0.001). The mixed cellularity subtype was more prevalent in children <10 years old (22%), but less likely in older children/adolescents (8.5%). Systemic symptoms were reported in 39% of children/adolescents and in 48% of adults (p < 0.001). Children/adolescents had significantly better HL-specific survival than adults (5-year survival rate, 96% ± 0.4% vs.88% ± 0.3%, p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model in patients with classical HL, the prognostic factors significantly impacting survival were age, histology, stage, B symptoms, year of diagnosis, and race. The only adverse prognostic factors that were significant when this analysis was restricted to children/adolescents were stage IV disease and the presence of B symptoms. In conclusion, several differences in clinicopathologic features and outcomes were identified between children/adolescents and adults with HL, and this was particularly noted in young children (<10 years). PMID:21054151

  6. Does Participation in Home-Delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults? Results of a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R; Locher, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of all studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the keyword "Meal" was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based on self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to (1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, (2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, (3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and (4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  7. The Wages of Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  8. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. METHODS: We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. RESULTS: LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  9. Men's Entrance to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Men (N=30) attending childbirth preparation classes were interviewed before and after the birth of a first child. The data suggest that developing some kind of coherent role was more important to men's adjustments to postpartum family life than developing any particular role of high or low home life sharing activity. (Author)

  10. Eating disorders in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  11. What Do Men Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Definitions of the male role are changing as more men seek fulfillment in family life, redefine success, or attempt to balance family and career. Corporate structure no longer fits the lives of many men, but employers continue to resist change. (SK)

  12. Predicting Positive Well-Being in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Erin L.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of background, psychological, and social variables on older adults' well-being, and how this may differ for men and women. Participants included 800 adults from the 2002 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), aged 60 to 101 years old (M = 71.22, SD = 8.46), who completed the optional positive…

  13. High Adult Sex Ratios and Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systemati...

  14. Social networking smartphone applications and sexual health outcomes among men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J Lehmiller

    Full Text Available Several smartphone applications (apps designed to help men who have sex with men (MSM find casual sexual partners have appeared on the market recently. Apps of this nature have the potential to impact sexual health and behavior by providing constant access to a large supply of available partners. In this study, the sexual health history, behavior, and personality of MSM who use these apps was compared to MSM who meet partners in other ways. A sample of 110 adult MSM was recruited online to complete a cross-sectional survey. All participants were either single or involved in a non-exclusive romantic relationship. There were no statistically significant differences between app users and non-users in frequency of insertive or receptive anal sex without a condom. However, app users reported significantly more sexual partners and had a higher prevalence of ever being diagnosed with an STI than did non-users. App users did not differ from non-users on any demographic or personality variables (including erotophilia, sensation seeking, and self-control; however, when adjusting lifetime total sex partners for those met specifically through apps, app users still had significantly more partners. This pattern of results suggests that app users may be more sexually active in general. More work is needed to fully understand the association between this emerging technology and potential sexual health risks.

  15. Social networking smartphone applications and sexual health outcomes among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J; Ioerger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Several smartphone applications (apps) designed to help men who have sex with men (MSM) find casual sexual partners have appeared on the market recently. Apps of this nature have the potential to impact sexual health and behavior by providing constant access to a large supply of available partners. In this study, the sexual health history, behavior, and personality of MSM who use these apps was compared to MSM who meet partners in other ways. A sample of 110 adult MSM was recruited online to complete a cross-sectional survey. All participants were either single or involved in a non-exclusive romantic relationship. There were no statistically significant differences between app users and non-users in frequency of insertive or receptive anal sex without a condom. However, app users reported significantly more sexual partners and had a higher prevalence of ever being diagnosed with an STI than did non-users. App users did not differ from non-users on any demographic or personality variables (including erotophilia, sensation seeking, and self-control); however, when adjusting lifetime total sex partners for those met specifically through apps, app users still had significantly more partners. This pattern of results suggests that app users may be more sexually active in general. More work is needed to fully understand the association between this emerging technology and potential sexual health risks. PMID:24466166

  16. Overweight, obesity, and colorectal cancer screening: Disparity between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison David B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the association between body-mass index (BMI: kg/m2 and colorectal cancer (CRC screening among US adults aged ≥ 50 years. Methods Population-based data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Adults (N = 84,284 aged ≥ 50 years were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–1 year since last screening vs. 1 = screened within the past year, and screening sigmoidoscopy (SIG: (0 = > 5 years since last screening vs. 1 = within the past 5 years were the outcomes. Results Results differed between men and women. After adjusting for age, health insurance, race, and smoking, we found that, compared to normal weight men, men in the overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.51 and obesity class I (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03–1.75 categories were more likely to have obtained a screening SIG within the previous 5 years, while women in the obesity class I (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.94 and II (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.79–0.99 categories were less likely to have obtained a screening SIG compared to normal weight women. BMI was not associated with FOBT. Conclusion Weight may be a correlate of CRC screening behavior but in a different way between men and women.

  17. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach. PMID:27037193

  18. Heteronormativity and 'troubled' masculinities among men who have sex with men in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Getnet

    2011-04-01

    In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large. PMID:21246428

  19. Estado de salud y nutrición de los adultos mayores en México: resultados de una encuesta probabilística nacional Health and nutrition status of older adults in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el estado de salud y nutrición de los adultos mayores en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de 5 480 adultos >60 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT 2006. Se obtuvieron prevalencias, medias e intervalos de confianza al 95% tras ajustar por el efecto del diseño. RESULTADOS: Hasta 40% de los adultos mayores carece de seguridad social y 2% padece desnutrición; la anemia afecta dos veces más a las mujeres que a los hombres (34.8 contra 17%. Más de 60% sufre sobrepeso y obesidad; cerca de 25% corresponde a hipertensos diagnosticados por la encuesta y 15 a 20% a diabéticos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados de este estudio muestran que los adultos mayores en México poseen un estado de salud y nutrición inadecuado, lo cual es urgente atender a fin de optimizar su calidad de vida.OBJECTIVE: To describe health and nutrition status in the elderly population in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from 5 480 adults (>60 years obtained by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006 was analyzed. Frequencies, means, and confidence intervals at 95% were obtained and adjusted for design effect. RESULTS: Forty percent of the adults reported a lack of social security, 2% suffered from malnutrition, women were affected two times more than men by anemia (34.8 vs. 17%, more than 60% of the population were overweight and had obesity, approximately 25% suffered from hypertension according to the survey, and between 15 and 20% were diabetic. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that health and nutrition status among the Mexican elderly population is inadequate. This is a situation that urgently needs to be addressed in order to improve the quality of life of older adults in Mexico.

  20. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

  1. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): Initial Results in a German Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a spec...

  2. Famous Space Men's Salon Beijing's professional salon chain for men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Services: Professional deep treatment of men's laces Treating men's "heer bellies" Spa hydrotherapy Brand-new French Darphin top-class aromatherapy Spa herbal massage Treatment for men's reproductive health

  3. Famous Space Men's Salon Beijing's professional salon chain for men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Services: Professional deep treatment of men's faces Treating men's "beer bellies" Spa hydrotherapy Brand new French Darphin top-class aromatherapy Spa herbal massage Treatment for men's reproductive health

  4. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  5. Self-reported oral health in the Brazilian adult population: results of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Lucélia Silva; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Pucca Júnior, Gilberto Alfredo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2016-02-01

    Oral diseases are a relevant public health problem in Brazil, because of their prevalence and magnitude in the population. Population-based surveys are essential tools for the election of groups and demands priority attention, . The aim of this paper was to describe the self-reported oral health status of the population, according to sociodemographic factors. A descriptive study was conducted using the National Health Survey data of 2013. Indicators associated with oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions were analyzed. Men, elders, blacks and browns, individuals with no education and with incomplete elementary level, residents in rural areas and in the northeast had the lowest frequencies of the indicators of oral hygiene and health self-perception oral as good or very good. Total loss has affected about 16.0 million. Both total tooth loss as the loss of 13 or more teeth was more frequent among women, individuals aged 60 and older, poorly educated, residents in rural areas. It is concluded that the data from the National Health Research -PNS 2013 reinforce the need for policies and actions that minimize the inequalities in oral health, ensuring access to the most vulnerable population sub-groups according to their health needs. PMID:26910147

  6. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  7. Waist Circumference, Physical Activity, and Functional Impairments in Older U.S. Adults: Results from the NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves function in older obese adults. However, body mass index is an unreliable adiposity indicator better reflected by waist circumference (WC). The impact of PA on physical impairment and mobility with high WC is unclear. We performed a secondary data analysis of 4,976 adults ≥ 60 years of age using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. Physical limitations (PL), activities of daily living (ADL) impairments, and PA (low = 1 day/week) were self-reported. WC was dichotomized (females: 88 cm; males: 102 cm). Mean age was 70.1 years and 55.1% were female. Prevalence of PL and ADL impairment in the high WC group were 57.7% and 18.8%, respectively, and high PA was present in 53.9%. Among those with high WC, high PA vs. low PA participants were at lower risk of PL (OR 0.58 [0.48-0.70]) and ADL impairment (OR 0.46 [0.32-0.65]). Those with high WC had higher odds of PL irrespective of PA (high PA: OR 1.57 [1.30-1.88]; low PA: OR 1.52 [1.29-1.79]) and ADL impairment (high PA: OR 1.27 [1.02-1.57] and low PA: OR 1.24 [0.99-1.54]). High PA in viscerally obese individuals is associated with impairments.

  8. Men's Health and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many men in general), most still have normal sexual desire. The good news is that ED is a ... sexually transmitted infections? Men with SB have normal sexual desires like all men. Similarly, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), ...

  9. The Analysis of Men's Gymnastics Competition Results of the 30th London Olympics%第30届伦敦奥运会男子体操比赛成绩分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宾; 冯奇荣

    2012-01-01

    With the methods of documentary information,videos observation,statistics,etc,the author conducts a statistical analysis of men's gymnastics competition results of the 2012 London Olympic Games,and explores the basic characteristics and trends of men's gymnastics in modern world.The results show that: 24 medals are carved up in 13 countries and the pattern of a few countries monopolizing medals ceases to exist;In the team finals,there may be a shock to the traditional gymnastics powers while the overall strength of the United States and Russia declines;with a strong and stable play,China and Japan are still in the ranks of the world's gymnastics powers;the phenomenon are that there are significant differences among the all-around game players;the traditional gold mode of sharing with strong taking weakly is broken and tends to the balanced development among sport items;individual event finals are fierce and each sports item has a lot of countries to participate in,so it still belongs to the multinational competition.%运用文献资料法、录像分析法、数理统计法等方法,对2012年伦敦奥运会男子体操比赛成绩进行统计分析,探讨现代世界男子体操的基本特征及发展趋势。结果表明:24枚奖牌被13个国家瓜分,少数国家独揽奖牌的格局不复存在;团体决赛中,传统体操强国受到冲击,美国与俄罗斯整体实力在下滑,中国和日本实力强大且发挥稳定,仍处于世界体操强国行列;全能比赛选手之间差异明显,传统以强带弱的夺金模式已被打破,趋向于各项目之间均衡发展;个人单项决赛异常激烈,每个项目都有多个国家参与竞争,依旧属于多国相争的局面。

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of an AMA-1 malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamadou A Thera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the AMA-1-based blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A in adults exposed to seasonal malaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A is a recombinant protein (FMP2.1 based on apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 from the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum, adjuvanted with AS02A. The comparator vaccine was a cell-culture rabies virus vaccine (RabAvert. Sixty healthy, malaria-experienced adults aged 18-55 y were recruited into 2 cohorts and randomized to receive either a half dose or full dose of the malaria vaccine (FMP2.1 25 microg/AS02A 0.25 mL or FMP2.1 50 microg/AS02A 0.5 mL or rabies vaccine given in 3 doses at 0, 1 and 2 mo, and were followed for 1 y. Solicited symptoms were assessed for 7 d and unsolicited symptoms for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Titers of anti-AMA-1 antibodies were measured by ELISA and P. falciparum growth inhibition assays were performed on sera collected at pre- and post-vaccination time points. Transient local pain and swelling were common and more frequent in both malaria vaccine dosage groups than in the comparator group. Anti-AMA-1 antibodies increased significantly in both malaria vaccine groups, peaking at nearly 5-fold and more than 6-fold higher than baseline in the half-dose and full-dose groups, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine had a good safety profile, was well-tolerated, and was highly immunogenic in malaria-exposed adults. This malaria vaccine is being evaluated in Phase 1 and 2 trials in children at this site.

  11. Men on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Trutnovská, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on the scientific literature related to the topic, and interviews with specific men on parental leave to point out, in particular, on the grounds that affect men, to the decision to become a full-time father, find out how these families work, and also to point out responses or opinions around which these men often encounter. The theoretical part is devoted to male parental leave in terms of its relation to the children, the themes taking on parental leave, the ...

  12. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Sante Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  13. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-14

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD.

  14. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  15. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  16. [The experience of men with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Anne-Marie; De Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show that men make specific lifestyle choices. However, regarding high blood pressure (HBP), guidelines are without distinction for gender. The purpose of this project is to explore the men's experience with HBP. Using a phenomenological design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten men living with HBP to explore beliefs and perceptions of men living with HBP. The main framework used is the health belief model. Two themes emerged: the meaning given to HBP (an unavoidable disease, the trivialization of HBP et HBP as synonymous of stress) and the management of this illness (the notion of control, the paradox of knowing about what to do and implementation of healthy lifestyle, relationship with health professionals). These results bring a better understanding of the experience of men with hypertension. PMID:26333268

  17. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...... men still encounter incomprehension when stating their choice of career. The study is actualised by five new projects supported by the Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (MBLIS). These five projects are engaged to seek new ways within attraction and recruitment...... of (more) men to early childhood education (ECE). By now the projects have completed interesting practices when aiming to attract and recruit men and the pedagogues engaged in the projects have gained new perspectives on their profession. However, attracting men to study programmes within care and ECE...

  18. Sometimes you just have to have a lot of bitter to make it sweet: Substance abuse and partner abuse in the lives of HIV+ men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, Michele P; Valentine, Sarah E; Pantalone, David W

    2013-07-01

    Although links between partner abuse (PA) and substance abuse (SA) are well-documented in the literature, we know less about these relations among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a qualitative study with this group (N = 28). Participants reported (1) social modeling of SA in childhood and in adult social networks, (2) initial use of substance to cope with child abuse and neglect, and (3) the reinforcement of problematic SA by experiences of PA, whereby SA led to PA, resulting in increased SA. Recommendations for clinicians working with HIV+ MSM are discussed.

  19. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, HIV risk, and quality of life among adults in opioid detoxification: results from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Burchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1,2, Walter Ling3, Bruce Burchett1, Dan G Blazer1,2, Jack Shostak2, George E Woody41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, NPI/Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: Detoxification often serves as an initial contact for treatment and represents an opportunity for engaging patients in aftercare to prevent relapse. However, there is limited information concerning clinical profiles of individuals seeking detoxification, and the opportunity to engage patients in detoxification for aftercare often is missed. This study examined clinical profiles of a geographically diverse sample of opioid-dependent adults in detoxification to discern the treatment needs of a growing number of women and whites with opioid addiction and to inform interventions aimed at improving use of aftercare or rehabilitation.Methods: The sample included 343 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002. Patients were recruited from 12 addiction treatment programs across the nation. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk, and quality of life were examined.Results: Women and whites were more likely than men and African Americans to have greater psychiatric and family/social relationship problems and report poorer health-related quality of life and functioning. Whites and Hispanics exhibited higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection drug use scores than African Americans, and Hispanics showed a higher level of unprotected sexual behaviors than whites. African Americans were

  20. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  1. HPV and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV and Men - Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) ... all sexually active people will get human papillomavirus (HPV) at some time in their life. Although most ...

  2. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  3. For Men Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, A. Victor, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College has developed a course designed to help men take an objective look at themselves and their circumstances, develop an awareness of alternate points of view, and learn processes for goal setting and lifestyle planning. (DC)

  4. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed ...

  5. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Hamid; Zoe Aslanpour; Hisham Aljadhey; Maisoon Ghaleb

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes (DM) are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs). MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients wit...

  6. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  7. Dietary intake of metals by the young adult population of Eastern Poland: Results from a market basket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Karim, Md Rezaul; Marzec, Zbigniew; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Dietary intake of macro-, trace and toxic elements was determined among the young adult population of Eastern Poland. The study was performed in 2011-2013 and involved 583 participants living in Lublin and its province. Dietary intakes of metals were determined using a 24h dietary recall technique and a market basket method. The analytical quantification of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn was performed using ICP-MS technique, whereas the content of mercury was determined using the Mercury Analyzer. Performed investigations revealed that daily dietary intakes of the majority of the study elements (macro- and trace) and toxic elements such as As, Pb or Hg are within the range of reference values. However, high consumption of Na and improper Na/K ratio combined with low intake of Mg may be harmful to the health of the population. Moreover, obtained data suggest that the risk of developing diseases among population in Eastern Poland related to high exposure to Ni and Cd absorbed from foodstuffs was high. PMID:27049125

  8. Social determinants of physical exercise in older men in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Morris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Background: Physical activity interventions have been demonstrated to improve health-related quality of life and to be of special benefit to older adults with specific chronic conditions including arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease. Aim: This study examined the extent and social determinants of physical exercise in elderly men in Jamaica. Materials and Methods : A sample of 2,000 men 55 years of age and older was extracted from a total of 33,674 males in the parish of St. Catherine. A 132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. A stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sub-sample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model physical exercise. Results : Of the respondents, 55.4% indicated good health status, 51.0% lived in rural areas; 10.4% had moderate to high functional dependence and 67.3% reported that they did some form of physical exercise. Of those who indicated involvement in physical exercise (n = 1,345, 77.2% jogged, ran, and/or walked; 13.3% did aerobics; 4.7% swam; 2.0% cycled and 0.6% did push-ups or sit-ups. The variables that predicted being engaged in physical exercise were education; age of respondents; current good health status; household head; health plan; employment status, and social support. Conclusion : Most of the elderly men were engaged in some form of physical activity and had good health. Age and good health status were the most influential social determinants of physical exercise. However, effective interventions to promote physical activity in older men in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica deserve wide implementation.

  9. Social determinants of physical exercise in older men in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Morris

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Physical activity interventions have been demonstrated to improve health-related quality of life and to be of special benefit to older adults with specific chronic conditions including arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease. Aim: This study examined the extent and social determinants of physical exercise in elderly men in Jamaica. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,000 men 55 years of age and older was extracted from a total of 33,674 males in the parish of St. Catherine. A 132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. A stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sub-sample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model physical exercise. Results: Of the respondents, 55.4% indicated good health status, 51.0% lived in rural areas; 10.4% had moderate to high functional dependence and 67.3% reported that they did some form of physical exercise. Of those who indicated involvement in physical exercise (n = 1,345, 77.2% jogged, ran, and/or walked; 13.3% did aerobics; 4.7% swam; 2.0% cycled and 0.6% did push-ups or sit-ups. The variables that predicted being engaged in physical exercise were education; age of respondents; current good health status; household head; health plan; employment status, and social support. Conclusion: Most of the elderly men were engaged in some form of physical activity and had good health. Age and good health status were the most influential social determinants of physical exercise. However, effective interventions to promote physical activity in older men in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica deserve wide implementation.

  10. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  11. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke during gestation results in altered cholinesterase enzyme activity and behavioral deficits in adult rat offspring: potential relevance to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Fraga, Daiane B; De Luca, Renata D; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Oliveira, Mariana B; Heylmann, Alexandra S A; Budni, Josiane; Souza, Renan P; Quevedo, João

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been associated with physiological and developmental changes that may be related to an increased risk for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated locomotor activity and cholinesterase enzyme activity in rats, following PCSE and/or ketamine treatment in adulthood. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to 12 commercially filtered cigarettes per day for a period of 28 days. We evaluated motor activity and cholinesterase activity in the brain and serum of adult male offspring that were administered acute subanesthetic doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg), which serves as an animal model of schizophrenia. To determine locomotor activity, we used the open field test. Cholinesterase activity was assessed by hydrolysis monitored spectrophotometrically. Our results show that both PCSE and ketamine treatment in the adult offspring induced increase of locomotor activity. Additionally, it was observed increase of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum, respectively. We demonstrated that animals exposed to cigarettes in the prenatal period had increased the risk for psychotic symptoms in adulthood. This also occurs in a dose-dependent manner. These changes provoke molecular events that are not completely understood and may result in abnormal behavioral responses found in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  12. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  13. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  14. Treatment of adults with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: results of a multicentric clinical trial with gatifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections have an important clinical and economic impact and they are the most common indication for antibiotic use in outpatient practice. This prospective, multicenter non-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Patients were treated with a daily oral dose of gatifloxacin 400 mg for 7-14 days. The diagnosis of respiratory infection was made based on the clinical condition and/or radiologic findings. A total of 5,044 adult patients with community-acquired respiratory infections was treated with gatifloxacin in different centers in Brazil between March 1, 2001, and October 31, 2001. Among the 5,044 patients treated, 1,501 patients (29.76% had community-acquired pneumonia, 756 (14.99% had acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and 2,787 (55.25% had acute sinusitis. Of the total of patients treated, 3,607 (71.51% were considered cured, 1,261 (25% progressed with some clinical improvement, 28 (0.56% presented a relapse, 56 (1.11% failed to treatment and 92 (1.82% were unable to be evaluated. Adverse events were described in 634 (12.57% patients. The most common adverse events were: nausea (2.24%; dyspepsia (1.86%; diarrhea (0.79%; change in taste (0.46%; insomnia and irritability (0.22%; dizziness (0.77%; headache (0.42%; allergic reaction (0.18%; Central Nervous System alterations - insomnia, agitation, anxiety - (0.46%. This study showed that the treatment of respiratory tract infections with gatifloxacin was safe and efficient and had a low incidence of adverse events.

  15. Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of the JAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Naoki; Takagi, Daisuke; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01-1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84-1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men. PMID:26116391

  16. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-...

  17. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  18. Social determinants of physical exercise in older men in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Chloe Morris; Bourne, Paul A; Denise Eldemire-Shearer; Donovan A McGrowder

    2010-01-01

    Background : Background: Physical activity interventions have been demonstrated to improve health-related quality of life and to be of special benefit to older adults with specific chronic conditions including arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease. Aim: This study examined the extent and social determinants of physical exercise in elderly men in Jamaica. Materials and Methods : A sample of 2,000 men 55 years of age and older was extracted from a total of 33,674 males i...

  19. Social and structural risks for HIV among migrant and immigrant men who have sex with men in Moscow, Russia: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, A L; Zelaya, C E; Peryshkina, A; Latkin, C; Mogilnyi, V; Galai, N; Dyakonov, K; Beyrer, C

    2014-01-01

    Moscow has a large population of immigrants and migrants from across the Former Soviet Union. Little is studied about men who have sex with men (MSM) within these groups. Qualitative research methods were used to explore identities, practices, and factors affecting HIV prevention and risks among immigrant/migrant MSM in Moscow. Nine interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between April-June 2010 with immigrant/migrant MSM, analyzed as a subset of a larger population of MSM who participated in qualitative research (n=121). Participants were purposively selected men who reported same sex practices (last 12 months). Migrants were men residing in Moscow but from other Russian regions and immigrants from countries outside of Russia. A socioecological framework was used to describe distal to proximal factors that influenced risks for HIV acquisition. MSM ranged from heterosexual to gay-identified. Stigma and violence related to homophobia in homelands and concerns about xenophobia and distrust of migrants in Moscow were emerged as key themes. Participants reported greater sexual freedom in Moscow but feared relatives in homelands would learn of behaviors in Moscow, often avoiding members of their own ethnicity in Moscow. Internalized homophobia was prevalent and linked to traditional sexual views. Sexual risks included sex work, high numbers of partners, and inconsistent condom use. Avoidance of HIV testing or purchasing false results was related to reporting requirements in Russia, which may bar entry or expel those testing positive. HIV prevention for MSM should consider immigrant/migrant populations, the range of sexual identities, and risk factors among these men. The willingness of some men to socialize with immigrants/migrants of other countries may provide opportunities for peer-based prevention approaches. Immigrants/migrants comprised important proportions of the MSM population, yet are rarely acknowledged in research. Understanding their

  20. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  1. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hamilton-Wright

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty. Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood.

  2. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  3. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  4. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  5. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  6. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  7. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  8. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  9. Aneuploidy in spermatozoa in infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabar V.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. An important problem is to investigate the frequency of aneuploidy in sperms of infertile men according to their changes in karyotype, that would allow to understand the contribution of paternal factor in the formation of chromosomal aberrations of embryos. Objective. To study the frequency of aneuploidy in spermatozoa from infertile men with normal karyotype and chromosomal changes. Methods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of spermatozoa (chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y was performed in 79 infertile men with normal karyotype, in 16 with chromosomal abnormalities, in 18 with chromosomal polymorphism and in 29 healthy men. In total 23,867 of sperm cores were analyzed. Results. In men with infertility an aneuploid sperms were in 5.7 times more often than in fertile patients (P˂0,01. An aneuploidy of sperms in infertile men with a chromosomal abnormality were in 2.1 times, with a chromosomal polymorphism in 1.4 times more often than in infertile patients with a normal karyotype (P˂0,05. In all patients the most common aneuploidies were in chromosomes XY, 21 and 22. The study of aneuploidy frequency in spermatozoa at different variants of chromosomal pathology showed that in men with paracentric inversions rate was 5.75 - 7.65%, whereas in patients with quantitative and other structural chromosomal abnormalities it was above 11.73 - 17.82%. Conclusion. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa is highest in men with genomic and chromosomal mutations. In infertile patients with changes in the karyotype the gametes with mutations de novo can be produced. Citation: Grabar VV, Feskov AM, Stefanovich AV, Zhilkova ES. [Aneuploidy in spermatozoa in infertile men]. Morpho-logia. 2014;8(3:7-12. Russian.

  10. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have...... for this group of men in that they may not be able to make significant changes in their everyday lives and this may be a challenge to the dominating discourse of active aging. Could efforts to increase quality of life on the men’s own terms be a more ethically sound alternative? Contact information: Kristian...

  11. What drives the US and Peruvian HIV epidemics in men who have sex with men (MSM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Goodreau

    Full Text Available In this work, we estimate the proportions of transmissions occurring in main vs. casual partnerships, and by the sexual role, infection stage, and testing and treatment history of the infected partner, for men who have sex with men (MSM in the US and Peru. We use dynamic, stochastic models based in exponential random graph models (ERGMs, obtaining inputs from multiple large-scale MSM surveys. Parallel main partnership and casual sexual networks are simulated. Each man is characterized by age, race, circumcision status, sexual role behavior, and propensity for unprotected anal intercourse (UAI; his history is modeled from entry into the adult population, with potential transitions including HIV infection, detection, treatment, AIDS diagnosis, and death. We implemented two model variants differing in assumptions about acute infectiousness, and assessed sensitivity to other key inputs. Our two models suggested that only 4-5% (Model 1 or 22-29% (Model 2 of HIV transmission results from contacts with acute-stage partners; the plurality (80-81% and 49%, respectively stem from chronic-stage partners and the remainder (14-16% and 27-35%, respectively from AIDS-stage partners. Similar proportions of infections stem from partners whose infection is undiagnosed (24-31%, diagnosed but untreated (36-46%, and currently being treated (30-36%. Roughly one-third of infections (32-39% occur within main partnerships. Results by country were qualitatively similar, despite key behavioral differences; one exception was that transmission from the receptive to insertive partner appears more important in Peru (34% than the US (21%. The broad balance in transmission contexts suggests that education about risk, careful assessment, pre-exposure prophylaxis, more frequent testing, earlier treatment, and risk-reduction, disclosure, and adherence counseling may all contribute substantially to reducing the HIV incidence among MSM in the US and Peru.

  12. Women up, men down: the clinical impact of replacing the Framingham Risk Score with the Reynolds Risk Score in the United States population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Tattersall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Reynolds Risk Score (RRS is one alternative to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS for cardiovascular risk assessment. The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III integrated the FRS a decade ago, but with the anticipated release of ATP IV, it remains uncertain how and which risk models will be integrated into the recommendations. We sought to define the effects in the United States population of a transition from the FRS to the RRS for cardiovascular risk assessment. METHODS: Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we assessed FRS and RRS in 2,502 subjects representing approximately 53.6 Million (M men (ages 50-79 and women (ages 45-79, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes. We calculated the proportion reclassified by RRS and the subset whose LDL-C goal achievement changed. RESULTS: Compared to FRS, the RRS assigns a higher risk category to 13.9% of women and 9.1% of men while assigning a lower risk to 35.7% of men and 2% of women. Overall, 4.7% of women and 1.1% of men fail to meet newly intensified LDL-C goals using the RRS. Conversely, 10.5% of men and 0.6% of women now meet LDL-C goal using RRS when they had not by FRS. CONCLUSION: In the U.S. population the RRS assigns a new risk category for one in six women and four of nine men. In general, women increase while men decrease risk. In conclusion, adopting the RRS for the 53.6 million eligible U.S. adults would result in intensification of clinical management in 1.6 M additional women and 2.10 M fewer men.

  13. "God Made Me Gay for a Reason": Young Men Who Have Sex with Men's Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…

  14. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were…

  15. Patient–provider discussions about lung cancer screening: Results from the 2012/2013 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin R. Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The current study is unique as it is the first to assess patient–provider discussions about lung cancer screening using a statewide survey. These results may inform strategies to increase patient–provider discussions about lung cancer screening among high risk Kansans.

  16. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  17. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.

  18. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  19. Adult education and the quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  20. Age Differences in Personality Across the Adult Life Span: Parallels in Five Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Administered translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to adults in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea. Found declines in neuroticism, extraversion and openness, and increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness age for both men and women. Results support hypothesis that age differences reflect universal maturational…

  1. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  2. Mens klimaet holder pause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2010-01-01

    Klimaets storhedstid er slut i denne omgang, men det er drivhuseffekten ikke, og den skulle gøre kloden varmere og varmere. Nye havmålinger viser, at det ikke er tilfældet. Så hvor bliver varmen af?...

  3. Men's Clothing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  4. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  5. Long-term functional results of adult intra-articular distal humeral fractures treated by open reduction and plate osteosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Urguden, Mustafa; Soyuncu, Yetkin; Aslan, Tevfik

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed the long-term functional results of surgical treatment of distal intra-articular humeral fractures, together with the factors having influence on the outcome. Methods: Thirty-four patients (25 males, 9 females; mean age 38 years; range 20 to 78 years) who were treated by open reduction and plate osteosynthesis were retrospectively evaluated. All fractures were type C according to the AO classification. Five patients had open fractures. Thirty-three patients had surg...

  6. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  7. Adult's Degenerative Scoliosis: Midterm Results of Dynamic Stabilization without Fusion in Elderly Patients—Is It Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Di Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design. A retrospective study. Purpose. Posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation used for degenerative lumbar scoliosis can lead to several complications. In elderly patients without sagittal imbalance, dynamic stabilization could represent an option to avoid these adverse events. Methods. 57 patients treated by dynamic stabilization without fusion were included. All patients had degenerative lumbar de novo scoliosis (average Cobb angle 17.2°, without sagittal imbalance, associated in 52 cases (91% with vertebral canal stenosis and in 24 (42% with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Nineteen patients (33% had previously undergone lumbar spinal surgery. Results. At an average followup of 77 months, clinical results improved with statistical significance. Scoliosis Cobb angle was 17.2° (range, 12° to 38° before surgery and 11.3° (range, 4° to 26° at last follow-up. In the patients with associated spondylolisthesis, anterior vertebral translation was 19.5% (range, 12% to 27% before surgery, 16.7% (range, 0% to 25% after surgery, and 17.5% (range, 0% to 27% at followup. Complications incidence was low (14%, and few patients required revision surgery (4%. Conclusions. In elderly patients with mild degenerative lumbar scoliosis without sagittal imbalance, pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization is an effective option, with low complications incidence, granting curve stabilization during time and satisfying clinical results.

  8. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  9. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  10. Investigation on the bone mineral density in adult men in Nanchang and its relationship with smoking%南昌地区成年男性骨密度现状及与吸烟关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐定波; 涂萍; 吴和平; 王艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查南昌地区健康成年男性骨密度,探讨吸烟与骨密度的关系.方法 采用法国MEDILINK公司生产的型号为OSTEOCORE2双能X线骨密度仪测量548例南昌地区健康成年男性正位腰椎(L2~L4)、左侧股骨颈及左前臂BMD,分析不同年龄组BMD及骨质疏松患病率变化.并根据吸烟指数进行分组,分析BMD与吸烟指数关系.结果 正位腰椎、股骨颈、前臂BMD峰值均出现在30~39岁年龄段,而后随年龄增加而下降,50岁以后降低更明显,骨质疏松患病率均随年龄增加而增加.吸烟指数与正位腰椎BMD呈负相关(r=-0.472,P<0.01),与股骨颈、前臂BMD呈弱负相关(r值分别为-0.163和-0.135,P均<0.05).结论 南昌地区男性BMD峰值出现在30~39岁年龄段,而后随年龄增加BMD下降,骨质疏松患病率增加.吸烟是骨质疏松的危险因素,为预防骨质疏松应尽早戒烟.%OBJECTIVE To investigate BMD in healthy adult males in Nanchang, and explore the its relationship with smoking and BMD. METHODS The model OSTEOCORE2 dual energy X ray absorptiometry from French company OSTEOCORE2 was used to measure 548 cases of healthy adult males in Nanchang for their L2-L4, left neck of femur and left forearm. The change of prevalence rate of BMD and osteoporosis is analyzed in different age groups. In addition, all subjects are grouped according to smoking index to analyze the relationship between BMD and smoking index. RESULTS The peak of lumbar vertebrae, neck of femur and forearm BMD was found in 30-39 years old group, declined with age, and significantly decreased after 50 years old. Osteoporosis prevalence rate increased with age. Smoking index and lumbar vertebrae were negatively correlated (r = -0.472, P < 0.01), and weakly negatively correlated with femoral neck and forearm BMD (r = -0.163 and -0.135, P< 0.05). CONCLUSION The peak of BMD exists in 30-39 years old group, BMD increases with the decrease of age, and prevalence of

  11. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2014 (Nation) By Gender 1 Men are ...

  12. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) - CDC ... Share Compartir Once nearly eliminated in the U.S., syphilis is increasing, especially among gay, bisexual, and other ...

  13. Men, food, and prostate cancer: gender influences on men's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Although healthy eating might enhance long-term survival, few men with prostate cancer make diet changes to advance their well-being. Men's typically poor diets and uninterest in self-health may impede nutrition interventions and diet change. Food choice behavior is complex involving many determinants, including gender, which can shape men's health practices, diets, and prostate cancer experiences. Developing men-centered prostate cancer nutrition interventions to engage men (and where appropriate their partners) in promoting healthy diets can afford health benefits. This article presents an overview and synthesis of current knowledge about men's food practices and provides an analysis of diet and diet change behaviors for men with prostate cancer. Masculinity and gender relations theory are discussed in the context of men's food practices, and suggestions for future applications to nutrition and prostate cancer research and diet interventions are made.

  14. Disclosure of HIV positive result to a sexual partner among adult clinical service users in Kemissie district, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mohammed; Wasie, Belaynew; Admassu, Mengesha

    2012-03-01

    HIV Status disclosure is vital for HIV prevention efforts and the couple's health in the context of accelerated highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with disclosure of HIV Status to a sexual partner and its outcomes. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Kemissie Health center on 360 HIV positive individuals selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. The level of disclosure to a sexual partner was 93.1%. Among those who disclosed, 74.5% were accepted, 10.8% minor challenges or suspicion of result and the last 7.8% faced physical abuse and blame. The main reasons for not disclosing were fear of divorce [32%], fear of stigma and discrimination [32%] and fear of physical abuse [16%]. Prior discussion, disclosure to family, smooth relationship and knowing partner status were significantly associated with disclosure. HIV prevention programs and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by encouraging discussion, reduction of stigma, for better disclosure and continuing care.

  15. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  16. Association of oral health and cardiovascular disease risk factors "results from a community based study on 5900 adult subjects".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Rahim, Foad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Shadkam, Mitra; Afshari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the association between some oral health status as a risk factor for cardiac diseases and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a sample of Iranian population in 2011. Methods. The study recruited 5900 inhabitants who aged 15-75 years old of Kerman city through a population based cluster sampling. Having collected informed consent, participants were interviewed for CVD risk factors. Some oral health indicators such as DMFT, Gingival Inflammation index, and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. The association between oral health indices and CVD risk factors was tested using multivariate regression models. Results. The mean age of participants was 33.5 years, and 45.1% were male. Moderate gingival inflammation was observed in 67.6% of participants. Presence of sub- or supragingival calculus was more common (90%) in participants. Older age (RR from 2.7 to 3.88), cigarette smoking (RR = 1.49), and high blood glucose (RR = 1.41) showed an increased risk for oral diseases after adjustment for different covariates including established CVD risk factors. Conclusion. The study results showed an increase in periodontal diseases in the presence of some CVD risk factors. Therefore there may be a bilateral but independent association for both conditions and common risk factor approach preventive program is highly recommended.

  17. [Syringomyelia and Chiari abnormality in the adult. Analysis of the results of a cooperative series of 285 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani, N; Parker, F; Tadié, M

    1999-06-01

    This chapter discusses the retrospective data found in 285 patients with syringomyelia associated with Chiari abnormality and collected from 18 neurosurgical departments. A pre and postoperative MRI study and a minimum follow up of at least 2 years were required. A scale of severity was fixed and tested before and after treatment. The size of the cyst, the degree of the foraminal obstruction were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was about 39 years and the duration of symptoms about 6.7 years. Sensory disorders were present in 91% of cases, pain in 66% and motor deficit in about 60%. According to our functional classification, the majority of our patients were moderately disabled and only 10.8% showed a severe impotence. Results of the two major surgical procedures, foramen magnum decompression (FMD) (88% of cases) and cyst shunting procedures (SP) (32% of cases) were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years (ranged from 2 to 14 years). Better clinical and morphological results (87% of stabilization or improvement for FMD versus 71% for SP) were obtained by FMD procedure comparing to SP, with the same rate of complications. PMID:10420402

  18. Less effort, better results: how does music act on prefrontal cortex in older adults during verbal encoding? An fNIRS study.

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    Laura eFerreri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neuroimaging studies of cognitive ageing revealed deficits in episodic memory abilities as a result of prefrontal cortex (PFC limitations. Improving episodic memory performance despite PFC deficits is thus a critical issue in ageing research. Listening to music stimulates cognitive performance in several non-purely musical activities (e.g. language and memory. Thus, music could represent a rich and helpful source during verbal encoding and therefore help subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, such benefit could be reflected in less demand of PFC, which is known to be crucial for encoding processes. This study aimed to investigate whether music may improve episodic memory in older adults while decreasing the PFC activity.Sixteen healthy older adults (µ=64.5y encoded lists of words presented with or without a musical background while their dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC activity was monitored using a 8-channel continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS system (Oxymon Mk III, Artinis, The Netherlands. Behavioral results indicated a better source memory performance for words encoded with music compared to words encoded with silence (p

  19. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

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    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  20. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR) at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population. Methods Data from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely). Results The mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015). The mean body mass index (BMI) of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001). The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012). Conclusion Korean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men. PMID:24627831

  1. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

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    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  2. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

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    Kamal El Farouki

    Full Text Available Both distractions (external and internal and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility.A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD.A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI [1.06-2.05], distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77] and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]. The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]. Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%.Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  3. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

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    Susan Lagdon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective: To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method: A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014 was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results: Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions: Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue.

  4. Housing first reduces re-offending among formerly homeless adults with mental disorders: results of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Julian M Somers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. METHODS: Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference; scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. RESULTS: The majority of the sample (67% was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was "property offences" (mean=4.09. Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.72. Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.26-1.14. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN57595077.

  5. Determinants of circumcision and willingness to be circumcised by Rwandan men, 2010

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    Gasasira Rwego A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male Circumcision (MC has been recommended as one of the preventive measures against sexual HIV transmission by the World Health Organization (WHO. Rwanda has adopted MC as recommended but the country is a non-traditionally circumcising society. The objective was to explore knowledge and perception of Rwandan men on Male Circumcision (MC and to determine the factors associated with the willingness to be circumcised and to circumcise their sons. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 29 districts of Rwanda between January and March 2010. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire among men aged 15-59 years. The rate of MC was measured and its perception from respondents, and then the factors associated with the willingness to go for MC were analysed using multiple logistic regressions. Results A total of 1098 men were interviewed. Among respondents 17% (95% CI 14-19% reported being circumcised. About three-quarter (72% could define MC, but 37% of adolescent could not. Half of the participants were willing to get circumcised and 79% of men would accept circumcision for their sons. The main motivators for MC were its benefits in HIV/STI prevention (69% and improving hygiene (49%. Being too old was the main reason (32% reported by men reluctant to undergo MC and younger men were afraid of pain in particular those less than 19 years old (42%. The willingness to circumcise was significantly associated with younger age, living in the Eastern Province, marital status, and the knowledge of the preventive role of circumcision. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults were more willing to be circumcised. It is critical to ensure the availability of pain free services in order to satisfy the increasing demand for the scale up of MC in Rwanda.

  6. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Adults With CKD: Results From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Anderson, Amanda; Charleston, Jeanne; Chen, Zhen; Ford, Virginia; Makos, Gail; O’Connor, Andrew; Perumal, Kalyani; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Townsend, Raymond; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T

    2010-01-01

    Background A low rate of blood pressure control has been reported among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These data were derived from population-based samples with a low rate of CKD awareness. Study Design Cross-sectional Setting & Participants Data from the baseline visit of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study (n=3612) were analyzed. Participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 ml/min/1.73m2 were identified from physician offices and review of laboratory databases. Outcomes Prevalence and awareness of hypertension, treatment patterns, control rates and factors associated with hypertension control. Measurements Following a standardized protocol, blood pressure was measured three times by trained staff and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Patients’ awareness and treatment of hypertension were defined using self-report and two levels of hypertension control were evaluated: systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 85.7%, and 98.9% of CRIC participants were aware of this diagnosis, 98.3% were treated with medications while 67.1% and 46.1% had their hypertension controlled to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg, respectively. Of CRIC participants with hypertension, 15%, 25%, 26% and 32% were taking one, two, three and four or more antihypertensive medications, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, older patients, blacks, those with higher urinary albumin excretion were less likely while participants taking ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were more likely to have controlled their hypertension to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Limitations Data were derived from a single study visit. Conclusions Despite almost universal hypertension awareness and treatment in this cohort of patients with CKD, rates of

  7. Height at Late Adolescence and Incident Diabetes among Young Men.

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    Ariel Furer

    Full Text Available Short stature was suggested as a risk factor for diabetes onset among middle age individuals, but whether this is the case among young adults is unclear. Our goal was to assess the association between height and incident diabetes among young men.Incident diabetes was assessed among 32,055 men with no history of diabetes, from the prospectively followed young adults of the MELANY cohort. Height was measured at two time points; at adolescence (mean age 17.4±0.3 years and grouped according to the US-CDC percentiles and at young adulthood (mean age 31.0±5.6 years. Cox proportional hazards models were applied. There were 702 new cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 6.3±4.3 years. There was a significant increase in the crude diabetes incidence rate with decreasing adolescent height percentile, from 4.23 cases/104 person-years in the <10th percentile group to 2.44 cases/104 person-years in the 75th≤ percentile group. These results persisted when clinical and biochemical diabetes risk factors were included in multivariable models. Compared to the 75th≤ percentile group, height below the 10th percentile was associated with a hazard ratio (HR of 1.64 (95%CI 1.09-2.46, p = 0.017 for incident diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, white blood cells count, socioeconomic status, country of origin, family history of diabetes, sleep quality and physical activity. At age 30 years, each 1-cm decrement in adult height was associated with a 2.5% increase in diabetes adjusted risk (HR 1.025, 95%CI 1.01-1.04, p = 0.001.Shorter height at late adolescence or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes among young men, independent of BMI and other diabetes risk factors.

  8. Sodium intake may promote weight gain; results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Beatriz; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Perea, José Miguel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleon; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; Labrado, Estefania; Ortega, Rosa María

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Estudios recientes, han señalado que las dietas ricas en sodio podrían predisponer a la aparición de obesidad, ya sea de forma directa, o por estar asociadas con el consumo de alimentos que favorecen el aumento de peso. Objetivo: El objeto de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre sodio urinario y presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, en una muestra representativa de adultos españoles, así como conocer si el mayor consumo de sal, se asocia con unos peores hábitos alimentarios y con una mayor ingesta de alimentos, que puedan predisponer a la aparición de la misma. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un grupo de 418 adultos (196 hombres y 222 mujeres) de 18 a 60 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura y se calculó, a partir de ellos, el IMC y el índice cintura/talla. Con el fin de conocer el consumo de alimentos, se aplicó un “Recuerdo de 24 horas” durante dos días consecutivos y se determinó el sodio en orina de 24 horas. Resultados: Un 34,4% de la población presentó sobrepeso y un 13,6% obesidad. Se observó una asociación positiva entre el IMC y la excreción urinaria de sodio. Los valores de sodio en orina también se relacionaron de forma directa con otros parámetros indicadores de adiposidad, como la circunferencia de la cintura o la relación cintura/talla. Tanto el peso, como el IMC, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/talla, fueron mayores en el grupo con una excreción urinaria de sodio ≥154 mmol/l (Percentil 50) (P50). Además, las personas con una mayor eliminación urinaria de sodio presentaron una mayor ingesta calórica y un mayor consumo de alimentos totales y, en concreto, de carnes, precocinados y aperitivos. Tras ajustar por la ingesta de energía, la mayor ingesta de sodio resultó ser un factor de riesgo de tener un IMC más alto (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p obesidad, ya que las personas con una mayor ingesta de sodio ingirieron más energía y

  9. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options

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    de Jong Frank H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended.

  10. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

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    Susana T L Chung

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation. To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  11. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  12. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah Al Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and diabetes (DM are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs. MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients with CVDs and/or DM and to identify the main causes, risk factors, and medicine classes involved. A retrospective study included 300 adult patients from two hospitals, one in the United Kingdom and one in Saudi Arabia. To identify MRPs, medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical data, laboratory assay, and prescription records. A total of 197 (65.7% patients had MRPs, of which less than 10% were severe. The main problems were lack of treatment effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, polypharmacy and patient non-adherence were the main risk factors contributing to MRPs. The main medicine classes associated with MRPs were insulin and antihypertensive medicines. Further research should address the pharmaceutical care processes employed in treating CVDs and DM, and to empower patients/healthcare providers in tackling MRPs.

  13. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Aslanpour, Zoe; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ghaleb, Maisoon

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes (DM) are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs). MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients with CVDs and/or DM and to identify the main causes, risk factors, and medicine classes involved. A retrospective study included 300 adult patients from two hospitals, one in the United Kingdom and one in Saudi Arabia. To identify MRPs, medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical data, laboratory assay, and prescription records. A total of 197 (65.7%) patients had MRPs, of which less than 10% were severe. The main problems were lack of treatment effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, polypharmacy and patient non-adherence were the main risk factors contributing to MRPs. The main medicine classes associated with MRPs were insulin and antihypertensive medicines. Further research should address the pharmaceutical care processes employed in treating CVDs and DM, and to empower patients/healthcare providers in tackling MRPs. PMID:27171100

  14. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  15. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and...

  16. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  17. Transgender men and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J.

    2015-01-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming peopl...

  18. Het God mens geword ?

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    J. H. van Wyk

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit mag miskien verrassend klink om hierdie vraag ter sprake te bring en dit sal ook nie verbasend wees indien iemand sy wenkbroue lig by die hoor van hierdie problematiek nie. Trouens, sedert Anselmus sy beroemde Cur deus homo die lig laat sien het en sedert Karl Barth hierdie uitdrukking tallose male gebruik het, het dit gemeengoed geword in die teologiese en selfs kerklike wêreld om te praat van ‘God wat mens geword het’.

  19. Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions, and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Satre, Derek; Nancy P. Gordon; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between drinking patterns, medical conditions and behavioral health risks among older adults. Methods: Analyses compared survey participants (health plan members ages 65 to 90, N = 6,662) who drank moderately to those who drank over recommended limits or did not drink. Results: Over-limit drinking was associated with smoking; not trying to eat low fat foods (in men), and lower BMI (in women). Predictors of not drinking during the prior 12 months included...

  20. Hospital morbidity in a medium-sized city: differentials between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: characterize the hospital morbidity of adults living in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011, focusing on the differential between men and women. METHOD: this descriptive study was developed based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System in order to investigate the association between groups of hospitalization causes and the average length of hospitalization per gender, in three-year periods. RESULTS: the main groups of hospitalization causes for men were: mental disorders, lesions and circulatory diseases; and, among women: tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases. Mental disorders and lesions, tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases were significantly associated with the female and male genders across the study period. Although not significant, the mean length of hospitalization dropped across the four three-year periods, and only showed a significant difference between men and women in the second triennium. CONCLUSION: differences in the hospital morbidity profile between men and women underline the need for specific health and nursing actions, especially in primary health care, with a view to reducing hospitalizations due to the main groups of causes in the city.

  1. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  2. Satisfied Men Live Longer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne; Rostler; 尤北还

    2001-01-01

    作为上篇的一个姊妹篇,我们很乐意向读者推荐本文。古人云,知足常乐。读完本文,也许你会改其二字:知足长寿。文章告诉我们: Men who reported high levels of satisfaction with their lives were more likely to be alive 20 years later. 知足者竟然能在这个世界上多生活20年!你信否? 文章还提到了男女之别,颇发人深省: It seems to me that the coping abilities of women with distress and dissatisfaction may be better than in men. Men who feel dissatisfied might cope with their feelings by abusing alcohol, smoking and not exercising while women might talk to friends or seek professional help. 你若是男性读者,是否可以从中得到某种启迪? 文章最精彩的句子大概在文末: It is not enough for a human being to earn money and be in physically good condition. One should respect mental health as well.】

  3. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biomarkers of kidney injury in adults with diabetes: results of the GO-FISH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edgar R; Juraschek, Stephen P; Anderson, Cheryl A; Guallar, Eliseo; Henoch-Ryugo, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Turban, Sharon; Bennett, Michael R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid-binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m(2), median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (-7.2%; 95% CI -20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (-16% [-29.1 to -0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early

  4. Men and Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 8, 233-241. Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Child sexual abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in ...

  5. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Síndrome metabólico en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its associated risk factors in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older, using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ENSANUT 2006 was conducted between October 2005 and May 2006. Questionnaires were administered to 45 446 adult subjects aged 20 years or older who were residents from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained from all subjects and fasting blood specimens were provided by 30% of participants. We randomly selected a sub-sample of 6 613 from which laboratory measurements were carried out for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. For this analysis, we included only results from eight or more hours of fasting samples (n=6 021. We used individual weighted factors in the statistical analysis and considered the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances and confidence intervals. All analyses were done using SPSS 15.0. RESULTS: In accordance with definitions by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the prevalence of MS in Mexican adults aged 20 years or older was 36.8, 41.6 and 49.8%, respectively. Women were more affected than men due to the higher prevalence of central obesity among females. Prevalence of MS increased with age and was higher among populations living in metropolitan areas, in the west-central region, and those with lower education. DISCUSSION: Regardless of the MS definition, a large proportion of Mexican adults has the condition, so preventive measures are needed to decrease the prevalence of the MS components in this population. MS can predict type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two of the main causes of death in the adult

  6. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna B Zablotska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. METHODS: Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR or casual partners (UAIC. The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. CONCLUSION: Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates

  7. Men with cancer : psychosocial issues, health behaviours, coping and help seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of factors contribute to men with cancer having worse mortality and morbidity rates than women. The research specifically focused on psychosocial issues and health behaviours in men with cancer, and factors affecting help seeking behaviour. Methods: A mixed-methods study recruited adult men with cancer in the East of Scotland. The quantitative cross-sectional study explored psychosocial issues, health behaviours, and desire for support. Data from the Scottish Longitudin...

  8. Sexual Functioning in Young Women and Men: Role of Attachment Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Cara R; Dang, Silvain S; Chang, Sabrina C H; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2016-07-01

    Prior research has documented various ways in which adult attachment styles are characteristic of differential behavioral and cognitive patterns within romantic relationships and sexuality. However, few studies have examined the direct influence of anxious or avoidant attachment orientation on sexual function. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of insecure attachment on sexual function. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires measuring attachment style and sexual functioning. Among women, attachment avoidance tended to be associated with impairments in all aspects of sexual function, whereas anxious attachment tended to be associated with declines in arousal, satisfaction, and ability to achieve orgasm. A different trend was seen in men: Anxious attachment tended to be associated with multiple facets of sexual dysfunction, while avoidant attachment did not correlate with any sexual function deficits and was associated with superior physiological competence. These results suggest that both anxious and avoidant attachment styles are important yet differential predictors of sexual function in men and women.

  9. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  10. Experimental results concerning the metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; Resultats experimentaux relatifs au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Capelle, A.; Tricaud, Y.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Laboratoire-etable de Radiobiologie Appliquee

    1967-07-01

    The authors give the results of a series of experiments on metabolism of ingested iodine-131 in adult sheep under lactation; the measurement were carried out over a number of years from 1961 to 1966. The work was concerned initially with the fixation of iodine 131 in the thyroid gland, with the calculation of radiation doses absorbed and with ways of showing up any possible radiation damage in the gland. The modes of absorption of iodine 131 and its elimination through milk, urine and the faeces were then considered. Finally, a last chapter is devoted to changes in the radioactivity of the blood and of the milk, to variations of the PBI level of the blood serum as to different methods for measuring this level. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une serie d'experimentations relatives au metabolisme de l'iode 131 ingere chez la brebis adulte en lactation, et qui se sont etalees sur plusieurs annees, de 1961 a 1966. Les etudes ont porte d'abord sur les aspects de la fixation de l'iode 131 dans la thyroide, avec le calcul des doses de rayonnements absorbees et les moyens de mettre en evidence les radiolesions eventuelles de la glande. Ensuite ont ete traitees les modalites de l'absorption de l'iode 131 et de son elimination par le lait, les urines et les feces. Enfin un dernier chapitre a ete consacre a l'evolution de la radioactivite du sang et du lait, aux variations ainsi qu'aux divers moyens d'evaluation du taux de PBI du serum sanguin. (auteurs)

  11. 男女有别%Diffference between Men and Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先富

    2003-01-01

    @@ Maturity 成熟 Women mature much faster than men. Most 17- year-old females can function as adults. Most 17-year-old males are still trading baseball cards and giving each other wedgies after gym class. This is why high school romances rarely work out.

  12. Men's Identity Development: Issues and Implications for Residence Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    Young men struggle with privilege and oppression in college and university residence halls just as they do in other educational and social contexts. While discussions and research about adolescent and adult identity development continue, little attention has focused on how a male student's identity development can impact residence life cultures on…

  13. Factors Predicting Communal Attitudes among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the direct effects of demographic variables, religiosity, psychosocial stress variables, and sociostructural variables on the communal attitudes of 171 African American adult men, aged 17 to 79 years. Age and educational attainment were not significantly associated with communalism. Relational stress, financial stress, and stress resulting…

  14. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  16. Resource security impacts men's female breast size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available It has been suggested human female breast size may act as signal of fat reserves, which in turn indicates access to resources. Based on this perspective, two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that men experiencing relative resource insecurity should perceive larger breast size as more physically attractive than men experiencing resource security. In Study 1, 266 men from three sites in Malaysia varying in relative socioeconomic status (high to low rated a series of animated figures varying in breast size for physical attractiveness. Results showed that men from the low socioeconomic context rated larger breasts as more attractive than did men from the medium socioeconomic context, who in turn perceived larger breasts as attractive than men from a high socioeconomic context. Study 2 compared the breast size judgements of 66 hungry versus 58 satiated men within the same environmental context in Britain. Results showed that hungry men rated larger breasts as significantly more attractive than satiated men. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that resource security impacts upon men's attractiveness ratings based on women's breast size.

  17. Shape differences between the faces of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan; Neustupa, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that homosexual men differ from heterosexual men in several somatic traits and lay people accurately attribute sexual orientation based on facial images. Thus, we may predict that morphological differences between faces of homosexual and heterosexual individuals can cue to sexual orientation. The main aim of this study was to test for possible differences in facial shape between heterosexual and homosexual men. Further, we tested whether self-reported sexual orientation correlated with sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity attributed from facial images by independent raters. In Study 1, we used geometric morphometrics to test for differences in facial shape between homosexual and heterosexual men. The analysis revealed significant shape differences in faces of heterosexual and homosexual men. Homosexual men showed relatively wider and shorter faces, smaller and shorter noses, and rather massive and more rounded jaws, resulting in a mosaic of both feminine and masculine features. In Study 2, we tested the accuracy of sexual orientation judgment from standardized facial photos which were assessed by 80 independent raters. Binary logistic regression showed no effect of attributed sexual orientation on self-reported sexual orientation. However, homosexual men were rated as more masculine than heterosexual men, which may explain the misjudgment of sexual orientation. Thus, our results showed that differences in facial morphology of homosexual and heterosexual men do not simply mirror variation in femininity, and the stereotypic association of feminine looking men as homosexual may confound judgments of sexual orientation.

  18. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  19. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  20. Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Madeline; Finnegan, Robert; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    The Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large scale study of adult skills and life experience focusing on education and employment that was developed and organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In the United States, the study was conducted in 2011-12 with a…