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Sample records for adult male subjects

  1. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  2. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  3. Effect of early life stress on pancreatic isolated islets' insulin secretion in young adult male rats subjected to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Early stressful experiences may predispose organisms to certain disorders, including those of metabolic defects. This study aimed to explore the effects of early life stress on pancreatic insulin secretion and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels in stressed young adult male rats. Foot shock stress was induced in early life (at 2 weeks of age) and/or in young adulthood (at 8-10 weeks of age) for five consecutive days. Blood samples were taken before and after stress exposure in young adult rats. At the end of the experiment, glucose tolerance, isolated islets' insulin secretion, and pancreatic amounts of GLUT2 protein were measured. Our results show that early life stress has no effect on basal plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal weight, either alone or combined with young adulthood stress, but that early life + young adulthood stress could prevent weight gain, and cause an increase in basal plasma glucose and insulin. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index did not increase, when the rats were subjected to early life stress alone, but increased when combined with young adulthood stress. Moreover, glucose tolerance was impaired by the combination of early life + young adult stress. There was a decrease in islet's insulin secretion in rats subjected to early life stress in response to 5.6 mM glucose concentration, but an increase with a concentration of 16.7 mM glucose. However, in rats subjected to early life + young adulthood stress, islet's insulin secretion increased in response to both the levels of glucose concentrations. GLUT2 protein levels decreased in response to early life stress and early life + young adulthood stress, but there was a greater decrease in the early life stress group. In conclusion, perhaps early life stress sensitizes the body to stressors later in life, making it more susceptible to metabolic syndrome only when the two are in combination.

  4. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  5. Subjective response to alcohol and ADH polymorphisms in a select sample of young adult male East Indians and Africans in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montane Jaime, Lazara Karelia; Shafe, Samuel; Liang, Tiebing; Wills, Derek N; Berg, Greta I; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-09-01

    Level of response to alcohol has been associated with risk of alcohol dependence in a number of ethnic groups. In the present study, subjective and objective responses to alcohol were evaluated in Indo-Trinidadians (Indo-T) and Afro-Trinidadians (Afro-T). Associations of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms with response to alcohol, using the Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS), and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) were tested. Regular male drinkers without alcohol dependence (n = 112) ages 18-25 years participated in alcohol challenge sessions consisting of placebo and two doses of alcohol (target BrAC: 0 g/dl for placebo, .04 g/dl low dose, and .08 g/dl high dose) and genotyped for variants in ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2. Indo-T had significantly higher BrAC, pulse rates, and cortisol levels when compared with Afro-T but did not have significantly higher SHAS values. Higher responses on the SHAS items muddle/confused and nauseated were significantly associated with the presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele following the high dose of alcohol in Afro-T. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele displayed significantly different Drug × Time interactions for the SHAS item effects of alcohol at the low dose and for the SHAS items clumsy, muddle/confused, effects of alcohol, floating, drunk, and total at the high dose from Indo-T with two ADH1C*1 alleles. This is the first study that has investigated individual sensitivity to alcohol in a Caribbean population and in people of East Indian descent. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele may be at higher risk for heavy drinking by feeling less of the effects of alcohol, including nausea. In Afro-T, having at least one ADH1B*3 allele appears to exert a protective effect by enhancing the unpleasant effects of alcohol, such as nausea and confusion.

  6. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male attendees of primary health care centres in Eastern Saudi Arabia. ... incidence of morbidity and mortality. ... characteristics, misconceptions of PHCC attendees about DM regarding the aetiology, general concepts, diabetic diet, treatment and herbal treatment.

  7. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  8. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2018-01-01

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  10. LONGSHORE MOVEMENTS OF ADULT MALE JASUS LALANDII ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean distance moved by those lobsters was 28.6 km and the mean time at liberty was 241.8 days. In recent years, densities of J.lalandii have increased substantially at the south-eastern end of their geographic range. The data indicate that this could not be attributable to a population migration of adult male rock ...

  11. Acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan 20 mg compared with esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg in healthy adult male subjects--a randomised open-label cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Mori, Y; Okamoto, H; Nishimura, A; Komura, E; Araki, T; Shiramoto, M

    2015-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related diseases. Vonoprazan is a member of a new class of acid suppressants; potassium-competitive acid blockers. Vonoprazan may thus be an alternative to PPIs. To evaluate efficacy, rapidity and duration of acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan vs. two control PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, in 20 healthy Japanese adult male volunteers with CYP2C19 extensive metaboliser genotype. In this randomised, open-label, two-period cross-over study, vonoprazan 20 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg (Study V vs. E) or rabeprazole 10 mg (Study V vs. R) were orally administered daily for 7 days. Primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was gastric pH over 24 h measured as percentage of time pH ≥3, ≥4 and ≥5 (pH holding time ratios; HTRs) and mean gastric pH. Acid-inhibitory effect (pH4 HTR) of vonoprazan was significantly greater than that of esomeprazole or rabeprazole on both Days 1 and 7; Day 7 difference in pH4 HTR for vonoprazan vs. esomeprazole was 24.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.2-33.1] and for vonoprazan vs. rabeprazole 28.8% [95% CI: 17.2-40.4]. The Day 1 to Day 7 ratio of 24-h pH4 HTRs was >0.8 for vonoprazan, compared with 0.370 for esomeprazole and 0.393 for rabeprazole. Vonoprazan was generally well tolerated. One vonoprazan subject withdrew due to a rash which resolved after discontinuation. This study demonstrated a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect of vonoprazan 20 mg vs. esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg. Therefore, vonoprazan may be a potentially new treatment for acid-related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  13. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  15. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  16. Special interests and subjective wellbeing in autistic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2018-02-10

    Special interests form part of the core features of autism. However, to date there has been limited research focusing on the role of special interests in the lives of autistic adults. This study surveyed autistic adults on their special interest topics, intensity, and motivation. It also assessed the relationship between special interests and a range of quality of life measures including subjective wellbeing and domain specific life satisfaction. About two thirds of the sample reported having a special interest, with relatively more males reporting a special interest than females. Special interest topics included computers, autism, music, nature and gardening. Most autistic adults engaged in more than one special interest, highlighting that these interests may not be as narrow as previously described. There were no differences in subjective wellbeing between autistic adults with and without special interests. However, for autistic adults who did have special interests, motivation for engaging in special interests was associated with increased subjective wellbeing. This indicates that motivation may play an important role in our understanding of special interests in autism. Special interests had a positive impact on autistic adults and were associated with higher subjective wellbeing and satisfaction across specific life domains including social contact and leisure. However, a very high intensity of engagement with special interests was negatively related to wellbeing. Combined, these findings have important implications for the role of special interests in the lives of autistic adults. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autistic adults reported having special interests in a range of topics, including computers, music, autism, nature and gardening. Special interests were associated with a number of positive outcomes for autistic adults. They were also related to subjective wellbeing and satisfaction across

  17. Subjective oral health in Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...

  18. Strangulated Inguinal Hernia in Adult Males in Kumasi | Ohene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The complications of untreated inguinal hernias are common surgical emergencies in adult Ghanaian men. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of strangulated inguinal hernia in adult males in Kumasi. Method: From the hospital records the age and sex of all male adult patients treated for strangulated ...

  19. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  20. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  1. Rights and representations: querying the male-to-male sexual subject in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Paul; Khanna, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex sexualities in India have been portrayed in research and activism as socially marginal and minoritarian. Whilst proceeding from a commitment to the political utility of such a view, this paper questions such a standpoint. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in different sites, the paper considers male-to-male sexualities as enacted and implicated in the production of ostensibly heteronormative spaces. This, in turn, raises questions about the representation of the queer or same-sex sexual subject in law and HIV prevention, especially in the context of post-colonial perspectives on sexuality.

  2. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A

    1999-03-01

    Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.

  4. Subchronic toxicity of propyl paraben in adult male rats | Salem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxybenzoate) to adult male rats for four consecutive weeks induced severe hepatotoxicity as revealed by the significant elevation in serum marker enzymes along with a significant decrease in serum protein and its fractions. Furthermore ...

  5. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  6. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm 3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm 3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm 2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm 2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm 3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm 3 , p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm 2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  7. Lethal intragroup aggression by adult male spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2006-12-01

    I report three cases of coalitionary aggression by adult male black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) against subadult males within their community on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Two of these cases were followed by the disappearance and presumed death of the victim. Similar behavior was recently reported by Valero et al. [in press], who suggested that this behavior may be the result of intense male reproductive competition. Like the single instance they reported, the cases I report all occurred when the operational sex ratio was approximately 1:1, which suggests that intense competition among males for access to reproductively viable females may be a contributing factor. Additionally the very low density of spider monkeys on BCI may play a significant role in the occurrence of this lethal aggression. Large numbers of adult males are not necessary to protect a territorial boundary against neighboring groups, and additional males may act merely as mating competition. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Aggressive behaviour of an adult male Cape fur seal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a marine predator (the white shark) being threatened by a member of the species on which it preys (a male Cape fur seal). Although these events may be rarely observed or occur infrequently, they may have important implications for the predator and its prey.We suggest that shark mobbing by adult male ...

  9. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1%

  10. Histomorphological Effect of Zidovudine on the Liver of Adult Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZT) used as part of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for the management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on the liver of adult Wistar rats(Rattus Novergicus). Method:Twenty (20), adult male rat with an average weight of ...

  11. Sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula in an adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Benjamin J; Clark, Peter E; Maynes, Lincoln J; Terhune, Kyla P; Stokes, Myron C; Beech, Derrick J

    2009-02-01

    An infected urachal cyst is an uncommon finding in adults. We report the first case of a sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula that resulted from rupture of an infected urachal cyst in an adult male. Definitive management consisted of resection of the urachus with a bladder cuff, along with removal of the affected bowel segments and bowel anastomosis.

  12. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  13. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  14. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and females from a large, prospective, and randomly ascertained birth cohort from Northern Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Pubertal timing was estimated based on pubertal height growth in 5,058 subjects (2,417 males and 2,641 females), and the relationship between puberty and body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and blood pressure at age 31 years was evaluated with linear regression modeling. RESULTS Earlier pubertal timing associated with higher adult BMI, fasting insulin, diastolic blood pressure, and decreased HDL cholesterol in both sexes (P < 0.002) and with higher total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in males. The association with BMI and diastolic blood pressure remained statistically significant in both sexes, as did the association with insulin levels and HDL cholesterol concentrations in males after adjusting for covariates reflecting both fetal and childhood growth including childhood BMI. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate independent association between earlier pubertal timing and adult metabolic syndrome-related derangements both in males and females. The connection emphasizes that the mechanisms advancing puberty may also contribute to adult metabolic disorders. PMID:22338106

  15. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  16. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    OpenAIRE

    Lebreton, S?bastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies ...

  17. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  18. Radio-sterilization effects on adult males of Glossina tachinoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced sterility of adult males of Glossina tachiniodes irradiated with gamma doses of 130, 150 and 160 Gy, respectively, in air was investigated. The flies were irradiated at horizontal distances of 50 cm and 70 cm, respectively from the Gamma Facility. The mean percentage insemination of spermathecae ranged between ...

  19. Prevalence of Priapism among Adult Male Sickle Cell Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Priapism is a serious urological complication of sickle cell disease with adverse clinical and psychological implications. The study is aimed at determining the prevalence of priapism among adult male SCD patients seen at the university of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City; to assess their knowledge of the ...

  20. Posner-Schlossman syndrome in an adult Nigerian male | Dawodu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Posner-Schlossman syndrome in an adult Nigerian male is reported. The patient presented at the eye clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital in March 1999 with blurring of vision, seeing halos around light, and redness of the right eye. The intraocular pressure in both eyes was high and there were fine keratic ...

  1. Model Stature Estimation formula for Adult Male Nigerians based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stature prediction formulas provide a method of preliminary identification of dead individuals from their skeletal remains. No such formula has been reported for indigenous Nigerian populations. Materials and Method: Twenty-five adult male cadavers with Nigerian identities were used to evaluate the ...

  2. Agonistic behavior enhances adult neurogenesis in male Acheta domesticus crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Kaushik; Gupta, Mohit; Killian, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effect of agonistic behavior on cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult male Acheta domesticus crickets. We combined 5-bromo,2'deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling of dividing cells with immunocytochemical detection of the neuronal marker horseradish peroxidase to examine the proliferation of progenitor cells and the survival of newborn neurons. In crickets, the mushroom bodies of the brain contain clusters of proliferative cells that divide and generate new neurons in adulthood. Pairs of male crickets were allowed to fight and establish social rank and were then injected with BrdU. Proliferation of mushroom body neurogenic cluster cells was unaffected by agonistic interactions; 24 h after a fight, the number of BrdU positive cells in fought and un-fought males did not significantly differ. However, agonistic interactions did influence cell survival. Two weeks after an agonistic interaction, fought males had more newborn neurons than males that did not fight. There was also a rank-specific effect because dominant males had significantly more new neurons than subordinates. We also report for the first time that neurogenesis in adult crickets can occur in other regions of the brain and in other CNS ganglia, including the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Agonistic interactions enhanced the proliferation of these distributed precursor cells but did not increase the survival of the newborn neurons generated by these cells.

  3. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785 ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

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  20. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  1. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  2. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  3. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  4. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Negative correlation between age of subjects and length of the appendix in Bangladeshi males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Shamim, Manjare; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions some of which have potential to influence the clinical aspects of the appendix. Anatomical studies on the appendix using people in Bangladesh as a sample are limited and fall short of producing any standardized anthropometric data. This study is predominantly a cross-sectional observational study which also uses some statistical analysis to understand the relationships amongst variables. Material and methods Fifty-six adult male postmortem appendices and adnexa were examined for macroscopic features. Possible interrelationships among the variables were assessed through statistical analysis. The age of the samples ranged from 18 to 67 years. The most common position of the appendix was retrocolic (53.57%) followed by pelvic (30.35%), postileal (12.5%), and subcaecal (3.5%). Results In most cases (62.5%) the mesoappendix did not reach the tip of the appendix. The appendicular length varied from 6.00 cm to 16.30 cm with mean (± SD) and median value of 10.21 ±2.50 cm and 10.00 cm respectively. The base of the appendix was 1.90 to 3.80 cm away from the ileocaecal junction. The other macroscopic measurements of the appendix were taken at the base, at the midzone and at the tip of the appendix and the mean of the three measurements was considered as the overall value. Thus, the overall external diameter varied between 0.32 cm and 0.83 cm. Assessment of possible correlations amongst different variables revealed a significant negative correlation between the age of the subjects and the length of the appendix. Conclusions The data of the present study may provide a baseline along with some previous data in the standardization of the anthropometric information regarding the vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi males. PMID:23515519

  6. Hormone Disruption by PBDEs in Adult Male Sport Fish Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyk, Mary E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Chatterton, Robert; Anderson, Henry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), affect endocrine function. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are similar in structure to PCBs, has increased recently, but health effects have not been well studied. Objectives Our goal in this study was to determine whether PBDE body burdens are related to thyroid and steroid hormone levels, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid disease in a cohort of frequent and infrequent adult male sport fish consumers. Methods We tested serum from 405 adult males for PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, testosterone, sex-hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), SHBG-bound testosterone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG). We collected data on demographics, fish consumption, medical diseases, and medication use. Results The median sum of PBDEs was 38 ng/g lipid. In 308 men without thyroid disease or diabetes, PBDEs were positively related to measures of T4 and reverse T3 and inversely related to total T3 and TSH. PBDEs were positively related to the percentage of T4 bound to albumin, and inversely related to the percentage of T4 bound to TBG. Associations of BDE congeners with hormones varied. BDE-47 was positively associated with testosterone levels. Participants with PBDEs over the 95th percentile were more likely to have thyroglobulin antibodies, although high PBDE exposure was not associated with thyroid disease. PBDE effects were independent of PCB exposure and sport fish consumption. Conclusions PBDE exposure, at levels comparable with those of the general U.S. population, was associated with increased thyroglobulin antibodies and increased T4 in adult males. PMID:19079713

  7. Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Jaquiery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n=17 or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n=23, before and after (UN-61-30 d, n=19, or after (UN-2-30d, n=17 mating (d0 were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9±1 versus 2±1%, P<0.001 and perirenal fat (544±36 versus 222±44 g, P=0.002, and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5±0.1 versus 5.2±0.2 g·kg−1, lungs (9.1±0.2 versus 10.6±0.5 g·kg−1, and adrenals (0.06±0.002 versus 0.08±0.003 g·kg−1. UN males also had larger testes (726±21 versus 545±32 g, P=0.007, but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7±0.08 versus 3.4±0.4 g, P=0.01. Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes.

  8. No clear effects of acute tryptophan depletion on processing affective prosody in male adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabemann, M; Mette, C; Zimmermann, M; Heinrich, V; Uekermann, J; Wiltfang, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Zepf, F D; Kis, B

    2013-08-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties processing affective prosody, and research evidence demonstrates the importance of brain serotonin (5-HT) in the neurobiology of ADHD. This study aimed to investigate whether diminished brain 5-HT synthesis, as achieved by acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), can impair the processing of affective prosody in adults with ADHD. Twenty male patients with ADHD and twenty male healthy controls received ATD and a tryptophan-balanced control condition on separate days in a double-blind within-subject repeated measures crossover design. In both conditions, the Tübingen Affect Battery was administered in which subjects had to name the affective prosody of sentences with neutral, congruent, or incongruent semantic content. Participants in the group of patients with ADHD perceived affective prosody less accurately than controls. Participants with ADHD showed compromised processing of sentences, committing more errors than healthy controls when identifying affect in instances of incongruent semantic content (P = 0.031). ATD did not contribute to this effect (all P > 0.5). The difficulties male adults with ADHD have in accurately processing affective prosody may result from impairments in their ability to inhibit unwanted stimuli and impulses. No clear evidence implicates 5-HT as a cause of these impairments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong-Qiong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Korhonen, Pasi K; Luo, Yong-Li; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Luo, Yong-Fang; Gasser, Robin B; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-02-05

    Toxocariasis is an important, neglected zoonosis caused mainly by Toxocara canis. Although our knowledge of helminth molecular biology is improving through completed draft genome projects, there is limited detailed information on the molecular biology of Toxocara species. Here, transcriptomic sequencing of male and female adult T. canis and comparative analyses were conducted. For each sex, two-thirds (66-67%) of quality-filtered reads mapped to the gene set of T. canis, and at least five reads mapped to each of 16,196 (87.1%) of all 18,596 genes, and 321 genes were specifically transcribed in female and 1467 in male T. canis. Genes differentially transcribed between the two sexes were identified, enriched biological processes and pathways linked to these genes established, and molecules associated with reproduction and development predicted. In addition, small RNA pathways involved in reproduction were characterized, but there was no evidence for piwi RNA pathways in adult T. canis. The results of this transcriptomic study should provide a useful basis to support investigations of the reproductive biology of T. canis and related nematodes. 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males.

  12. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  14. Eating Disorders in Adolescent and Young Adult Males: Presenting Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Megen; Lau, Josephine; Rubinstein, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Data on the clinical characteristics of adolescent males with eating disorders are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, presenting vital signs, laboratory results, and relevant risk factors for eating disorders among males presenting to an outpatient adolescent and young adult medicine practice. Retrospective chart review of male eating disorder patients aged of 11-25 years presenting to the University of California, San Francisco Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorder Program between June 1, 2011, and November 1, 2014. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics and risk factors for eating disorders. Thirty-three patients were included; mean age was 16 years. Patients presented with mean heart rate was 58.7 bpm, and orthostatic heart rate change was 22 bpm, with 51.5% meeting Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine hospital admission criteria. Mean percent of median body mass index was 88%. Of patients with available laboratory data, 33.3% were anemic, 23.8% leukopenic, 19.0% thrombocytopenic, and 10.0% neutropenic. Half had a history of a psychiatric disorder; 41.5% had a history of overweight or obesity, and 12.1% had a family history of an eating disorder. The DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria were retrospectively applied to patients, with an increase in diagnosis of anorexia nervosa from 36.4% to 48.5%. Diagnoses of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, now Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder in DSM-5, decreased from 62.6% to 45.5%. Male patients with eating disorders presented with significant abnormalities; patients were bradycardic and orthostatic; and more than half met Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine admission criteria. Patients with available laboratory data demonstrated significant abnormalities consistent with malnutrition. Given that eating disorders are less likely to be detected in males, it is important to recognize early signs of malnutrition

  15. Body mass index and age affect Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Charlotte J; Corfe, Bernard M; Richardson, J Craig; Dettmar, Peter W; Paxman, Jenny R

    2009-06-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores in males. Subjects (n = 60) were recruited according to BMI status. Each completed the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The group was split at the median age to produce a "younger" and "older" group for statistical analysis. A 2-way between-groups analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of BMI on disinhibition (P = .003) and hunger (P = .041) with higher levels found in overweight males compared to healthy-weight counterparts. A significant main effect of age on hunger (P = .046) demonstrated older males were less susceptible to hunger than younger males. These insights provide a better understanding of eating behavior across the male life cycle and may assist health professionals to better guide men in weight management in the light of rising overweight/obesity.

  16. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population....... However, there were no associations between urinary 3-PBA and serum hormone levels. This result was inconsistent with those reported in China and the USA for subjects who had similar levels of urinary 3-PBA to the present subjects. One of the possible reasons of the inconsistency might be different...

  17. Alcohol consumption practices amongst adult males in a rural area of Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess alcohol consumption practices amongst adult males in a rural block area. Materials and Methods: Using multi-stage random sampling frame, at least 12 households were identified from selected anganwadi centers (n = 27, and one resident adult male from each household was interviewed in confidence using pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured interview schedule after seeking informed consent. In households with more than one adult male respondent, the elder member was recruited. For operational purpose, a drinker was defined as a person who had consumed at least one alcoholic drink in 1 year immediately preceding the survey. Results: A total of 345 adult males were covered with a mean age of 46.6 (±14.2 years. Nearly 64.6% had 5 years of schooling, 46.4% were farmers, 54.2% lived in joint family system and 59.7% had monthly family income up to Rs 10,000. Nearly 150 (43.5% subjects had some correct knowledge regarding adverse effects of alcohol consumption. Of all the study subjects, 326 (94.4% males had consumed at least one alcohol-based drink and of which 66.3% consumed country liquor. Nearly 239 (73.3% drank at either their respective homes or their friends′ homes. Two hundred and eighty-one (86.2% procured alcohol from a shop within the village; average expenditure per month was Rs 500-900 for 132 (40.5% respondents; and 38.3% subjects did not consume any snacks with alcohol intake. Drinking had become a habit for 194 (59.5% males; however, based on self-assessment, 131 (40.2% considered alcohol consumption as a problem and intended to stop drinking. Conclusion: Within study limitations, high prevalence of alcohol consumption was noted in this study, which may not only eventually lead to health/social issues but also adversely influence the younger generation for easy and early uptake of alcohol.

  18. Modification of male adult simulator posture of ICRP 110 reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Diego C.; Souza, Divanizia N.; Santos, Willian S.; Carvalho Junior, Alberico B.

    2014-01-01

    Voxel simulators are usually constructed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, so the supine position (lying) is the most used. This may result in a overestimated or underestimated the radiation dose, depending on the exposure scenario adopted. Thus, the objective was to change the attitude of the male adult simulator reference ICRP 110, AM (Adult Male), to a sitting posture. For change of posture were possible, it was necessary increasing the number of slices that comprise AM simulator by reducing the height of the voxel of 8.0 mm to 2.0 mm, thus making each voxel approximately cubic. A subroutine was created in Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the simulator and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. The ScionImage software was used to rebuild and soften the contours of the knee and hip of the simulator in a sitting posture, and 3D visualization of the simulator was used VolView software. The AM simulator in the seated position has the same anatomical features of the simulator in the standing posture. Using the MCNPX code [ref] was carried out the conversion coefficients for calculating the AP irradiation geometry (anteroposterior) comparing the AM simulator standing and sitting in order to evaluate the difference scattering and absorption of radiation by the two simulators. The result shows a difference up to 100% in the fluency conversion coefficients in nearby organs located in the pelvic region and in organs with distribution in the whole body (such as skin, muscle, lymph nodes and skeletal)

  19. High free testosterone index increases lung function in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing age and decreased testosterone concentrations in males influence muscle strength and muscle mass, particularly in skeletal muscle. There have been few studies on decreased lung function resulting from reduced mass and strength of respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of an association between free testosterone index (FTI and lung function in males aged between 40 and 80 years. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 167 males aged between 40 and 80 years in Cilandak subdistrict, South Jakarta. Total serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA using Roche Elecsys Reagent Kit Cat 11776061 and Elecsys 2010 reagent (Cobas e601, respectively FTI was calculated using the formula free testosterone/SHBG x 100%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (VEP1 was assessed by means of an AS 500 spirometer. Results Mean age of the subjects was 53.32 ± 8.26 years, mean total serum testosterone concentration was 532.59 ± 206.92 ng/dL, mean SHBG concentration 41.26 ± 21.14 nmol/L, mean FTI 48.22 ± 14.34 %, and mean VEP1 was 1.63 ± 0.54 L. There was a significant association between both SHBG and FTI on the one hand and VEP1 on the other, with Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.199 (p=0.010 and 0.271 (p=0.000, respectively. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that FTI was the most influential variable on lung function (VEP1, higher FTI values indicating higher VEP1 (â=0.008: p=0.004. Conclusion In males aged 40-80 years, higher FTI values indicate better lung function as determined by means of VEP1.

  20. Affective temperaments in subjects with female-to-male gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-05-01

    Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  2. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality and subjective well-being in captive male western lowland gorillas living in bachelor groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sarah A; Steklis, H Dieter

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the personality structure of eight male gorillas (five silverbacks and three blackbacks) housed at the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas and to determine if personality predicts behavior and subjective well-being in male gorillas living in bachelor groups. We used the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire which contains 54 descriptive adjectives with representative items from the human five-factor model. Rates of 12 behaviors that are broadly defined as agonistic or affiliative were independently recorded and calculated. Principal components analysis yielded three reliable personality factors: Dominance, Extraversion/Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These results are the first potential quantitative evidence for a Conscientiousness factor in a hominoid other than chimpanzees and humans. This suggests that Conscientiousness originated with the common ancestor of male gorillas and humans around 10 million years ago. These results indicate that humans can reliably assess the personality and subjective well-being of captive male gorillas living in bachelor groups with robust levels of inter-rater reliability and validity. Furthermore, personality can accurately predict behavior (r = 0.79; n = 13) and subjective well-being (r = 0.83; n = 5) in gorillas and provide convergent and discriminant validity for the personality factors. The results advocate for the use of personality questionnaires in the captive management of bachelor gorillas over long-term multi-institutional behavioral studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi/Qigong (Ch'i Kung intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong.

  5. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

  6. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...

  7. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  8. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  9. Stress, κ manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R I; Agoglia, A E; Morales, M; Varlinskaya, E I; Spear, L P

    2013-09-26

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  11. Ocular findings in adult subjects with an inactivating mutation in GH releasing hormone receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Augusto C N; Pereira-Gurgel, Virginia M; Salvatori, Roberto; Campos, Viviane C; Melo, Gustavo B; Oliveira, Francielle T; Oliveira-Santos, Alecia A; Oliveira, Carla R P; Pereira, Francisco A; Hellström, Ann; Oliveira-Neto, Luís A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2017-06-01

    Ocular function is fundamental for environmental adaptation and survival capacity. Growth factors are necessary for a mature eyeball, needed for adequate vision. However, the consequences of the deficiency of circulating growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the physical aspects of the human eye are still debated. A model of untreated isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), with low but measurable serum GH, may clarify this issue. The aim of this study was to assess the ocular aspects of adult IGHD individuals who have never received GH therapy. Cross sectional study. Setting: University Hospital, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Twenty-five adult (13 males, mean age 50.1years, range 26 to 70years old) IGHD subjects homozygous for a null mutation (c.57+1G>A) in the GHRH receptor gene, and 28 (15 males, mean age 51.1years, range 26 to 67years old) controls were submitted to an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment. Forty-six IGHD and 50 control eyes were studied. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction (spherical equivalent), ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous depth (VD), mean corneal curvature (CC) and central corneal thickness (CCT). IGHD subjects exhibited unmeasurable serum IGF-I levels, similar visual acuity, intraocular pressure and LT, higher values of spherical equivalent and CC, and lower measures of AL, ACD, VD and CCT in comparison to controls, but within their respective normal ranges. While mean stature in IGHD group was 78% of the control group, mean head circumference was 92% and axial AL was 96%. These observations suggest mild ocular effects in adult subjects with severe IGF-I deficiency due to non-treated IGHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques. Expert/novice paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Unnithan, V B

    1998-12-01

    The primary aim was to assess cardiovascular responses of expert and novice subjects to kung fu techniques. It was hypothesised that experienced subjects would demonstrate improved economy of movement during the techniques, evidenced by reduced exercise intensity. a comparative design was established utilising two groups; experienced (group E), and novice (group N). the experimentation took place under laboratory conditions, but was designed to maximise external validity. the only preselection variables were regular attendance at training and experience. Nine experienced males (group E, exp 9.5 +/- 5.2 yrs) and nine novice males (group N, exp 1.2 +/- 0.1 yrs) participated. The only exclusion guidelines were contraindications to participate within a maximal test, no subjects were excluded upon this basis. N/A. each subject participated in three kung fu protocols (forms, kicking and punching). Each protocol, randomly allocated, consisted of ten work (30 sec) and ten rest periods (30 sec). MEASURES taken during the protocols were heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). These were expressed as a percentage of maximal values to reflect exercise intensity. During both the form protocol and punching protocol group E were found to be working at a significantly (p kung fu techniques differ depending upon experience level. It is difficult to directly relate this to improved economy since work output could not be accurately quantified. It was also found that kung fu protocols elicited exercise intensity into the cardiovascular training zone.

  13. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    -subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle......We investigated muscle activity, intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during vertical jumps and landings in children and adults. Ten male children and 10 male adults completed 10 countermovement jumps (CMJ), 10 drop jumps (DJ) from 30 cm, 10 low and high landings from 30...... activity magnitude and intra-subject variability were observed for the children during the initial part of the contact phase of DJ and landings, indicating a less consistent muscle activity pattern in the children. This may indicate that vertical jumps/landings involving a high amount of eccentric muscle...

  14. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J

    2018-01-01

    Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective burden among informal caregivers of an adult or older adult. A systematic search was carried out up to September 2017 in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO), Scopus and ISI Proceedings, and a meta-analysis was performed with the results of the selected and included studies. Fifty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis, which provided 46 independent comparisons for perceived support and 16 for received support. Most of these studies were cross-sectional. There was a moderate, negative association of perceived social support on subjective burden (r = -0.36; CI 95% = -0.40, -0.32) and a very small, negative association of received support on subjective burden (r = -0.05; CI 95% = -0.095, -0.001). 1) perceived and received support are not redundant constructs, 2) the relationships between social support and subjective burden depend on whether the social support is measured as perceived or received, 3) the relationship of perceived social support with subjective burden has a bigger effect size than that of received social support, the relation between received support and subjective burden being clinically irrelevant, 4) perceived social support may be a good predictor of subjective burden. Our findings broadly support interventions promoting social support in caregivers to prevent or alleviate subjective burden, and specifically, to intervene on the promotion of perceived social support more than on the promotion of received social support when preventing or

  15. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  16. a note on condition indices for adult male impala, aepycero-s

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A NOTE ON CONDITION INDICES FOR ADULT MALE IMPALA, AEPYCERO-S MELAMPUS. Receipt of MS 10-03-1979 ... Thirty-eight condition indices taken from nine adult male impala were tested lor linear correlation with condition and ..... index might be preferable as a management tool. Such an index could posibly be ...

  17. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  18. Childhood maltreatment in subjects with male-to-female gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, E; Fisher, A D; Ricca, V; Ristori, J; Meriggiola, M C; Jannini, E A; Manieri, C; Corona, G; Monami, M; Fanni, E; Galleni, A; Forti, G; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is quite common and constitutes a nonspecific risk factor for a range of different psychiatric symptoms during lifespan. It has been demonstrated that sexual minorities are at higher risk of maltreatment and abuse, and a high proportion of transsexual subjects report CM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of reported CM in a clinical sample of patients with male-to-female Gender Identity Disorder (MtF GID), and to explore the relationship between these early life events, body image and different psychopathological and clinical variables. A consecutive series of 162 patients with male genotype was evaluated from July 2008 to May 2010. A total of 109 subjects (mean age 36 ± 10 years) meeting the criteria for MtF GID and giving their informed consent were considered. The occurrence of CM experiences was evaluated through a face-to-face clinical interview. Patients were asked to complete the Body Uneasiness Test and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. More than one-fourth of patients reported CM. Maltreated subjects reported a higher body dissatisfaction and display a worse lifetime mental health. The presence of reported CM in these patients has relevant psychopathological implications, and therefore should be carefully investigated.

  19. The clinical phenotype in institutionalised adult males with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 22 males (i.e. 5 % of the male population) had XLMR, accounting for 36.1 % of the residents diagnosed with a monogenic disorder (n = 61). Fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) was diagnosed in 16 residents,

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  8. Subjective and Objective Appraisal of Activity in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen R. Chasens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, daytime sleepiness, functional activity, and objective physical activity. Setting. Subjects (N=37 being evaluated for OSA were recruited from a sleep clinic. Participants. The sample was balanced by gender (53% male, middle-aged, primarily White, and overweight or obese with a mean BMI of 33.98 (SD=7.35; median BMI=32.30. Over 40% reported subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS ≥10 and had OSA (78% with apnea + hypopnea index (AHI ≥5/hr. Measurements. Evaluation included questionnaires to evaluate subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and functional outcomes (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, an activity monitor, and an overnight sleep study to determine OSA severity. Results. Increased subjective sleepiness was significantly associated with lower scores on the FOSQ but not with average number of steps walked per day. A multiple regression analysis showed that higher AHI values were significantly associated with lower average number of steps walked per day after controlling patient's age, sex, and ESS. Conclusion. Subjective sleepiness was associated with perceived difficulty in activity but not with objectively measured activity. However, OSA severity was associated with decreased objective physical activity in aging adults.

  9. Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goudarz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in the elderly referring to rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. The study population was all the elderly referring to the rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. The sample size was 147 people, which were selected by random cluster sampling. To gather the data, Norbeck social support questionnaire, Philadelphia morale scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were use. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA used for data analysis. Results: A total of 80 (54.4% of sample were male. The mean (SD age of older adults was 71.9(5.09 years and mean of subjective wellbeing was 8.65(2.28. The relationship between social support and subjective wellbeing was statistically significant (P=0.002, r=0.273. Conclusion: The findings showed significant relationship between social support and subjective well-being. It seems that having high social support will lead to better subjective well-being.

  10. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Programs on Older Adult\\'s Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Shiani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intensified increasingly in older adult population bring about to focus on these people problems in many developed countries. Among methods, community-based programs are the new way to counter older adult's problems. Although performance of these programs being in the earliest stage of development, this study has examined the effectiveness of community-based programs on older adults’ subjective well-being in Kahrizak. Methods & Materials: 100 elders above 60 years in Kahrizak were selected completely random sample. 50 elders had participated in the program (experimental group, 50 elders hadn’t participated (sub group.the method was interference. The data was gathered by questionnaire technique and interview and was analyzed by spss. Results: The average of experimental group subjective well-being was 2.55 and the sub group was -1.34. Elder members of Kahrizak who have used services in community-based programs and have given significant services have had more subjective well-being measure than sub group. Conclusion: Although this program isn’t performance for a long time, they have significant effects on older adults’ subjective well-being responsive to the models and theories. Elders who have participated in the programs remained more independently in the community. Happiness, quality of life, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction have been increased by using the community-based programs.

  12. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  13. The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, E M; Silani, G; Metzler, H; Thaler, H; Lamm, C; Gur, R C; Kryspin-Exner, I; Habel, U; Derntl, B

    2013-12-01

    The experience of social exclusion represents an extremely aversive and threatening situation in daily life. The present study examined the impact of social exclusion compared to inclusion on steroid hormone concentrations as well as on subjective affect ratings. Eighty subjects (40 females) participated in two independent behavioral experiments. They engaged in a computerized ball tossing game in which they ostensibly played with two other players who deliberately excluded or included them, respectively. Hormone samples as well as mood ratings were taken before and after the game. Social exclusion led to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. In contrast, social inclusion did not affect positive mood ratings, but decreased sadness ratings. Both conditions did not affect cortisol levels. Testosterone significantly decreased after being excluded in both genders, and increased after inclusion, but only in males. Interestingly, progesterone showed an increase after both conditions only in females. Our results suggest that social exclusion does not trigger a classical stress response but gender-specific changes in sex hormone levels. The testosterone decrease after being excluded in both genders, as well as the increase after inclusion in males can be interpreted within the framework of the biosocial status hypothesis. The progesterone increase might reflect a generalized affiliative response during social interaction in females. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Special interests and subjective wellbeing in autistic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2018-01-01

    Special interests form part of the core features of autism. However, to date there has been limited research focusing on the role of special interests in the lives of autistic adults. This study surveyed autistic adults on their special interest topics, intensity, and motivation. It also assessed

  16. An isoinertial predictor for maximal acceptable lifting weights of Chinese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Chen, Y L

    1996-05-01

    The practicality of using restrained as well as standard isoinertial strength tests in predicting the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) of Chinese male subjects was examined using a restrained strength test, which allows the subject to pull on the load in front of the body and to apply force in a functional free posture. Prediction models were constructed and evaluated under task conditions of two lifting ranges, two box sizes, and three lifting frequencies. The following measurements were taken for each subject in each test: (1) the body posture and joint angles, and (2) electromyographic activities of the arm muscles (biceps brachii), back muscles (erector spinae), and leg muscles (rectus femoris). Results indicate that the restrained knuckle height isoinertial strength (RK) was related significantly to the MAWL for all tasks, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.69. A step-wise multiple regression analysis based on data from the 22 subjects showed that RK, chest circumference, and thigh length accounted for 90 to 94% of the variance. A validation effort on a different sample (N = 10) showed that the MAWLs can be predicted within an absolute mean (SD) error of 0.84 (3.30) kg. Percentages of muscle activation levels indicated that, other than strength from the erector spinae, the strongest contribution to the RK value was that of biceps brachii strength. Since the strength of the body's upper extremity was also recruited, the weak upper extremity strength of Chinese subjects was better reflected. Evidence for the existence of a close match between MAWL and RK values, and the conditions of the existence, suggest that RK is good predictor for the MAWL.

  17. An adult male with abdominal pain and skin rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Patel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura is generally a disease of children and uncommon in adults, especially after the age of 40. It is characterized by leukocytoclastic vasculitis skin rash, arthralgia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In adults, glomerulonephritis may occur and the long-term prognosis is poor. We present the case of a 65-year-old man with complaints of abdomen pain and skin rash who subsequently developed renal failure. He was diagnosed with adult onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura and survived after treatment with glucocorticoids and hemodialysis.

  18. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Parameters\\' Changes in Gait of Male Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare spatio-temporal gait parameters between elderly and young male subjects. Methods & Materials: 57 able-bodied elderly (72±5.5 years and 57 healthy young (25±8.5 years subjects participated in this study. A four segment model consist of trunk, hip, shank, and foot with 10 reflective markers were used to define lower limbs. Kinematic data collected using four high speed video based cameras at a sampling frequency of 90 Hz.The t-testfor independent samples (α≤0.05 applied for statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences showed longer stance phase (2%, longer push-of time (4%, slower cadence (13%, slower speed (28% and shorter step length (15% for elderly in comparison with young subjects, though no significant differences were seen in double supporttime between two groups. Conclusion: Due to results, spatio-temporal changes are mainly attributed to the age-related decreases in muscular flexibility, joints>ranges of motion and neuromuscular control in elderly people.

  20. Relationship between the vertical craniofacial disproportions and the cervicovertebral morphology in adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Orthodontic diagnosis includes the interpretation of the relations between the craniofacial and cervical system, given the potential impact of the irregularities from one system to another. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine morphological characteristics of the cervical spine, depending on the parameters of the vertical craniofacial growth and gender in adult subjects. Methods. The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects with different vertical facial growth, aged 17.5-35 years. Measured parameters were the following: anterior and posterior vertebral body height (ABHC2-C5, PBHC2-C5, anterior and posterior intervertebral space (AISC2-C5, PISC2-C5, distance between vertebrae and point sella (SC2, SC3, SC4, pterygomaxillare (PmC2, gonion (GoC2 and basion (BaC4; cervical spine angulation (OPT/CVT and inclination (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR. Results. Results showed that subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater values for BaC4, OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR, OPT/CVT, anterior and posterior vertebral body heights and intervertebral spaces, and lower values for GoC2 and PmC2. Higher values in males were found for anterior and posterior vertebral body heights, distances SC2, SC3, SC4, and BaC4. In females, the greater values were found for GoC2 and ОРТ/СVT. Conclusion. Subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater cervical spine inclination and angulation, higher cervical vertebrae and intervertebral spaces, longer upper cervical spines and shorter distances GoC2 and PmC2. Males show smaller cervical column curvature, but higher cervical vertebrae and greater length of the upper cervical spine.

  1. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0......Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...

  2. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... the hazard faster, have more fixations, but dwell less on the hazard. At the same time, those who do not respond have a later first fixation and fewer but longer fixations on the hazard. High sensation seeking drivers respond to visible hazards on time, suggesting that sensation seeking does not affect HPS...

  3. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...

  4. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  5. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  6. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  7. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  8. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.

  9. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a non-blinded randomised controlled trial comprising 200 male volunteers >18 years of age, seen at the outpatient university teaching clinic of the ... Adverse events were similar except that wound disruption was greater in the Gomco/tissue adhesive group, with no difference in wound healing at 4 weeks.

  10. Radiologic presentation of a myofibroblastoma of the adult male breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Rochlis, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 50-year-old male with bilateral gynecomastia who was incidentally found to have 0.8-cm subareolar mass on computed tomography. Mammographic and sonographic characteristics of the lesion are described as well as a brief historical review of myofibroblastoma, a rare mesenchymal tumor.

  11. Reproductive Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular tissues harvested at day 14 were fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy according to standard procedures. All the treated groups ... Carbendazim, at sub-lethal dose, induced histological and ultrastructural changes in the testes of the male African catfish. It also led to altered ...

  12. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  13. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T

    2009-12-01

    We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.

  14. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. STRANGULATED INGUINAL HERNIA IN ADULT MALES IN KUMASI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Strangulated inguinal hernia: incidence: inguinal hernia repair rates: adults: Kumasi. INTRODUCTION. In our practice in Kumasi, strangulated inguinal hernia is a common cause of acute surgical admission for ab- dominal emergency second only to abdominal pain.1. Strangulated inguinal ...

  16. Immunity to tetanus in male adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Seventy two (36%) male blood donors were susceptible to tetanus and the susceptibility was highest from 48 years. A regular TT booster dose at 10 yearly intervals is recommended to provide adequate and long lasting immunity in male adults. Proper keeping of vaccination records is emphasised. (East African ...

  17. Stability of territorial and aggressive behavior in profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, W V

    1978-03-01

    Previous research has documented that institutionalized profoundly retarded male adults are territorial and aggresive. The present study represents a follow-up on the same group of males. Results demonstrated that the behavior initially observed remained highly stable across the 19 months since the previous study.

  18. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  19. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren® Emulgel® gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. RESULTS All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren® Emulgel® and were approximately 30–40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was 2.71 times greater than for Voltaren® Emulgel® (90% CI 99.27, 737.46%). Mild erythema at the application site was the most frequent adverse event associated with DCF100C. There were no local symptoms after treatment with the reference formulation. CONCLUSION DCF100C formulations were safe and facilitated greater diclofenac penetration through the skin compared with the commercial comparator. DCF100C represents a promising alternative to oral and topical diclofenac treatments that warrants further development. PMID:21241352

  20. Triorchidism: Genetic and imaging evaluation in an adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Belba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of imaging and cytogenetic studies in a case of triorchidism in a 54 years old male without any associated anomaly. A scrotal ultrasonography revealed the presence of two testes within the left hemiscrotum with complete septation and echotexture and vascular flow pattern similar to the vascular flow of the normal right testis. There was no focal abnormal echogenicity suggesting malignancy. Scrotal MRI confirmed two soft-tissue structures in the left hemiscrotum with normal signal intensity at T1w and T2w images. Both testes had a tunica albuginea with low-signal intensity. Cytogenetic analysis resulted in normal male karyotype 46XY. Array-CGH analysis detected the presence of two interstitial rearrangements: a ~120 Kb deletion of chromosome 1 and a ~140 Kb deletion of chromosome 16. Currently there are little details on the functions of both genes.

  1. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  2. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  3. Leukocyte profile of adult Nigerian subjects with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Leukocyte levels are evidently useful in trauma assessment, prognostication and management.1 Leukocytosis is a known physiologic response to trauma 2 but suggested to be absent among Africans origin3. The aim of present study is to investigate the existence of leukocytosis among adult Nigerians who ...

  4. Lipidemia status among HIV positive adult male on HAART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.4 mmol/L), HDL (0.9 - 1.68 mmol/L) triglyceride (0.41 - 2.61 mmol/L) and total cholesterol (2.55 - 5.7 mmol/L).The prevalence lipidemia was 48.17%. Conclusion: The findings showed that the mean LDL was elevated with proportion of lipidemia at a significant higher level among HIV positive adult patients on HAART with ...

  5. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p V (p V (p p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Pharmacokinetic Study of Nifedipine in Healthy Adult Male Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    obtained from the volunteers. Nifedipine (Adalat® capsules, 10 mg, Bayer. Pharmaceuticals, Karachi, Pakistan) was the drug used. The study was conducted in the same subjects in two phases separated by a washout period of one week. Twelve data sets were obtained. Drug administration and blood sampling. A blank ...

  7. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  8. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  9. 20-year chronobiologic study of a middle-aged cyclothymic male subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, D A

    1996-11-01

    1. Cyclothymia is characterized by pronounced but not debilitating shifts of moods often lasting approximately two to nine weeks. 2. It can be classified as a psychopathologic mood disorder on a continuum to Bipolar II, or as a chronobiologic rhythm similar to the circadian except on an infradian time scale. 3. A male subject diagnosed cyclothymic agreed to daily chart moods and emotions, record dreams and monitor physical states. He kept track of hypomania-depression, high-low energy, high-low tension, dream affect and sleep parameters. 4. In the 1,006 affective cycles recorded between 1977 and 1996, four affective phases appeared sequentially: being comparable to early hypomania (I, PA), late hypomania (II, PD), early depression (III, ND) and late depression (IV, NA). 5. During the experiment lasting 20 years, the frequency of the four-phase affective cycle increased intermittently from 30.3 days (1977) to 28.0 days (1980), 24.7 days (1983), 19.0 days (1986), 17.8 days (1989), 12.1 days (1992), and 1.3 days (1995). 6. These findings of a four-phase variable infradian rhythm may have utility in determining fine structure and time course of rhythms in cyclothymics, both medicated and non-medicated, studied outside the clinical laboratory.

  10. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  11. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7×2.5×2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  12. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly') to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  13. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Akter

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT, whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT, whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly' to raspberry ketone (RK mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  14. Morphine Decreases Social Interaction of Adult Male Rats, While THC Does Not Affect It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.5 (2016), S547-S555 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : social behavior * opioids * morphine * cannabinoids * THC * male rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  15. Incidence of endocrine disorders in Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.

  16. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  17. The Subjective Sexual Arousal Scale for Men (SSASM): preliminary development and psychometric validation of a multidimensional measure of subjective male sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C

    2011-08-01

    Sexual arousal is a multifaceted process that involves both mental and physical components. No instrument has been developed and validated to assess subjective aspects of male sexual arousal. To develop and psychometrically validate a self-administered scale for assessing subjective male sexual arousal. Using recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on patient-reported outcome instruments, important aspects of male sexual arousal were identified via qualitative research (focus groups and interviews) of U.S. men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and healthy controls. After a preliminary questionnaire was developed by a panel of experts, a quantitative study of men with ED and controls was conducted to psychometrically validate the Subjective Sexual Arousal Scale for Men (SSASM). To develop a male sexual arousal scale and determine its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity. Five aspects of male sexual arousal were identified from the qualitative focus groups and cognitive interviews. Men's preferred language for describing sexual arousal and preferred response formats were incorporated into the questions. Factor analysis of data from the quantitative study of 304 men aged 21 to 70 years identified five domains with eigenvalues >1: sexual performance (six items), mental satisfaction (five items), sexual assertiveness (three items), partner communication (three items), and partner relationship (three items). The five domains had a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values 0.88-0.94). Test-retest reliability over a 2- to 4-week period was high-moderately high (r values 0.75-0.88) for the five domain scores. Correlations between SSASM domain scores and standardized scale scores for social desirability, general health, life satisfaction, and sexual function demonstrated the construct validity of the scale. Preliminary validation data suggest that the 20-item SSASM scale may be useful as a multidimensional, reliable

  18. Pharmacokinetic Profile and Palatability of Atomoxetine Oral Solution in Healthy Japanese Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masako; Witcher, Jennifer; Satoi, Yoichi; Goto, Taro

    2016-11-01

    There is a clinical need for a liquid formulation of atomoxetine. We assessed the safety and bioequivalence of an atomoxetine oral solution. This was an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Healthy adult male Japanese subjects (n = 42) with a cytochrome P450 2D6 extensive (including intermediate and ultrarapid) metabolizer genotype were administered atomoxetine 50 mg as oral solution and capsules once each, with a washout period >5 days between doses. Blood samples were used to analyze pharmacokinetic parameters, particularly maximum observed drug concentration (C max ) and area under the concentration vs. time curve from time zero to the last time point with a measurable concentration (AUC 0-last ). Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90 % confidence interval of the ratio of geometric means between formulations for both C max and AUC 0-last were within the interval of 0.8-1.25. Safety assessments included determination of adverse events. Taste was evaluated via a five-item questionnaire immediately and 10 min after taking atomoxetine oral solution. Forty subjects completed the study. Plasma concentration-time profiles of atomoxetine oral solution and capsules were similar, and the statistical analysis of systemic exposure showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent. Adverse events were mild and similar in type and frequency between the formulations. For taste acceptability, only 7.1 % of subjects responded that the oral solution would be difficult to take every day. Atomoxetine oral solution is bioequivalent to atomoxetine capsules and potentially fulfills the need for an oral solution atomoxetine formulation that will facilitate treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  19. All about MAX: a male adult voxel phantom for Monte Carlo calculations in radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R; Vieira, J W; Khoury, H J; Lima, F R A; Fuelle, D

    2003-01-01

    The MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. The study describes the adjustments of the soft-tissue organ masses, a new dosimetric model for the skin, a new model for skeletal dosimetry and a computational exposure model based on coupling the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Conversion coefficients between equivalent dose to the red bone marrow as well as effective MAX dose and air-kerma free in air for external photon irradiation from the front and from the back, respectively, are presented and compared with similar data from other human phantoms

  20. Citizenship in a time of HIV: Understanding medical adult male circumcision in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Payne, Lynlee; Bowman, Brett

    2018-05-01

    Medical adult male circumcision has been shown to offer men significant protection against HIV infection during peno-vaginal sex. This has resulted in calls for a national roll-out of medical adult male circumcision in South Africa, a rights-based constitutional democracy. This article explores the ways that the potential tensions between this call to circumcise as a practice of good health citizenship and the guaranteed right to bodily integrity are negotiated in interviews with 30 urban-based men in Johannesburg. The results suggest that despite its demonstrable biological efficacy, these tensions may paralyse decision- and policy-makers in grappling with the potential scaling up of medical adult male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa.

  1. Dysfunctional core beliefs, perceived parenting behavior and psychopathology in gender identity disorder: A comparison of male-to-female, female-to-male transsexual and nontranssexual control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Zsolt, Unoka; Fogd, Dora; Czobor, Pál

    2011-03-01

    Research into the association between Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and psychological disturbances as well as on its relation with parenting experiences yielded mixed results, with different patterns for Male-to-Female (MF) and Female-to-Male (FM) transsexual subjects. We investigated vulnerability markers of maladjustment and their possible origins in MF and FM transsexuals by examining maladaptive core beliefs and parenting behaviors thought to be specifically related to them. Dysfunctional core beliefs, parenting experiences and psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire indexing 19 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), the Young Parenting Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-R, respectively, in 30 MF, 17 FM transsexual and 114 control subjects (43 males, 114 females). Subjects with GID demonstrated a level of psychiatric distress comparable to that of controls. They did display elevated scores, however, on multiple EMSs compared to nontranssexual subjects, indicating feelings of isolation, emotional deprivation and an urge to meet others' needs, with MF transsexuals conceptualizing themselves also as more vulnerable and deficient than controls. Parenting experiences of transsexual subjects were characterised by increased maternal dominance, emotional abuse and neglect compared to controls, with males being exposed to a disengaged maternal style and more paternal emotional neglect and criticism. Both MF and FM transsexuals were made felt that in areas of achievement they will inevitably fail. There is no evidence of elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms in GID, but potential predisposing factors, particularly in MF transsexuals, are present; these may originate from the more intense rejection they experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  3. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  4. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  5. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Šlamberová; Eva Macúchová; Kateryna Nohejlová; Andrea Štofková; Jana Jurčovičová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP) treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras), activ...

  6. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  7. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  8. Increased dairy consumption differentially improves metabolic syndrome markers in male and female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Christine E; Barona, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2014-02-01

    Effects of dairy consumption on metabolic health and adiposity are inconsistent. Most clinical trials have investigated dairy intake, frequently during caloric restriction, in overweight or obese populations but not in a metabolic syndrome population. We investigated the effect of increased dairy intake without caloric restriction on anthropometrics, plasma lipids, and glucose in typically low-dairy consumers who met the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) metabolic syndrome criteria. Male (n=14) and female (n=23) adults (54.1 ± 9.7 years) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to consume low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz of 1% milk, 6 oz of nonfat yogurt, 4 oz of 2% cheese) or carbohydrate control (CNT) (1.5-oz granola bar and 12 oz of 100% juice) foods for 6 weeks in a crossover study design. Anthropometrics, metabolic syndrome parameters, insulin resistance, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Body composition was analyzed by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for a subset of subjects (n=22). LFD modulated metabolic syndrome parameters differently according to gender. Following LFD, men had lower glucose (95.4 ± 9.1 vs. 98.9 ± 10.6 mg/dL, P=0.048), whereas women had lower body weight (BW), waist circumference, and body mass index (P<0.01) compared to CNT. Women also had lower energy intake following LFD compared to CNT. Increases in phosphorus (a dairy nutrient) were negatively correlated with decreases in BW (r=-0.537; P<0.01) and body fat in women (r=-0.593, P<0.025), whereas the decreases in energy intake had no correlation with anthropometrics. Three dairy servings/day promoted small but significant improvements differentially by gender in a metabolic syndrome population.

  9. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (pgame-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  10. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  11. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Bateh, Abd El-aziz M; Hamed, Sherifa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Elsorogy, Yaser B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for >/=1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition), Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030), bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036) and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020). Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis). The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040), verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001) and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000), and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009), psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001) and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045). This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance in cognition, mood and behavior. Duration of drug intake and the number of the utilized AEDs are the main confounding variables. This study did not provide clues on how to exclude the effect of epilepsy itself and psychosocial variables as additional important confounding variables.

  14. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  15. Age-related changes in the sleep pattern of male adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, W. A.; Mirmiran, M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to study whether or not the age-related changes in the sleep pattern observed in humans also occur in rats, young adult (4 months) and old (22 months) male Wistar rats were implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes for 24 h on-line registration by means of an automatic sleep-classifier. During

  16. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  17. Locus of Control, Field Dependence, and Stress Reactivity in Young Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweibinz, Janet S.

    This study examined the potential relationships between locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity in a sample of young adult males (N=40). Locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity were measured by the Rotter Locus of Control Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, and the Life Events Survey, respectively. State stress…

  18. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Smeenk, W.; Loeber, R.; Southamer-Loeber, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.; Dubas, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and

  20. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  1. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  2. Effect of Melatonin Treatment on the CD4 + Count of Adult Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin treatment on the CD4+ count of six adult male rabbits injected subcutaneously with 100ug/ 100g body weight at the end of the light phase (1½ hrs before light went off) daily for 60 days and four controls which received ethanol/saline solution was investigated. Whole blood was collected from the ...

  3. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  4. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  6. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  7. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future.

  8. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    were obtained by direct muscle stimulation (DMS) with two stainless-steel subdermal electrodes placed subcutaneously in the distal third of the muscle. Amplitudes of CMAP and IPA were significantly larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. We found no differences between trained...

  9. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Christensen, N J; Sonne, B

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of 3H-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 m...

  10. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, I.G.L. van de; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised

  12. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, I.G.L. van de; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design

  13. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    turnover markers in healthy males. METHODS: 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Subsequently, we carried out an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) that closely......-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Finally, eight of the twelve participants underwent a control experiment where they fasted for 3h (Control). RESULTS: While OGTT induced a 50% reduction in s-CTX, only a ~30% reduction was seen during the IIGI and the Control. Neither intervention...... that peak p-GIP significantly predicts nadir s-CTX (p=0.03), and that peak p-GIP could explain 34% of the variability in nadir s-CTX (adjusted R(2)=0.34). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that glucose per se does not acutely affect bone turnover markers. However, gastrointestinal hormones, especially GIP...

  14. Effect of Consuming Iodized Salt on Fertility Indices in Male Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabani Natanzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today about 27.4 percent of female 15-44 years and 1 percent of female in fertility age are affected by infertility. Iodine is a rare element that is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Concentration of the thyroid hormones in blood under the influence of iodine intake and changes in thyroid hormones levels interact with reproductive system. Today, all the people of Iran consuming iodized salt regardless of iodine status in their body. In this study according to high prevalence of the infertility among young couples, iodized salt intake on fertility in male rats were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 male and 20 female adult Wistar rats were used. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Including the control group and treatment group that received iodine and female adult Wistar were fed with a regular diet. Five male rats from each group were killed at the end of the fourth weeks in order to evaluate the possible effect of iodized salt on sperm analysis and weight of testis. After a month, male and female rats were placed in pairs in separate cages and their offspring were investigated in terms of number, gender and health. Results: The result of this study showed that the number of healthy offspring of treated male rats was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Due to the negative effect of excessive iodine intake on fertility rate, it is recommended to couples to perform functional tests of their thyroid glands before intake of iodized salts.

  15. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  16. Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Joseph; Robinson, Rachel; Hallyburton, Matt; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. Materials and methods Following screening, 33 adults (n= 16 with ADHD; n=17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. Results Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. Conclusions Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement. PMID:19104775

  17. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities among adult male hardcore smokers in Vietnam: 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Jat, Tej Ram; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Phan Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-14

    Despite male smokers being dominant in Vietnam, scarce evidence on trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore male smokers is available in the country. In this study, we aimed at assessing the trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore smokers in adult male population in Vietnam over a five-year period from 2010 to 2015. We used data from two rounds of the Vietnam Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2010 and 2015. We included only men aged 25 years and above in the analysis. We measured socioeconomic inequalities among hardcore smokers by calculating the concentration index. We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with hardcore smoking among men aged 25 years and above. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers aged 25 years and above in Vietnam was 9.5% in 2010 which increased to 13.1% in 2015. The prevalence of male hardcore smokers declined in the richest group from the 2010 level whereas it increased in the middle, poor and poorest groups. All values of weighted concentration indices indicated that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers occurred more among the poor men in Vietnam in both 2010 and 2015. The socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smokers increased during 2010 and 2015. Residence in urban areas was significantly associated with higher adult male hardcore smoking in our study. Belonging to the age groups between 40 and 59 years, attaining primary and lower education, being self-employed, belonging to the poorest household group, smoking being allowed at home and no rule for smoking at home were associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker among adult males in Vietnam. We found increased trends in socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smoking among the study population. Our study results indicate that existing smoking secession and tobacco control policy and interventions need to be modified or new policies and

  19. Subjective Well-Being Scale of Family Caregivers for Older Adults (EBEMS/CFAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Guedea, Miriam Teresa; Mandujano Jaquez, María Fernanda; López Dávalos, German; Domínguez Guedea, Rosario Leticia; González Montesinos, Manuel Jorge; Sotomayor Petearson, Marcela; Fraijo Sing, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Well-being is a concept that has aroused multidisciplinary interest. Particularly in studies about family caregivers of older adults there has been the need to analyze this attribute facing the imminent increase of family caregivers. The goal of this paper is to describe the design process, the exploratory and confirmatory validation, as well as the usefulness of the current Scale of Subjective Well-Being of Family Caregivers for Older Adults - EBEMS/ CFAM. Results are shown in a sequence, fr...

  20. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  1. Microscopic studies on postmortem vermiform appendix of the adult males of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S M A; Shamim, M; Salam, A; Sultana, S A

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions and microscopic features, some of which have potentials of influencing the clinical aspects of the appendix. The aim of this study was to find out some microscopic features of appendix and evaluate the correlation between the microscopic features of the appendix and the age of the subjects and to determine whether these findings should influence the clinical implications of appendix. In this cross-sectional observational study, thirty adult males' (age from 18 to 67 years) postmortem appendices and adnexa from Bangladeshi victims of road traffic accidents were sectioned at the base, midzone and tip stained with H+E stain and examined under microscope. Measurements were taken at the base, at the midzone and at the tip of the appendix, and the mean of the three measurements was considered as the overall value. The overall number of mucosal glands in a section ranged from 42.33 to 130.00 and the number of the germinal centres varied between 2.33 and 10.00. The overall luminal diameter ranged between 1764.58 and 3208.33 µm. The overall luminal diameter in more than 52 % of cases was between 2700.00 and 3299.99 µm with a median value of 2750 µm. The overall number of mucosal glands showed a tendency towards a positive correlation with age. The overall luminal diameter and the overall number of germinal centres showed a tendency towards a negative correlation with the age. However, none of the tendencies of correlation reached statistically any significant level.

  2. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  3. The effects of three different exercise modalities on markers of male reproduction in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups. Subjects had inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), oxidants (ROS, MDA and 8-isoprostane), antioxidants (SOD, catalase and TAC), semen parameters and sperm DNA damage measured at baseline (T 1 ), the end of week 12 (T 2 ), the end of week 24 (T 3 ), and 7 (T 4 ) and 30 days (T 5 ) after training. Chronic MICT, HICT and HIIT attenuated seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with different kinetics for the three types of exercise (P exercise modalities favorably affect markers of male reproduction with different kinetics, suggesting intensity-, duration- and type-dependent adaptations to exercise training in healthy human subjects. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  5. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    The associations between serum levels of reproductive hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and calculated free testosterone) and urinary metabolite concentration of pyrethroid insecticides [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA...... composition of pyrethroid insecticides to which the subjects were exposed; 3-PBA is a common metabolite of a number of pyrethroids and thus lacks specificity to compounds that may have different potentials of reproductive toxicity. Another reason might be related to the fact that our subjects were university...

  6. Non-surgical Adult Male Circumcision Using the PrePex Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Republic of Rwanda is implementing a program of voluntary male circumcision (MC) to reduce HIV transmission but lacks the infrastructure for conventional surgical MC on a nationwide scale. Nonsurgical MC using the PrePex device was first assessed in 5 subjects on an inpatient basis. Subsequent procedures were ...

  7. Word-final prolongations in an adult male with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Corthals, Paul; Janssens, Sandra; Van Borsel, John

    2010-09-01

    A case of word-final prolongations occurring in an adult male with neurofibromatosis type 1 is reported. Speech samples were collected in five different speech modalities (i.e. spontaneous speech, monologue, repetition, automatic series and reading) and subsequently analyzed in a semi-automatic manner using Praat software. Results on the frequency, nature and distribution of the word-final prolongations are presented. The possible pathogenesis of these word-final disfluencies and their relation to stuttering is discussed. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the characteristics of word-final prolongations as displayed by an adult male with neurofibromatosis type 1 and (2) discuss the possible pathogenesis of these word-final prolongations and their relation to stuttering.

  8. Effects of Visual Stimulation with Bonsai Trees on Adult Male Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2017-09-05

    Nature therapy has been demonstrated to induce physiological relaxation. The psychophysiological effects of nature therapy (stimulation with bonsai trees) on adult male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) were examined. Oxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, and heart rate variability was analyzed. Psychological responses were evaluated using the modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale scores. Visual stimulation of adult male patients with SCI elicited significantly decreased left prefrontal cortex activity, increased parasympathetic nervous activity, decreased sympathetic nervous activity, increased positive feelings, and resulted in lower negative POMS subscale scores. Nature therapy can lead to a state of physiological and psychological relaxation in patients with SCI.

  9. Baseline Intraocular Pressure Is Associated with Subjective Sensitivity to Physical Exertion in Young Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García, José Antonio; Perales, José Cesar; Cárdenas, David

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the effect of physical effort (cycling for 60 min at 60 ± 5% of individually computed reserve heart-rate capacity), combined with 2 different levels of cognitive demand (2-back, oddball), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and subjective judgments of perceived exertion (ratings of perceived…

  10. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavioral indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  11. Joint dynamics and intra-subject variability during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    kinematics and kinetics were recorded in synchrony. Hip, knee and ankle joint eccentric and concentric work, joint energy transfer, intra-subject variation of joint moment, joint power and joint moment components were calculated. The children had lower eccentric and concentric hip work and lower eccentric...... work, hip joint moment and hip and knee joint power. Higher intra-subject variation was observed in horizontal joint reaction force components for the children and higher intra-subject variation in the segment angular inertia components was observed for the adults. The joint dynamics of children during......The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional...

  12. A Comparative Study on Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Dysarthrophonic versus Normophonic Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Chatterjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder.  It occurs due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of the speech musculature. The authors with this study want to enrich clinical understanding of the difference of the aerodynamic characteristics in normophonic and dysarthric population. Materials and method The aerodynamic characteristics in normophonics and in dysarthric population were compared and documented using Voice Function Analyzer (Aerophone II®. Forty male individuals within the age range of thirty five to fifty five years participated in this study. The control group   had twenty normophonic cases with no history of neurological disorder. The second group had twenty cases with dysarthria. Result Significant difference was found between the two groups in peak flow, forced volume and duration, vital capacity and fast adduction-abduction measurements. Discussion The difference in results from both the groups and their implications are discussed based on these findings. Conclusion The present study has assessed the parameters of speech and voice disorder in male dysarthric individuals. It suggests inclusion of aerodynamic measurement in test protocol and for evidence based research and prognosis documentation. Measurement of laryngeal or vocal tract resistance may be useful in documenting a variety of the perceptual voice characteristics.

  13. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  14. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A.; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. Objective The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective...

  15. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed...

  16. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaydaa A Shehata; Abd El-aziz M Bateh; Sherifa A Hamed; et al

    2009-01-01

    Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were asse...

  17. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happ?, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and...

  18. Effect of nonylphenol on plasma vitellogenin of male adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Rui

    2005-02-01

    Adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed to 4-nonylphenol (NP) at nominal concentrations of 10, 60, and 150 microg/L for 7, 14, or 21 days. Significant induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was found in male guppies exposed to 1 microg/L of 17beta-estradiol and 60 or 150 microg/L of NP after 7, 14, or 21 days. Maximum induction was seen after 14 days of treatment at these concentrations. On the other hand, significant induction of VTG in male guppies exposed to 10 microg/L of NP was observed only after 21 days of treatment. A time-dependent tendency of reduction of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male guppies treated with 17beta-estradiol or NP was observed, but no corresponding concentration-dependent tendency was detected. There were also no differences in the liver somatic index (LSI) of male fish treated with various concentrations of NP during the above-mentioned exposure periods. Preliminary data presented in this study strongly suggests that measurement of plasma VTG induction in male guppies is a suitable and rather sensitive indicator of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  20. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  1. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    OpenAIRE

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...

  2. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  3. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Normal isometric and isokinetic peak torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alangari, Abdulrahman S; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2004-07-01

    To provide reference data for peak isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males. The strength of left and right quadriceps and hamstrings leg muscles was assessed in 132 college-male students in the campus of King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the year 2002 using a Cybex machine and a standardized protocol at the following velocities: 0, 60, 180, and 300 degrees/sec. Isometric strength (0 degrees/sec) was assessed at 65 degrees angle of knee flexion. Isometric flexion strength was 9.3% higher in the right leg compared to the left (p ratio relative to angular velocity varied from 59.9-63.3% in the right leg and from 55.8-59.9% in the left leg, with significant difference (p hamstrings/quadriceps ratio in Saudi males seems to be within the recommended range of appropriate muscle function.

  5. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2017-08-01

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  6. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  7. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, July (2017), s. 75-82 ISSN 0167-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Emotion * Stereotype * Arousal * Valence * Gender Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.582, year: 2016

  8. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, July (2017), s. 75-82 ISSN 0167-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Emotion * Stereotype * Arousal * Valence * Gender Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.582, year: 2016

  9. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar Robin IM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20 add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social mechanisms and brain units involved. Female sociality (which is more affiliative is related most closely to neocortex volume, but male sociality (which is more competitive and combative is more closely related to subcortical units (notably those associated with emotional responses. Thus different brain units have responded to different selection pressures.

  10. Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

  11. The Effects of Loving Kindness Meditation on Subjective Well-being in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Ahmed dahir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Citation: Mohamed, A. D., Zulkifli, N., Seal, D. Lewis, C. R. (2015). TheEfficacy of Loving Kindness Meditation on Measures ofSubjective Well-Being in Healthy Young Adults: Preliminary Data. 2015Mindfulness Research Conference, Center for Child & Family Well-Being, University ofWashington. 17-18 April 2015.  

  12. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  13. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  14. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  15. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  16. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  17. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  18. Examining the relationship between subjective and objective memory performance in older adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Jessica J; Stetler, Cinnamon A; Horhota, Michelle

    2014-06-01

    Are the beliefs that older adults hold about their memory abilities associated with their scores on lab-based memory tasks? A review of the aging literature suggests that the correlation between subjective and objective memory is inconsistent, with some studies reporting significant effects and others reporting null results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the relationship between subjective memory, defined as general predictions about memory, and objective memory performance in older adults, and to examine the conditions under which this relationship may be strongest. This meta-analysis included 53 studies, each of which included a normatively aging older adult sample. Overall, the association between subjective and objective memory was small (r = .062, SE = 0.014) but reliably greater than zero. Moderator analyses were conducted to better understand the parameters of this effect. Age, years of education, gender, depression symptoms, length and format of subjective memory measures, and type of objective memory were significantly correlated with effect size. These results caution against relying on general subjective memory belief measures as a substitute for objective assessments of memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  20. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of toxic risk assessment of arsenic in male subjects through drinking water in southern Sindh Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was estimated based on concentration of As in drinking water and scalp hair of male subjects of two age groups (n=360) consuming As contaminated water at different levels and non-contaminated drinking water. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 3- to 30-fold higher than the permissible limit of the World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water, while the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.01 to 0.27, 0.11-1.31, and 0.36-6.80 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As contents of drinking water and As concentration in scalp hair was observed in sub-district Gambit (r=0.825-0.852, p<0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE sub-district Thari Mirwah. A toxicity risk assessment provides a hazard quotient corresponding to <10 that indicates non-carcinogenic exposure risk of understudy areas.

  2. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learsi, S K; Bastos-Silva, V J; Lima-Silva, A E; Bertuzzi, R; De Araujo, G G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ergogenic effects of metformin in high-intensity exercise, as well as its effects on anaerobic capacity, in healthy and physically active men. Ten subjects (mean (± standard deviation) maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max ) 38.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg per min) performed the following tests in a cycle ergometer: (i) an incremental test; (ii) six submaximal constant workload tests at 40%-90% (V˙O2max ); and (iii) two supramaximal tests (110% (V˙O2max ). Metformin (500 mg) or placebo was ingested 60 min before the supramaximal test. There were no significant differences between the placebo and metformin groups in terms of maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.8 L, respectively; P = 0.08), lactate concentrations (7.8 ± 2.6 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.75) or O2 consumed in either the last 30 s of exercise (40.4 ± 4.4 vs 39.9 ± 4.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.35) or the first 110 s of exercise (29.0 ± 2.5 vs 29.5 ± 3.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.42). Time to exhaustion was significantly higher after metformin than placebo ingestion (191 ± 33 vs 167 ± 32 s, respectively; P = 0.001). The fast component of V˙O2 recovery was higher in the metformin than placebo group (12.71 vs 12.18 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.025). Metformin improved performance and anaerobic alactic contribution during high-intensity exercise, but had no effect on overall anaerobic capacity in healthy subjects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Autonomic nervous activity changes in relation to the reporting of subjective symptoms among male workers in an information service company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Kanae; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Nishikitani, Mariko; Nomura, Kyoko; Yano, Eiji

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the relationship between major subjective symptoms and autonomic nervous system function by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Short-term HRV was examined for 413 male workers in a Japanese information service company aged 19-45 years, and questionnaire survey on subjective symptoms and biochemical measurements were conducted at annual health checkup. The most prevalent subjective symptom (> or =10%) was dullness, followed by fatigue, backache, diarrhea, sleep disorder, and irritation. HRV in high frequency (HF 0.15-0.40 Hz) bands and the coefficient of variance in the electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVrr) were lower in the subjects with any of these six symptoms than in those without the symptoms. Both parameters were negatively associated with the reporting of any of the six symptoms by multiple regression analyses, controlling for the significant effects of age (HF and CVrr) and plasma cortisol levels (HF). It was suggested that the reporting of the subjective symptoms is one of good predictors for reduced parasympathetic tones.

  4. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  5. Gestational protein restriction impairs insulin-regulated glucose transport mechanisms in gastrocnemius muscles of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet-exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet-fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  6. Molar height and dentoalveolar compensation in adult subjects with skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Josef; Marek, Ivo; Tycova, Hana; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar components in adult subjects with skeletal open bite in the presence or absence of dental compensation. The study sample included 69 adult female subjects who belonged to three groups according to skeletal vertical relationships and overbite. A total of 15 variables (5 angular, 10 linear) were evaluated. Values in the dentally compensated open bite group (COBG), the dentally noncompensated open bite group (NCOBG), and the control group with normal vertical skeletal relationships and overbite (CG) were compared by means of parametric statistics. The COBG and the NCOBG showed significantly greater incisor and molar heights in both jaws than the CG. No significant difference in upper or lower molar height was found between COBG and NCOBG. Incisor height was significantly greater in COBG than in NCOBG. Elongation in the incisor region was accompanied by significant narrowing of the lower anterior alveolar process in both skeletal open bite groups. Proclination of the upper incisors was significantly smaller in the COBG than in the other groups. Dentoalveolar components consisting of incisor elongation and inclination play a significant role in compensating for skeletal open bite configuration in adult subjects. Increased molar height is a common finding in adults with skeletal open bite.

  7. The Relationship Between Time Perspective and Subjective Well-being of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fien Desmyter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time perspective is crucial for our present and future plans, and for the way we act in the present. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between time perspective and subjective well-being in older adults. The sample of our questionnaire study consisted of 149 older adults aged between 65 and 96 years. Time perspective was measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. The five time perspective dimensions were related to four specific aspects of subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction and depression. Future-oriented older persons had a more positive affect. Older adults who were positively oriented towards the past appeared to be more satisfied with life. A hedonistic view of the present was related to a high positive affect. Older persons with a Past-Negative perspective were more likely to experience negative affect and depressive feelings, along with a lower level of positive affect and satisfaction with life. The Present-Fatalistic time perspective correlated with more depressive symptoms. The findings emphasize the relevance of time perspective styles for the subjective well-being, which has specific implications for the way caregivers could interact with older adults to enhance quality of life.

  8. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Panimal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Subjective Age and Its Correlates Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Werner, Perla

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluates discrepancies in subjective age as reported by middle-age persons (aged 44-64 years) in comparison to older adults (aged 65 years and older), using a multidimensional definition of the concept. A convenience sample of 126 middle-aged and 126 older adults completed subjective age measures (felt age, desired age, and perceived old age), attitudes toward older adults, knowledge about aging, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Overall, participants reported feeling younger than they actually were and wanting to be younger than their chronological age. Perceived mean for old age was about 69 years. Discrepancies in felt age and desired age were significantly larger for the older group compared to the middle-aged group. Regarding perceived old age, compared to the younger group, older adults reported that old age begins at an older age. Findings suggest that middle-aged and older adults' perceptions regarding themselves and regarding old age in general are independent and need, therefore, separate research and practical attention.

  12. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P treatments for late-life insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in young male adults: impact of physical activity and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Çuhadar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to assess whether choices of physical activity, smoking status, and parental education and income were correlated with the health status of young adult males which are important for preventive health policy. Methods: 491 18-29-year old males from lower socioeconomical districts in Turkey participated in this study. Information about demographic characteristics, parental education, household income, smoking status, and physical activity was obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire. BMI and metabolic parameters (serum lipid profile were assessed.Results: Mean total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels were in the normal range.  The physically active group displayed a better lipid profile. No relationship was found between parental education and serum lipids. Smoking was slightly correlated with household income (r=103, p=0.022.Conclusion: Young adult males who participate in relatively high levels of physical activity are at lower CHD risk than less active ones. The present study also showed that lower socioecnomic status does not always correlate with higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, data supports that while family history cannot be changed, HDL levels can be modulated by lifestyle factors as in other populations and that with the determined benefits of increasing physical activity and thus, HDL levels, policy reform in schools to promote physical activity are warranted.

  15. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  16. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  17. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  19. Adolescent cannabis problems and young adult depression: male-female stratified propensity score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C

    2008-09-15

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.

  20. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  1. Enhanced removal of 241Am by DTPA chelation therapy in an adult and teenage subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasso, T.L.; Cohen, N.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Na 3 (Ca-DTPA) chelation treatments were carried out on two human subjects, an adult man and a teenage boy, who have long-term body burdens of 241 Am. The in vivo whole-body counting, bioassay of urine and feces, and various blood chemistry measurements were coordinated to coincide with this therapy schedule. Decreases in total body burdens for this treatment period were measured as 5 percent in the adult and 30 percent in the youth. High concentrations of zinc in urine and a corresponding decrease of activity of the zinc-dependent erythropoietic enzyme, ALAD, were also observed. (U.S.)

  2. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Spirometric evaluation of ventilatory function in adult male cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Muhammad D; Makusidi, Muhammad A; Abbas, Aminu; Okpapi, Juliana U; Njoku, Chibueze H; Abba, Abdullahi A

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a widespread social habit in Nigeria with extensive deleterious multisystemic effect. Ventilatory dysfunction is one of the cigarette smoking-related illnesses that affect the respiratory system. Spirometry is an investigative method that can be used for the early detection of ventilatory dysfunction even before the onset of the symptoms. A questionnaire adapted from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey was administered to collect demographic, clinical, and cigarette smoking data. Ventilatory function test was conducted using Clement Clarke (One Flow) Spirometer, version 1.3. The highest value of each ventilatory function index was chosen for analysis, and individual(s) with ventilatory dysfunction were subjected to post bronchodilator spirometry. For the purpose of this research, 150 participants who were currently cigarette smokers were enrolled, and 50 apparently healthy, age-matched individuals who were never smokers served as controls in the ratio of 3:1. Eighty percent of participants and 68% of controls were aged 40 years or below. The mean age of participants (34.27 ± 8.91 years) and the controls (35.08 ± 10.35 years) was not significantly different (P = 0.592). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean anthropometric indices (weight: P = 0.663, height: P = 0.084, and body mass index: P = 0.099) of both participants and controls. The mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory flow in one second) and FEV1/FVC (FVC=forced vital capacity) were lower in the participants compared to the controls, and this difference was statistically significant (P cigarette smoking and FEV1 (r = -0.237 and P = 0.004). Obstructive ventilatory defect was found among six study participants (4%) and two controls (4%). Cigarette smoking is associated with decline in ventilatory function test indices (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) in adult males. Decline in FEV1 is directly related to pack

  4. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  5. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  6. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  7. Associations between stress reactivity and sexual and nonsexual risk taking in young adult human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Campbell, Benjamin; Agnew, Christopher R; Thompson, Vaida; Udry, J Richard

    2002-12-01

    Release of the hormone cortisol represents a distress response to novel or stressful situations. Individual differences in such reactivity have been conceptualized as representing a relatively enduring, generalizable trait. In this study, cortisol responses to two experimentally manipulated "sexual" and "nonsexual" stressors were used to examine whether stress reactivity is related to sexual and nonsexual risk behavior in young adult males. Analyses were based on 150 males 18 to 25 years old; risk behavior was assessed in confidential, self-administered questionnaires. Analyses indicated that both stressors effectively elicited cortisol increases. Generalized reactivity, defined as a cortisol response to both stressors, was inversely associated with deviance (e.g., theft, substance use) and with two indicators of sexual risk taking (lifetime number of intercourse partners and frequency of condom use). Findings are discussed in terms of cross-situational consistency of stress responses, the utility of stress reactivity for understanding individual differences in risk taking, and the interpretive limitations imposed by study design.

  8. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  9. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  10. A comparison of adult outcomes for males compared to females following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charis; McKinlay, Audrey; McLellan, Tracey; Britt, Eileen; Grace, Randolph; MacFarlane, Martin

    2015-07-01

    To identify the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and determine if these apply equally to males and females. The association between adult psychosocial functioning and childhood TBI for males and females was examined using groups with a history of childhood TBI (mild or moderate/severe) or orthopedic injury (injury age, 1-17, assessed 18-31 at >5 years postinjury), including rates of depression and anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence and offending behavior. Repeated-measures logistic regression was used to determine if the rates of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors varied by group and sex. Overall rates of problem behaviors were significantly greater for both moderate/severe TBI (OR = 4.00) and mild TBI (OR = 3.60) groups compared with orthopedic controls. Females were significantly more likely than males to report a history of internalizing problems (OR = 2.22), whereas males were more likely than females to report externalizing problems (OR = 2.10). The sex difference in internalizing/externalizing problems was found consistently across TBI groups and controls. Childhood TBI is associated with psychosocial problems in adulthood, regardless of injury severity. How deficits are expressed differs between the sexes, with important implications for interventions strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prenatal stress decreases spatial learning and memory retrieval of the adult male offspring of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Fatemeh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarboluki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-04-22

    Early life or prenatal stress induces many lifelong, mostly cognitive, homeostatic alterations in the behavior of the offspring. We investigated the effect of heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) at three separate periods, before and during the first and second half of pregnancies on spatial learning and memory retrieval of adult male offspring. HSS is composed of several stressors, each in a day, during nine consecutive days including; restraint, swimming, isolation, and water and food deprivation on Wistar rats. The offspring were studied in a Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus to explore the latency, distance, proximity and target to opposite area as measures of learning and memory. Serum corticosterone was measured as a criterion of stress application. HSS increased blood corticosterone in dams of PS2 (Pregnancy Stress second half), and also in adult male offspring from BPS (Before Pregnancy Stress) and PS1 (Pregnancy Stress first half) groups. The weight of the offspring decreased in the PS1 and PS2 groups. While distance traveled and latency to locate the hidden platform were increased in BPS and PS1 acquisition trials, swimming speed was unchanged during the acquisition and retrieval tests. Moreover, time to platform location was increased in BPS and PS1 during retention tests. While control rats spent more time in the target quadrant, stressed animals spent a longer duration in the opposite quadrant. Furthermore, proximity measure was increased in all stress treated rats. It is concluded that prenatal stress, around the beginning of the pregnancy, increases corticosterone in adult male offspring, which might be the basis for spatial learning and memory retrieval deficits in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-community coalitionary lethal attack of an adult male southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, M G; Beltrão-Mendes, R; Lee, P C

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first evidence of intra-community coalitionary lethal aggression in muriquis (Brachyteles). The event occurred in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a long-term study (>15 years) of two social groups inhabiting mostly pristine Atlantic forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, southern São Paulo State, Brazil. The attack took place deep in the core area of the Group Caetê home range. Tense agonistic behaviors and vocalizations preceded the lethal coalitionary attack, and the tension increased over a 36-48 hr period. One adult female and two unidentified individuals also took part in a coalition led by six adult males. The members of the coalition collectively approached, embraced, immobilized and repeatedly bit the entire body of an adult male, resulting in severe bleeding injuries and the victim's death in less than 1 hr after the attack commenced. Combined ecological, behavioral and spatial data related to the event indicate that this was an intra-community attack and suggest social tensions related to mating competition as the proximate trigger of the coalitionary killing. The attack resembled those reported for chimpanzees, with clear numeric superiority and a low risk of injury to aggressors, resulting in the death of a lone conspecific victim. This observation (n=1) is suggestive of a capacity for escalated aggression in muriquis and reinforces arguments for the potential adaptive significance of intra-community aggression in male philopatric societies, as reported for spider monkeys and chimpanzees. These characteristics challenge the view of the muriquis as a peaceful primate and support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intra-specific killing in primates, such as chimpanzees and humans.

  13. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  14. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  15. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The brain smell centres - comparison of localisation and activation in male and female subjects using functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchwicka-Wasiak, M.; Goraj, B.

    2004-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine and to compare the location and activation of smell brain centres in females and males brains using olfactory nerve-mediated (geraniol) and combined olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated (patchouli) stimulants. 10 normal volunteers (five women and five men), right-handed, non-smokers, without any CNS diseases were examined to determine the activated cortex areas during stimulation by geraniol and patchouli. MR brain scans were obtained using a 1.5 T clinical scanner, with the head-neck coil. The imaging was performed in each subject using SE and EPI sequences with a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. The individual inhaled odorized air during the 30 seconds period and alternating room air over the same period. The mean pixel intensity of activated images was substracted from the mean pixel intensity of preactivated images. The olfactory system-mediated stimuli (geraniol) evoked bilateral activation of female brains smell centres and right hemisphere centres activation in male brains. The exposure to the olfactory and trigeminal nerve-mediated stimuli (patchouli) showed more activated regions in both sexes than to the olfactory nerve-ediated stimuli. fMRI proved to be a useful method to compare the location and activation of male and female brain smell centres. (author)

  17. Urethral calibre measurements on micturition cystourethrograms in adult males. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoliu, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The calibres of six different parts of the urethra were measured on micturition cystourethrograms in 92 normal adult males. The results are graphically displayed as frequency distribution histograms. The narrowest segment of the visualized urethra appeared to be the membranous part in 89 per cent of the cases. In the rest of the cases more distal regions were less distended than the membranous urethra. The bladder neck was always wider than the membranous part. Comparison of the diameters of the same segments measured in different planes suggest that during micturition the cross-sectional shape of the urethral tube is round. (orig.)

  18. Primary Mature Cystic Teratoma Mimicking As An Adrenal Mass In An Adult Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Okulu

    2014-03-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking as an adrenal mass in 54-year-old male patient. Adrenal mass complete resection was performed by flank approach using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months.

  19. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  20. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradonna Carola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms.

  1. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  3. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  4. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  5. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-03-16

    Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), satisfaction with leisure time, work, and family relationships, and satisfaction with sex life in young adulthood in the 1975-79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5240). We studied the relationship between indicators of subjective well-being and BMI both in full birth cohorts and in subgroups stratified by lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders. We found an inverse U-shaped relationship between all indicators of subjective well-being and BMI in men. There was no overall association between BMI and subjective well-being in women. However, there was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and indicators of subjective well-being in women with a lifetime eating disorder and their healthy female co-twins. Subjective well-being was optimal in the overweight category. Both underweight and obesity are associated with impaired subjective well-being in young men. The BMI reflecting optimal subjective well-being of young men may be higher than currently recognized. Categorization of body weight in terms of BMI may need to be reassessed in young men. BMI and subjective well-being are related in women with a lifetime eating disorder, but not in the general population of young women.

  6. Effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis and biochemical parameters in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Virginia; Linares, Victoria; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, María Luisa; Pujol, Andreu; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis, as well as in urinary and serum biochemical parameters of adult male rats. Animals (10 per group) received BDE-99 by gavage at single doses of 0, 0.6 and 1.2mg/kg. Forty-five days after BDE-99 exposure, urine and serum samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical analysis. Oxidative stress (OS) markers in erythrocytes, plasma and urine were also evaluated. Urinary excretion of total protein significantly increased following BDE-99 exposure, while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamil transferase (GGT), and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities significantly decreased. Liver toxicity was evidenced by elevated serum activities of the enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Following BDE-99 administration, OS markers in erythrocytes showed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and a reduction in glutathione reductase (GR) activity. In urine, isoprostane levels increased after BDE-99 exposure. The hormonal analysis showed a significant decrease in testosterone and progesterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that BDE-99 interacts with hormonal response. Moreover, BDE-99 administration to adult male rats showed signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Awareness of heart attack and stroke symptoms among Hispanic male adults living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Bardales, Ricardo; Bales, Robert; Aguero, Carlos; Brady, Shelly; Tobar, Adriana; McGrath, Cynthia; Zaiser, Julia; Lipsky, Martin S

    2010-10-01

    There is evidence that Hispanic men are a high risk group for treatment delay for both heart attack and stroke. More targeted research is needed to elucidate this specific population's knowledge of warning signs for these acute events. This study sought to describe within-group disparities in Hispanic men's knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze a multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Heart and Stroke module database. The data were cross-sectional and focused on health risk factors and behaviors. The research participants were U.S. male Hispanic adults aged 18-99. The main outcome measure for the study was heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that Hispanic men aged >or=18 years who earned low scores on the composite heart attack and stroke knowledge questions (range 0-8 points) were more likely to: have less than a high school education, have deferred medical care because of cost, not have an identified health care provider, and be uninsured. There were significant within-group differences. Targeting educational efforts toward older (>or=55 years) Hispanic men with less than high school education, those who do not have an identified health care provider or health insurance, and who defer health care because of cost could be ways to improve the outcome of acute vascular events among the U.S. Hispanic adult male population.

  8. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.

    2008-03-01

    For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.

  10. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Causes Deficits in Motor Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Li, Xue; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2015-11-01

    Adult protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) often occurs in combination with neurological disorders affecting hand use and walking ability. The independent effects of PEM on motor function are not well characterized and may be obscured by these comorbidities. Our goal was to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of sensorimotor function with the onset and progression of PEM in an adult male rat model. In Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, male Sprague-Dawley rats (14-15 wk old) were assigned ad libitum access for 4 wk to normal-protein (NP) or low-protein (LP) diets containing 12.5% and 0.5% protein, respectively. Expt. 1 assessed muscle strength, balance, and skilled walking ability on days 2, 8, and 27 by bar-holding, cylinder, and horizontal ladder walking tasks, respectively. In addition to food intake and body weight, nutritional status was determined on days 3, 9, and 28 by serum acute-phase reactant and corticosterone concentrations and liver lipids. Expt. 2 addressed the effect of an LP diet on hindlimb muscle size. PEM evolved over time in rats consuming the LP diet. Total food intake decreased by 24% compared with the NP group. On day 28, body weight and serum albumin decreased by 31% and 26%, respectively, and serum α2-macroglobulin increased by 445% (P malnutrition. This model can be used in combination with disease models of sensorimotor deficits to examine the interactions between nutritional status, other treatments, and disease progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level.

  12. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.

  13. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonization with Candida species in healthy adult subjects*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, A M-G; Hammad, M M; Al-Jamaei, A A

    2010-05-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been frequently suggested as a predisposing factor for oral candidal colonization, but the convincing evidence is lacking. To assess and compare oral candidal colonization, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in groups of healthy dentate subjects with different levels of oral hygiene as determined by the plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) scores. The concentrated oral rinse technique was used to isolate Candida species from 149 healthy dentate subjects. Candida species were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates and identified by germ-tube test and the automated Vitek(R) system biochemical yeast card. According to the PI and GI scores, subjects were divided into different groups of oral hygiene level. Candida species were isolated from 86 (57.7%) subjects. The prevalence of candidal carriage increased significantly as a function of age (P = 0.023), but was comparable between males and females (58.7% and 56.7% respectively; P = 0.87). Oral candidal carriage rate and density were not affected by the levels of dental plaque or gingival condition. The prevalence of oral candididal carriage was significantly higher in the subjects who were not using dental floss compared with those who were using dental floss (P = 0.032). Oral hygiene status, as determined by the PI and the GI scores per se, does not affect oral candidal colonization in healthy dentate subjects.

  14. Vitamin D and subjective memory complaint in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Doineau, Lise; Gerigne, Lucie; Provendier, Anais; Karras, Spyridon N; Beauchet, Olivier; Fantino, Bruno; Duval, Guillaume T

    2018-02-01

    Older adults with hypovitaminosis D report more often subjective cognitive complaints, especially with regards to memory. This raises prospects that vitamin D may improve older adults' subjective experience of memory disorders. To determine among older community-dwellers whether higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were associated with fewer memory complaints, while considering the different subtypes of memory complaints. One hundred eighty Caucasian community-dwellers with memory complaint and no dementia (mean±standard deviation, 71.1±3.4years; 33.3%female) from the French 'EVATEM study' were included in this analysis. Subjective memory complaints regarding memory lapses, problems learning new information, problems finding words, problems calculating and problems concentrating were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were categorized according to the highest tertile of serum 25OHD (i.e., ≥68nmol/L). Age, gender, body mass index, morbidities burden, use of vitamin D supplements, cognitive performance, mood, serum concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone and vitamin B12, creatinine clearance, and season of evaluation were used as potential confounders. Compared to participants with 25OHDmemorizing new information in older community-dwellers. This novel finding provides a scientific base for vitamin D replacement trials attempting to improve older patients' subjective experience of cognitive decline. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Better Objective Sleep Quality in Older Adults with High Subjective Memory Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-06-18

    Sleep disturbance is implicated in memory function across normal aging and neurodegenerative disease. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence to suggest that high levels of subjective memory decline (SMD) may signal very early neurodegenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This view prompts research examining the relationship between SMD and other risk factors for cognitive decline, including sleep disturbance. To determine whether objective and subjective indices of sleep predict SMD in older adults. 181 community-based older adults were divided into groups of high and low SMD based on their responses to the Memory Assessment Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). They undertook two weeks of objective sleep monitoring (actigraphy), and completed a subjective sleep quality assessment using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hierarchical logistic regression indicated that after controlling for demographics and mood, objective sleep quality predicted high SMD group status (ΔNagelkerke R2 = 0.07, χ2 = 9.80 (3), p = 0.020), while subjective sleep quality did not. Contrary to expectation, however, less sleep disruption predicted high SMD. These unexpected results may suggest a non-linear trajectory between sleep and memory decline in aging. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, which taken together, may indicate compensatory sleep patterns of reduced sleep disruption in people with high levels of SMD. These preliminary findings suggest the utility of including analysis of sleep behavior in further longitudinal research of this at-risk group of older people.

  16. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  17. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. Objective:  To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. Data Sources:  We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Study Selection:  Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Data Extraction:  Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. Data Synthesis:  A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Conclusions:  Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players. PMID:27244125

  18. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  19. Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Duckworth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.

  20. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  1. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  2. α-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Arsenic-Induced Hematological Abnormalities in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA against such hematological disorders. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g were grouped and accordingly group I (control received the normal diet, group II (treated was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day whereas group III (supplemented received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day as oral supplement. Hematological profile, plasma oxidant/antioxidant status, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results: Arsenic exposure caused reduction of erythrocyte (P=0.021, leucocyte (P<0.001, and hemoglobin (P=0.031 associated with echinocytic transformation as evidenced by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The other significantly altered parameters include increased mean corpuscular volume (P=0.041 and lymphocytopenia (P<0.001 with insignificant neutropenia and eosinophilia. Altered serum oxidative balance as evidenced by decreased TAS (P<0.001 and increased TOS (P<0.001 with OSI (P<0.001 was also noted. The dietary supplementation of ALA has a beneficial effect against the observed (P<0.05 arsenic toxicities. It brings about the protection by restoring the hematological redox and inflammatory status near normal in treated rats. Arsenic-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes was also partially attenuated by ALA supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.

  3. Effects of nonylphenol on vitellogenin synthesis in adult males of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, G; Prisco, M; Agnese, M; Verderame, M; Rosati, L; Limatola, E; Andreuccetti, P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of nonylphenol (NP), an oestrogen-like environmental pollutant, on the vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in adult males of the aplacental viviparous cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. The VTG recovery in males is considered a biomarker of xeno-oestrogenic pollution as this lipophosphoglycoprotein is physiologically induced by oestrogens only in females of oviparous and ovoviparous vertebrates. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, T. marmorata males injected with nonylphenol showed the presence of VTG in the liver and the kidney. In particular, vtg messenger (m)RNA and VTG protein were expressed in the liver, whereas in the kidney cells only the presence of VTG was recorded. By contrast, no expression for VTG was detected in the testis. These results demonstrate that in T. marmorata NP induces the expression of vtg only in the liver; the presence of VTG in the kidney and its absence in the testis are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie

    2011-10-10

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal obesity in sheep increases fatty acid synthesis, upregulates nutrient transporters, and increases adiposity in adult male offspring after a feeding challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Long

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6, when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01, gained more weight (P < 0.01 and became heavier (P < 0.05 than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01 compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs. F1control males (P < 0.05. Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04 in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively. When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05 of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05 compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring.

  6. Coverage of newborn and adult male circumcision varies among public and private US payers despite health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Kilmarx, Peter H; Kretsinger, Katrina

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that male circumcision greatly reduces the risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, infant urinary tract infections, penile cancer, and other adverse health outcomes. Given recent data regarding these health benefits and the cost-effectiveness of newborn male circumcision, national policy makers are developing new recommendations regarding circumcision for newborn, adolescent, and adult males. To investigate the implications, this study assessed insurance coverage and reimbursement for routine newborn and adult male circumcision in private and public health plans in 2009. We found that coverage varies across private and public payers. Private insurance provides far broader coverage than state Medicaid programs for routine newborn male circumcision. Specifically, Medicaid programs in seventeen states do not cover it, even though low-income populations have a higher risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to higher-income groups. For adult male circumcision, coverage is generally sparse across public and private plans. Presentation of evidence-based recommendations--for example, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--may be necessary if coverage for newborn and adult male circumcision is to be expanded.

  7. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  8. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat...... positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable...

  9. Subjective sleep disturbance in Chinese adults with epilepsy: Associations with affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeru; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Xiangjun; Xiao, Gairong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Nong

    2017-09-01

    As well as being a very common neurological disease worldwide, epilepsy significantly impairs patients' emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent complaint in patients with epilepsy. The present study assesses the impact of a range of affective symptoms on subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances in Chinese adults with epilepsy. Adults with epilepsy who visited our epilepsy clinic from July 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study. Both patients and healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were examined with regard to self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, seizure-related factors, and demographic factors. The PSQI scores and ISI scores of patients were significantly higher (indicating lower quality sleep and more serious insomnia) than those of the control group. Symptoms associated with depression and anxiety were independently related to impaired subjective sleep quality and insomnia. Affective symptoms explained more of the variance in PSQI scores and ISI scores than did seizure-related or demographic variables. In addition, these variables also seemed to be less powerful contributing factors to subjective sleep quality and insomnia than affective symptoms, several seizure-related factors, such as seizure control, partial seizures and duration of epilepsy, which are also significantly associated with subjective sleep quality and insomnia. In addition, use of lamotrigine (LTG) was also associated with insomnia and use of clonazepam (CZP) and phenobarbital (PB) with daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy. Chinese adults with epilepsy have poorer self-reported subjective sleep quality and a higher prevalence of insomnia than the control group

  10. [Subjective memory complaints, perceived stress and coping strategies in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rodriguez, Sergio; Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Martinez-Amoros, Estefanía

    2016-04-16

    Subjective memory complaints are becoming more and more frequent among young adults. There are currently no studies in the literature that analyse the relation among memory complaints, perceived stress and coping strategies as a whole in young adults. To determine the contribution made by perceived stress and different coping strategies on subjective memory complaints in healthy young adults. The sample consisted of 299 university students, of whom 71.6% were women, with a mean age of 22.54 ± 4.73 years. The variable 'memory complaints' was measured with the memory failures questionnaire; the variable 'perceived stress' was measured with the perceived stress scale, and the variables referring to coping strategies were measured using the coping strategies inventory. The variables that made a higher contribution to the variance of the memory complaints are, first, perceived stress and positive problem-focused coping strategies, and, second, negative coping strategies focused on the emotion and on the problem. The positive emotion-focused coping strategies do not make any contribution. Again we find evidence of the influence of stress on memory processes. The use of positive problem-focused coping strategies, such as cognitive restructuring and problem-solving, can be beneficial to lessen the presence of memory complaints. Further research on this matter is warranted.

  11. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Rshikesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga group (n = 40; age; 40.03 ± 8.74 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.7 ± 2.35 kg/m2 and control group (age; 42.20 ± 12.06 years, BMI 27.70 ± 2.05 kg/m2. The IAYT was imparted to yoga group for 1½ hour for 5 days in a week for 14 weeks. The control group continued their regular activities. The body composition by InBody R20 and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were assessed. Statistical analysis was done for within and between groups using SPSS version 21. The correlation analysis was done on the difference in pre-post values. Results: The results showed that weight (P = 0.004, BMI (P = 0.008, bone mass (P = 0.017, obesity degree (P = 0.005, and mineral mass (P = 0.046 were improved in yoga group and no change in control group (P > 0.05. The global score of PSQI improved (P = 0.017 in yoga group alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the beneficial effects of IAYT on body composition and sleep quality in obese males. The yoga practice may reduce obesity with the improvement in quality of life.

  12. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trenton C; Balland, Jessica F; Dhauna, Janeet; Yang, Sang Yun; Traina, Jason L; Vazquez, Jessica; Bales, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg) could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  13. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  14. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

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    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  15. Intrinsic cerebral connectivity analysis in an untreated female-to-male transsexual subject: a first attempt using resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarnecchi, E; Vatti, G; Déttore, D; Rossi, A

    2012-01-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder whose symptomatology could involve cognitive, neurobiological and psychological variance from biological sex standard. Several evidences support the hypothesis of a structural and functional brain reorganization in transgender subjects, with a different impact for male-to-female and female-to-male (FtM) subjects. Here we used resting-state fMRI to understand the similarities between the spontaneous brain connectivity of an untreated FtM subject and two male and female control groups. Both seed-voxel and atlas-based region-of-interest (ROI) approaches were used. Brain areas sensitive to gender dimorphism like left lingual gyrus and precuneus showed strong similarities between the FtM subject and female control group with respect to control males, with comparable extension and location of functional connectivity maps. ROI analysis confirmed this evidence, highlighting a greater pattern of differences between the FtM subject and males and the FtM subject and females. No difference between seed-voxel results in the FtM subject and females was found. These data partially support the idea that untreated FtM transgender shows a functional connectivity profile comparable to female control subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Subjective well-being of visually impaired older adults living in the community.

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    Rafaely, Liran; Carmel, Sara; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-21

    Vision impairment is one of the most common disabilities among older adults, and it has a substantial impact on well-being. The present study constructs an integrative model to identify which variables derived from four dimensions of life (physical/functional, social, psychological and environmental) combined with sociodemographic variables explain the overall subjective well-being (SWB) visually impaired older adults living in the community. A total of 121 severe visually impaired persons, aged 60 and over (M = 77.4, range 60-95), participated in the study. Personal, face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants at social centers or at their homes. Research tools consisted of valid and reliable questionnaires. Five variables explained the older adults' variability in SWB: self-rated health, sense of meaning in life, functional independence in activity of daily living (ADL), sense of control of one's environment (Mastery) and the participant's age. The explained variance percentage was found to be high (61%). In contrast to expectations, social-environmental variables proved to be only of secondary significance in explaining SWB variability. Variables derived from the psychological dimension appear more significant than the social-environmental variables in explaining SWB among visually impaired older adults. These variables should be considered when developing intervention programs intended to increase SWB within this unique population group.

  17. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

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    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

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    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  19. Disturbed subjective sleep characteristics in adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, M; Donga, E; van Dijk, J G; Lammers, G J; van Kralingen, K W; Dekkers, O M; Corssmit, E P M; Romijn, J A

    2011-08-01

    Decreased sleep duration and/or impaired sleep quality negatively influence glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess subjective sleep characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes, to relate sleep characteristics to long-term glycaemic control and to assess possible risk factors for impaired sleep. We studied 99 adult patients with type 1 diabetes (55 men, 44 women, duration of diabetes 26.9 ± 1.2 years) and 99 age-, sex- and BMI-matched non-diabetic controls. Subjective sleep characteristics were assessed by validated questionnaires, i.e. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Berlin Questionnaire. Glucoregulation was assessed by HbA(1c) values. Clinical variables were obtained from medical charts. Depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Peripheral polyneuropathy was assessed by neurological examination and quantitative sensory testing. Of the patients with type 1 diabetes, 35% had subjective poor sleep quality compared with 20% of the control participants (p = 0.021). A higher proportion of the patients with type 1 diabetes were at increased risk for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (17.2% vs 5.1%, p = 0.012). There was no significant association between individual sleep characteristics and HbA(1c) values. On logistic regression analysis, the HADS depression score, presence of peripheral polyneuropathy, habitual snoring and other sleep disturbances (e.g. hypoglycaemia) were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus have disturbed subjective sleep quality and a higher risk for OSA compared with control participants. Subjective sleep disturbances are part of the complex syndrome of long-standing type 1 diabetes.

  20. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  1. [Changes of proteomics in the injured lung of adult rats subjected to acrolein inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Qi-qin; Li, Yun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Sheng-lan; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yun-hui

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the proteomics change in injured lung tissues of adult rats subjected to acrolein inhalation for 6 weeks. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to define the change of proteomic expresses and mass spectrometry was applied to identify the amino acid sequence in differential expressional proteins in lung tissues between acrolein inhalation group and saline control group. A total of 545 protein spots were found in the lung tissues tested. Of the 545 proteins, 7 differentially expressed proteins were detected in acrolein inhalation group as compared with saline control group. Among them, tyrosine 3/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, poly(A)-binding protein, presented a marked upregulation, while 2601 and 2603 vimentin, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, and chloride intracellular channel 3 showed a marked downregulation. This study provides the crucial evidence that differential expressional proteins may underline the machenism of lung injury after acrolein inhalation in adult rats.

  2. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semistructured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs.

  3. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  4. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoly, H. C.; Stevens, C.; Harlaar, N.; Hutchison, K. E.; Bryan, A. D.; Magnan, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO 2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  5. Effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole: a two-treatment period study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Leucuta, Sorin E

    2011-10-01

    Fluoxetine is an inhibitor of the main metabolizing enzymes of lansoprazole and could influence the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole. The changes in lansoprazole pharmacokinetics could have clinical significance concerning the safety of the therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between fluoxetine and lansoprazole in healthy subjects. A dose of lansoprazole 30 mg, alone or in combination with fluoxetine 60 mg, was administered to 18 healthy male subjects in a two-treatment study design, separated by an 8-day period in which fluoxetine alone was administered as a single oral daily dose. Plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were determined during a 12-hour period following drug administration. Lansoprazole plasma concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatment, the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) values were 817 ng/mL (lansoprazole alone) and 1370 ng/mL (lansoprazole in combination with fluoxetine after pre-treatment with fluoxetine for 8 days) [p lansoprazole and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, although its clinical relevance has yet to be confirmed.

  6. [Effect of exhaustive weightlifting exercise on EMG, biochemical markers of muscle damage and performance capacity in young male subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minigalin, A D; Shumakov, A R; Novozhilov, A V; Samsonova, A V; Kos'mina, E A; Kalinskiĭ, M I; Baranova, T I; Kubasov, I V; Morozov, V I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exhaustive weightlifting exercise on electrical and biochemical variables and performance capacity in young male subjects. The onset of exercise (80-50% 1RM) was associated with a decrease in the amount of work performed, which was followed by a steady performance capacity at 40-10% 1RM. There were no significant changes of m. rectus femoris EMG maximal amplitude though it tended to be increased during the first half of exercise. A significant blood lactate concentration increase indicated that an anaerobic metabolism was a predominant mechanism of muscle contraction energy-supply. CK level in blood plasma did not change but plasma myoglobin concentration doubled immediately post-exercise. The data presented here suggest that decrease in performance capacity was likely due to progressive "refusal of work" of the fast motor units and work prolongation of weaker, intermediate and slow motor units. Unchangeable CK activity and relatively small increase in myoglobin concentration in plasma suggest that used weightlifting exercise did not induced substantial damage in myocytes' membranes in our subjects.

  7. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  8. Differential Influence of Early Life and Adult Stress on Urogenital Sensitivity and Function in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabella M.; Pierce, Angela N.; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R.; Maloney, Molly O.; Christianson, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Experiences of adverse childhood events have been associated with improper output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adulthood, as well as development of comorbid functional pain disorders. Symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome frequently overlap with those of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and symptom severity is often triggered by stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence early life stress and acute adult stress on (1) perigenital sensitivity, (2) micturition, (3) anhedonia, and (4) HPA axis regulation and output in male C56Bl/6 mice. Neonatal maternal separation (NMS) was performed for 3 h a day from postnatal day 1 to 21 and naïve pups remained unhandled during this time. As adults, male mice were tested for referred prostate sensitivity and micturition patterning prior to and 1 and 8 days after exposure to 1 h of water avoidance stress (WAS). Following testing, prostate and bladder tissues were used for mast cell and Western blot analysis and RT-PCR was performed on mRNA from hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Serum corticosterone (CORT) was also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in perigenital sensitivity and micturition frequency was observed in NMS mice and these measures were exacerbated by WAS exposure. Exposure to NMS significantly increased mast cell degranulation in both the bladder and prostate. Mast cell degranulation was also increased in naïve prostate tissue following WAS exposure. Cytokine mRNA levels were influenced by both NMS and WAS exposure, though WAS had a larger impact on central gene expression. Protein levels of CRF1 were differentially regulated by NMS and WAS in the bladder and prostate and serum CORT levels were significantly diminished following stress exposure. Taken together, these data suggest that NMS results in neurogenic inflammation and hypersensitivity within the urogenital organs, coupled

  9. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  10. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  11. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  12. Synthesis of cysteine from methionine in normal adult subjects: effect of route of alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegink, L D; Den Besten, L

    1972-11-03

    Parenteral alimentation solutions free of cysteine, probably an essential amino acid for premature infants, were administered continuously to eight healthy men through catheters in the superior vena cava and through nasogastric tubes. When the preparation was administered parenterally, the plasma cystine concentration dropped markedly. When feeding was switched to the oral route, the concentration rose immediately, but returned to baseline only when a cystine-containing diet was fed. These studies indicate that the synthesis of cysteine from methionine is limited, even in the adult subject, when cystine-free diets are administered parenterally.

  13. NGF induces appearance of adult-like response to spatial novelty in 18-day male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamandrei, Gemma; Valanzano, Angela; Ricceri, Laura

    2002-10-17

    We investigated the effects of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) administration on the maturation of reactivity to spatial and non-spatial novelty in developing mice. CD-1 mice of both sexes received intracerebral administration of NGF on postnatal day (pnd) 15, and their response to object displacement (spatial novelty) and object substitution (object novelty) were assessed in a spatial open-field with four objects on pnd 18 or 28. On pnd 18, NGF induced only in males precocious appearance of spatial novelty discrimination, while increasing choline acetyltransferase activity in neocortex and hippocampus of both sexes. The behavioral and neurochemical effects disappeared by pnd 28. NGF triggers adult-like responding to spatial novelty in developing mice and such effect is gender-specific.

  14. Effects of Chronic Lead Acetate Intoxication on Blood Indices of Male Adult Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosein Noori Mugahi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways. In this study, hematological effects of chronic toxicity of the lead acetate in adult male rats through measurement of the lead concentration in the blood of animal’s heart by atomic absorption as well as hematological analyses and differential cell count were investigated. Results showed that lead concentration in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control groups (P<0.001, and basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly bodies, decreased RBC count (anemia, increased leukocyte count (leukocytosis, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis were observed in the test group (P<0.001. It is concluded that microcytic hypochromic anemia can be attributed to the interaction of lead with iron and copper metabolism and increased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of lead on lymphatic organs.

  15. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Endo, A.; Saito, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, H. [Safety Administration Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1184 (Japan); Emoto, Y.; Koga, S. [Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken 470-1192 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  16. Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD: evaluation of a new self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Rosetta; Desseilles, Martin; Prada, Paco; Weibel, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader; Gex-Fabry, Marianne

    2018-03-01

    The current study aims at documenting the psychometric properties of the Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD-Self-Report (SDAAA-SR), a newly developed instrument for the assessment of psychological suffering in ADHD adults. The SDAAA-SR was administered to 247 students and 142 ADHD adults. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed. Sensitivity to change was examined in a subsample of 25 ADHD patients who participated in a 1-year therapy. The initial pool of 62 items was reduced to 33 items distributed in a three-component structure. Internal consistency was excellent for the "distress due to inattention/disorganization" subscale and good for the "distress due to hyperactivity/impulsivity" and "distress due to self-esteem deficit" subscales. Test-retest reliability in a subsample of 98 students was substantial for all three subscales. ADHD patients scored significantly higher than students on distress due to "inattention/disorganization" and "hyperactivity/impulsivity," but no difference was observed for "self-esteem deficit." The components "inattention/disorganization" and "hyperactivity/impulsivity" displayed moderate to large correlations with the corresponding dimensions of the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD (ASRS-V1.1). Distress due to "inattention/disorganization" and "self-esteem deficit" was significantly associated with lower satisfaction with social behaviors (QFS, social functioning questionnaire) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Distress due to "inattention/disorganization" and "self-esteem deficit" significantly decreased after a 1-year therapy. The SDAAA-SR represents a reliable and valid measure of adult ADHD-associated distress, an important but often undocumented parameter in the clinical setting. Its use as an outcome variable in psychological interventions deserves further investigation.

  17. Plasma riboflavin is a useful marker for studying riboflavin requirement in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Li, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient are frequently applied in determining riboflavin requirement. Previously, we found that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker in the assessment of riboflavin status in rat models. Here, we hypothesize that plasma riboflavin is a useful maker in studying riboflavin requirement. This study examines the changes of fasting plasma riboflavin and urinary riboflavin excretion in response to different riboflavin intake levels in Chinese male adults. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of riboflavin was extrapolated. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into the control and 5 riboflavin-supplemented groups. A 6-week riboflavin supplementation was performed at the doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg daily. The energy expenditure was 15.4 ± 1.9 MJ/d, as estimated by the 24-hour physical activity recording method. Dietary riboflavin intake was 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/d, based on chemical analysis. The fasting plasma riboflavin was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.4 mg/d and the EAR of riboflavin was suggested to be between 1.3 and 1.5 mg/d. In addition, we found a significant increase in fasting urinary riboflavin excretion when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.6 mg/d. The critical point was calculated as 1.4 mg/d, based on the intersecting point of the 2 regression lines at lower and higher riboflavin intakes. These findings demonstrate that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker for riboflavin status, and the EAR of riboflavin for Chinese male adults is 1.4 mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  20. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A Strickland

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17 on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their

  1. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  2. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  3. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Brian P; Craig, Michael C; Toal, Fiona; Daly, Eileen M; Moore, Caroline J; Ambikapathy, Anita; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of gold nanoparticles against isoproterenol induced acute myocardial infarction in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samah M; Abdelrahman, Shaimaa Ali; Salama, Alaa Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of 50 nm diameter on isoproterenol (ISO) induced acute myocardial infarction in adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into three groups. Control (group I) was further subdivided into three subgroups. In group II, the rats received ISO subcutaneously at a dose of 100 mg/kg for three days. In group III, rats received ISO as group II and then GNPs (400 μg/kg/day) intravenously for 14 consecutive days. Echocardiography was performed. Left ventricular specimens were prepared for H&E, van Gieson staining, immunohistochemical analysis for (eNOs and Bcl-2), and Electron microscope examination. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was also performed. Cardiac markers such as creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were measured. Group II revealed cardiomyocytes with deeply stained acidophilic cytoplasm, small dark nuclei, intracellular vacuolations, wide intercellular spaces, and extravasated red blood cells. Increased collagen fibers were observed. Electron microscope examination showed cardiomyocyte with small and irregular outlined nuclei, mitochondria with irregular cristae and others with ruptured mitochondrial membrane, abnormal alignment of myofibrils, dilated cisternae of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and disorganized intercalated discs. Group III showed that most cardiomyocytes preserved the normal architecture. Increased expression of eNOs immunoreaction and decreased Bcl-2 immunoreaction were detected in group II as compared to the control and GNP-treated groups. These findings suggested that GNPs of 50 nm diameter improved myocardial injury after ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Myocardial infarction (MI), Isoproterenol (ISO), Nitric oxide (NO), Neuronal NOS (nNOs), Endothelial NOs (eNOs), Gold nanoparticle (GNPs), Diamiobenzidine (DAB), Serum

  6. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  8. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    male sexuality, specifically for ejaculatory response and sexual desire. Sansone A, Sansone M, Proietti M, et al. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males. J Sex Med 2017;14:898-903. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dyadic Qualitative Analysis of Condom Use Scripts Among Emerging Adult Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Pawson, Mark; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2018-04-03

    Sexual risk reduction among gay male couples has received increasing attention in light of evidence that primary partners account for many-and possibly most-new HIV infections. This study examined the content of condom use scripts in interviews conducted with both members of 17 HIV-negative gay male couples. In each couple, at least one partner was an emerging adult (aged 18 to 29). Three scripts were identified: romantic love, unanticipated condomless anal intercourse (CAI), and negotiated safety. Scripts varied in their emphasis on emotional factors versus HIV risk reduction, the salience of sexual agreements, and the presence of an explicit communication goal. Results indicated that condom use may vary for couples as a result of script content and from the fluid adoption of scripts across contexts. Results highlighted potential tensions between emotional closeness and HIV prevention. Condom use cessation and sexual agreements-a potential mechanism for HIV risk reduction-may also serve as expressions of intimacy. This implies interventions that facilitate direct communication about sexual and relational goals-as well as those that expand couples' repertoires for expressing emotional closeness-may enhance sexual health for gay couples, particularly during the period of emerging adulthood.

  10. The Effect of Flaxseed Oil on Memory Process in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khademisar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Flaxseed has been considered as an important functional food due to its high content of α-linolenic acid, lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed has health benefits, such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, and autoimmunity. In the present study, the effects of flaxseed oil on memory retention, was investigated in adult male rats using passive avoidance learning task. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. The animals of control group were intact. The experimental rats intraperitonealy received flaxseed oil at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2ml/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after training, memory retention was evaluated using passive avoidance learning task. The step-through latency and time in dark compartment was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunett statistical tests. The level of significance was considered p<0.05. Results: Post-training treatment with flaxseed oil (at doses of 1.5 and 2ml/kg body weight significantly increased the step-through latency time and significantly decreased the time in the dark compartment compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that flaxseed oil significantly improves the retention memory process. Keywords: Linseed oil; Memory; Rats.

  11. Construction of Korean adult male voxel phantom and calculation of dose conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    Korean adult male voxel phantom were constructed by processing whole-body MR images of healthy volunteer who belongs to middle group of Korean male in height and weight. Organs and tissues on tomographic images were manually segmented and indexed using a graphic digitizer. Due to limited resolution of the raw MR images, voxels of rather large size, 2mmx2mmx10mm were used. The resulting voxel phantom was named KRMAN. The air kerma-to-organ equivalent doses and effective doses conversion coefficients were evaluated for phantom in broad parallel photon fields of different energies and directions and were compared to corresponding values given in ICRP 74 which were derived with the MIRD-type phantoms. No significant deviations between MIRD and voxel phantoms were found in the effective doses. Significant differences up to around factor of 2, however, were observed in organ equivalent doses for some organs including stomach, thyroid, testes depending on the photon energy and the irradiation direction. These are caused by difference in trunk thickness between MIRD-type phantom and Korean voxel phantom, and differences of organ positions in the body

  12. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  13. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  14. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Soriano, Sergi; Menes, Lorena; Burks, Deborah; Quesada, Ivan; Nadal, Angel

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. In humans, epidemiological evidence has associated BPA exposure in adults with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. We examined the action of environmentally relevant doses of BPA on glucose metabolism in mice during pregnancy and the impact of BPA exposure on these females later in life. We also investigated the consequences of in utero exposure to BPA on metabolic parameters and pancreatic function in offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with either vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 microg/kg/day) during days 9-16 of gestation. Glucose metabolism experiments were performed on pregnant mice and their offspring. BPA exposure aggravated the insulin resistance produced during pregnancy and was associated with decreased glucose tolerance and increased plasma insulin, triglyceride, and leptin concentrations relative to controls. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was reduced in skeletal muscle and liver of BPA-treated pregnant mice relative to controls. BPA exposure during gestation had long-term consequences for mothers: 4 months post-partum, treated females weighed more than untreated females and had higher plasma insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and glycerol levels and greater insulin resistance. At 6 months of age, male offspring exposed in utero had reduced glucose tolerance, increased insulin resistance, and altered blood parameters compared with offspring of untreated mothers. The islets of Langerhans from male offspring presented altered Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation into insulin-producing cells was reduced in the male progeny, yet beta-cell mass was unchanged. Our findings suggest that BPA may contribute to metabolic disorders relevant to glucose homeostasis and that BPA may be a risk factor for diabetes.

  15. Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A; Wheelwright, Sally J; Murphy, Declan G M; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-07-16

    Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: 'systemizing' (S, the drive to analyze or build 'rule-based' systems) and 'empathizing' (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S>E) or the other (E>S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S>E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E>S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S>E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E>S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult onset coats disease in a 56-year-old male: An atypical presentation

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    Bodhraj Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coats disease is a congenital retinal vascular disease, which is seen commonly in childhood and remits and exacerbates throughout life. However, it is not rare for coats disease to present in adulthood for the first time. This has been referred to as adult onset coats disease. We do hereby present a rare case of adult onset coats disease in a 56-year-old male patient who presented with visual acuity of 20/200 in the left eye. Fundus findings typical of coats disease included telangiectasis, macular exudation and edema. Fluorescein angiography revealed peripheral capillary nonperfusion areas and telangiectasis. Optical coherence tomography showed cystoid macular edema. After the treatment with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg in 0.05 ml and sectoral panretinal photocoagulation to the area of capillary nonperfusion the macular edema was reduced by 100 microns, which translated to a visual acuity of 20/80, proving the point that the prognosis in these cases is not as grave as in classical coats disease.

  17. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

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    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  18. A terrified-sound stress induced proteomic changes in adult male rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Hu, Lili; Wu, Qiuhua; Liu, Liying; Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Xiaoge; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms in the adult rat hippocampus underlying the relationship between a terrified-sound induced psychological stress and spatial learning. Adult male rats were exposed to a terrified-sound stress, and the Morris water maze (MWM) has been used to evaluate changes in spatial learning and memory. The protein expression profile of the hippocampus was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analysis. The data from the MWM tests suggested that a terrified-sound stress improved spatial learning. The proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 52 proteins was down-regulated, while that of 35 proteins were up-regulated, in the hippocampus of the stressed rats. We identified and validated six of the most significant differentially expressed proteins that demonstrated the greatest stress-induced changes. Our study provides the first evidence that a terrified-sound stress improves spatial learning in rats, and that the enhanced spatial learning coincides with changes in protein expression in rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic vocalization in juvenile and adult male rats: A comparison among stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2018-03-22

    Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are widely studied in mice and rats, and in case of rats, the bulk of empirical evidence is based on outbred rats, which in most studies belong to either Long Evans, Sprague-Dawley or Wistar stocks. It is known that these stocks can differ in terms of specific brain variables and also behaviorally, but there is only few evidence so far showing whether these stocks behave in similar or substantially different ways in paradigms which are often used to study USV. Therefore, we have started a larger series of comparative studies, where we analyzed different classes of USV in rats from these three stocks spanning from pups to adults. Here, we report our findings in juvenile and adult male Long Evans, Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats, which we tested as juveniles for appetitive 50-kHz calls during a so-called cage test or when being tickled by an experimenter, and later as adults for 22-kHz calls in a fear conditioning paradigm. In general, all three stocks showed the expected USV responses, indicating that they are all feasible for this kind of research. In detail, however, there were various quantitative differences between stocks both, in terms of specific USV features (like call rates, call durations etc.) as well as visible behavior, like spontaneous locomotor activity and shock-induced immobility. These findings are discussed in the context of the relevant, but somewhat equivocal literature on these stocks, including factors which might contribute to such variability, like breeding, housing, or details of the given test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  1. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  2. Changes in brain arginine vasotocin, isotocin, plasma 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol in round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males subjected to overcrowding stress during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Ewa; Kleszczyńska, Agnieszka; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Arciszewski, Bartłomiej; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In natural spawning grounds, breeding round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males are exposed to various social stimuli, including high density of same-sex competitors and separation from females. We hypothesize that breeding males subjected to overcrowding in the wild experience high stress that affects their socio-sexual behavior and their relationships among conspecifics. We designed an experiment to mimic natural stimulation when highly aggregated breeding males are subjected to same-sex opponents. Males were sampled sequentially from experimental tank stocked at decreasing fish densities of 15 fish/m(2), 9 fish/m(2) and 4 fish/m(2). We studied the effects of overcrowding on male behavior and selected hormones, brain arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol as these are known to play roles in reproduction and related social interactions. The highest brain AVT and plasma cortisol levels were measured in non-aggressive males kept in the overcrowded group of 15 fish/m(2). IT level was elevated in fish kept at the lower density of 9 fish/m(2), and at which the males began to display territoriality and aggression. The plasma level of 11-KT was similar in all the males. Brain AVT and IT and plasma cortisol along with behavioral observations can be applied as species-specific indicators of the well-being of round goby males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Larval Diet on Adult Survival, Swarming Activity and Copulation Success in Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bethan J; Idugboe, Stefano; McManus, Kirelle; Drury, Florence; Qureshi, Alima; Cator, Lauren J

    2018-01-10

    Control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. The success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. However, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in Aedes mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of different fitness measures. Larval food availability was demonstrated to be positively correlated with adult body size. Larger males survived longer and exhibited greater swarming activity. As a consequence, larger males may have more mating opportunities in the wild. However, we also found that within a swarm larger males did not have an increased likelihood of copulating with a female. The outcome of the mating competition experiments depended on the methodology used to mark the males. These results show that fitness assessment can vary depending on the measure analyzed, and the methodology used to determine it. Continued investigation into these fitness measures and methodologies, and critically, their utility for predicting male performance in the field, will increase the efficiency of vector control programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

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    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  5. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hock Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Cheong Chee; Lim, Kuay Kuang; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Huey Chien; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi Mohd; Kaur, Gurpreet; Zain, Zarihah Mohd; Mohamad, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Salleh, Sallehuddin

    2013-01-07

    Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986-2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5-47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21-30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67-2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65-2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63-2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22-2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98-2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05-1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46-2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15-1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18-20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90-2.94); 20-29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82-3.89; 31-40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47-3.28); 41-50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69-2.20) ; 51-60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15-1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03-1.22)) urban as reference. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality

  6. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  7. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  8. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  9. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  10. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  11. Hypothyroidism in adult male rats alters posttranscriptional mechanisms of luteinizing hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renata Marino; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Brunetto, Erika Lia; Goulart-Silva, Francemilson; Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2013-04-01

    ]; seminal vesicle undrained: 280 vs. 70 mg/100 g BW; and seminal vesicle drained: 190 vs. 60 mg/100 g BW). Hypothyroidism in adult male rats has dual effects on the pituitary testicular axis. It alters posttranscriptional mechanisms of LH synthesis and probably has a direct effect on testicular function. However, these data suggest the possibility that reduced LH bioactivity may account in part for impaired testicular function.

  12. Heme arginate improves reperfusion patterns after ischemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy male subjects

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    Andreas Martin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme arginate can induce heme oxygenase-1 to protect tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging measures changes in tissue oxygenation with a high spatial and temporal resolution. BOLD imaging was applied to test the effect of heme arginate on experimental ischemia reperfusion injury in the calf muscles. Methods A two period, controlled, observer blinded, crossover trial was performed in 12 healthy male subjects. Heme arginate (1 mg/kg body weight or placebo were infused 24 h prior to a 20 min leg ischemia induced by a thigh cuff. 3 Tesla BOLD-imaging of the calf was performed and signal time courses from soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle were available from 11 participants for technical reasons. Results Peak reactive hyperemia signal of the musculature was significantly increased and occurred earlier after heme arginate compared to placebo (106.2±0.6% at 175±16s vs. 104.5±0.6% at 221±19s; p = 0.025 for peak reperfusion and p = 0.012 for time to peak. Conclusions A single high dose of heme arginate improves reperfusion patterns during ischemia reperfusion injury in humans. BOLD sensitive, functional MRI is applicable for the assessment of experimental ischemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01461512 EudraCT: 2008-006967-35

  13. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  14. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  15. Predictive Role of Grit and Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction on Subjective Well-Being for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbag, Müge; Ümmet, Durmus

    2017-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to investigate the predictive role of grit as a personality trait and basic psychological needs satisfaction on subjective well-being among young adults. Participants of this research are 348 voluntary young adults who are final year undergraduate students in the government universities of Istanbul city, Turkey, as…

  16. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  17. Milk-cereal and whole-grain dietary patterns protect against low bone mineral density among male adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S; Kim, S-H; Joung, H; Park, M J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the possible effect of dietary factors on adult bone health has emerged in recent decades. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of different dietary patterns on bone mineral density (BMD) among Korean male youth. Data were extracted from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during 2008-2011. The subjects included 1351 male aged 10-25 years. We defined 'low BMD group' as subjects with a BMD Z-score of -2.0 or less. Dietary patterns were derived from 20 food groups via factor analysis. Three dietary patterns-meat and vegetable, white rice and kimchi, milk-cereal and whole grain-were derived. The 'milk-cereal and whole-grain' dietary pattern score showed positive association with energy, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Participants in the top tertile of the milk-cereal and whole-grain pattern were less likely to have low BMD, compared with subjects in the bottom tertile (odds ratio=0.36, 95% confidence interval=0.16-0.81, P=0.018). Our findings suggest that the milk-cereal and whole-grain dietary pattern may have a benign influence on bone health in the Korean male youth.

  18. Repeated brief isoflurane anesthesia during early postnatal development produces negligible changes on adult behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Marko; Paro, Emmi; Antila, Hanna; Võikar, Vootele; Rantamäki, Tomi

    2017-01-01

    Brain development is a complex process regulated by genetic programs and activity-dependent neuronal connectivity. Anesthetics profoundly alter neuronal excitability, and anesthesia during early brain development has been consistently associated with neuroapoptosis, altered synaptogenesis, and persistent behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. However, the depth, and even more the duration and developmental time point(s) of exposure to anesthesia determine the neuropathological and long-term behavioral consequences of anesthetics. Here, we have investigated adulthood phenotypic changes induced by repeated but brief (30 min) isoflurane anesthesia delivered during two distinct developmental periods in male mice. A set of animals were subjected to anesthesia treatments at postnatal days 7, 8 and 9 (P7-9) when the animals are susceptible to anesthesia-induced neuroapoptosis and reduced synaptogenesis. To control the potential influence of (handling) stress, a separate group of animals underwent repeated maternal separations of similar durations. Another set of animals were exposed to the same treatments at postnatal days 15, 16 and 17 (P15-17), a developmental time period when anesthetics have been shown to increase synaptogenesis. Starting from postnatal week 9 the mouse phenotype was evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests that assess general locomotor activity (home cage activity, open field), learning and memory (water maze) and depression- (saccharin preference, forced swim test), anxiety- (light-dark box, stress-induced hyperthermia) and schizophrenia- (nesting, prepulse inhibition) related endophenotypes. Apart from mild impairment in spatial navigation memory, exposure to anesthesia treatments during P7-9 did not bring obvious behavioral alterations in adult animals. Importantly, maternal separation during the same developmental period produced a very similar phenotype during the water maze. Mice exposed to anesthesia during P15-17 showed mild

  19. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus General obesity with normal WC in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, S.M.; Iftikhar, R.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index >25kg/m/sup 2/ and waist circumference >90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure >140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2 %) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n=191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Conclusion: Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index. (author)

  1. Effects of testosterone dose on spatial memory among castrated adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Benjamin A; Braddick, Valerie C; Batson, Christopher G; Cullen, Brendan H; Miller, L Erin; Spritzer, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Previous research on the activational effects of testosterone on spatial memory has produced mixed results, possibly because such effects are dose-dependent. We tested a wide range of testosterone doses using two spatial memory tasks: a working-reference memory version of the radial-arm maze (RAM) and an object location memory task (OLMT). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated or sham-castrated and given daily injections of drug vehicle (Oil Sham and Oil GDX) or one of four doses of testosterone propionate (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, and 1.000 mg T) beginning seven days before the first day of behavioral tests and continuing throughout testing. For the RAM, four arms of the maze were consistently baited on each day of testing. Testosterone had a significant effect on working memory on the RAM, with the Oil Sham, 0.125 mg T, and 0.500 mg T groups performing better than the Oil GDX group. In contrast, there was no significant effect of testosterone on spatial reference memory on the RAM. For the OLMT, we tested long-term memory using a 2 h inter-trial interval between first exposure to two identical objects and re-exposure after one object had been moved. Only the 0.125 and 0.500 mg T groups showed a significant increase in exploration of the moved object during the testing trials, indicating better memory than all other groups. Testosterone replacement restored spatial memory among castrated male rats on both behavioral tasks, but there was a complex dose-response relationship; therefore, the therapeutic value of testosterone is likely sensitive to dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  3. Prenatal exposure to modafinil alters behavioural response to methamphetamine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Pistovcakova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Sulcova, Alexandra; Machalova, Alena

    2018-03-20

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug prescribed for treatment of narcolepsy. However, it is used as a "smart drug" especially by young adults to increase wakefulness, concentration and mental performance. Therefore, it can also be used by women with childbearing potential and its developmental effects can become a concern. The aim of this study was to assess behavioural and immune effects of prenatal modafinil exposure in mice and to evaluate the reaction to methamphetamine exposure on these animals in adult age. Pregnant female mice were given either saline or modafinil (50 mg/kg orally) from gestation day (GD) 3 to GD 10 and then a challenge dose on GD 17. The male offspring were treated analogously at the age of 10 weeks with methamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg orally). Changes in the spontaneous locomotor/exploratory behaviour and anxiogenic profile in the open field test were assessed in naïve animals, after an acute and 8th modafinil dose and the challenge dose following a 7-day wash-out period. One month after completion of the behavioural study, the leukocyte phagocytosis was examined by zymosan induced and luminol-aided chemiluminiscence assay in vitro. The modafinil prenatally exposed mice showed basal hypolocomotion, increased anxiety, lower locomotor effect of acute methamphetamine and increased vulnerability to behavioural sensitization. The leukocyte activity did not show significant differences. Prenatal modafinil exposure alters basal behavioural profile, decreases acute effect of methamphetamine and enhances vulnerability to development of behavioural sensitization at adulthood. This may lead to higher vulnerability to development of addiction. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  5. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young

    2013-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  6. Changes in subjective quality of life among homeless adults who obtain housing: a prospective examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J; Burnam, A; Koegel, P; Sullivan, G; Morton, S

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this present study is to examine whether overall subjective quality of life and specific domains of quality of life change among homeless adults after they become housed, and if so, what factors predict changes in satisfaction. The data analysed here were collected through face-to-face interviews with a sample of 485 homeless adults who were interviewed as often as bi-monthly over a 16-month period. Bivariate analyses examined initial differences between three groups: homeless people who did not exit from homelessness; those with an exit from homelessness to dependent housing; and those with an exit to independent housing. Bivariate analyses also examined differences in subjective quality of life before and after an exit from homelessness among the three groups. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of changes in quality of life before and after exit. This study has three main findings. First, homeless people who obtained independent housing had the largest positive and significant improvements in satisfaction with overall quality of life, and in satisfaction with housing, leisure and money. Second, becoming housed was not a predictor of changes in overall quality of life perceived by homeless people, nor in their satisfaction with leisure, clothing, food, and social life. Furthermore, a positive change in housing satisfaction was not associated with all types of exits from homelessness; only a move into independent housing predicted such a change, but a move into dependent housing did not. Finally, of all the covariates included as predictors at baseline, only two variables seemed to consistently predict changes in satisfaction; namely, self-assessed general health and self-assessed self-help skills. This study suggested that becoming independently housed may improve some aspects of quality of life for homeless people, but not others. The results suggest that homeless people prefer to be independently housed relative to remaining homeless or

  7. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  8. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish

  9. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-07-19

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  10. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  11. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  12. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Auvert (Bertran); E. Marseille (Elliot); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); R. Sitta (Remi); D. Taljaard (Dirk); C. Pretorius (Carel); B. Williams (Brian); J.G. Kahn (James)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Trials in Africa indicate that medical adult male circumcision (MAMC) reduces the risk of HIV by 60%. MAMC may avert 2 to 8 million HIV infections over 20 years in sub-Saharan Africa and cost less than treating those who would have been infected. This paper estimates the

  13. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  14. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  15. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a

  16. [Iron intake and HFE gen in male adults from Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipoff, Ana L; Fleischman, Silvana J; Donadío, M Luján; Sebastiano, Vanesa; Castro, Marcelo; Vellicce, Alejandra; Rey, Jorge A; Lardo, Marta M; Langini, Silvia H

    2017-01-01

    Excess iron (Fe) intake in subjects carrying certain mutations in the HFE gene may result in Fe overload. To estimate risk of Fe overload, 166 male blood donors (19-65 years) from Buenos Aires city were investigated. Daily Fe intake (FeI), hem Fe intake, and Fe intake from SO4Fe enriched flours were estimated (SARA Computer Program and Food Composition Table, USDA). Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were determined; criteria for Fe overload was serum ferritin > 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation = 50%. HFE genotypes C282Y, H63D and S65C were analyzed by PCR-RFLP in blood samples. No participant presented FeI lower than the estimated average requirement (6 mg Fe/day) and 3.0% was over the upper level (45 mg Fe/day). Hem Fe and Fe from flour enrichment were 9.4% and 47.7% of daily Fe intake, respectively. A significant association was observed between the increase in serum ferritin (ng/ml) and the increase in FeI (p = 0.0472); 2.3% of the donors presented serum ferritin > 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation = 50%. Genotypes associated with hereditary hemochromatosis (H63D, S65C and C282Y) were found in 29.3% of the donors. The percentage of transferrin saturation was higher in subjects carrying mutation than in wild type subjects (p = 0.0167). Although penetrance of hereditary hemochromatosis in the studied group was only 1.2%, an excessive Fe intake could enhance adverse effects in individuals unaware of any family history of Fe overload.

  17. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  18. The Adult Male Rape Victim: Forensic Description of a Series of 57 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Michelangelo Bruno; Palazzo, Elisa; Blandino, Alberto; Battistini, Alessio; Motta, Francesca; Kustermann, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86.8% of cases, mostly performed by a single assailant. Anogenital injuries were recorded in 61.4% of cases, whereas extragenital injuries in 35.1%: abrasions and perianal reddening were the most frequent acute anogenital marks, whereas the head and lower limbs were the body parts most commonly affected by blunt trauma. No clinically severe injuries were found. Anal and perianal swabs for semen detection tested positive in less than 20% cases, whereas oral swabs always tested negative. When performed, nearly 50% of cases tested positive in drug tests, above all for psychoactive substances. No definite forensic diagnosis in terms of confirmation of rape was possible on the basis of type and topography of injuries.

  19. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  20. PERINATAL DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL EXPOSURE DISRUPTS SOCIAL AND OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, R.J.; Kelly, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug among women of reproductive age, but little is known about the consequences of using marijuana during pregnancy. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), one of the active chemicals in marijuana, has been shown to cross the placental barrier easily. In this study, pregnant Long Evans rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups (Δ9-THC-exposed, vehicle control, and non-treated control) on day 1 of gestation. Drug exposure consisted of 2 mg/kg of natural Δ9-THC, administered twice daily by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, from gestational day 1 through 22. Pups continued to receive drug exposure via s.c. injection from postnatal day 2 through 10. Male rats from each group were tested starting on postnatal day 90 in a battery of tests which included open field activity, active social interaction, and the forced-swim test. There were no significant differences in weight gained by dams or weight of offspring when compared to controls. Δ9-THC-exposed rats showed decreased time in the inner part of the open field and an increase in investigation time in the test of social interaction compared to both control groups. There were no differences among groups in the forced-swim test. Perinatal Δ9-THC exposure may result in increased susceptibility to anxious behavior and alter social functioning in adult offspring. PMID:18272327

  1. Effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide, clothianidin, on the reproductive organ system in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ramazan; Türk, Gaffari; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Ökkes; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Baydaş, Gıyasettin; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Yener, Zabit; Etem, Ebru; Tuzcu, Zeynep

    2013-10-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a novel, broad-spectrum insecticide. In the current study, it was aimed to study the effect of subchronic exposure to low doses of CTD (2, 8 and 24 mg/kg body weight/day) on the reproductive system in adult rats. CTD treatment did not significantly change serum testosterone level or sperm parameters (e.g. concentration, motility and morphology), but caused significant decreases in weights of epididymis, right cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles. CTD treatment did not cause sperm DNA fragmentation and did not change the apoptotic index in the seminiferous tubules and levels of α-tocopherol and glutathione, but increased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and cholesterol levels significantly at all doses. CTD exposure caused significant elevations in palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids in testis in all CTD-exposed groups. There was a drop in 20:4/18:2 (arachidonic acid/linoleic acid) ratio and an increase in 18:1n-9/18:0 (oleic acid/stearic acid) ratios in all CTD groups, in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, CTD had little detectable detrimental effects on the reproductive system of male rats over the measured parameters.

  2. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.; EL-KHADRAGY, M.F.; ABDEL-AZIZ, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  4. Memory and motor coordination improvement by folic Acid supplementation in healthy adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as folate vehicle, 2-5) Test groups; each received a single dose of folate (5, 10 and 15 mg/ml/kg, IP daily for one week). At the end of the treatment with folic acid or vehicle, motor coordination in rotarod (after 24 hr) and passive avoidance memory in shuttle box (after 2 and 30 days) were evaluated, respectively. The results showed that folic acid (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) increased short-term (Pmotor coordination (Pmotor coordination. Our results suggest that folic acid may improve both short- and long-term memories, dose dependently, although it affects motor balance at lower dose. The mechanism of folic acid effects on cognition and motor coordination is unknown and needs more investigations.

  5. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  9. Reliability of handheld dynamometry in assessment of hip strength in adult male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Mark L; Hanna, Chris M; Raina Elley, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of handheld dynamometry (HHD) for measuring hip muscle strength in a sample of 30 healthy semi-professional adult male football players. The reliability of HHD had not been assessed in athletes who were likely to be stronger than populations tested previously. Maximal isometric strength of resisted hip flexion and adduction were measured. Mean strength ranged from 51.5 kg for dominant hip flexion to 26.7 kg for hip adduction at 90 degrees of hip flexion. Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. ICCs for interrater reliability ranged from 0.66 to 0.87. As expected, muscle strength in this group of athletes was significantly higher than that of populations in which HHD reliability has been assessed. Despite this, muscle strength testing of hip flexor and adductor muscles can be performed with good to excellent intra- and interrater reliability in this population. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The physical profile of adult male basketball players: Differences between competitive levels and playing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferioli, Davide; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bosio, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Azzolini, Matteo; Coutts, Aaron J

    2018-04-26

    This study examined the physical differences in adult male basketball players of different competitive level and playing position using a large cohort. In the middle of the regular season, 129 players from four different Divisions completed a Yo-YoIR1 and, after 3-to-8 days, they performed a 6-min continuous running test (Mognoni's test), a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test and a 5-min High-intensity Intermittent running test (HIT). Magnitude-based inferences revealed that differences in HIT were very likely moderate between Division I and II and likely small between Division II and III. The differences in absolute peak power and force produced during CMJs between Division I and II and between Division II and III were possibly small. Differences in Yo-YoIR1 and Mognoni's test were very likely-to-almost certain moderate/large between Division III and VI. We observed possibly-to-likely small differences in HIT and Mognoni's test between guards and forwards and almost certainly moderate differences in absolute peak power and force during CMJs between guards and centres. The ability to sustain high-intensity intermittent efforts (i.e. HIT) and strength/power characteristics can differentiate between competitive level, while strength/power characteristics discriminate guards from forwards/centres. These findings inform practitioners on the development of identification programs and training activities in basketball.

  11. Chronic adult T-cell Leukemia in a young male after blood transfusion as a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Colucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HTM/TSP. Areas of extremely high HTLV-1 prevalence are surrounded by areas of middle or very low prevalence. ATLL is an aggressive lymphoproliferative malignancy of peripheral T cells, with an incidence of less than 5% in HTLV-1-infected individuals. ATLL developed in the majority of cases in individuals who were infected with HTLV-1 by their mothers due to prolonged breastfeeding. In non-endemic areas, ATLL is usually limited to immigrants, their sexual partners and descendants from endemic regions. Very few cases of ATLL have been diagnosed in recipient patients few years after an organ transplantation or blood transfusion worldwide. Achieving an accurate and fast diagnosis of ATLL can be challenging due to the lack of professional experience, delayed consultation and difficulty in its sub-classification. We present a case of a delayed onset of a chronic ATLL in an 18-years-old male who was transfused with blood components as a premature newborn in Buenos Aires, a non-endemic city of South America.

  12. Gay-related Development, Early Abuse and Adult Health Outcomes Among Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, JeeWon; Wright, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, compared to others, to experience forced sex and gay-related harassment before adulthood. They were more likely to be HIV seropositive and experience gay-related victimization, partner abuse and depression during adulthood. Early forced-sex, gay-related harassment and physical abuse were associated with several negative health outcomes in adulthood including HIV infection, partner abuse, and depression. This analysis suggests that the experience of homophobic attacks against young gay/bisexual male youth helps to explain heightened rates of serious health problems among adult gay men. PMID:17990094

  13. Within-day and between-day Reproducibility of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L J; De Ste Croix, M; James, D V B

    2016-06-01

    Within-day and between-day reproducibility of supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity were investigated utilising sequence and spectral indices in 46 healthy adult males employing 3 repeat measures; baseline, +60 min and +24 h. Reproducibility was assessed via the 95% limits of agreement and by the technical error of the measurement. For spectral parameters, the limits of agreement indicated same day was marginally better than between-day reproducibility. For sequence parameters, between-day had marginally better agreement than same-day reproducibility. Tilt markedly improved reproducibility across all outcome measures. Precision expressed by the technical error of the measurement for all spectral outcomes was good in both supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity (baroreflex sensitivity outcomes in both positions (Baroreflex sensitivity transfer gain provided the best agreement and reproducibility during supine and tilt conditions. These findings suggest time and spectral techniques may be employed to assess within-day and between-day baroreflex sensitivity changes in healthy individuals. The inclusion of a tilt manoeuvre may improve the reproducibility of the outcome measure, which may aid in the detection of modest baroreflex sensitivity changes in studies employing limited sample sizes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Relations Between Self-Reported Adverse Events in Childhood and Hypersexuality in Adult Male Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Drew A; Graham, Franklyn J; Knight, Raymond A

    2017-04-01

    Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse experiences were estimated using several scales of early development. Psychological abuse in childhood and adolescence, especially by a father, was found to be the most prominent predictor of subsequent hypersexual thoughts and behaviors. The accumulation of abuse types, however, was also associated with a monotonic increase in the latent trait of hypersexuality. The consequences of these results for conceptualizations of the construct are discussed.

  15. Effects of bariatric surgery on early myocardial alterations in adult severely obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bello, Vitantonio; Santini, Ferruccio; Di Cori, Andrea; Pucci, Andrea; Talini, Enrica; Palagi, Caterina; Delle Donne, Maria Grazia; Marsili, Alessandro; Fierabracci, Paola; Valeriano, Rocco; Scartabelli, Giovanna; Giannetti, Monica; Anselmino, Marco; Pinchera, Aldo; Mariani, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on structural and functional myocardial alterations in severely obese subjects treated with bariatric surgery. Thirteen severely obese patients (2 males and 11 females) were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent conventional 2D color Doppler echocardiography. The new ultrasonic techniques used were: (a) integrated backscatter for the analysis of myocardial reflectivity, referred to pericardial interface as expression of myocardial structure (increase in collagen content) and of cyclic variation index as expression of intrinsic myocardial contractility and (b) color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI) for the analysis of strain and strain rate (myocardial deformability). All subjects underwent bariatric surgery and were resubmitted to echocardiographic and biochemical examination 6-24 months after surgery. The main finding of the present study was a quite complete normalization of myocardial functional and structural alterations after weight loss. In particular, the cyclic variation index at septum level improved from 14.6 +/- 7.0 before to 25.7 +/- 11.2 (means +/- SD) after surgery (controls: 36.2 +/- 9.1). Mean reflectivity at septum level significantly decreased from 55.8 +/- 9.5 to 46.5 +/- 8.8 (controls: 43.0 +/- 8.0). Also, the strain at septum level significantly improved after surgery (from -11.9 +/- 3.2 to -20.4 +/- 5.3; controls: -23.4 +/- 9). This study establishes: (a) the utility of new ultrasonic techniques to detect very early structural and functional myocardial alterations in severely obese patients, and (b) the regression of these subclinical abnormalities after weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  17. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    -subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis.......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated...... in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped...

  18. [Estimation of the body length from the hand bones in adult subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Zamiatina, A O

    2008-01-01

    A method for estimation of the body length from the wrist bones in adult subjects is reported for the first time. Carpal, metacarpal, and phalangeal bone length in 108 skeletons of Caucasoid subjects (stored in the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Museum of Anthropology, Sankt Peterburg State University) was measured to the nearest 0.1 mm by the method of R. Martin. The SPSS programs were used to calculate multiple regression equations allowing for the determination of the body length from the lengths of carpal bones (to the accuracy within +/- 46.1 mm), metacarpal bones 1-V (to the accuracy within +/- 56.7 to 48.6 mm), their combinations (to the accuracy +/- 49.1 to 47.9 mm), and the longitudinal size of radii I-V (to within +/- 50.8-44.4 mm). The precision of the estimation was as high as +/- 3.5 mm provided all the wrist bones were available for the measurement. It is concluded that the results of verification of this method may be applied in the practice of forensic medicine.

  19. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  20. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; El-Hage, Wissam; Frangou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioral expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However, this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression). The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Healthy adults (N = 101) were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing, and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC) and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI) to each picture were recorded. Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity, and anxiety. These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  1. No Effect of Levothyroxine and Levothyroxine-Induced Subclinical Thyrotoxicosis on the Pharmacokinetics of Sorafenib in Healthy Male Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajavon, Antoinette; Huang, Erya; Lettieri, John; Liu, Rong; Peña, Carol; Berse, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients receiving the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib for locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine often receive concomitant levothyroxine for thyrotropin (TSH) suppression. In the Phase 3 DTC trial (DECISION), sorafenib exposure was approximately twofold higher than that observed in other cancers. This study assessed sorafenib pharmacokinetics without and with concomitant levothyroxine to examine whether a levothyroxine interaction or levothyroxine-induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis results in increased sorafenib exposure in patients with DTC. Methods: This was an open-label, two-period sequential treatment study in healthy male subjects. In period 1, day 1, subjects received a single oral dose of sorafenib 400 mg, followed by a minimal 10-day washout. In period 2, day 1, levothyroxine 300 μg was administered orally once daily (q.d.) for 14 days. After 10 days, a single oral concomitant dose of sorafenib 400 mg was given. Blood samples for sorafenib pharmacokinetic analyses were obtained pre-dose and at time points up to 96 hours after sorafenib dosing. Samples for thyroid tests were collected before and after levothyroxine dosing. Results: Twenty-five subjects completed the study and were evaluable for pharmacokinetic analysis. Levothyroxine 300 μg q.d. was well tolerated and induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis, producing full suppression of TSH (M ± SD = 0.032 ± 0.027 mIU/L) and increased free thyroxine (from 0.94 ± 0.09 to 1.77 ± 0.33 ng/dL) and free triiodothyronine (from 2.87 ± 0.28 to 4.24 ± 0.66 pg/mL) levels by day 11 of period 2. The geometric mean (%CV) sorafenib maximum concentration (Cmax) without and with levothyroxine was 2.09 (68.1) and 1.78 (63.9) mg/L, respectively, with a corresponding geometric mean area under the curve of 68.1 (68.2) and 64.3 (66.3) mg·h/L. Median (range) time to Cmax was 4.00 (2.98–16

  2. Subjective reasons for adherence to psychotropic medication and associated factors among older adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Mamta; Vahia, Ipsit V; Reyes, Pia N; Ramirez, Paul; Cohen, Carl I

    2008-12-01

    There are limited data examining subjective influences on medication adherence among older persons with schizophrenia. The subjective reasons for adherence to antipsychotic medication and associated clinical and psychosocial factors in this population are examined. The sample consisted of 198 community dwelling persons aged >or=55 who developed schizophrenia before age 45. Using the Rating of Medication Influences Scale (ROMI), a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded three subscales: Medication Affinity and Prevention, Influence of Others, and Impact of Authority. These subscales were dichotomized into high and low based on a median split. We also created an ordinal High Adherence measure based on the summed scores of each person's three dichotomized ROMI subscales. A modified Health Belief Model was used to examine the association between 18 predictor variables and the ROMI subscales and the adherence scale. The mean subscale rankings were Medication Affinity and Prevention > Impact of Authority > Influence of Others. In logistic regression, lower education, more side effects, higher depression scores, and more mental health services were associated with higher scores on Influence of Others subscale. More side effects and more entitlements were associated with higher scores on the Medication Affinity and Prevention subscale. The Impact of Authority subscale had no significant associations. More side effects and higher depression scores were associated with higher scores on High Adherence measure. We identified a three-dimensional model for explaining the subjective reasons for medication adherence in older persons with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that cognitive approaches and use of authority figures may be useful for promoting adherence in older adults. Independent variables associated with these subscales may provide guidance for improving adherence in this population.

  3. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

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    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine and has been shown to exert protective effects on the liver preventing lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. However, no studies have shown that the nutritional resveratrol intake by the parental generation has modified lipogenesis in an adult offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal resveratrol intake during lactation affects lipogenesis in adult male rat offspring, and if it does, what is the molecular mechanistic basis. Six male pups born from mothers given a control diets during lactation (CC group and six male pups born from mothers given a control diet as well as resveratrol during lactation (CR group were fed a standard diet until sacrifice at 36 weeks. Adult male offspring from mothers given resveratrol during lactation (CR group had lower body weight from the fourth week of lactation until adulthood, but no significant change was observed in the relative food intake. Low levels of plasma triacylglycerol were found in the CR group compared to the CC group. Histopathological analysis of the livers of adult male rat offspring revealed lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in the CC group, whereas lipid droplets were rare in the CR group. Hepatic protein levels of AMPK-phosphorylated at ser403, Sirt1, and Nampt in the CR group were upregulated significantly compared to the CC group. These results indicated the maternal resveratrol intake during lactation-induced activation of AMPK through Sirt1 upregulation. In this study, significant upregulation of the levels of precursor of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and downregulation of the ratio of active-SREBP-1c/precusor-SREBP-1c were observed in the CR group compared to the CC group. These results suggested that proteolytic processing of SREBP-1c was suppressed by AMPK in the livers of the CR group. It is well known that SREBP-1c

  4. Effect of cotrimoxazole on biochemical blood factors in adult male rats

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    mokhtar Mokhtari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trimethoprim is considered as a trimethoxy benzyl pyrimidine, the action mechanism of which is to block the synthesis of tetrahydrifolate. Sulfamethoxazole is an antibacterial drug from the sulfanamide group, this drug prevents from synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Trimethoprim which is consumed along with sulfonamide controls the metabolic oxidants which in turn increases the anti microbial effect of each drug. In this research the effects of cotrimoxazole on the biochemical blood factors in adults male rats were studied. Materials and Methods: The animals used in the experiment were 50 male wistar rats each weighting 250 grams. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 randomly. The control group, the sham group receiving propylene glycol solution. Three experimenal groups received cotrimoxazole of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg dosage. The drug injected oral for 14 days. After 14 days, blood samples were taken. Biochemical blood factors( FBS, BUN,TG, Cholestrol, Uric acid,Creatinine were measured. The results of this study were analyzed using appropriate statistical programs sach as SPSS and the Tukey, ANOVA and T- test. Results: Statistical analysis of results showed that concentration of creatinine increased significantly in experimental groups receiving 60 and 120 mg/kg dosage in comparison with the sham and control groups. Also, all groups receiving cotrimoxazole showed a significant increase in BUN concentration in comparison with to the control and sham groups. All groups receiving cotrimoxazole showed significant reduce in TG concentration compared with the control and sham groups. The group receiving cotrimoxazole of 120 mg/kg dosage showed a significant increase in cholesterol concentration compared with the control and sham groups. All groups receiving cotrimoxazole showed no significant difference in FBS and uric acid compared with the control and sham groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: Likely cotrimoxazole increases cholesterol

  5. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  6. Acute NMDA Receptor Hypofunction induced by MK801 Evokes Sex-Specific Changes in Behaviors Observed in Open Field Testing in Adult Male and Proestrus Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Igor; Kritzer, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex constellation of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Acute administration of the non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dizocilpine (MK801) in rats is one of few preclinical animal models of this disorder that has both face and/or construct validity for these multiple at-risk behavioral domains and predictive power for the efficacy of therapeutic drugs in treating them. This study asked whether and to what extent the rat NMDAR hypofunction model also embodies the sex differences that distinguish the symptoms of schizophrenia and their treatment. Thus, we compared the effects of acute MK801, with and without pretreatment with haloperidol or clozapine, on seven discrete spontaneous open field activities in adult male and female rats. These analyses revealed that MK801 was more effective in stimulating ataxia and locomotion and inhibiting stationary behavior in females while more potently stimulating stereotypy and thigmotaxis and inhibiting rearing and grooming in males. Haloperidol and clozapine pretreatments had markedly different efficacies in terms of behaviors but strong similarities in their effectiveness in male and female subjects. These results bear intriguing relationships with the complex male/female differences that characterize the symptoms of schizophrenia and suggest possible applications for acute NMDAR hypofunction as a preclinical model for investigating the neurobiology that underlies them. PMID:23085219

  7. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

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    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  8. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  9. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V F; Lima, V J de Melo; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  10. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  11. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; De Melo Lima, V J

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI A M and female RPI A F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  12. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  13. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

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    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  14. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of β-cells.

  16. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  17. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  18. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  19. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  20. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Horváth

    Full Text Available Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality or across multiple (behavioural syndrome behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis. We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome, (ii behavioural type (individual mean behaviour and (iii behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation. Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age. Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  1. Adult Male Mice Emit Context-Specific Ultrasonic Vocalizations That Are Modulated by Prior Isolation or Group Rearing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Elodie; Bellier, Ludovic; Aubin, Thierry; Bourgeron, Thomas; Granon, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals. PMID:22238608

  2. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

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    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  3. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  4. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from an adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

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    Yumei Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS with 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype is a rare sex chromosome disorder with an occurrence of 0.15‰ at birth. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a Chinese adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The iPSC line retains the original 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. Therefore, it offers an unprecedented cellular model to investigate the profound symptoms like infertility of TS in the male, and serve as a useful tool to develop therapies for the disease.

  5. Quercetin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced adult male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Josef; Giribabu, Nelli; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin is known to possess beneficial effects in ameliorating diabetic complications, however the mechanisms underlying cardioprotective effect of this compound in diabetes is not fully revealed. In this study, quercetin effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart in diabetes were investigated. Normal and streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats received quercetin (10, 25 and 50mg/kg/bw) orally for 28days were anesthetized and hemodynamic parameters i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured. Blood was collected for analyses of fasting glucose (FBG), insulin and cardiac injury marker levels (troponin-C, CK-MB and LDH). Following sacrificed, heart was harvested and histopathological changes were observed. Heart was subjected for analyses of oxidative stress marker i.e. lipid peroxidation and activity and expression levels of anti-oxidative enzymes i.e. SOD, CAT and GPx. Levels of inflammation in the heart were determined by measuring nuclear factor (p65-NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels by using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Distribution and expression levels of TNF-α and Ikk-β (inflammatory markers), caspase-3, caspase-9, Blc-2 and Bax (apoptosis markers) in the heart were identified by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting respectively. Administration of quercetin to diabetic rats caused significant decrease in FBG and cardiac injury marker levels with increased in insulin levels. In diabetic rat heart, lesser histopathological changes were observed with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis levels markedly decreased. Quercetin could potentially be used to ameliorate myocardial damage due to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo-Eduardo; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana-Alicia; Marquez-Corona, Maria-de-Lourdes; Pontigo-Loyola, América-Patricia; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-09-01

    Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity.

  7. Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Trevor; Myette-Cote, Etienne; Durrer, Cody; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m 2 , peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min) -1 ) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided. On experimental days, participants reported to the laboratory in the fasted state and consumed either 0.3 g/kg β-OHB ketone salts or a flavour-matched placebo at 30 min prior to engaging in cycling exercise. Subjects completed steady-state exercise at 30%, 60%, and 90% ventilatory threshold (VT) followed by a 150-kJ cycling time-trial. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and total substrate oxidation were derived from indirect calorimetry. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketones were measured at baseline, 30 min post-supplement, post-steady-state exercise, and immediately following the time-trial. Plasma β-OHB was elevated from baseline and throughout the entire protocol in the ketone condition (p < 0.05). RER was lower at 30% and 60% VT in the ketone compared with control condition. Total fat oxidation was greater in the ketone versus control (p = 0.05). Average time-trial power output was ∼7% lower (-16 W, p = 0.029) in the ketone condition. Ingestion of ketone salts prior to exercise increases fat oxidation during steady-state exercise but impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

  8. The Effects of Integrated Attention Training for Older Chinese Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Pak-Wing; Chiu-Wa Lam, Linda; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2016-12-01

    Early intervention to reduce cognitive decline and preserve functioning is a compelling public health issue. Because impaired attention occurs early in the process of cognitive impairment, focusing training strategies upon attention may be a potential intervention to prevent further cognitive decline. We sought to test the effects on cognitive performance and daily functioning of a new cognitive training program that focuses on attention. This single-blind randomized controlled trial lasted 6 months and included two phases. Assessments were conducted at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. The study was performed in four community older adult centers. Ninety-three participants with subjective cognitive impairment without dementia were included. Forty-seven participants were randomized to the Integrated Attention Training Program (IATP), and 46 were randomized to the control group. The two arms of the study included the IATP (intervention group) and a health-related education program (active control group). No significant interactions were identified between group and time for the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes and other secondary outcomes, except for the Digit Forward Score ( p stimulation in a group format. Further studies are needed to determine the role of attention in cognitive training.

  9. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

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    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  10. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (pIntervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (pnutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to guide researchers in making informed decisions on how to best utilise resources in interventions to engage adult males while highlighting the need for improved reporting of intervention protocols. PMID:23360498

  11. The correlation between serum free thyroxine and regression of dyslipidemia in adult males: A 4.5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Aihua; Zhou, Yingying; Xiao, Yue; Yan, Yumeng; Zhao, Tong; Gong, Xun; Pang, Tianxiao; Fan, Chenling; Zhao, Jiajun; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Lai, Yaxin

    2017-09-01

    Elevated free thyroxine (FT4) levels may play a protective role in development of dyslipidemia. However, few prospective studies have been performed to definite the effects of thyroid hormones on the improvement of dyslipidemia and its components. Thus, this study aims to clarify the association between thyroid hormones within normal range and reversal of dyslipidemia in the absence of intervention.A prospective analysis including 134 adult males was performed between 2010 and 2014. Anthropometric parameters, thyroid function, and lipid profile were measured at baseline and during follow-up. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were conducted to identify the variables in forecasting the reversal of dyslipidemia and its components.During 4.5-year follow-up, 36.6% (49/134) patients resolved their dyslipidemia status without drug intervention. Compared with the continuous dyslipidemia group, subjects in reversal group had elevated FT4 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, as well as decreased total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at baseline. Furthermore, baseline FT4 is negatively associated with the change percentages of TG (r = -0.286, P = .001), while positively associated with HDL-C (r = 0.227, P = .008). However, no correlation of lipid profile change percentages with FT3 and TSH were observed. Furthermore, the improving effects of baseline FT4 on dyslipidemia, high TG, and low HDL-C status were still observed after multivariable adjustment. In ROC analysis, areas under curve (AUCs) for FT4 in predicting the reversal of dyslipidemia, high TG, and low HDL-C were 0.666, 0.643, and 0.702, respectively (P = .001 for dyslipidemia, .018 for high TG, and .001 for low HDL-C).Higher FT4 value within normal range may ameliorate the dyslipidemia, especially high TG and low HDL-C status, in males without drug intervention. This suggests

  12. Metabolism of sex steroids is influenced by acquired adiposity-A study of young adult male monozygotic twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Veera; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Tikkanen, Matti J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2017-09-01

    Obesity and ageing are associated with lower serum testosterone levels in men. How fat distribution or adipose tissue metabolism, independent of genetic factors and age, are related to sex steroid metabolism is less clear. We studied the associations between adiposity and serum sex hormone concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes regulating sex hormone metabolism in adipose tissue in young adult male monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The subjects [n=18 pairs; mean age, 32 years; individual body mass indexes (BMIs) 22-36kg/m 2 ] included 9 male MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI [intra-pair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥3kg/m 2 ]. Sex steroid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expressions from subcutaneous adipose tissue by Affymetrix. In BMI-discordant pairs (mean ΔBMI=5.9kg/m 2 ), serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was lower [mean 1.9 (SD 0.7) vs. 2.4 (1.0) nmol/l, P=0.040] and mRNA expressions of DHT-inactivating AKR1C2 (P=0.021) and cortisol-producing HSD11B1 (P=0.008) higher in the heavier compared to the leaner co-twins. Serum free 17β-estradiol (E2) was higher [2.3 (0.5) vs. 1.9 (0.5) pmol/l, P=0.028], and in all twin pairs, serum E2 and estrone concentrations were higher in the heavier than in the leaner co-twins [107 (28) vs. 90 (22) pmol/l, P=0.006; and 123 (43) vs. 105 (27) pmol/l, P=0.025]. Within all twin pairs, i.e. independent of genetic effects and age, 1) the amount of subcutaneous fat inversely correlated with serum total and free testosterone, DHT, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (Pfat with total testosterone and SHBG (Pfat with SHBG (P=0.006). Also, 4) general and intra-abdominal adiposity correlated positively with mRNA expressions of AKR1C2, HSD11B1, and aromatase in adipose tissue (P<0.05). In conclusion, acquired adiposity was associated with decreased serum DHT and increased estrogen

  13. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-12-01

    The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4-11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5-11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players.

  15. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then...

  16. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja

    2008-01-01

    The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...

  17. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  18. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impul...

  19. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Alteration in some antioxidant enzymes in cardiac tissue upon monosodium glutamate [MSG] administration to adult male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kuldip; Pushpa, Ahluwalia

    2005-01-01

    4mg and 8mg monosodium glutamate per gram body weight was administered subcutaneously for 6 consecutive days to normal adult male mice and its effect was seen on 31st day after the last injection on some antioxidant enzymes in heart. A significant dose dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase level was observed, whereas the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was decreased in both monosodium glutamate treated groups (Group...

  1. [Chronobiological studies on effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) against adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Chappell, L H

    1998-01-01

    To study the action mode of cyclosporin A (CsA) against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. MF1 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for 6 weeks when the adult worms were recovered by portal perfusion. The male worms of S. mansoni recovered were exposed to varying concentrations of CsA at 8, 16, and 24 h in vitro. Drug induced damage to the male worm surface was chrono-biologically observed throughout these experiments by SEM. After the male worms of S. mansoni were incubated with 1 microgram/ml CsA for 8-24 h, the tegument showed swelling of ridges with appearance of holes on their surface and detachment of a part of spines. The above damage of the tegument became more evident in male worms after incubation with 10, 15, 20 micrograms/ml CsA for 8-24 h. Moreover, incubation of male worms with 25 micrograms/ml CsA for 8-24 h resulted in significant deformation and disruption of tegument, rupture of ridges and detachment of spines. The tegumental damage of male worms of S. mansoni was dose- and time-dependent. The antischistosomal action of CsA is direct, the schistosome tegument appears to be the main site for CsA attack.

  2. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  4. Paired-organ and other selected absorbed fraction for the Korean Reference Adult Male model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Whang, J. H.; Kim, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model for calculating internal radionuclide dosimetry for the Korean Reference Adult Male, and have also derived paired-organ and other selected inter-organ photon-specific absorbed fractions for this model. Each lung, kidney and adrenal gland was set as a separate source region even though each of them shares an identical physiological function with their complementary half. The thyroid gland was also set as a source region. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were then derived by selecting 10 photon energies from 0.02 to 4.0 MeV inclusive. For this purpose the Monte Carlo methodology was used, and the derived SAF was compared with the resulting value of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381, both of which were derived on the basis of the ICRP-23 reference man. The comparison showed that MIRD No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381 resulted in a higher absorbed fraction, but the phantom created on the basis of the Korean reference man led to a higher SAF. The weight of the organs of the phantom, and the size and location of the trunk seem to account for the differences. The energy-dependent differences in the SAFs are considered to be related to the distance between the source and target regions, the composition of the intervening tissues, and the photon energies and mean free paths. Also, as a result of deriving SAFs after setting each separate lung, kidney and adrenal gland as a source region, it was found that, although they are of the same physiological function, each individual organ serves as a source region on its own. Differences were noted in SAFs exerted on the source and target organs in accordance with the location of the organs, that is, whether they were located to the left or right of the source organs. The SAF derived in this study can be used for a more accurate internal radionuclide dosimetry for Koreans and other Orientals whose physiology, lifestyle and dietary habits are similar to those of Koreans. (authors)

  5. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  7. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling M; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; McLennan, Yingratana; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M; Simon, Tony J

    2012-11-13

    A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs). Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Male fXPCs (n = 18) and healthy control (HC) adults (n = 26) aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral) and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration). In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times) in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments relate to risk of developing FXTAS.

  8. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  9. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  10. The interaction of steroids with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system in the adult male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.L.L. Verjans

    1976-01-01

    textabstractMajor functions of the mature male gonad are the production of gametes and steroid hormones. Extratesticular as well as intratesticular factors regulate these two male gonadal functions which are associated with two distinct cell compartments in the testis. It has been known for a

  11. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The

  12. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd A; Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Auditory performance and subjective benefits in adults with congenital or prelinguistic deafness who receive cochlear implants during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Louise; Millette, Isabelle; Bhérer, Maurice; Gobeil, Suzie

    2017-05-01

    (1) To describe auditory performance and subjective benefits in adults with congenital or prelingual deafness who received a cochlear implant (CI) during adolescence or adulthood, and (2) to examine the benefits as experienced by these CI users. Twenty-one adults aged 23-65 years participated in the study. All had a congenital or prelingual deafness (onset before age 3). They received a CI between the age of 16 and 61 years (mean age: 31). Speech recognition scores before and after implantation were computed and a questionnaire on subjective benefits (French adaptation of the Adult Cochlear Implant Questionnaire, designed by Zwolan and collaborators (1996, Self-report of CI use and satisfaction by prelingually deafened adults. Ear and Hearing, 17(3): 198-210) was administered. Semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with a subsample of seven participants. Speech recognition scores after implantation ranged from 0 to 95%. Despite large inter-individual variability, most participants expressed high levels satisfaction and overall usefulness. Correlational analyses showed that speech recognition performance was moderately associated with subjective benefits. Data from the interviews revealed that the underlying sources of satisfaction with the implant are related to the discovery and enjoyment of environmental sounds, easier lip-reading, and improvement of self-confidence during communicative interactions. CI benefits are mostly subjective in this particular population: descriptive and qualitative approaches allow us to obtain a nuanced portrait of their experience and provide us with important elements that are not easily measurable with tests and scores.

  14. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P.; Burema, J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during

  15. WHY ADULTS LEARN: INTERPRETING ADULTS’ REASONS TO PARTICIPATE IN EDUCATION IN TERMS OF ECCLES’ SUBJECTIVE TASK VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological research shows that subjective task value, a basic component of expectancyvalue theory as outlined by Eccles, predicts task choice (e.g., going to graduate school. However, Eccles’ approach has not been used to investigate adult learning so far. Therefore, the present study investigated a specific form of subjective task value and task choice, namely adults’ subjective task value of participation in education. Based on expectancy-value theory, qualitative content analyses of 16 interviews with adult learners (aged between 21 and 67 from varying age groups and educational backgrounds show a differentiation of positive value according to points of reference and a revised conceptualisation of cost as an independent component of subjective task value with four subcomponents. Apparently people estimate positive value and cost separately at first and only later weigh these components against each other to arrive at an overall evaluation of subjective task value, which, in turn, predicts participation in education. Moreover, results suggest a distinction between anticipated subjective task value prior to participation and subjective task value based on experience (i.e., in hindsight. Benefits of using expectancy-value theory for future research on adults’ participation in education are discussed.

  16. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  18. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  19. Social isolation-induced aggression potentiates anxiety and depressive-like behavior in male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-cang Ma

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression.C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice.These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.

  20. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion, and pancreatic islets morphology of adult male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, H; Ghasemi, A; Roghani, M; Zahediasl, S

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hypothyroidism has serious effects on growth, development, and metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of the neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, islet insulin secretion and morphology of the pancreatic islets in adult male offspring. Lactating mothers of Wistar rats consumed 0.02% solution of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during the weaning period (neonatal hypothyroid group), while mothers of the control group drank merely tap water. Body weight and survival of pups were followed up. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in adult male offspring and 5-6 weeks later, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was evaluated. During the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level of the neonatal hypothyroid group (13.18 ± 0.59 mmol/l) was significantly higher at 5 min compared to the control group (11.54 ± 0.47 mmol/l), whereas plasma insulin concentrations and GSIS of the groups was not significantly different. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of adult male offspring of the hypothyroid group (9.1 ± 1.0) was significantly higher as compared to the control group (4.5 ± 0.6). Area (14,613.0 ± 2646.3 μm2) and the diameter of the islets (147 ± 3.0 μm) of the neonatal hypothyroid group were significantly lower, as compared to the control group (32,886.3 ± 4690.3 and 206.6 ± 5.9 μm2 and μm, respectively). Neonatal hypothyroidism can alter carbohydrate metabolism in euthyroid adult offspring, which may increase susceptibility to the development of glucose intolerance and occurrence of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

  1. Maternal obesity in the ewe increases cardiac ventricular expression of glucocorticoid receptors, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnenis, Adel B; Odhiambo, John F; McCormick, Richard J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during human pregnancy predisposes offspring to obesity and cardiovascular disease in postnatal life. In a sheep model of maternal overnutrition/obesity we have previously reported myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as cardiac dysfunction in late term fetuses, in association with chronically elevated blood cortisol. Significant research has suggested a link between elevated glucocorticoid exposure in utero and hypertension and cardiovascular disease postnatally. Here we examined the effects of maternal obesity on myocardial inflammation and fibrosis of their adult offspring. Adult male offspring from control (CON) mothers fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations (n = 6) and male offspring from obese mothers (MO) fed 150% NRC (n = 6), were put on a 12-week ad libitum feeding challenge then necropsied. At necropsy, plasma cortisol and left and right ventricular thickness were markedly increased (P<0.05) in adult male MO offspring. Myocardial collagen content and collagen-crosslinking were greater (P<0.05) in MO offspring compared to CON offspring in association with increased mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR). No group difference was found in myocardial mineralocorticoids receptor (MR) protein expression. Further, mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines: cluster of differentiation (CD)-68, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased (P < 0.05), and protein expression of CD-68, TGF-β1, and TNF-α tended to increase (P<0.10) in MO vs. CON offspring. These data provide evidence for MO-induced programming of elevated plasma cortisol and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in adult offspring potentially through increased GR.

  2. Maternal obesity in the ewe increases cardiac ventricular expression of glucocorticoid receptors, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel B Ghnenis

    Full Text Available Obesity during human pregnancy predisposes offspring to obesity and cardiovascular disease in postnatal life. In a sheep model of maternal overnutrition/obesity we have previously reported myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as cardiac dysfunction in late term fetuses, in association with chronically elevated blood cortisol. Significant research has suggested a link between elevated glucocorticoid exposure in utero and hypertension and cardiovascular disease postnatally. Here we examined the effects of maternal obesity on myocardial inflammation and fibrosis of their adult offspring. Adult male offspring from control (CON mothers fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC recommendations (n = 6 and male offspring from obese mothers (MO fed 150% NRC (n = 6, were put on a 12-week ad libitum feeding challenge then necropsied. At necropsy, plasma cortisol and left and right ventricular thickness were markedly increased (P<0.05 in adult male MO offspring. Myocardial collagen content and collagen-crosslinking were greater (P<0.05 in MO offspring compared to CON offspring in association with increased mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR. No group difference was found in myocardial mineralocorticoids receptor (MR protein expression. Further, mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines: cluster of differentiation (CD-68, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were increased (P < 0.05, and protein expression of CD-68, TGF-β1, and TNF-α tended to increase (P<0.10 in MO vs. CON offspring. These data provide evidence for MO-induced programming of elevated plasma cortisol and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in adult offspring potentially through increased GR.

  3. Effects of Nicotine on Sperm Characteristics and Fertility Profile in Adult Male Rats: A Possible Role of Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyipo, Ibukun Peter; Raji, Yinusa; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo Folashade

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is common among couples of child-bearing age and approximately half of known causes of primary infertility are attributable to male factor. It is still unclear whether the injurious effects of cigarette smoking on sperm characteristics and infertility are due to nicotine. Therefore, the present study investtigated the effects of orally administered of nicotine on sperm characteristics and libido in adult male albino rats. The study also sought nicotine effects on fertility rate, litter size and weight in female animals cohabited with nicotine treated male rats. Methods Forty male and twenty-five female rats were used for the study. The male rats were divided into five groups and were treated for a period of 30 days with nicotine 0.5 mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0 mg/kg (high dose) per body weight while the control rats received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline. The fourth and fifth groups were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine but were left untreated for another 30 days. These groups served as the recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, sperm analysis, fertility study, litter weight and size were determined. Results Sperm motility and count significantly decreased (P 0.05) in the viability and semen volume of the treated groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats, litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Conclusion The present study showed that nicotine has a dose-dependent deleterious effect on the sperm characteristics and that fertility is ameliorated by nicotine cessation in male rats. PMID:23926503

  4. An Echocardiographic Study of Heart in a Group of Male Adult Elite Athletes

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    Soheila Dabiran

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results of higher LVEdD and IVSWT in Iranian male athletes are in line with previous reports. To generalize the results, we require more studies with larger sample sizes (with female athletes included.

  5. The effect of exogenous GLP-1 on food intake is lost in male truncally vagotomized subjects with pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    received GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or saline infusions during and after a standardized liquid mixed meal and a subsequent ad libitum meal. Despite no effect on appetite sensations, GLP-1 significantly reduced ad libitum food intake in the control group but had no effect in the vagotomized group. Gastric emptying...... was unaffected by exogenous GLP-1 in vagotomized subjects but was suppressed in controls. GLP-1 significantly reduced glucagon secretion in both groups, but levels were approximately twofold higher and were nonsuppressible in the early phase of the meal in vagotomized subjects. Our results demonstrate...

  6. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  7. Female and Male Adolescents' Subjective Orientations to Mathematics and the Influence of Those Orientations on Postsecondary Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…

  8. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-06-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune para